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FISH PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
GOVERNMENT OF KERALA
Department of Education
State Council of Educational Research & Training (SCERT)
Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thriuvananthapuram-12, Kerala
Prepared by: State Council of Educational Research & Training (SCERT) Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram -12 Kerala
Type setting by: SCERT Computer Lab.
Government of Kerala Department of General Education 2005
Dear Teachers, The activity based, process oriented and learner centred pedagogy is being introduced in the Vocational Higher Secondary classes. It becomes imperative to make significant changes in the learning process as well as in the evaluation system for its successful implementation. Sourcebook is to assist the teacher to transact the modified curriculum through leaner centred and activity oriented strategies. The sourcebook on ‘Fish Processing Technology’ has been designed in such a way to help the teacher to provide suitable learning activities for effective teaching. This book has enough opportunities to improve the proficiency of the teacher and to develop diversified teaching strategies.
Thiruvananthapuram 25.11. 05
Dr. E. Valsala Kumar
Director SCERT, Kerala
...................................9 6 Factory Hygiene and Sanitation .............. 11........................................ 5............................................................................................................................. 4.............. 9......... 6.................................9 1 Storage.......................................... 8.......................................................................................0 5 Approach to Fisheries ........CONTENTS Section I General Approach ...........6 2 Microbiology of Fish Spoilage .........................2 4 Planning ...........................................6 6 Microbes in Public health .............. 12....8 2 Freezers . 14............................................... 1 0 2 General Introduction ........................................9 8 Modern Packing Methods ..........5 7 Fish Spoilage ................... 7............................................ Transport and Distribution...............7 7 Freezing ............................................................................8 9 Cold Storage ................................2 7 Evaluation .......... 1 0 0 ............................................................2 1 Syllabus ................................ Section III Sample Questions .............1 9 Curriculum Objectives............7 1 Fish Handling ...................5 1 Fish as a Food Material............................. 10................8 7 Freezing of Shrimps ............... 13....................................3 6 Section II 1.....9 3 Lay out of Processing Plant .................... 3...... 2.
As we all are aware. emergent techniques have to be sorted out and appropriate researches have to be seriously carried out.GENERAL APPROACH Introduction The ultimate aim of education is human refinement. which ensures a job along with higher education. This education system. The curriculum should be one which recognises the specific personality of the learner and should develop it in a desirable way. vocational training. In anthor sense. It should provide opportunity to imbibe novel ideas to follow a critical approach and for learning through experiences.’ Hence vocationalised education cannot be isolated from the main stream of education. However. The Vocational Higher Secondary course was envisaged as a part of the National Policy on Education with the noble idea of securing a job along with education. It is in the sence that the content and methodology of vocational Higher Secondary Education have to be approached. progress and cultural development of the human race. the objective of education to form a society and individuals having a positive work culture. For overcoming this deep crisis. 5 . The relevance of Vocational education is very great in this age of un employment. Education should enable the learner to formulate a positive outlook towards life and to accept a stand which suits the well being of the society and the individual as well. stands aloof from other systems of education. abilities. basic life skills. appropriate values and attitudes and existential readiness has to be provided here. due to our inability to utilise the resources wisely. attitudes and values in tune with these ‘work culture. every educational process should be vocationalised. scarcity of job opportunities is a severe issue of the present society. competencies related to different subjects. The educational process expected in and outside our formal schools should concentrate upon inculcating concepts. A learning environment which ensures vocational aptitude. The attitude and potential to ‘to work’ has determined the destiny.
arriving at conclusions. critical thinking. There should be conscious programme of action to develop nationality. l Learning is not a linear process. Training in the sense of equality. process oriented. What is learning? Learning is construction of knowledge and so it is a live and continuous mental process. It should be capable of strengthening the competencies imbibed by the learners up to the tenth class. acquire general awareness in the basic areas and to secure jobs has become the social need of the day. applications. Theoretical foundations of learning l Education is the best device that can be adopted for creation of a new society. l Learning is an intellectual process rather than the mere memorisation of facts. It is a spiral process growing deeper and wider. l Learning is a process of advancement through adding and correcting in the light of comparing the new issue with the previously learned concepts. prediction. It should be democratic in content and process and should acknowledge the rights of the learner. leadership qualities and mental health to face the challenges of life. It should also provide opportunity for better citizenship training. When opportunities are provided for intellectual processes learning will become effective and intellectual ability will get strengthened. The need of a systematic curriculum is prevailing in vocational subjects. A scientifically structured curriculum incorporating the unique features peculiarity of Kerala ensuring the possibility of higher education and utilising the national and international possibilities of employment is required. scientific temper. l Learning takes place by assimilating bits of knowledge into ones own cognitive structure. humanness and love and against the encroachment of the sectarianism of caste and religion. A learner centered. finding out co-relations. Learning is a conglomeration of a variety activities like problem analysis. environmental consciousness and devotion to the constitution is an inseparable factor of the curriculum. 6 . democratic sense. elucidation. l Learning takes place as a part of the effort to solve problems. A curriculum for selecting vocational areas according to the aptitude of the students. attitude of coexistence. learning it in depth. grouping for other possibilities and extracting the crux. rational thinking.The competency to transform ones own resources for the betterment of the society and the individual is to be ensured in each individual. The new curriculum should be capable of assimilating the life skills. The concept of equality at all areas should get recognition in theory and practice. need based vocational curriculum is envisaged.
liberalisation. globalisation etc. The basis of new approaches on curriculum. The human approach to education has to reflect in its content. A basic awareness of all the subjects needed for life essential for all students. The perspective of ‘learning to be ‘ and learning to live together as expressed by the UNESCO and the concepts of existentialist intelligence intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence. learning process and outlook.The learner should be able to take firm steps and deferred against the social crisis like privatisation. and against all kinds of dominations. the teaching process has to be changed timely. . Interest for recognition in the society. Determination to face the interference of society and make components which is a part of social life. Have interest in enquiring and questioning. They should get opportunity to recognise that co-operation is better than competition and that co-operation is the key to social life and culture. It is high time that education was recognised on the basis of the philosophy of human education. teaching. • • • • • • • • • • • 7 Great curiosity Good imagination Numerous other qualities and interests Independent individuality Interest in free thinking and working in a fearless atmosphere. They should develop a discrimination to use the acquired learning as a liberative weapon.learning process are derived from the developments place in the east and west of the world. The solution to the present day perplexities of the society which approaches education on the basis of competitions and marketisation is only a comprehensive view of life. ability for manifest and establish freely the conclusions arrived at. we have to imbibe the modern hypothesis regarding learner. Ability to reach conclusions after logical thinking. It is the result of the rapid growth and development of Science and Technology and Pedagogy. The remnants of perspectives formed in us during the colonial period still influence our educational philosophy. they have. If we want to undergo the changing process. They should be able to view education and life with the perspective of social well being. When we begin to see the learner at the centre of the learning process.
When we consider the learning system. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • To observe To collect data and record To classify To measure and prepare charts To experiment To predict To recognise and control the variables To raise questions To generalis To form a hypothesis and check. Learning experiences which provide the opportunity to use all the senses may be used. It is purely objective oriented. The knowledge domain consists of • • • • Facts Ideas Laws The temporary conclusions and principles used presently by scientists. it can extend to the level of classification into minute sub-groups. Some important process skills are. In addition to this. the domains to be stressed in education according to the modern development becomes relevant. Starting from simple groupings of data. To conclude To communicate To predict and infer To use tools. The process of grouping is known as classifying. The learning is a process. Observation is the process of acquiring knowledge through the senses. The continuous procedures we undergo to reach a particular goal is process. consider the skills related to creative domain also. The skills which are parts of the process to analyse the collected ideas and proofs and come to a conclusion is called process skills. they are skills: • • 8 To visualize To connect facts and ideas in new ways . the skills.
finding ‘solutions’ to problems etc. l l l l The vision. the following factors consisting in the Attitudinal domain are also important as. approach. The element of creativity is involved in finding out problems. structure and content of the curriculum. learning materials and learning techniques. Some basic stands have to be taken on the new scientific knowledge about intelligence learning and teaching. Through activity oriented learning experiences. choose a scientific life style connect the ideas acquired with other subjects. Role of the teacher and the learner. Some scientific perspectives accepted by modern world in educational psychology are given below. The vision. Learner atmosphere. Again. When such basic concepts are accepted changes are required in the following factors. As regards the application domain the important factors are the ability to: • • • • • observe in daily life examples of ideas acquired. approach.• • • • • To findout new and uncommon uses of objects To fantasize To dream To develop creative isolated thoughts Creativity is an essential component of process and activities. formation of hypothesis. take the help of scientific process to solve the problems of daily life. opportunities to express creativity can be created. Based on knowledge and experiences relating to the problems the causes and solutions can be guessed. • • • • • • Self confidence Love for scientific knowledge Attitude to know and value history Respect human emotions Decide with reasonable present problems Take logical decisions regarding personal values ‘Hypothesis’ is a temporary conclusion drawn using insight. integrate the subjects with other subjects. 9 . structure and content of the textbooks.
elucidation. by sharing responsibilities with the objective of public activity. 10 . hypothesis formation. critical thinking. application. group activity and collaborative learning. probing for other possibilities. The learner advances towards new areas of acquisition of knowledge where he tries to compare his new findings with the existing conceptions. Learning situation should be capable of forming a sense of ownership in of the learner regarding the learning process. all these are concepts put forward by social constructivism. provide opportunity for effective learning. assessment and improvement. finding out co-relation. Social Constructivism Social constructivism is a sub section of constructivism. New knowledge is constructed when ideas are examined and practiced in new situations relating them with the previously acquired knowledge and experience. Social and cultural factors influence learning. prediction. The main propounders of constructivism are piaget. collective enquiry. It progresses in a spiralled way advancing deeper and wider. Learning takes place as a part of the attempt for problem solving. Rather than the ability for memorisation of facts cognitive process has to be given emphasis. Learning is a live mental process. Discovery learning and interactive learning have prime importance. Learning is not a linear process. group learning. It is through this process construction of new knowledge and the assimilation of them that learning take place. The activities of a learner who confronts cognitive disequilibrium in a learning situation when he tries to overcome it is leads to the renewal of cognitive structure. vygotsky and Bruner. In learning internal motivation is more important than external motivation. co-operative participatory learning. Observation and enquiry are unavoidable factors. The learner should have interest and initiative in learning. The process of problem analysis. rational thinking. spread and imbibed and it becomes relevant in a social enviornment. extracting the crux and other processes are of critical importance in learning. Interactive learning . Knowledge is formed. Sharing of knowledge and experience among learners. This method which gives priority to critical thinking and proble solving provides opportunity for self motivated learning. That is assimilated into the congnitive structure of one’s knowledge. Constructivism gives greater predominance to co-operative learning.Constructivism This approach puts forward the concept that the learner constructs knowledge.
To acquire more knowledge in the concerned area through higher education.Learner-his nature and features The learners in standard XI has undergone a learner centered and process oriented learning experience up to X standard.participant Observes his environment Experiments and realises Makes interpretations and draws inferences. Ability to enquire. Some of the peculiarities of the learner at this stage are: l l l l l l l l Physical. He is adequately competent to select vocational subjects according to his aptitude and interest and to acquire higher education and profession as he wishes. To recognise and encourage the peculiar personality of the later adolescent period. Doubts. Readiness to undertake challenges. intellectual an emotional planes are intensive changes during this age and their reflections can be observed. To make acquaintance with a job through vocational education. anxieties and eagerness about sex. Longing for social recognition. Susceptibility to different pressures. To enable him to defend against the unfavourable circumstances without any help Active participant in the learning process. Capacity to shoulder leadership roles. discover and establish cause-effect relationship between phenomena. Attempt to interprest oneself. Acts as a researcher Sharer of information Sharer of responsibilities Collects information Takes leadership Involves in group work Acts as a co. Needs of the learner l l l l Role of the Learner • • • • • • • • • • • • 11 . The aspirations about future life is framed in this particular age foreseeing national and international job oppurtunities.
• be impartial and democratic.economic and cultural background of the students. aptitude etc. • be a constant student • facilitate for reference/data collection • have a clear under standing about the age. demonstrations etc. • guide the students by explanations. philosopher and co-learner. peculiarities. • act as a democratic group leader. • be a good organiser. • act as a co-learner • gives variety of learning experiences. • motivate for learning • promote divergent thinking. • continuously evaluate the progress of the learners. needs. • promote opportunity for co-operative learning and collaborative learning. • act as a democratic leader. guide. • be a guide to the learner in developing insights and creating responses on current affairs. • be a link between school and community.Role of the Teacher The teacher should. • have the ability to motivate the learner in order to acquire and enrich their knowledge. • act as a problem solver • effectively guide the students for the selection and conduct of various continuous evaluation elements. • have an inter disciplinary approach in learning activities. • 12 . • be capable to lead the learner into a variety of learning methods and process based on curricular objectives. nature. • be able to guide the learner in his/her career prospects based on his interest aptitude and ability. • arrange proper situations to interact in and outside of the classroom. • gives scaffolding/support wherever necessary. friend. • promote and motivate the students to construct knowledge. • provide ample experiences to attain the basic values and objectives of the curriculum. of the learner. • consider the ‘Stress and strain’ of the teenagers • understand the socio. abilities. • facilitate interpersonal and intra-personal interactions.
So even while encouraging this exchange of ideas among the members of the group cautions acceptance is to be observed as a convention. 2. It is an inborn tendency to act to solve a problem that causes cognitive disequilibrium in a particular area. experience and competency. Instead of telling everything before and compelling to initiate the models. will help others. It is a sharing on the plane of ideas. All the members will reach a stage of sharing the result of learning.New Concepts of Learning 1. Those who have more knowledge. By this exchange of resources the learners develop a plane of social system in learning also. Here discussion is not opposing each other. There should be an understanding that satisfactory responses should come from each member and that the achievement of the group will be assessed on the basis of the achievement of all the members 13 . Collaborative learning will help to avoid the situations of one person working for the whole group. Collaborative learning This is the learning in which the responsibilities are distributed among the members of the group keeping common learning objectives. Creating occasion to progress towards discovery is preferred. It should be on the basis of actual needs. equally through the activity with mutual understanding. New ideas are arrived at by seeking explanations. 3. Discovery Learning- The teacher has to create a motivating atmosphere for the learner to discover concepts and facts. The teachers who arrange collaborative learning will have to make clear the responsibilities to be discharged. Problem solving and learning Only when the learner feels that some thing is a problem to be solved that he takes the responsibility of learning it. 4. by mutual giving and taking of ideas and by problem solving. It is also needed to have confidence that one is capable of doing it. The problems are to be presented in consideration of the ability and level of attainment of the learner. instead of listening always. 5. As there are no high ups and low ones according to status among the learners they can ask the fellow students doubts and for helps without any hesitation or in hesitation Care should be taken not to lead this seeking of help to mechanical copying. This is possible through the discussion with the learners. situations are to be created to help the children act models as themselves. Learning by discussion That discussion leads to learning is Burner's theory. The common responsibility of the group will be successful only if each member discharges his duties. Co-operative learning This is the learning in which the learners help one another.
lines of a poem. Process based language given for interpretation. performance of characters indications. Here helping means to make the learner complete the activity taking responsibility by himself. Learning can be made effectively and intellectual sharpness can be improved by giving opportunity for the cognitive processes like reminding. Symbols. The teacher has to keep in mind the objective of enabling the learner to take the responsibility and to make it successful. Process based language learning has to give prime importance to the cognitive process. Preparation of blue print. How is cognitive process considered in language learning? Take guessing and prediction for example. Giving titles and so on. Predicting the end of the story. summarising and so on. 7 Scaffolding It is natural that the learner may not be able to complete his work if he does not get support at the proper time. 8 Learning: a live mental process Learning is a cognitive process. Preparation of list. story from the picture. Guessing the incident. recognising compromising . only a teacher who has an awareness as to what the cognitive process is alone can arrange learning situations to the learner to involve in it.relating. co. guessing. comparing. pictures. Guessing the content from the heading. The learner may require the help of the teacher in several learning activities. Preparation of flow chart. actions. concepts. l l l l l l l l l l l l Guessing the meaning from the context. If appropriate help is forth covering every learner can better himself. Epitomising in one word. Even though some can fulfil the learning activity by themselves there is the possibility of a higher excellence. and other such activities can be given the following activities can be given for the cognitive process of summarisation. Guessing the facts from indications. Internal motivation 9 Internal motivation is given more importance than external motivation. tables.6 Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsky observes that these is a stage of achievement where a learner can reach by himself and another higher zone where he can reach with the help of his teachers and peers and elders. The teacher 14 . body language and such things can be given for interpretation.
15 . 2. Playing musical instruments. Logical /mathematical Intelligence Thinking rationally with causes and effect relation and finding out patterns and relations come under this area. gymnastics etc.has to arouse the internal motivation of the learner. and giving illustrations to stories can help the development of this ability. How motivating is each of the activities is to be assessed. Verbal/linguistic Intelligence - Ability to read and write. finding out relations and explaining things sequential and arithmetical calculations are capable of developing this area of intelligence. making linguistic creations . Main factors of the intellect : 1. They are capable of understanding the thought of others and carrying on activities like discussion successfully. Visual /spatial Intelligence In those who are able to visualise models and bringing what is in the imagination into visual form and in philosophers. A person internally motivated like this alone can immerse in learning and own its responsibility. sculpture. 4 Bodily Kinaesthetic Intelligence The activities using body language come under this. 6 Interpersonal Intelligence Those in whom this area of intelligence is developed show qualities of leadership and behave with others in a noble manner. making of art equipments. 10 Multiple intelligence The Theory of Multiple Intelligence put forward by Howard Gardener has created a turning point in the field of education. This area of intelligence is more developed in dancers and actors who are able to express ideas through body movements and in experts in sports. The National curriculum document has recommended that the curriculum is to be designed taking into consideration of this theory. initiating the songs of musicians. all these come under this . 5 Musical Intelligence This is an area of intelligence which is highly developed in those who are able to recognise the different elements of music in musicians and in those who can here and enjoy songs. The activities like modelling using clay and pulp. designers and sculptors this area of intelligence is developed. 3. listening silently to the rhythms and activities like this are capable of developing this area of intelligence. This can be developed by engaging in language games and by teaching others. ability to lecture competence effective a communication .
16 . The teacher who aims to focus on improving the emotional intelligence of students need to concentrate on the following.Q) is the greatest factor affecting success in life is now widely accepted. Existential Intelligence The ability to see and distinguish ours own existence as a part of the universe. l Training in finding reasons for problems. l Imaging what would be the course of action in some situations. Group discussion will provide reasons and solutions. l Analysing the shortcomings in methods to solve problems. are habits to be cultivated. ideas and positions arise the students may be given the responsibility to reach a consensus. the students may be allowed to take part in the decision making process. l Discussing social problems. all these are the peculiarities of this faculty of intelligence. The fact that one’s Emotional Quotient (E. l Suggesting solutions through individual or group efforts. the ability to realise the ultimate nature of mental and physical existences. Taking decisions through open discussion in the class. These people can recognise their own abilities and disabilities. allowing to intervene in a healthy way in problems between individuals. Problems which can influence classroom learning and for which the learner can actively contribute solutions need to be posed. i) Ability to take decisions Rather than imposing decision on students while planning and executing activities. ii) Ability to reach consensus l When different opinions. Writing diaries truthfully and in an analysing way and assessing the ideas and activities of others will help developing this areas of intelligence 8 Naturalistic Intelligence A great interest in the flora and fauna of the nature. love towards fellow beings interest in spiritual and natural factors will be capable of developing this area. Whether plastic can be banned within school premises can be given as a problem. 9. iii) Problem solving l Developing the idea that there is reason and solution to any problem. inviting students suggestions on common problems etc.7 Intrapersonal Intelligence This is the ability to understand oneself. Emotional Intelligence The concept of emotional intelligence put forward by Daniel Golman was used in framing the new curriculum. ability to distinguish the meaning and meaninglessness of life.
To develop enviornmental awareness. To acquire awareness about different job areas and to provide backgrounds for acquiring higher level training in subjects of interest. W. iv) Life skills Life skills need to be given a prominent place in education. role of the teacher and how to use the teachers handbook help the teacher to plan and effectively implement learning activities. To inculcate mental courage in the learner to face unfavourable situations.All these foster the growth of emotional intelligence. tolerance and human values so as to ensure social and cultural improvement. To develop vocational aptitude. has listed ten skills required for success in life. Knowing the characteristics of the learner. To develop the learner to identify and develop his own competencies. To enable the learner to understand social problems and to react appropriately. To enable the learner to find on his own employment. To make human resource development possible. To create an awareness about mental and physical health. evaluation Ability to face problem-situation in life Thinking what one would do if placed in the situation of others. 17 .H. Objectives of the Vocational Higher Secondary Curriculum. work culture and attitude in the learner so as to provide useful products and services to the society. l l l l l l l l l l l To facilitate higher education while giving opportunity to enter in the field of employment.l l l Self criticism. To develop possibilities of higher education by creating awareness about common entrance examinations. sense of national integration. l l l l l l l l l l Self awareness Empathy Inter personal relations Communication Critical thinking Creative thinking Decision making Problem solving Copying with emotion Copying with stress The new curriculum addresses these areas.O. how one would respond to certain experiences of others .
Survey. Service cum training centre. Learner participation should be ensured in the planning and implementation of these activities. Social service is to be made a part of the course. Exhibitions.) are to be adjusted suitable to the learning and evaluation process. Social service should be a part of the course. Academic monitoring School Resource Group (SRG) 18 . If a learner has to change his school. While considering criteria for admission to higher courses. Local bodies and SRG Reference materials and visual media equipments. The participation and leadership of the students in planning and execution is to be ensured through this kind of activities. he should be provided an opportunity to continue his studies in the new school. The development in each area on the basis of information technology is to be brought to the learner.. creative abilities and to develop artistic talents. Physical fitness etc should be systematised well appropriate to learning and evaluation.. Field trip. making use of the modern technology. Approach towards Vocational Higher Secondary Education The learning methodology has to be organised so as the learning provide adequate practical thinking on the opted vocational subject utilising the new technology. OJT.l To provide situation for the encouragement of creative thinking and organising training programmes in each area.. Learning activities and learning atmosphere. Production/Service . Nature of Approach The learning device is to be organised in the selected vocational subjects in such a way that adequate practical experience should be given. They are: l l l l l l l Proper physical environment Healthy mental atmosphere Suitable social atmosphere Active participation of PTA. Youth festival. Youth festivals. Physical fitness etc. Work experience.. The teachers have to take special care in arranging learning activities for the development of all the faculties of intelligence. A proper learning atmosphere is essential for the betterment of learning activities. The development of information technology should be made available in each sector. Workshops. training. The work experience in the respective fields (OJT. Exhibition. grades of vocational subjects should also be given due weightage. In tune with the changes in the Vocational Higher Secondary Education changes should be ensured in the field of higher education. Survey. Field trip production. Workshop.
co-learning and group learning. • To impart knowledge and training on various fish culture. Educational Approach The studies conducted by UNESCO. • To create and develop confidence and skills for initiatives in self employment in fisheries sector. which directly or indirectly helps to improve the standard of living of fisher folk and also generate employment opportunities. Being a country with a vast coastline of about 8000 km fishing and allied industries play an important role in providing employment to a vast majority of the population.APPROACH TO FISHERIES Introduction Vocational education. Kerala holds a remarkable position in fisheries sector. This approach should explore the activities like problem solving and self studying. Fish processing Technology. That is why the importance of fisheries in the economic development of Kerala was emphasized by our President Dr. Among the different vocational courses introduced. 19 . mental ability and skills of students. a dream of Mahatma Gandhi. as well as sustaining the economy with the foreign exchange earned from the export of various fisheries products. its resources and their significances. and help to improve the fishing industry. Fisheries courses has great relevance. While selecting the learning activities we should take into account the nature. Aqua-culture offer scope in studying new technologies. APJ Abdul Kalam. capture and processing techniques. It is important that the new educational approach should create opportunities for individual learning. According to their approach the learning activities should pave way for the construction of knowledge. was realized by the central government to address the problem of massive unemployment among the youth in our country. Aims • To create general awareness about the fisheries sector. SCERT on the various defects of teacher centred education evolved a new idea of student centred educational approach. Among the maritime states of India. The courses like Fishing Craft and Gear Technology.
The ideas evolved from the discussion can be consolidated and presented in the class by one person from each group. Their observation can be consolidated and presented. Encourage the group leaders to present the findings of their group and allow the class to comment on it. This type of learning is called Collaborative learning. if we want to make an awareness among the students about different preservative methods. A group discussion can be conducted. Discovery learning The teacher has to create an atmosphere that encourages the learner to discover ideas and facts of his own. 1. Modern packing materials. the students can be divided into different groups and a group discussion on the topic can be conducted.For this we can adopt different strategies and techniques. For this prepare discussion points. 20 . For example to study the problems faced by the fishermen for keeping the fish in fresh condition. 3. 4. conduct an informal interview among the fishermen to collect the problems faced by them and findout the solutions to tackle the problems and prepare a report. When the presentations are over teacher may consolidate it and ask each one to prepare the report. Merits and demerits of packing materials. Impact on the environment. Collaborative learning The two important aspects of this method of learning are sharing of ideas and negotiation among the learners. Socio-Cultural related learning This method of learning pertains to social and cultural aspect of the society. The negotiation among peers take place here. Assign each group to discuss about one of the discussion points. l l l l Traditional packing materials. 2. For example the teacher can assign the students to identify and classify different marine fishes. Divide the class into four groups ask them to collect different types of packaging materials and to analyse their merits and demerits. This gives an opportunity for the learner to observe the different ***** fishes available in the local market and can collect information from different sources like internet and journals. For example. Suppose we have to deal with different packaging materials for fishery products. Co-operative learning In this method the learners learn by helping each other.
fishing zones. To develop the skill for evaluating shrimp organoleptically. To develop the skill to differentiate fresh and spoiled fish. To apply the knowledge acquired about nutrition in real life situations. To understand the importance of fish in human diet. To understand the post mortem changes taking place in the fish muscle. To understand the commercially important fishery resources of India. major fishing harbours and ports of India. To understand the structure of bacteria. crustaceans and molluscs. To develop the skills to familiarise different varities of fishes. To identify the maritime states.CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES l l To understand the status of Indian fisheries and export. To understand different causative agents of fish spoilage. Apply the knowledge acquired in new situations To understand different types of food poisioning caused by the pathogenic bacteria. To understand the effect of environmental factors on bacterial growth. To develop a skill to compare the nutritive value of fish with other food items. l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 21 . To understand the methods to prevent fish spoilage. To understand the proximate composition of fish. To understand various fishing methods briefly. To develop skills to differentiate teleost and elasmobranch. To develop skills to identify the morphological characters of typical fish and prawn. To understand the classification of protien based on its solubility.
Understand the different methods of controlling food poisioning. To understand the principle of chilling. To develop skills in preparing different product styles of prawns. To develop a skill to differentiate slow freezing and quick freezing. To understand the need for chlorination of water in fish processing. To understand refrigeration and different types of refrigerants. To understand the significance of quality of ice and water to be used in fish processing.l To develop skill for identifying the types of food poisioning through their symptoms. To develop the skill for fish handling. To familiarise with different steps in freezing. To develop a skill to differentiate freezing and chilling. To understand different product styles of cephalopods and fishes. To understand the different methods of icing. To develop skill for chlorinating water. To understand the process of ice manufacture. To understand different freezing methods. To understand the terms related to freezing. To familiarise with common types of freezers. To understand the factors affecting freezing rate. To familiarise the different equipments in fish processing industry. To develop the steps in the preparation of fish for processing. To understand the use of Refrigerated Sea Water (RSW) and Chilled Sea Water (CSW) for fish storage. l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 22 . Apply the acquired skill in unfamiliar situation. To understand the concept of freezing as a preservative method. To understand the hygienic handling of fish and prawn on board fishing vessel and on shore. To develop the skill for icing the fish. To identify different types of ice. To apply the acquired skills in new situations. Apply the acquired skills to new situations.
To apply the acquired knowledge in new situations. To understand the details about factory hygiene and sanitation. To understand the significance of sanitation in sea food industry. To understand recent trends in packaging. To develop skills for identifying and applying different types of packing materials.l l l l l l To develop skills for the freezing of shrimps. To understand the functions of a cold storage To understand different types of cold storage To understand the chilled storage and frozen storage To understand fish transportation and distribution To understand the changes in fish muscle during freezing and in the cold storage. To apply the knowledge in new situations. To develop skills to maintain personal hygiene and sanitation. To get an awareness about the minimum infrastructural facilities required for a fish processing plant. l l l l l l l l l l 23 . To understand the concept of packing and its importance To familiarise with different types of packaging materials.
Quality of water to be used in fish processing. freezing of fishery products and the steps involved. Salmonella sp. Post freezing treatment. Unit.SYLLABUS Unit. Autolytic spoilage. Escherichia coli. Salinity etc. Unit. 6 Fish Handling Hygienic handling of fish on board fishing vessel and on shore. 7 Freezing Principles involved in freezing of fish. carbohydrate.Staphylococcus aureus. Manufacture and storage of ice. Marine fish production in India. Pelagic and demersal fisheries of India. Chlorination of water. Oxygen. Slow freezing Vs Quick freezing. 4 Microbiology of Fish Spoilage Structure and growth of bacteria. Different freezing methods. 5 Microbes in Public Health Microbes that cause infection to man. Role of bacteria in fish spoilage. Major Indian fisheries: marine. Unit. Use of ice for handling. feacal Streptococci. Export of marine products from India Unit. Double freezing. Clostridium botulinum. oxidation of fat. Bacterial spoilage. methods of controlling spoilage. Quality of ice. estuarine and fresh water. Vibrio cholera. fat (oil). transportation and processing of fish. on bacterial growth. 3 Fish Spoilage Rigor mortis. Refrigerated sea water for fish preservation. Fishing methods. Unit. Unit. 2 Fish as a Food Material Importance of fish in human diet. pH. 1 General Introduction Morphology and biology of typical fish and shell fish. Chemical aspects of fish flesh components.Water. 24 . Effect of temperature. protien. vitamins.
13 Factory Hygiene and Sanitation Building. 9 Freezing of Shrimps How to make good frozen products Freezing of shrimps in different styles like whole. CPD. equipment and staff sanitation Maintanace of Quality control Unit. 8 Freezers Airblast freezers Contact plate freezers Spray and Immersion freezers Other types of freezers Freezing time and freezer operating temperatures Unit. Block and IQF products. HL. Unit. PUD. 11 Storage. PD. 12 Lay out of Processing Plants Site. 10 Cold Storage Types of cold store Unit. equipments and clothing Unit. building. Transportation and Distribution Chilled storage Frozen storage Change in fish muscle during frozen storage Unit. water supply.Unit. 14 Modern Packing Methods Choice of packing materials Types of modern packaging 25 .
Unit.Topics added to Syllabus Unit . The topics donot have any vocational importance at this stage. carbohydrate.VI Fish Handling Insulated containers for fresh fish transportation Unit. fat. freezing of fishery products and the steps involve in freezing Note: As a Vocational course the students should have a knowledge about the newly added topics. 26 .II Fish as food material Analysis of major components .Moisture.IV Microbiology of fish spoilage Yeast and moulds. ash. Unit. protien. Unit.X Cold Storage Important design factors Unit. Clotridium perfringens.VIII Freezing Different freezing methods. Vibrio prahaemolyticus.V Microbes in Public health Shigella species. Bacillus cereus.XI Storage. Transport and Distribution Requirments for chill and cold storage Note: The above mentioned topics are deleted from the syllabus. Topics Deleted from Syllabus Unit.III Fish Spoilage Measurement of spoilage in fish Unit.
In order to fulfill this goal the facilitator should prepare necessary plan.O’s are to be accomplished within the specified time schedule. processes and activities before studying a unit. 27 . Daily plan is the daytoday plan to provide activities for a period (one hour). Exhibition and all the teaching learning activities include and outside the class room.PLANNING The role of teacher as well as the learner has changed in the emerging scenario. So teacher being the facilitator should bear in mind the fact that the C. Four such plans are given below which include field visit to a collaborative institutions. material required and evaluation. activities. This plan must give reveal the actual information about the curriculum objectives. l l l Year Plan Unit Plan Daily Plan Year plan covers all the unit and the entire activities to be completed with in a year. process skills. The structure of daily plan is given with each chapter. Surveys. concepts. Unit plan include all the portions. OJT.
Month planned To Teach Activity/Suggestion Field visit and Data collection. Various fishing methods. harbours and ports. crustanceans and molluscs Proximate composition of fish Classification of protien Importance of fish in human diet Nutrative value of fish and other food 2 Fish as a food material . Different varieties of fishes. Demonstration Discussion Assignments Seminar. Unit Name of Unit 1 General Introduction Status of Indian Fisheries and Export Identification of maritime states. Difference between Teleost and Elasmobranch.28 YEAR PLAN Name of Sub Unit 2 2 6 2 25 hours 1 6 6 3 2 2 3 10 hours August Discussion July June Number of hrs. Commercially important fishery resources of India. Morphology of typical fish and prawn.
Demonstration Field visit.Unit 4 2 2 10 hours 2 3 5 3 4 4 11 hours September September Name of Unit Name of Sub Unit Number of hrs. Quiz. Month planned To Teach Activity/Suggestion Demonstration of Samples 3 Fish Spoilage 4 Microbiology of fish spoilage Post mortum changes taking place in fish. Differentiation of fresh and spoiled fish Structure of Bacteria Environmental factors on bacterial growth Methods to prevent fish spoilage October 8 hours Different types of food poisoning. Discussion Assignment. Methods of controlling food poisoning Discussion with the help of OHP and Charts. Causative agents of fish spoilage Organoleptic evaluation of shrimp. 5 Microbes in public health 29 .
3 7 10 hours December Video show. 9 Freezing of shrimps.30 Unit 7 4 1 3 15 hours November 14 hours 2 2 2 3 2 3 8 hours Handling on board and on shore Manufature of Ice Chlorination of water RSW and CSW Refrigeration and Refrigerants Concept of freezing Freezing and chilling Freezing methods Product styles Different steps in freezing Common type of freezers October Name of Unit Name of Sub Unit Number of hrs. Month planned To Teach Activity/Suggestion Field visit and Demonstration Discussion Field visit Discussion 6 Fish Handling 7 Freezing 8 Freezers November Field visit Demonstration Discussion. Different product styles of prawn Freezing of prawns . Discussion with the help of charts and samples.
January Field visit Discussion Name of Unit Name of Sub Unit Number of hrs. Infrastructure facilities required for a processing plant. Month planned To Teach Activity/Suggestion 10 Cold Storage 11 Storage. Transport and Distribution Field visit Discussion 12 Lay out of processing plant Field visit. Discussion January Discussion 13 Factory hygiene and Sanitation Hygiene and sanitation Significance of sanitation Personal hygiene 3 1 2 6 hours 14 Modern Packing methods February 8 hours Concept Types of packaging materials Recent trends 1 4 3 Collection Debate Discussion 31 .Unit 2 3 1 2 2 5 hours 5 hours January January 5 hours Functions of cold storage Types of cold storage Chill storage and frozen storage Transportation and distribution. Changes in fish muscle during freezing and cold storage.
Carbohydrate.32 UNIT PLAN UNIT. Charts and Reference 3 l Understand the Sarcoplasmic classification of protien protien. Protien. Observation Communication Comparison Participation Preparation of notes. 2 FISH AS A FOOD MATERIAL Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation Total Nos. Discussion Participation Interest Preparation of notes. Fat. Observation of charts and comparison Charts and Reference 2 l Understand the importance of fish in human diet. Curriculum Objectives Concepts Observation Communication Comparison Observation of charts. Discussion Charts and Reference l Understand the Proximate composition of fish. 2 . Deficiency diseases. Water. Minerals. Vitamins. NPN Compounds Observation of charts. Preparation of notes. Fibrillar protein based on its solubility. Stroma protien Observation Classification Communication Participation Interest.
Reference Comparison of fish protien with vegetable and meat protein.Curriculum Objectives Concepts Charts Ideas/ Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation Total Nos. Participation Presentation of notes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids. Observation Communication Comparison Observation of charts and Comparison Participation Interest. Essential aminoacids. l Develop skills to compare the nutritive value of fish with other food items. 33 . Vitamin A and D Iodine Calcium Phosporous Communication Discussion Preparation of notes. 3 l Apply the knowledge acquired about nutrition to other situation.
. fat....... meat and vegetables................................. Comparison 34 . : 30 : .............. Process Skill Observation Comunication Comparison Previous Knowledge Students have knowledge about the proximate composition of fish. 2 FISH AS A FOOD MATERIAL Name of Teacher : ..... Response/ Feed back Interest......... Materials required Charts showing the percentage of proximate composition of fish... : 1 hour Name of the School : ... Subject Topic : Fish Processing Technology : Nutrative value of fish Curriculum Objectives Develop skills to compare the nutritive value of fish with other food items.. viatmins and minerals is better compared to meat and vegetables..DAILY PLAN UNIT. meat and vegetables........ Class Division Strength Average age Duration : I st VHSE : .... Concepts and Ideas The nutritive value of fish in regards to protein.
After the presentation teacher summerises that the nutritive value of fish is better than others. Ask each group to present their findings. Divide the whole class into five or six groups. Calcium and Phosphorus also increases its nutritive value. Ask the groups to obeserve the charts and discuss the nutritive value of fish compared to meat and vegetables. Ü The presence of Vitamin. Assignment Ü Write an assignment on the nutritive value of fish compared to meat and vegetables. Activities Prepare three different charts showing the percentage of proximate composition of fish. Ü Minerals like Iodine. meat and vegetable.Participation in discussion Presentation of findings based on charts. Consolidation Ü Fish contains more soluble protien than meat. A and D in fish increases its nutritive value. Ü The protiens in fish are easily digestable. hence fish is a good nutritive food for children. 35 .
Features of Evaluation l Evaluation should be humane in nature. It must help the students grow as social beings. This will help each student to evaluate themselves and to improve their level of learning by taking necessary assistance from the teacher (self evaluation) classmates can evaluate themselves through interaction (peer group evaluation) Evaluation even help the teacher to analyse and improve their performance. A written examination at the end of an year which is purely based on a textbook is not of much use. Thus evaluation is an integral part of learning process which assesses the implementation of the curriculum. The teacher can properly assess the level of the learner and can identify his/her strength and weakness. learner and even the parents. “Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting. Evaluation is done along with learning process throughout the course of study. the teacher should be able to understand the students. Evaluation helps to integrate the teacher. Inorder to make an evaluation. This will improve the quality of our young generation. The personal and social qualities also have to be evaluated. communication skills. Capacity building in the selected vocation is the most important part in vocational education and it should be evaluated accordingly. The technical skills. analysis. organising and presentation skills etc. analysing and interpreting evidence of students’ progress and achievement both in cognitive and noncognitive areas of learning for the purpose of taking a variety of discussions”.EVALUATION Introduction As the curriculum is based on a particular vocation. interest and devotion in the particular field. Thus student who are socially useful and can perform productive work are created. their scholastic and co-scholastic knowledge. evaluation becomes an inevitable procedure. Need and importance of Evaluation Evaluation is to assess the scientific knowledge of students and to recognise to what extent they have achieved the specified capabilities. have to be evaluated. 36 .
Continuous Evaluation also helps us to measure the attained goals of formulated curriculum objectives. Making student’s learning regular 2. observation.l Evaluation should be the responsibility of the teacher who teaches the students and is responsible for developing the requisites healthy attributes in them. Procedures for grading and their reporting should be appropriate and easily understood by one and all. Effective feedback is possible 4. discussions. Different tools are used to evaluate the multi dimensional competencies of the learners. 37 . Merits of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation system are: 1. debates. Evaluation must be. To eliminate the limitations of this method we are forced to evaluate the multi-dimensional competencies of the learner with respect to the practicability and nature of the subject. 6. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Most of our traditional evaluation methods are related only to the area of scientific knowledge or the memory of students. The Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) includes not only written test (class tests) but also oral tests. interview. Assess the all round development of the learner on a continuous basis through a variety of activities. l l l l l Theories of constructivism and multiple intelligence are the basis of modern learning. It helps the learner to understand and evaluate his own progress and to develop adequate strategy for further improvement. l l l l Continuous and comprehensive Scholastic and co-scholastic Depending on grading system. So evaluation strategies have also to be changed. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation is an essential ingredient of any learning process. Evaluation should be consistent with its purpose and must provide a reliable and valid measure of the student’s performance. Evaluation should take into account both the background and the prior experience of the students. Evaluation should reflect the outcome of each learning intervention and should provide all the students with equal opportunity to display their individual potential. Remedial and diagnostic teaching is possible. Depending on a vocational or trade proficiency. The process as well as the product is assessed. 5. Evaluation should restore the faith and trust of the masses by ensuring transparency in the procedure. seminars etc. Provides for a variety of activities 3.
Awareness of the content (presentation of the paper. Necessary help should be provided to them in time. As such we can generate the environment and opportunity for Continuous Evaluation. Class test 4.dimensional competencies of the learner include : l l l l l Class -room interaction Task orientation Creative expression Field/institutional interactions Knowledge assessment/ expression Continuous Evaluation Items 1. the learner is to be made aware of the findings and it helps him to measure his progress. More over. Seminar 1. Comprehensiveness of the content 3. Seminar 3.dimensional competencies of the learner. Assignment 1. In order to evaluate the multi. CE Item Evaluation Indicators Weightage Score 1. Ability to plan and organise 2. Project etc. CT can be a written test.The learner proceeds through a variety of learning experiences. * For continuous evaluation class test (CT) is made compulsory taking any two of the above said indicators. Awareness of the content 2. Observation/suggestions/Views Judgements/ Evaluation 5. participation in discussion. The multi. Timely Submission 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 2. oral test (viva). Therefore the level of progress should be evaluated in a comprehensive and continuous manner. ability to substantiate the ideas and views) 4/3/2/1 38 . Practical test. different tools and techniques have to be used. Skills in the collection of data 3. Systematic and sequential arrangement 4. Assignment 2.
Ability to analyse the elements and procedure (Structuring of elements and developing logic. No Name I (4) Evaluation Indicators II (4) 3 3 III (4) 4 4 IV (4) 4 4 V (4) 4 4 Total Score (20) 1 2 Anand Shibu 2 4 17 19 39 . Ability to collect data (sufficiency and Relevance of data. authenticity and clarity of ideas/views/concepts 5. Ability to prepare the project report (Reflection of the process skills. Project 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 1. Viva Voce(Knowledge of the content and Process) 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 4/3/2/1 CE item calculation Subject item: Assignment Sl.) 4/3/2/1 3. reliability and authenticity of the Collected data. Classification and arrangement of data for analysis. Ability to plan (Selection of the method for solution of the problem. Recognising design errors and correcting them) 4.4. planning the various activities to be carried out in each stage) 4/3/2/1 2. Ability to prepare the report (sequence in the presentaionof the concepts. Quality of Seminar Document 3. Communicability and authenticity of the report in relation with the Project diary 5. identifying suitable tools. Efficieny in using the package/tool.
The maximum score is 80 and the minimum score of TE is 24 (30%). term evaluation and annual examination should be in tune with the new approach. In otherwords the questions should be framed in such a way that the students are able to apply their various mental processes. synthesis and evaluation are to be given. analysis and synthesis. Should not be prepared to test the rote memory. The terminal evaluation questions give more emphasis on application level.Consolidated statement of CE Class: Ist year Stream: Fisheries Subject: Fish Processing Technology Sl. Questions to test the competency of application analysis. No Name 1 (20) CE Items 2 (20) Total (60) 3 Seminar/ Project (20) Total CE Out of 20 Score 20 obtained × 60 Class Test Assigment 1 2 Anand Shibu 18 20 17 19 19 18 54 57 18 19 No minimum score for CE Terminal Evaluation (TE) Terminal Evaluation is in written form. Questions asked should provoke the thinking abilities of students. Questions should be based on the learning process and the new approach to each subject. Results should be scientifically analysed. The questions are framed so that the students are able to apply their different mental process. The terminal evaluation questionnaire should be capable of measuring l l l l l l l l l l Content validity Criterion validity Constant validity Reliability Class test. 40 . The test should not be aimed to test the memory alone.
l l Evaluation results should be analysed and follow up may be carried out at relevant levels (remedial measures). Eighty percent marks are set apart for the common examination as the part of the Term Evaluation Application level questions Synthesis level questions Comparison of facts Challenging questions Scope for obtaining innovative ideas Giving creative thinking by the students Questions based on the objectives of learning activities Practial oriented questions Enviornment related questions Divergent thinking level questions The Question Paper must have l l l l l l l l l l Role of the Teacher in the Evaluation Process l l Preparation for the effective execution of evaluation Preparation of daily planning notes (teaching manual) and helping learners in their activities. l l l l l l l l l l Grading It is not scientific to assess the achievement of a student soley based in the marks in the terminal examinations. a popular mode of evaluation based on 41 . as learning activities and approach them as evaluation materials. Make use of the support mechanism fully. Identify and make use of the possibility of action research to resolve classroom learning problems. While learners are engaged in doing seminars/collections/assignments/ collections. seminar. provided by the department of education.A. Find out learner’s difficulty by conducting feedback. Make use of the Humanities Teachers Council for academic progress. Make the parents aware of the new approach to curriculum and evaluation system through class P. conduct interim evaluation and provide necessary help. Consider assignment. Marking system proved unscientific in evaluating the growth and development of students both in cognitive and non-cognitive areas. Make use of the training programme for professional excellence and transparency in work.T. To overcome this shortcomings. collections etc. Prepare a format to record continuous evaluation. Identify and evaluate the progress at different stage.
No Name CE (20) 18 19 TE (80) 60 72 Total CE+ TE (100) 78 91 Grade 1 2 Anand Shibu B+ A+ The maximum score of CE+TE is 100 and the minimum score is 30. After giving the score. it is desirable to use a point absolute grading to co-ordinate and record the evaluation.has been evolved.grading system. At the Higher Secondary stage. The score percentage and corresponding letter grade in Fish Processing Technology is given below. (30%) 42 . they are changed into percentages and appropriate letter grades are awarded curresponding to each percentage. Score in percentage 90-100 80-89 70 -79 60-69 50-59 40-49 30-39 20-29 Below 20 Grade A+ A B+ B C+ C D+ D E Consolidated statement of CE & TE Class: Ist year Stream: Fisheries Subject: Fish Processing Technology Sl.students’ performance.
Practical Evaluation (PE)
PE is the important part of vocational practicals. The practical skills must be evaluated after completing all practical experiments in each term and at the end of the academic year. PE must cover all required indicators to evaluate the technical skill and practical knowledge of the different topics covered.
Syllabus Practical 420 hrs
1 Collection and identification of commercially important teleosts, elasmobranches, crustanceans and molluscs. 50 hrs. 2 Study and recording of morphological characters of selected telecosts, elasmobranches, crustacean and molluscs. 3. Preparation of charts showing fish landing centres, fishing harbours and ports in India and Kerala. Compilation of data of fish landings (item-wise and quantity wise) of India and Kerala for the past 10 years. 25 hrs
4. Estimation of the proximate composition of fish: Moisture content, glycogen content, fat content, protein content and ash. 30 hrs 5. Visit to fisheries bacteriology laboratory for familiarisation with bacteriological methods and demonstration of procedures for isolation and identification of bacterial from fish. 75 hrs 6. Organoleptic evaluation: Organoleptic evaluation tests on fish and shellfish and organoleptic tests for detection of spoilage. 50 hrs 7. Analysis of water for chlorine and pH. 8. Familiarisation of techniques of handling for processing of fish and shellfish. On-hand training for handling and dressing fish and shell fish for processing. 10 hrs
9. Familirisation of freezing and processing of fish and fish products. Visit to ice plants, freezing units, peeling sheds and cold storage. 75 hrs
Indicators for Practical evaluation and their score
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Indicators Procedure and demonstration Calculation Identification Spotters Record Viva Percentage 40% 10% 20% 10% 10% 10% Total Score 60 15 30 15 15 15 150
Consolidated statement of Practical Evaluation
Class: Ist year Stream: Fisheries Subject: Fish Processing Technology
Procedure and Calculation demonstration 60 15
How will you find out grade for PE
Convert the total score into percentage and findout the grade eg: Total score: 105, percentage
105 × 100 = 70 , Grade B+ 150
The minimum score to be obtained is fixed at 40% that is 60 out of 150. Grade B
Vocational Competency Evaluation
Being a vocational course, a system to judiciously evaluate the required value addition and consequent capacity building in the selected vocational subject is highly essential. As the other evaluation components like CE, PE and TE cannot assess the vocational competencies and professional skills acquired by the students, an internship evaluation (IE) component has been introduced to meet this requirement.
Internship evaluation should be done based on the following components.
I. Regularity and punctuality.
A regular presence and habit of time bound completion of task is a must for attaining maximum efficiency.
Regularity and Punctuality can be evaluated by 5 Point scale.
1 1 Regularity Never regular Never Punctual 2 Often regular Often Punctual 3 Usually regular Usually Punctual 4 5
Most of the Always time regular regular Most of the time Always Punctual Punctual
Regularity and punctuality can be assessed by using attendence of the student and time bound completion of tasks.
II. Value addition
Value addition can be evaluated through conducting field visits/survey. The experiences gained through field visit and survey increases the level of intrinsic motivation and positive attitude towards the vocational field and there by increase his value as a skilled semi- professional. The aim of value addition is to measure the interest, devotion Group management, perseverance of the learner in specific areas Value addition can be evaluated from field visit, survey and simulated experiments.
III. Capacity building
Capacity building can be evaluated through conducting the following activities. 1. 2. 3. OJT/Simulated experiment Performance- Camp/ Exhibition/ Clinic. Performance- Production/Service cum Training censtre.
These components helps the students to practice the acquired skills in the real situation and there by increasing self confidence and promoting self reliance. Capacity building is aimed at measuring the skills of the learner from OJT/ production cum training centre/ research and development/graded area exposure.
Planning. 3. 3. 3. Application of ideas. Value addition Field Visit 1. Reporting. OR Survey 1.IE Item Evaluation Indicators Weightage Score 1. Capacity for observation. Skills in doing work/ Communication skill. analysis and innovation. 3. 3. Mastery of subject. OR Performance in camp/ Exhibition/ clinic 1. 2. Capacity for observation. Attitude and readiness towards the task. Data collection. 2. Drawing inference. Data collection. 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 10 20 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 46 . 2. Involvement/ Participation. Ability for communication. Regularity and Punctuality 2. Capacity building OJT/ Simulated Experiment/ Practical skill 1. 4. 5. 5. 4. Recording and display. Documentation. Ability for planning and organising. Consolidation of data and analysis. 4. Time bound action. Documentation/ recording. 2. 5.
Mastery of vocational skills. He has to improve the component in which he performed poor. Promoting self reliance.PSCTC (any one) Total 10 20 20 50 A minimum of 80% attendance is required for promotion to the second year. Involvement/Social commitment. Those who have shortage of attendance should repeat first year. Promoting self confidence. 4. OR Performace in production/ service cum training centre (PSCTC) 1. He has to attain the minimum by improving the particular component to get eligible for appearing second year public examination. Those who have 80% and above attendance but failed to achieve 30% of Internship Evaluation (IE) will be promoted to the second year. 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 Vocational Competency Items for Internship Evaluation Items Score Regularity & Punctuality Field visit/survey(any one) OJT/simulated experiment/ Practical Skill/ PerformanceCamp/exhibition/Clinic Performance. 5. 5. 3. Innovative approach. 2. Managerial capacity. Innovation. 47 .IE Item Evaluation Indicators Weightage Score 4.
Consolidated statement of IE Class: Ist year Stream: Fisheries Subject: Fish Processing Technology Sl No Name Regularity & Punctuality Field visit or survey OJT or Practical skill 20 10 16 Total Score Grade 10 1 2 Anand Shibu 5 6 20 12 15 50 27 37 C+ B+ 48 .
Format for Subject Wise Evaluation CCE Grade PE 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total Grade Regularity and Punctuality (10) Value Addition (20) Capacity building (20) Total (50) Sl no: TE (80) (100) Total out of 20 Name Total 3 (20) Total Semi.(60) nar/ Project Vocational Competency Evaluation Grade 1 (20) 2 (20) Class AsTest signment 49 .
CE CE TE CE TE CE TE VCE General Foundation Course TE CE TE PE CE TE PE Total Total Total Total Total Grade Grade Grade Total Grade PE Grade Grade Grade CE Total TE Total Grade 50 Format for School wise Score Sheet English Vocational Subjects Physics Chemistry Mathematics Sl no: Name .
Demonstration Demonstrate a map of India. To develop the skills to familiarise different varities of fishes. commercialy important Indian fish resources and various fishing methods. fishing zones. Sub Topic . morphology of fishes. 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION Introduction Fisheries is a multidisciplinary sector which deals with aquaculture. fish processing. fish capturing. To understand various fishing methods briefly. Major Indian fisheries: marine. Curriculum Objectives l l l l l l l To understand the status of Indian fisheries and export.Status of Indian Fisheries and Export Suggested Activities . To understand the commercially important fishery resources of India.Indian Coast Line Suggested Activities . major fishing harbours and ports of India. To develop skills to identify the morphological characters of typical fish and prawn. Since the students have limited knowledge about fisheries. Fishing methods. crustaceans and molluscs. Ask them to draw the map and mark the maritime states. important harbours and ports. To develop skills to differentiate teleost and elasmobranch. Syllabus Morphology and biology of typical fish and shell fish. etc. Pelagic and demersal fisheries of India.Data Collection Ask the students to collect the data of fish landings and exports from journals. Based on the collected data plot graphs and discuss the fluctuations and trends in landings and export. estuarine and fresh water.UNIT. Sub Topic . different fishing zones. Marine fish production in India. To identify the maritime states. Export of marine products from India. 51 . internet and economic reviews. This activity aims to acquire a knowldege about the status of Indian fisheries and export. this unit aims to convey the fundamental aspects such as status of fisheries in Indian economy.
Sub Topic . operculam. fins.seining.Group Discussion Students have previous knowledge about external characters of fishes. 52 . On the basis of the field trip a discussion can be conducted. Groups are asked to discuss the morphological characters of the given specimens with the help of labelled chart. scales. Points for discussion Discuss the differences in vertebral column. eyes and air bladder.Fishing Methods Suggested Activities .Sub Topic .Teleost and Elasmobranchs Suggested Activities .Group Discussion The students are divided into groups. Shark and Prawns. Teacher may consolidate the differences between a teleost and an elasmobrach and ask them to prepare a note. shore seining. Hence it is better to give assignments and seminar based on the topic. Each group shall not exceed six students. Tuna. Each group is provided with a typical fish and prawn. Mackerel. scales. boat seining. Teacher may enble the students to visit a suitable fish landing centre to familiarise with various fishing methods. trawling. gills. position of mouth.Morphological Characters of Typical Fish and Prawn Suggested Activities . eyes. line fishing and fish traps. exoskeleton and appendages. Sub Topic .Assignments and Seminar Students have a basic idea about fishery resources of their area. Bombay duck. purse. Points for discussion Discuss the general features of fish such as body shape.Field trip with Discussion A field trip is preferable as a strategy to study different fishing methods. Sub Topic . Points for discussion Discuss methods such as gillnetting. Teacher may guide the seminar by giving specific points for presentation. On the basis of that knowledge arrange a general discussion on different charatecters of a typical teleost and an elesmobranch. Discuss general features of prawn such as body shape. Class may be divided into small groups and ask them to collect information on different fishery resources such as oil sardine. number of gills and mode of reproduction. caudal fin. gills and operculam.Commercially Important Fishery Resources of India Suggested Activities .
Mackeral. Mullets. White fish. Cat fishes. Oysters etc.Field trip Arrange a visit to fishlanding centre or fish market and ask the students to collect and list the names and features of various fishes. the students are asked to classify the specimens. Km Gujarath. Milk fish. Thread fin bream. 2. Pomfrets. Polynemids. Skates.69 Crores 53 . Visakhapatanam. Sharks.2005) Total fish production in India (2004. crustaceans and molluscs. Mumbai. Codes. they came across. Crustaceans and Molluscs Suggested Activities . Marmagoa. Tuna.98 Million M Ton.02 Million sq. Haldia and Ennore. Flat fishes. Jafuabad.99 Million M Ton. Kochi. Visakhapatnam. Mangalore. Nagapattanam.506 Million sq. Prawns. Kandla. fishing methods and utilization. Additional Points Total coast line of India Total coastline of Kerala Marine fish production in India (2004. Sub Topic . spawning season. Pearl spot. Lobsters. Maharashtra Kerala. Karnataka. Silver bellies. Paradeep. Tuticorin. Tuticorin. 5. Km 0. Ratnagiri.2005) Area of Indian EEZ Area of Continental shelf Major Fishing zones North West Zone South West Zone South East Zone North East Zone 8129 Kms 590 Kms 2. Marine products export from India (2004 . Mussles. Nhevasheva. Kakinada. Baypore. Scianids. Mumbai. Goa Tamilnadu. Ribbon fish. Anchovies. In addition to this.Points for discussion Scientific names of economically important fishes and prawns. Carps. Veraval. Kochi. Clams. Pondichery and Andrapradesh Orissa and West Bengal Important Ports Chennai. habitats. Mangalore. Important Fishing Harbours of India Neendakara. fishing season. Carangids.Different varieties of Fishes. Mandapam. Rays. Cephalopods. Chennai. Paradeep. The teacher may guide the students to familiarise fishes such as Oil sardine.2005) Quantity 461329 MT Value 6646. Kolkata. Seer fish. Karwar. geographical distribution in India food and feeding habits.
Shore seining. iced form. salt dried. June to October July Purse seining. Oil Sardine Sardinella longiceps 2.Fish meal. Common Feeding habits Common Spawning Season Peak Fishing Season General Fishing Methods Common Utilisation Fresh. Boat seining. By products .Tuna 1.Bombay Harpodon Duck nehereus 4. iced. fish manure etc. Kerala and Tamilnadu and predatory Carnivores year. form etc. North West Zone (Even cannibalistic) March to to December Carnivores November September Bagnet (Dol net) Boat seining. Fresh and sun dried nated etc. fish manure etc. (Rampani in Karnataka) Gill netting. Lakshadweep Minicoy Islands. South west monsoon April to August Purse seining. Euthynnus affinis 3. Gill netting. fish meal. By products. Indian Rastrelliger Mackeral kanagurta 3. Fresh. Thunnus albacares 4. (Lakshadweep) Tuna long lining Fresh.Commercially Important Fishery Resources of India Major Distribution Kollam to Ratnagiri March Gill netting. Trawl netting. By product Masmin frozen.Body oil. Shore seining. to Boat seining. Purse seining Pole and lining.Katsuwonus pelamis . Through out the Through out the year. wet cured. colombo cured. By products .Lami Bombay duck. 2. Voracious.Auxis sp. canned smoked 54 Plankton feeder (Mainly feeds on Fragillaria occeanica) Zoo plankton feeder Kollam to Ratnagiri Name of Fishery Scientific Name 1. manure etc.
chitosan etc. monodon Penaeus indicus Parapenaeopsis stylifera.Name of Fishery North West Zone. Wet cured.Prawn Penaeus Kerala Omnivores Monsoon Monsoon Bottom trawling Trammel netting Drift gill netting Stake netting Fresh. Scientific Name Major Distribution Common Feeding habits Common Spawning Season Peak Fishing Season General Fishing Methods Common Utilisation 5. By products Shark liver oil. Elasmo Scoliodon sp. Carnivores Through out the Through out the Hook and lining. Kerala and South East Zone year. sun dried form etc. By products Chitin. shark skin. sun dried etc. branchs Dasyatis sp. canned. shark cartilage. Metapenaeus monoceros Metapenaeus dobsoni 55 . year. shark fin rays. 6. frozen.
Authenticity Interpretation Interest. Participation Interest Presentation Participation Interest Presentation. Internet. Interest Participation. Economic reviews. Morphology of fish and prawn. l To understand the commercially important fishery resources of India. Participation Interest Presentation. fishing zones. Observation Interest Participation l To develop skills to familiarise different varieteis of fishes. Specimens. Observation Field visit Communication Demonstration. Group Communication discussion Group discussion Assignment Seminar Field trip l To develop skills to differentiate teleost and elasmobranch. fishing zones. l To identify the maritime states. . Charts. Fin fishes Identification Shell fishes Observation Classification. Specimen l To develop skills to identify the morphological characters of typical fish and prawn. ports and harbours Trawling Gill netting Seining etc. Map Collection Collection of data Journals.Unit Ideas/ Concepts Total fish landings and Total export from India. l To understand various fishing methods briefly Models. crustaceans and molluscs. Teleost Observation Elasmobranch Differentiation Communication Fishes. Presentation Depth of knowledge. major fishing harbours and ports of India. Drawing Drawing and Marking. Specimen Charts Specimen Charts. Maritime states. Identification Prawns Observation Classification. Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation : 1 General Introduction 56 Curriculum Objectives l To Understand the status of Indian Fisheries and export. Discussion Identification.
Chemical aspects of fish flesh components. Curriculum Objectives l l l l l To understand the proximate composition of fish. fats and a wide variety of vitamins and minerals. Syllabus Importance of fish in human diet. 2 FISH AS A FOOD MATERIAL Introduction Fish is a food of excellent nutritional value providing high quality of protiens. this unit deals with the nutritional value and the importance of fish in human diet. protien.UNIT.Discussion Use charts showing percentage of different components in fish.Water. vitamins. minerals. Suggested Activities. carbohydrates. To understand the importance of fish in human diet. vitamins and NPN compounds in fish muscle. Points for discussion Ü About water. In addition. To understand the classification of protien based on its solubility. People in developed countries are much more dependent on fish as part of their daily diet. Compare the proximate composition of fish with others. 57 . In this unit an attempt has been made to make the students aware of different biochemical components in the fish muscle. meat and vegetables. To develop a skill to compare the nutritive value of fish with other food items. It reveals the importance of fish as food material. carbohydrate. Its protien is easily digestable and contains more essential aminoacids and essential fatty acids than in cereals and legumes. fat (oil). Discuss nutrition in general and connect it with the nutritional value of fish. protien. To apply the knowledge acquired about nutrition in real life situations. fat. Thus let them understand that nutritive value of fish is superior.
Compared to meat. rickets etc. Vitamins are not synthesised by body and hence can be substituted through the food.D. 3. Fats soluble and water soluble vitamins are there. 58 . Ü Nutritive value of essential aminoacids. which is uncommon in mammalian fats. fattyacids eg: Palmitic acid. fat and vitamins in fish with meat and vegetable. Free Alpha Amino Acids Attractive flavour of prawns and other crustaceans are due to their comparatively higher contents of Free Alpha Amino Acids. arachidonic acid etc. Fats Fats are triglycerides of higher fatty acids. These are long chains of polypeptides having of very high molecular weights ranging from thousands to lakhs. Vitamins Low molecular weight subtance performs an important role in regulating the body functions.methyl amine oxide. usually containing even numbers of carbon atoms. urea. There are two types of Free Alpha Amino Acids viz. Additional information 1. guanidine and imidazole and miscellaneous substances like purins and pyramidines.Protien Nitrogenous Compounds (NPN Compounds) NPN Compounds play a very important role in the physiological functions of live fish muscle. Vitamine A. Quicker rates of spoilage of invertibrates are also due to the presence of free Amino Acids in their muscles. In fish muscle 95% of total protien are easily digestable. Ü Deficiency diseases caused by the inadequate consumption of fish such as goiter kwashiorkar. digestable protiens are more in fish. tri.unsaturated long chain fatty acids with four to six double bonds. Basic building units of protiens are amino acids. Fish fats have a high content of poly. E and K are fat soluble. 2. essential and non. Calcium and Phosporus in the fish. The details are given below: Tri Methyl Amine Oxide (TMAO) It is considered to be one of the compounds responsible for the characteristic fishy ordour and flavour of marine fish. Iodine. Ü Compare the protien. Viatmin A and D. 4.Ü Classification of protiens according to their solubility and mention their percentage in fish muscle. night blindness. Non. They are generally encountered in fish muscle and comprises ammonia. PUFA.essential. oleic acid. Protiens Protiens are basically complex nitrogenous organic substances.
Nicotinic acids. Cyanocobalamine are water soluble vitamins.3 .Riboflavin.2 . Troponin Stroma protiens Only in strong acid or alkali 3 Connective tissue Collagen and Elastin Percentage to total protien Function Example Classification of Fishes based on Fat content Lean Fishes Semi fatty fishes Fatty fish Less than 2. Tropomyocin. myoglobin. Silver bellies eg. Carangids eg. Oil sardine.4 . 65 . mackerel 59 .2 below 0.6 Different types of protiens in Fish Muscle Types of protien Solubility Sarcoplasmic protiens In water or salt solution of low ionic oncentration.0.1 Trace 0.24 0.1 N NaOH.5% .22 66 . Ribbon fish. Haemocyanin Myofibrillar protiens In salt solution or 0. Proximate Composition Components Protien Lipids and Fat Water Minerals Carbohydrate Vitamins NPN compounds Percentage in Fish 18 .5% of fat More than 5% of fat eg: Anchovies. myosin.84 0.75 Muscle movement Actin. Pyridoxine.22 Metabolism Myogen.5% of fat 2. 16 .
Observation Observation Charts and Reference Communication of charts and Comparison comparison Participation Preparation of notes. Observation Observation Charts and of charts. Participation Interest. l Understand the importance of fish in human diet. Preparation of notes. Curriculum Objectives l Understand the composition of fish. Fat. Reference Communication of charts. Carbohydrate. Fibrillar protein Stroma protien Deficiency diseases. NPN Compounds Sarcoplasmic protien. Observation Observation Charts and Protien. . Reference Classification Communication Discussion Process Skill Activities Materials : 2 Fish as a Food Material Evaluation Participation Interest Preparation of notes.60 Unit Ideas/ Concepts Proximate Water. Comparison Discussion Minerals. Vitamins. l Understand the classification of protien based on its solubility.
Observation Charts of charts and Comparison Ideas/ Concepts Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation Participation Interest. l Develop skills to compare the nutritive value of fish with other food items. Vitamin A and D Iodine Calcium Phosporous Participation Presentation of notes.Curriculum Objectives Comparison Observation of fish protien Communication with Comparison vegetable and meat protein. fatty acids. Essential Communication Discussion Reference aminoacids. l Apply the knowledge acquired about nutrition to other situation. 61 . Preparation Polyunsaturated of notes.
62 . Bacterial spoilage. Autolysis. l Points for discussion Ü Sensory evaluation of fish and shrimp. Teacher should ask the groups to evaluate and compare the appearence of gills. l To understand different causative agents of fish spoilage. microbes and oxygen in fish spoilage. l To develop the skill for evaluating shrimp organoleptically. Hence it is necessary to include demonstration as an activity. Autolytic spoilage. oxidation of fat.UNIT. Bring samples of fresh and spoiled fishes of the same species to the class room. Ü Post mortem changes such as Rigor mortis. 3 FISH SPOILAGE Introduction Fish is a highly perishable food and starts spoiling at the moment they are taken out of water.Demonstration Students have to acquire the skill to recognise the spoiled fish. Post mortem changes take place in fishes in atmospheric and refrigerated temperatures. Post mortem changes taking place in fish are sensory changes. The report should be presented in the class by the group leader and discuss the report in detail. Syllabus Rigor mortis. Autolytic changes. Besides. Bacteriological changes and lipid oxidation. eyes. This unit reveals the students about the post mortem changes taking place in fish muscle and the causative agents of fish spoilage. belly and texture of the spoiled fish with that of the fresh fish and make a report on the basis of this organoleptic evaluation. it equips the students to differentiate the spoiled fish from the fresh one. l To develop the skill to differentiate fresh and spoiled fish. Microbial changes Belly burst and Rancidity. Suggested Activities . Ü Role of enzymes. Curriculum Objectives To understand the post mortem changes taking place in the fish muscle.
Off odour Colour faded into brown and finally yellow. opaque Not slimy and colour faded Un pleasant flavour Dull colour Not firm and easily detachable 63 . elastic. Sea weedy or fishy odour Gills have bright red colour Eyes are bright. cannot easily be seperated from the bone. Red in colour. clear and transparent Skin is slimy with un faded colour Sweet characteristic flavour Bright colour Scales are firm and strong Spoiled Fish Loose.Additional Information Comparision of Fresh and Spoiled Fish Fresh Fish Flesh firm. non elastic. can easily be separated from the bone. cloudy.
eyes. Presentation of notes. Appearance of gills. . Participation in discussion. Participation in discussion. l Develop skills to differentiate fresh and poiled fish.64 Unit Ideas/ Concepts Rigor mortis Autolysis microbial changes Belly burst Rancidity Enzymes Microbes Oxygen Black spot loose shell Observation Demonstration Specimens Communication Discussion Reference Comparison Process Skill Activities Materials : 3 Fish Spoilage Evaluation Participation Interest. Participation in discussion. flesh etc. l Develop the skill for evaluate shrimp organoleptically. l Understand different causative agents for fish spoilage. Communication Discussion Reference Prediction Preparation of notes Observation Demonstration Specimens Communication Discussion Reference Preparation of notes Observation Demonstration Specimens Communication Discussion Reference Preparation of notes Presentation of notes. Curriculum Objectives l Understand the post mortem changes taking place in fish muscle.
Curriculum Objectives Ideas/ Concepts Appearance of gills. flesh etc. Participation in discussion. eyes. 65 . Observation Demonstration Specimens Communication Discussion Reference Preparation of notes Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation l Develop skills to differentiate fresh and poiled fish.
Discussion With the help of OHP and charts discuss binary fission and spore formation. 4 MICROBIOLOGY OF FISH SPOILAGE Introduction Students have previous knowledge about the role of micro organism in fish spoilage. they should also get an idea about the structure of bacteria. Role of bacteria in fish spoilage. To understand the effect of environmental factors on bacterial growth. methods of controlling spoilage. Oxygen. To understand the methods to prevent fish spoilage. Let the students prepare notes by observing it. Salinity etc. This unit deals with the effect of various enviornmental factors on bacterial growth and methods of controlling fish spoilage.Reprodcution of Bacteria Suggested Activity . Apply the knowledge acquired in new situations. on bacterial growth. Our aim is to give an idea about bacteria present in fish and fishery products. They have got a basic idea about the micro organisms at school level. In addition. Sub Topic . 66 . Effect of temperature. Points for Discussion Ü During the favourable environmental conditions bactetia multiply by binary fission at a faster rate within a short period. Ü Bacteria produce spores to withstand unfavourable enviornmental conditions. pH.UNIT. Syllabus Structure and growth of bacteria. Curriculum Objectives l l l l To understand the structure of bacteria. On completion of this unit the students get the concept of preventing the bacterial spoilage by altering different enviornmental conditions.
Permanent microscopic slides can also be shown. Ü The shapes of bacteria. Let them recognise the shapes and ask them to classify based on their shape. such as spherical (coccus). Let the students understand the structure and shapes of bacteria by observation.Sub Topic .cold condition. mesophiles and thermophiles. Charts showing the structure and shape of bacteria can be exhibited. pH Students have acquired the concept of acidic pH. Based on this. rod (Bacillus). The students realise that microbes cannot survive without free water in their habitat.Demonstration with Discussion Recall the previous knowledge that gained by the students in lower classes about the structure and shape of bacteia through a discussion. Make them aware of that certain organisms can withstand in the absence of oxygen. normal condition and hot condition.Effect of enviromental factors on bacterial growth Suggested Activity . Ask the students to record labelled diagram and let them prepare notes.Structure and Shape of Bacteria Suggested Activity . conduct a group discussion. Points for discussion Ü How the bacterial cell differs from a typical plant cell.Discussion Salinity Discuss the effect of fresh water on marine organism and saline water on fresh water organisms and lead them to halophilic and halophobic bacteria. Moisture Water is necessary for the existence of life. Based on this. Let the students get aware that most of the bacteria generally live in neutral pH and a few exceptions are inhabiting in acidic pH. Lead them to understand psychrophiles. Temperature Plot a temperature scale on black board ranging from 0 . Spiral (Spirillum) and Coma (Vibrio). neutral pH and alkaline pH in their previous classes. 67 . teacher leads the students to understand about aerobes and anaerobes. Oxygen The students have learned of the necessity of oxygen for living organisms.1000 C. Let the students identify the range of normal atmospheric temprature and help them to divide the whole range into three sections. Sub Topic .
salt curing. Ask them to discuss how to control fish spolage with the knowledge acquired from the effect of enviornmental factors on microbial growth. pH or water content bactaria destroys”. 68 . Classification of Bacteria based on Environmental factors Psychrophiles . Consolidation should be done in order to make the student understand that the conditions prevailing in fish favours the multiplication of bactaria. smoking irradiation and marinading can be employed as methods of fish preservation.Methods of controlling microbial spoilage Suggested Activity . Students should understand that by altering the temperature. salinity. pH and water content. Thus the students must understand that icing. Logarithemic phase.Sub Topic .Group Discussion Students are divided into groups. salt content. Additional skills for discussion should be given as “at which temperature. canning. Each group should not exceed six students. Cell wall is made of mucopeptides 3. Membraneous organels absent Typical Plant Cell Eukaryotic. we can destroy or prevent the growth of bactaria. Prokaryotic (without clear nucleus. Bacillus sp. Additional Points Differences between bacteria and a typical plant cell Bacteria 1.Bacteria which grow at a temperature of 0.Bacterial Growth Suggested Activity .Discussion with Demonstration Using a growth curve chart discuss different phases of bacterial growth such as Lagphase. Stationary phase and Mortality phase. Vibrio cholera Spirillum sp. coli. (with nucleus) Cell wall is made of cellulose Present Examples of different morphological types Coccus Bacillus Coma Spirillum Staphylococcus. Streptococcus Clostridium sp. eg. drying. freezing.200 C with an optimum at 150 C. Psuedomonas. Sub Topic . E. posses only genetic material) 2.
Mortality Phase E 69 . .Bacteria which depends on others for their food. Clostridium sp. eg.370 C.Logarithemic Phase CD . . eg.450 C with an optimum growth at 30 .Stationery Phase DE .5 and below. . eg.Bacteria which grow best in the presence of salt. .Lag Phase BC . Clostridium botulinum. Green sulphur bacteria. . Salmonella typhi.Bacteria which can synthesis their own food material. Growth Curve of Bacteria C D Thermophiles Halophilic Halophobic Acidophiles Aerobic Anaerobic Autotrophs Heterotrophs Number of micro organisms A B Time AB . Serratea salinaria. eg.Bacteria which grow only in the absence of oxygen eg. Pseudomonas.Mesophiles . eg. Achromobacter. eg. eg.Bacteria which survive at a temperature of 20. Lactic acid bacteria.Bacteria which cannot tolerate salt concentrations higher than 6%. . . .Bacteria which grow only in the presence of air. eg.Bacteria which survive at a temperature of 45. Salmonella typhi.Bacteria which can survive at a pH of 4.900 C with an optimum growth at 550 C. Vibrio cholera.
l Understand the methods to prevent fish spoilage Reference Participation in discussion. Presentation of notes Curriculum Objectives l Understand the structure of bacteria l Understand the effect of environmental factors on bacterial growth. . Permanent slides Diagrams Process Skill Activities Materials : 4 Microbiology of Fish Spoilage Evaluation Participation in discussion. Observation Differentiation Communication Drawing Communication Discussion Observation Preparation of notes Demonstration Communication Discussion Obeservation of charts Discussion Labelling diagrams Charts. Temperature Salinity Oxygen Humidity pH Icing Freezing Salt curing Drying etc. l Apply the knowledge acquired in new situations.70 Unit Ideas/ Concepts Structure and shape of bactaria. Presentation of labelled diagrams. Reference Charts/ OHP Participation in discussion.
Salmonella sp. V. Conduct a field visit to a microbiology laboratory and ask them to prepare an assignment with the help of the information collected. To develop skill for identifying the types of food poisioning through their symptoms. Coli and feacal Streptococci. Then divide the whole class into two groups and ask them to collect information about food poisoning from pamphlets published by health department. Some of the micro organisms present in fish and fishery products cause food poisioning and affects public health adversely. Understand the different methods of controlling food poisioning. magazines and news papers. Escherichia coli. Apply the acquired skill in unfamiliar situation. causative organisms. its symptoms and preventive measures. Staphylococcus aureuas. Teacher may consolidate about the food poisoning caused by Salmonella.Field visit. Clostridium botulinum. Syllabus Microbes that cause infection to man. 71 . feacal Streptococci. 5 MICROBES IN PUBLIC HEALTH Introduction Students are aware of food poisoning caused by micro organisms. Assignment Interact with the students about food poisoning caused in there area. Quiz.UNIT. Clostridium botulinum. This unit aims to develop a skill to understand and identify food poisioning.Staphylococcus aureus. Curriculum Objectives l l l l To understand different types of food poisioning caused by the pathogenic bacteria. E. posters. Suggested Activities . Vibrio cholera. cholera.
Ideal process conditions. Symptoms Bacterial Food Poisoning Preventive measures Proper fish handling methods. Chlorination of water. Death may occur due to respiratory failure. Later. head ache. sorting of fish on contaminated beach. vomitting. Chlorination of water. rod shaped. Salmonella Proper fish handling methods. Avoid fishing from near shore waters. motile. Aerobic. inadequate personal hygiene and factory sanitation. gram -ve. tiredness. abdominal pain. handling by potential carriers. Good sanitary practices. Severe fever. uneasiness. rod shaped. weakness. Muscles of neck become fatigued. Ideal process conditions. diarrhoea. dizziness. Avoid potential carriers from handling the fish. constipation occures with difficulty to talk and distrubance in vision. Good sanitary practices. Bacteria Characteristics Clostridium Anaerobic. Contaminated water. head ache. spore forming.72 Additional Points Source of Contamination Sea mud and under processed canned food.spore forming. . Produce a neurotoxin botulin At the beginning diarrhoea. non. gram +ve.
abdominal pain. 73 . coli in fish and fishery products is an indication of faecal contamination. Good sanitary practices. vomitting.Bacteria Poor fish handling practices and personal hygiene. weakness. Maintanance of cool temperature during fish handling and processing. nonspore forming. * Presence of E. * Escherichia coli Aerobic gram -ve. Ideal process conditions. Avoid fishing from near shore waters. Avoid potential carriers from handling the fish. Nausea. coccoid. Avoid potential carriers from handling the fish. Chlorination of water. rod shaped. coli in fish and fishery products is an indication of faecal contamination. Proper fish handling methods. Chlorination of water. Presence of E. Ideal process conditions. Bloody diarrhoea followed by kidney failure. Poor fish handling practices and personal hygiene. abnormal blood pressure. Good sanitary practices. Characteristics Source of Contamination Symptoms Preventive measures Proper fish handling methods. non spore forming. diarrhoea. Staphylococcus Aerobic gram +ve. non motile.
Ideal process conditions. motile. Dehydration. gram -ve. Avoid potential carriers from handling the fish. non.spore forming. . handling by potential carriers. comma shaped. inadequate personal hygiene and factory sanitation. Good sanitary practices. profuse diarrhoea with abdominal cramps. vomitting. Chlorination of water. Contaminated water. Avoid fishing from near shore waters. Vibrio cholera Aerobic. Nausea. sorting of fish on contaminated beach.74 Bacteria Characteristics Source of Contamination Symptoms Preventive measures Proper fish handling methods.
72 2 .7 days 2 .5 days Escherichia coli (Infection and toxin) Vibrio (Infection) 12 .8 months 1 .incubation period and duration of illness Causes of Poisoning Salmonella (Infection) Staphylococcus aureus (Food intoxication) Clostridium botulinum (Food intoxication) Incubation Period (hrs) 6 to 36 2 to 6 12 to 96 Duration of illeness 1 to 7 days 6 to 24 hrs. Death in 24 hrs to 8 days or slow convalescence over 6 .48 75 .Bacterial Food poisoning .
cholera C. l Develop skill for identifying the type of food poisoning through their symptoms. V. l Apply the acquired skill in unfamiliar situations. Journals Magazines Internet Process Skill Activities Materials : 5 Microbiology of Fish Spoilage Evaluation Presentation Interest. botulinum Diarrhoea Vomitting Headache Stomachache Proper fish handling Sanitation Chlorination Observation Collection of Reference Communication information. Participation Presentation l Understand the different methods of controlling food poisoning. Presentation of notes. Identification Observation Collection Communication of informations. Curriculum Objectives l Understand different types of food poisoning caused by the pathogenic bacteria. Microbial Staphylococcus Communication colonies. coli Identification Field trips. .76 Unit Ideas/ Concepts Salmonella Observation Assignments Reference E.
To identify different types of ice. and use of different chilling methods to keep the fish fresh. Chlorination of water. Syllabus Hygienic handling of fish on board fishing vessel and on shore. when the completion of this unit. To understand the process of ice manufacture. To understand the different methods of icing.UNIT. The students should acquire skills to handle the fish hygienically. Quality of water to be used in fish processing. Curriculum Objectives l l l l l l l l l l l l To understand the hygienic handling of fish and prawn on board fishing vessel and on shore. Refrigerated sea water for fish preservation. To develop skill for chlorinating water. To understand the significance of quality of ice and water to be used in fish processing. To develop the skill for fish handling. This unit aims to get an awareness about the importance of hygienic handling practices. To understand the principle of chilling. 77 . Quality of ice. To understand the use of Refrigerated Sea Water (RSW) and Chilled Sea Water (CSW) for fish storage. This unit also describes the use of chlorine for disinfection in various stages of processing to reduce the bacterial load considerably. transportation and processing of fish. because it determines the quality of the final product. 6 FISH HANDLING Introduction Fishing Industry has given great importance for hygienic handling of fish on board and on shore. To develop the skill for icing the fish. To develop the steps in the preparation of fish for processing. Use of ice for handling. To understand the need for chlorination of water in fish processing. Manufacture and storage of ice.
boxing. Matsyafed box. on the basis of this a discussion can be arranged. Advantages of Chlorination Sub Topic. 4 .block ice and flake ice. Ask the students to acquire the skill for proper hygienic fish handling on board and on shore. 78 . Sub Topic. beheading.Hygienic handling of Fish on board and on shore Field visit and discussion Sub Topic.Demonstration Using charts/LCD/OHP discuss the structure and working of RSW and CSW and its advantages and disadvantages. 3 Chlorination of Water Suggested Activities . splitting. To familarise them with hygienic handling practices conduct a field visit to a nearby fishing harbour and a pre. shelving. On the basis of discussion teacher should consolidate the bactaricidal property of chlorine. Points for discussion Icing methods. Types of ice.Discussion Conduct a discussion about the use of bleaching powder on the purification of water. Bactericidal property of chlorine. On the basis of field visit prepare a report and arrange a group discussion. 1 Suggested Activities - Students have already learned the need for hygienic handling practices.l l To familiarise the different equipments in fish processing industry. bleeding. 2. filleting. Points for discussion Washing. storing and transport. They can also collect details group wise. Apply the acquired skills to new situations. Insulated containers. Manufacture of block ice.bulking. Use of chlorinated water in fish handling.Plastic box. Points for discussion 1. Sub Topic. thermocol box. gutting.processing centre. sorting. icing.Refrigerated Sea Water(RSW) Suggested Activities . . 2 Manufacture and storage of Ice Field visit Suggested Activities - Conduct a field visit to nearby ice plant and familiarise with the manufacturing process of ice. 3. MPEDA box.
Sanitory operations Participation in discussion. Field visit. Discussion. Process Skill Activities Materials : 6 Fish Handling Evaluation Curriculum Objectives l Understand the hygienic handling of fish hygenic handling on and prawn onboard and on shore. References Ice plant Participation Participation Interest Observation Field visit. Communication Discussion Observation Field visit. l Understand the steps in the preparation of fish for processing. Discussion. Specimen Field visit report. Filleting.Unit Ideas/ Concepts Observation Discussion. Chilling. board and on shore. Splitting. l Develop a skill for fish handling Beheading. Participation in discussion. Fishing vessel. l Understand the principle of chilling l Understand the process of ice manufacture Ice manufacture 79 . Gutting. Interset in field visit.
the fish.80 Curriculum Objectives Bulking Shelving Boxing. Sodium hypochlorite. l Understand need for chlorination of water in fish processing. Flake ice Potable water Observation Bactericidal property of chlorine. . Ice Acquired concept. Fish storage Observation Demonstration Discussion Charts OHP LCD Participation in discussion. l Understand the significance of quality of ice and water. Participation Bleaching Participation powder. in discussion. l Develop skills for icing. Experiments Discussion Ice and water. l Identify different types of ice. l Develop skills for chlorinating water. l To understand the use of Refrigerated seas water (RSW) and chilled sea water (CSW) for fish storage. Observation Block ice Observation Field visit. Communication Discussion Ice Ideas/ Concepts Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation Participation l Understand different methods of icing.
Curriculum Objectives General awareness Observation Field visit Equipments Ideas/ Concepts Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation Participation Interest l Familiarise the different equipments in fish processing industry. l Apply the acquired skills in new situations. 81 .
different steps involved in the freezing of fishery products and helps to develop skills for selecting suitable freezing techniques. To develop a skill to differentiate slow freezing and quick freezing. To understand the terms related to freezing. To understand different product styles of cephalopods and fishes. 7 FREEZING Introduction Freezing is basically the removal of heat from a substance until it attains sub zero temperatures and assumes a hard consistancy by the solidification of its water content. To develop a skill to differentiate freezing and chilling. This unit deals with the principle of freezing.UNIT. Different freezing methods. To familiarise with different steps in freezing. Slow freezing Vs Quick freezing Double freezing Post freezing treatment Curriculum Objectives l l l l l l l l l l To understand refrigeration and different types of refrigerants. To understand different freezing methods. Syllabus Principles involved in freezing of fish. From this unit the student learns the fact that microbes are inactivated or destroyed due to the solidification of free water and the enzymes are denatured due to the lowering of temperature. freezing of fishery products and the steps involved. To apply the acquired skills in new situations. 82 . To understand the concept of freezing as a preservative method. A thorough knowledge on different types of freezing techniques is also essential to adopt appropriate methods in accordance with consumer demand. To understand the factors affecting freezing rate.
cold storing and shipment. minced.Whole gutted. lobster tail. Different freezing methods such as Block freezing. size grading. steaks. drip loss.Whole. Points for discussion Ü Ü Ü Ü Ü Ü Ü Ü Ü Ü Principles of Refrigeration Different types of refrigerants . weighing. Cuttle fish . loins. cryogenic freezing. Crab . Thawing. Factors affecting freezing rate such as freezing temperature. different product styles and refrigeration system. squid tentacles.Suggested Activities . whole gutted. Whole cleaned. Freon. Mention product styles.Whole. Group discussion Students are divided into various groups and each group does not exceed six students. Individual Quick Freezing (IQF).Whole. carton freezing. Thermal arrest period. freezing curve. freezing. Effects of freezing on enzymes. Raw material preparation. Squid . re. cooked. packing and labelling. thermal conductivity of packaging material. Fish . Ask them to discuss why the food products kept in the freezer is not get spoiled easily and lead them to understand how the enzymatic spoilage and microbial spoilage are controlled by freezing.Ammonia. Freezing time. setting. Fillets. Thaw rigor. squid fillets.squid rings. roe. glazing. Freezing Curve 83 . wings.glazing. tentacles. Freezing point. squid wings. Cut crab.Whole. zone of maximum crystallisation. Liquid nitrogen and Dry ice.Field visit Visit a freezing plant and familiarise with different steps in freezing. microbes and rancidity. Thaw drip. Slow freezing and quick freezing. crab meat Lobster . fillets. washing. product thickness. double freezing. Octopus . Ask the students to prepare a report based on the visit and show flow charts for the different stages of frozen fish products. vacuum freezing.
Curriculum Objectives l Understand refrigeration and different types of refrigerants. l Understand the concept of freezing as a preservative method. vacuum and cryogenic freezing Comparison Field visit Communication Discussion Preparation of reports Field visit Discussion Preparation of a report. Prevention of Comparison microbial Communication and enzymatic spoilage Reduction in rate of rancidity. IQF.84 Unit Ideas/ Concepts Principle of refrigeration. Observation Field visit Communication Discussion Preparation of report Reference Process Skill Activities Materials : 7 Freezing Evaluation Participation in discussion Presentation of reports. double. Presentation of reports. Observation Field visit Reference Communication Discussion Preparation of a report Participation in discussion. Presentation of reports. Reference Participating in discussion. Short term storage and long term storage. Presentation of reports. l Develop skills to differentiate freezing and chilling. . l Understand freezing methods. Reference Participation in dicussion. Different refrigerants. carton. Block.
Observation Feild visit Reference Communication Discussion Preparation of reports. l Apply the acquired skills in unfamiliar situation. Participation in discussion l Familiarise with steps in freezing.Curriculum Objectives Different product styles. Various steps in freezing Observation Field visit Reference Communication Discussion Preparation of report. 85 . Temperature Thickness of product. Ideas/ Concepts Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation Participation in discussion Presentation of reports. l To understand the factors affecting freezing rate. Thermal conductivity of packaging material. l Understand product style of cephalopods and fishes. Observation Communication Discussion Reference Participation in discussion Presentation of reports.
l To understand slow and quick freezing. Reference Participation in discussion .86 Curriculum Objectives Freezing point Maximum zone of crystalisation Thermal arrest period Freezing time. Slow activities Observation Discussion Communication Observation Discussion Communication Reference Ideas/ Concepts Process Skill Activities Materials Evaluation Participation in discussion l To understand the terms related to freezing. Freezing curve.
so that a comparison may be drawn among them. Points for Discussion Discuss about the structure and operation of different types of freezers such as Plate freezers. OHP and models. Suggested Activities .General discussion with Demonstration and Field visit Teacher can explain different types of freezers with the help of charts. Teacher may guide the students to attain the curriculum objectives through discussion and seminar. 8 FREEZERS Introduction Several types of freezers are used in seafood industry for freezing of fish. 87 . Spray freezers and their merits and demerits. Air blast freezers. Fluidised bed freezers. Drum freezers. In order to get more ideas about freezers a class seminar may be arranged. Immersion freezers. Syllabus Airblast freezers Contact plate freezers Spray and Immersion freezers Other types of freezers Freezing time and freezer operating temperatures Curriculum Objectives l To familiarise with common types of freezers.UNIT. A trip can be arranged to a nearby freezing plant to familiarise with the structure and operations of different freezers. During this process of learning the students realise how to select a type of freezer for a specific head. We also intend to classify freezers based on freezing techniques. An assignment will be given to the students based on the field trip. In this unit we are going to familiarise different types of freezers and their working.
.88 Unit Ideas/ Concepts Structure Operation Freezing time Freezing temperature Refrigerant. Observation Field visit Communication Discussion Seminar Assignment Freezers References Process Skill Activities Materials : 8 Freezers Evaluation Interest Presentation of seminar Participation in discussion Preparation and Presentation of assignment Curriculum Objectives l Familiarise with common types of freezers.
Using flow charts.CPD and Fantail. freezing. Points for Discussion Ü Ü Ü Different steps. PD. photographs and video shows discuss with the students about different styles of frozen shrimp products. 89 . filling. PUD. Suggested Activities . Samples and Video show Students have previous knowledge in the freezing of fish. packing cold storage and shipment. Teacher can also depend on visual media in connection with shrimp processing to familiarise the different steps comprehensively.UNIT.Whole. glazing. Product styles. Curriculum Objectives l l To develop skills in preparing different product styles of prawns. Here an attempt has been made to make the students understand about different steps in freezing of shrimps and its’ product styles. HL. Likewise the students should get an awareness about the method of freezing of shrimp also.PD. reglazing. Based on this students may be asked to evaluate different product styles and prepare a report. Teacher can introduce additional steps involved in freezing of shrimps through a general discussion with the help of a flow chart showing important steps in freezing.Raw material preparation. HL.Discussion with the help of Charts. CPD. To develop skills for the freezing of shrimps. Syllabus How to make good frozen products Freezing of shrimps in different styles like whole.PUD. IQF products and Block frozen prawn products. 9 FREEZING OF SHRIMPS Introduction Students have already learned that freezing is one of the methods of fish preservation by lowering the temperature. grading. Block and IQF products. weighing.
.glazing. l Develop skills for the freezing of shrimp Interest Participation Field report. Flow charts Participation Preparation Samples Visualmedia of notes and flow charts. packing clod storage Observation Field visit Communication Discussion Shrimp Observation Discussion Communication Process Skill Activities Materials : 9 Freezing of Shrimps Evaluation Curriculum Objectives l Develop skills in preparing different product style. re. glazing. weighing filling.90 Unit Ideas/ Concepts Whole HL PD PUD CPD Block IQF products Raw material preparation grading. freezing.
In addition to this the pupils are asked to draw the diagramatic representation of the cold store. Points for Discussion Ü Ü Ü Principle and concept of cold storage. 10 COLD STORAGE Introduction It is necessary to keep frozen products in cold condition until it is delivered to the consumer. They should also acquire the skills to select appropriate type of cold store. The students should get the concept and functions of cold store when the completion of unit. Syllabus Types of cold store Curriculum Objectives l l To understand the functions of a cold storage To understand different types of cold storage Suggested Activities . Cold store temperature and its fluctuation Different types of cold storage.UNIT. Charts. 91 .Jacketed type. finned type and unit cooler type. A general discussion can be conducted based on different types of cold stores and its operations. The students should be made aware of the fact that cold store provides such a condition. models and multimedia tools can be used for introducing different types of cold stores.Field Visit and Discussion Arrange a visit to a cold store and ask the students to note down the various activities taking place there.
Jacketed type Finned type Unit cooler type.92 Unit Ideas/ Concepts Principle Observation Field visit Communication Discussion Drawings Process Skill Activities Materials : 10 Cold Store Evaluation Curriculum Objectives l Understand the functions of a cold store. . Observation Field visit Communication Discussion Charts Models Reference Participation Preparation of notes. Preparation Charts of notes Models Multimedia l Understand different types of cold store.
quality of the product. Points for discussion Ü Differentiate chilled storage and frozen storage based on main points like storage temperature. 11 STORAGE. This unit helps the students to understand different types of fish storage. nature of product to be stored etc. Syllabus Chilled storage Frozen storage Change in fish muscle during frozen storage Curriculum Objectives l l l To understand the chilled storage and frozen storage To understand fish transportation and distribution To understand the changes in fish muscle during freezing and in the cold storage. live fish transportation and the concept of cold chain. conduct a group discussion on different types of fish transport and distribution system.2 . 93 .Field Trip A field trip can be arranged to a frozen storage and cold storage and asks the students to conduct a comparative study and prepare a report.Transport and Distribution Suggested Activities .UNIT. Collect information from each group about locally available fish distribution system.1 . Sub Topic.Storage Suggested Activities . transport and distribution. Sub Topic. TRANSPORT AND DISTRIBUTION Introduction The students are familiar with the concept of storage.Group discussion Using pictures of fish transporting vehicles and video casettes of fish distribution.
Points for discussion
Various types of fish transport systems.
Additional Points - Cold chain Cold chain is the scientific and systematic distribution of frozen fish in the interior market by refrigerated vans, refrigerated railwagons etc. Sub Topic- 3 - Changes in Fish muscle during freezing and in the cold storage. Suggested Activities - Discussion Discuss the points such as ice crystal formation, shrinkage, driploss, organoleptic changes, freezer burn, texture, protein denaturation, nutritional changes, enzyme denaturation, declaining of bacterial load, discolouration.
Ideas/ Concepts Storage temperature Quality of the product, Nature of the product to be stored. Observation Discussion Communication Observation Field trip Communication Discussion Comparison Reference Process Skill Activities Materials
: 11 Storage, Transport and Distribution
Evaluation Field report. Participation in discussion.
Understand the chilled storage and frozen storage.
Understand fish transportation and distribution.
Participation Pictures, cassets and in discussion videos of transporting vehicles References Participation in discussion
Understand the changes of fish muscle during freezing and in the cold storage.
Ice crystal formation Shrinkage Drip loss Organoleptic changes Freezer burn Texture Protein denaturation.
Observation Discussion Communication
LAYOUT OF PROCESSING PLANTS
Like any other industry fish processing plants also need proper layout for smooth functioning. This unit introduces various aspects to be considered while preparing a layout for the installation of a processing plant.
Site, building, water supply, equipments and clothing
To get an awareness about the minimum infrastructural facilities required for a fish processing plant.
Students have already visited fish processing plants. Hence a discussion can be conducted about minimum infrastructural facilities by using a standard layout of a processing plant.
Points for discussion
Mention chute, raw material receiving room, chill room, processing hall, working table and utensiles, freezers, cold storage, machinery, ventillation, measures for controlling flies and animals, lighting, potable water and ice, toilet facilities, laboratory etc.
Water supply and electricity. cold store.Unit Ideas/ Concepts Chute. processing hall. raw material receiving room. processing table and utensils. Communication Discussion Reference Process Skill Activities Materials : 12 Layout of Processing Plants Evaluation Participation in discussion Curriculum Objectives l Understand minimum infrastructural facilities required for a processing plant. 97 . chill room. freezers.
ventillation. microbiology and product quality. Syllabus Building. They have also got a general idea about the need for hygiene and sanitaion for healthy enviornment.Chlorination of Water 98 . The concentration of chlorine to be used at different stages of sanitation. pest control.UNIT. Points for discussion Ü Ü Ü Mention about the significance of sanitation on consumer’s point of view. medical check up on workers and waste disposal. public health. maintenance of proper drainage. fumigation. This chapter aims to make them understand how proper hygiene and sanitation can be acquired. To apply the acquired knowledge in new situations. Processing water Floor washing Hand dip Foot dip Processing table and Utensils Glaze water 5 ppm 100 ppm 20 ppm 100 ppm 50 ppm Below 2 ppm Additional Points . equipment and staff sanitation Maintanace of Quality control Curriculum Objectives l l l l To understand the details about factory hygiene and sanitation. toilet facilities. building sanitation. Sanitation practices such as personnel hygiene.Discussion A discussion can be conducted about factory sanitation and presonal hygiene based on their previous knowledge acquired from the visit at the processing plant. To develop skills to maintain personal hygiene and sanitation. sanitation of utensils and equipments. 13 FACTORY HYGIENE AND SANITATION Introduction The students have learned the role of microbes in fish spoilage and the importance of proper hygiene and sanitation to prevent microbial contamination in sea food. Suggested Activities . To understand the significance of sanitation in sea food industry.
Reference Participation in discussion l Develop skills to maintain personal hygiene and sanitation Communication Discussion Chlorinated Participation in discussion water.Unit Ideas/ Concepts Prevention of Communication Discussion Microbial contamination Product quality. Communication Discussion Reference Process Skill Activities Materials : 13 Factory Hygiene and Sanitation Evaluation Participation in discussion Curriculum Objectives l Understand the details about factory hygiene and sanitation. l Apply the acquired knowledge in new situations 99 . l Understand the significance of sanitation in seafood industry. public health Hygienic practices.
its importance. wood. Conduct debates on merits and demerits of different types of packaging materials.UNIT. corrugated fibre boards and plastics (HDPE. paper boards. MLF. types of packaging materials and modern trends in packaging. Mention different packing materials . 14 MODERN PACKING METHODS Introduction A product should be supplied to the consumer in the most appropriate form. Points for discussion Ü Ü Ü The concept of packing and its importance in sea food. For this. To develop skills for identifying and applying different types of packing materials.Collection and Debate Ask the students to collect different types of packaging materials used for packing fishery products. modified atmospheric packing. Suggested Activities . To understand recent trends in packaging. Packaging methods conserve and preserve all the qualities of the product in good condition. cellophane. In this unit an attempt has been made to make the students understand the concept of packing. glass. Teacher may consolidate important points of debate such as suitable packaging materials for each fishery product. vacuum packing and retortable pouch. packaging is an essential thing. paper.PCB.Metals. 100 . Syllabus Choice of packing materials Types of modern packaging Curriculum Objectives l l l l l To understand the concept of packing and its importance To familiarise with different types of packaging materials. LDPE) Mention about recent trends in packing. To apply the knowledge in new situations. which product can be packed in a particular packing material and recent trends in packing.
Metals. Observation corrugated fibre boards and plastics. glass. Communication Debate paper boards. PCB. Cellophane. paper. Modified atmospheric packaging Vacuum packing Observation Comparison Collection Debate Discussion Packing materials Reference Interest in collection Participation in debates l Familiarise with different types of packing materials. Collection Collection wood. l Understand recent trends in packaging Packing material Reference Interest in collection Participation l Apply the knowledge in new situations l Develop skills for identifying and applying different types of packing material.Unit Ideas/ Concepts Process Skill Activities Materials : 14 Modern Packing Methods Evaluation Curriculum Objectives l Understand the concept of packing and its importance. MLF. 101 . Laminates.
affected by food poisoning. Why? The bactarial load of fish kept in cold condition is lower than that of ambient temperature. What is your explanation? The buyer of an industry regularly complaints that the raw materials he received from the supplier is highly contaminated. 8. 9. Which are the symptoms you observe in them? Can you infer which bacteria caused it? Suppose you have visited a peeling shed. A doctor asked the parents of a child. who has the deficiency of protein. 4. 7. 5. Can you say what are the possible deficiencies that patient may have and why did the doctor prescribe shark liver oil? How can you help a customer to seperate fresh fish from spoiled one? Oil which is kept in an open bottle for a few days produces foul smell. What are your suggestions? Match the following A Plate freezer Air blast freezer Spray freezer Cryogenic freezer B Liquid nitrogen Freon. You noticed that the workers are using tap water for sanitation purpose.SAMPLE QUESTIONS 1. 102 . 6. A tourist party. 2. who consume a canned fish product. to give more fish. who has a deficiency disease.12 Cooled air Super cooled brine 3. Can you help the fisherman and the supplier to provide good quality raw material. Can you explain why? A doctor prescribed shark liver oil to a patient.
Oil sardine Ribbon fish Shark Seer Carangids Silver belly Pelagic/Demersal Fatty/Semifatty/Lean Fatty Demersal 11. Bony skeleton Four pairs of gills Heterocercal caudal fin Ventral mouth b. Rancidity is fat) 13. oxidation of 12. Does he take any precautions. Placoid scales d. death stiffness. Cycloid scale (Self digestion. Number of micro organism A B E C D The graph shows the growth of bactaria. AB CD BC DE X axis Stationary phase 103 . Cartilageneous skeleton f. Suppose a processor bought heavily feeded fishes from the landing center. Seperate the character of an elasmobranch from the following. g. c e. Why? 14.10. Complete the following. a.
Topics for Second term m Food poisoning through fish and fishery products. Different types of containers used for the storage and transportation of fish and fishery produts in your area. During the auction the iced fish fetch more price than the other. m Different product styles of fish/ shrimps/cephalopods etc. m Problems faced by a pre. Different types of packaging materials for fish and fishery products. What is your explanation for it? 16. duration of freezing. Hygiene and sanitation practised in a hospital in your locality. Topics for Third term m Various types of cold storage. large ice crystals are found.15. temperature and type of freezing techinque employed? SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR ASSIGNMENT Prepare one Assignment in each term Topics for First term m Fishery resources of a nearby fish landing centre. On analysis of a frozen prodcut. Can you evaluate the quality.processing centre/ peeling shed. m Importance of fish in human diet. A boat man kept a part of his catch in ice and the remaining part without ice. 104 . m Fishing methods employed in your area. m m m m Transportation and distribution of fresh fish in and around your area.
C. Quality problems in iced fish storage. local landing centres and harbours) Requirements on to start a pre. Each group prepares one seminar topic. ‘Chakara’. P. Landings of economically important species of fishes. T.processing plant. intestine and flesh of three different species of fish.a bloom to fisher folk. of gills. For this the whole class is divided in to 4 . P. T. m m m m m Problems faced by traditional fishermen to keep the fish in fresh condition. of same species of fish collected from different centres (Market.5 groups. Each group should be given different topic for seminar. C. One representative from each group presents their topic and as a result all students share all the topics. Constraints faced by freezing plants to ensure quality. Impact of ‘Trawl Ban’- SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR PROJECTS Conduct only one project in a year m m m m m Analyse the content of moisture present in different fish species. 105 . prawns and cephalopods within 5 Kms of nearby coastal area.SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR SEMINAR Conduct only one seminar in a year.
yahoo.com/science/agriculture/aquaculture/ fisheries/institutes/college_ and _university/_departments http:/www. D.htm/. I.V and K. K. K Balachandran Fish Processing Technology - Internet Sites firstname.lastname@example.org/fishelp/info. 1961 CIFT Srivasthava CIFT Fish as Food Vol. Virabhadran K. II and III Quality control Assessment Text book of Fisheries Science and Indian Fishes - Summer Institute on Fish Processing Technology Microbiology Marine Fisheries of India - Bal. 106 .webscope.sunet.REFERENCE Fish Processing Technology Fish and Fisheries of India T. Govindan Jhingran Borgstrom.se http://dir.
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