First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury.

It is usually performed by a non-expert person to a sick or injured casualty until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care past the first aid intervention. It generally consists of a series of simple and in some cases, potentially life-saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment. While first aid can also be performed on animals, the term generally refers to care of human patients.

History The instances of recorded first aid were provided by religious knights, such as the Knights Hospitaller, formed in the 11th century, providing care to pilgrims and knights, and training other knights in how to treat common battlefield injuries.[1] The practice of first aid fell largely in to disuse during the High Middle Ages, and organized societies were not seen again until in 1859 Henry Dunant organized local villagers to help victims of the Battle of Solferino, including the provision of first aid. Four years later, four nations met in Geneva and formed the organization which has grown into the Red Cross, with a key stated aim of "aid to sick and wounded soldiers in the field".[1] This was followed by the formation of St. John Ambulance in 1877, based on the principles of the Knights Hospitaller, to teach first aid, and numerous other organization joined them, with the term first aid first coined in 1878 as civilian ambulance services spread as a combination of 'first

with high risk activities such as ports and railways. and applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the condition. is to save lives Prevent further harm . Aims The key aims of first aid can be summarised in three key points:[4] • Preserve life . there are several groups that promote first aid. including first aid. as in the UK. Promote recovery . such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm.treatment' and 'national aid'[1] in large railway centres and mining districts as well as with police forces. such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous. New techniques and equipment have helped make today’s first aid simple and effective. such as in the case of the American Civil War. such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound. such as the military and the Scouting movement. • • .also sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening. often starting.first aid also involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury.[3] Today. and in some cases might involve completing a treatment.the overriding aim of all medical care.[2] Many developments in first aid and many other medical techniques have been driven by wars. this covers both external factors. First aid training began to spread through the empire through organisations such as St John. which prompted Clara Barton to organize the American Red Cross.

blocking the airway. with first aiders now trained to go straight to chest compressions (and thus providing artificial circulation) but pulse checks may be done on less serious patients. and Circulation. (May 2010) In case of tongue fallen backwards. the "ABC"s of first aid. it is necessary to hyperextend the head and pull up the chin. Breathing. and the treatment phases. which focus on critical life-saving intervention. Attention must first be brought to the airway to ensure it is clear. The same mnemonic is used by all emergency health professionals. Key skills This section does not cite any references or sources. Particularly. ABC stands for Airway. . must be rendered before treatment of less serious injuries. so that the tongue lifts and clears the airway. Following evaluation of the airway. a first aid attendant would determine adequacy of breathing and provide rescue breathing if necessary. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Assessment of circulation is now not usually carried out for patients who are not breathing. Certain skills are considered essential to the provision of first aid and are taught ubiquitously.First aid training also involves the prevention of initial injury and responder safety. Obstruction (choking) is a life-threatening emergency.

with the patient leant over on their side. Bleeding. Brain. as required. first aiders can begin additional treatments. While the ABCs and 3Bs are taught to be performed sequentially. without obstruction. and Bones (or "4Bs": Breathing. while others consider this as part of the Circulation step. If the patient was breathing. Conscious people will maintain their own airway automatically. Once the ABCs are secured. . This includes the provision of both artificial respiration and chest compressions to someone who is not breathing and has no pulse.a clear passage where air can move in through the mouth or nose through the pharynx and down in to the lungs. and Bones). It also avoids a common cause of death in unconscious patients. certain conditions may require the consideration of two steps simultaneously. which is choking on regurgitated stomach contents. all persons need to have an open airway . Variations on techniques to evaluate and maintain the ABCs depend on the skill level of the first aider. a first aider would normally then place them in the recovery position. and the consideration of cervical spine injuries when ensuring an open airway. Some organizations teach the same order of priority using the "3Bs": Breathing. which also has the effect of clearing the tongue from the pharynx. as the part of the brain which automatically controls breathing in normal situations may not be functioning. Bleeding. [edit] Preserving life In order to stay alive. but those who are unconscious (with a GCS of less than 8) may be unable to maintain a patent airway.Some organizations add a fourth step of "D" for Deadly bleeding or Defibrillation.

They may be able to deal with the situation in its entirety (a small adhesive bandage on a paper cut). grazes or bone fracture. facilities and people are needed in a workplace to respond to .The airway can also become blocked through a foreign object becoming lodged in the pharynx or larynx. If there is no breathing. Once the airway has been opened. [edit] Promoting recovery The first aider is also likely to be trained in dealing with injuries such as cuts. or the patient is not breathing normally. The first aider will be taught to deal with this through a combination of ‘back slaps’ and ‘abdominal thrusts’. the first aider would assess to see if the patient is breathing. such as agonal breathing. until the next stage of definitive care (usually an ambulance) arrives.Cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR. or may be required to maintain the condition of something like a broken bone. the first aider would undertake what is probably the most recognized first aid procedure . What first aid facilities are required? Risk management The risk management process can be used to decide what first aid equipment. commonly called choking. and manually massaging the heart to promote blood flow around the body. which involves breathing for the patient.

illness or injury. blood and body substances First likely to occur at the workplace First aid personnel aid kits A first aid kit should be appropriate for the types of injuries and illnesses Workers should have access to trained first aid personnel who undertake initial management of work caused injuries or illnesses First aid rooms Workers should have access to trained first aid personnel who undertake initial management of work caused injuries or illnesses Last updated 03 June 2010 . including the risk of exposure to biological hazards.