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DSP Circular Shift of a signal with example and circular convolution

DSP Circular Shift of a signal with example and circular convolution

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Let us consider length-N sequences defined for 0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1 . Such sequences have sample values

equal to zero for n < 0 and n ≥ N .

For an arbitrary integer n0 , the shifted sequence x1[n] = x[n − n0 ] , may no longer be defined over

the range 0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1 .

This brings the requirement for an other type of shift that will keep the shifted sequence always in

the range 0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1 .

[

x c [ n] = x n − n 0 N

]

where, m N

= m modulo N

x[n − n0 ] n0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1

xc [n] =

x[N − n + n] 0 ≤ n ≤ n0

0

x[n]

(a)

0 1 2 3 4 5

[

x n −1 6

] = x[ n + 5 ] 6

(b)

0 1 2 3 4 5

(c)

0 1 2 3 4 5

[

x n−4 6

] = x[ n + 2 ]6

It can be seen from (b) and (c) that right circular shift by n 0 is equivalent to a left circular shift by

(N − n 0 ) .

Circular Convolution

Circular convolution between two length N sequences can be carried out as shown by the

expression below:

[ ]

N −1

yC [n] = ∑ g [m]h n − m N

m=0

Since the above operation involves two length-N sequences it is referred to as the N-point

circular convolution and denoted by:

yC [n ] = g [n ] N h[n ]

Example:

Determine the 4-point circular convolution of the two length-4 sequences g[n] and h[n] given by:

2 2 2

1 0 1 1 1

0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3

[ ]

3

yc [n] = g[n] 4 h[n] = ∑ g[m]h n − m N

0≤n≤3

m=0

Therefore:

[ ]

3

yc [0] = ∑ g[m]h − m N

0≤n≤3

m=0

] is as shown below:

2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3

[

h −m 4

] [

h 1− m 4

] [

h 2−m 4

] [

h 3−m 4

]

By performing the product of g[m] with h − m [ 4

] for each value of m in the range 0 ≤ m ≤ 3

And summing the products we get:

= (1× 2 ) + (2 × 1) + (0 × 1) + (1× 2) = 6

[

yC [1] = ∑ g [m]h 1 − m 4

]

yC [1] = g [0]h[1] + g [1]⋅ h[0] + g [2]⋅ h3 + g [3]⋅ h[2]

= (1× 2 ) + (2 × 2 ) + (0 ×1) + (1× 1) = 7

= (1×1) + (2 × 2) + (0 × 2) + (1×1) = 6

= (1× 1) + (2 × 1) + (0 × 2 ) + (1× 2 ) = 5

Ans: yC [N ] = {6,7,6,5}

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