Types of Samples Sampling Design

 M. Burgman & J. Carey 2002

• Point samples (including neighbour distance samples) • Transects line intercept sampling line intersect sampling belt transects • Plots circular, square, rectangular plots quadrats nested quadrats • Permanent or temporary sites

Arrangement of Samples
• • • • Subjective (Haphazard, Judgement) Systematic Sampling Search Sampling Probability Sampling
– Random: – Multistage – Cluster – Multiphase: PPS/PPP Simple Stratified (restricted)

Systematic Sampling
Samples are selected systematically according to a pre-determined plan. e.g. grid samples • • • • • evaluation of spatial patterns simplicity of site location (cost) guaranteed coverage of an area representation of management units facilitation of mapping


• Variable Probability Sampling

Systematic Sampling
• If the ordering of units in a population is random, any predesignated positions will be a simple random sample. • Bias may be introduced if there is a spatial pattern in the population. • Formulae for random samples may not be applicable.

Assumptions of Systematic Sampling
Assumptions • no spatial or temporal trends in the variable • no natural strata • no correlations among individual samples Given these assumptions, a systematic sample will, on average, estimate the true mean with the same precision as a simple random sample or a stratified random sample of the same size.

to minimize variance: ni = CLmean = xall ± sx t[α. and ni is the number of sampling units in the ith stratum. sx is the standard error of the mean within the ith stratum.x)2 i=1 Stratified Random Sampling mean m Stratified Random Sampling standard error of overall mean xall = Σ pi xi i=1 sx = all where m = number of strata. Each stratum is sampled independently. Simple random sampling is employed within strata. n-1]) all where A = total number of units over all strata (e. pi = Ai / A √ i=1 Σ pi2 m s2 = ni √ Σ Ai2 sx 2 A2 i where Ai is the area of a stratum.g. and pi = proportion of the total made up by the ith stratum.Simple Random Sampling • sample mean (unbiased estimate of µ) 1 n n Stratified Random Sampling A population is classified into a number of strata. x= i=1 Σ xi • sample variance (unbiased estimate of σ2) 1 n s2 = n-1 Σ (xi . A is the total area.g. administration. n-1] all confidence limits for the whole population CLpop = A (xall ± sx t[α. • fewer samples are required to obtain a given level of precision • independent sampling of strata is useful for management. when xall has been calculated per m2) [ ] Ai si. i Stratified Random Sampling confidence limits for the mean Allocation of Samples proportional to area: A ni = pi N = Ai N where pi = proportion of total area in stratum i. N = total number of samples. total area in m2. e. and mapping. Σ Ai si N where si = standard deviation in stratum i . and ni = number of samples allocated to stratum i.

each cluster is subsampled) Multistage Sampling The division of a population into primary sampling units.e.Random Sampling within Blocks Combination of systematic and random sampling. and all units within the chosen clusters are measured. Cluster Sampling Examples: schools of fish clumps of plants leaves on eucalypt trees pollen grains in soil core samples vertebrates in quadrat samples • Two-stage cluster sampling: clusters are selected. the population mean of a multi-stage sample is given by the arithmetic mean of the nm measurements xij: 1 n m 1 n x = nm Σ Σ xij = i=1 j=1 n Σ xi i=1 where xi = 1 m m Σx j=1 ij is the mean of the m selected subunits in the ith primary unit . • The m elements of the second-stage sample are concentrated within n first-stage samples. or because of sampling methods. • Each first-stage unit is subdivided into M secondstage units. together with some protection from bias. stratification. • A second-stage sample of m of these is selected randomly. and efficiency. Motivations include access. either naturally. and a sample is taken from each cluster (i. providing a hierarchical subdivision of sampling units. • Useful when population units cluster together. Gives coverage of an area. Multistage Sampling Statistics When the primary units are of equal size. Each of those selected is further subdivided into secondary sampling units. only some of which are sampled. Procedure for Multistage Sampling • A study area (or a population) is partitioned into N large units (termed first-stage or primary units) • A first-stage sample of n of these is selected randomly. Cluster Sampling • Clusters of individuals are chosen at random.

using the relationship between the measurements made with both techniques. and for including costs in the sample allocation protocol. the total amount of a pollutant). where n ⊂ n'). for estimating variances.g. • Use the easiest (and least accurate) method to measure all samples (n' samples). • Correct the relatively inaccurate measurements. Sampling Methods revisited simple random sampling stratified random sampling stratum two-stage sampling cluster sampling systematic sampling random sampling within segments 1° unit 2° units cluster Double Sampling (multiphase sampling) When two or more techniques are available to measure a variable.Multistage Sampling To estimate the total amount I of the measured variable (e. Multistage Sampling When the primary units are of unequal size. double sampling may improve the efficiency of the measurement protocol. Double Sampling Examples • GIS interpretation • Chemical assays • Wildlife surveys • Inventories • Monitoring plots . • Use the more accurate technique to measure a relatively small proportion of samples (n samples.Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring) provides formulae for allocating samples among sampling units. the population mean of a multi-stage sample is given by I=NMx and sI2 = (N M)2sx2 x= Σ Mi xi i=1 n i=1 n Σ Mi 1 mi where xi = m Σ xij j=1 Multistage Sampling The total amount of the variable is given by Nn I = n Σ Mi xi i=1 Gilbert (1987 .

1987) • CA (1 + √1 .240Pu 20000 y = 22112 + 18. and Example of Double Sampling Contaminated soil at a nuclear weapons test facility in Nevada (Gilbert 1987) 30000 (nCi/m2) 239.998 10000 ρ is the correlation coefficient between the methods.ρ2)2 CI > ρ2 where CA is the cost of an accurate measurement.06 (x . 1000 241Am 2000 (nCi/m2) .Double Sampling Double sampling will be more efficient than simple random sampling if • the underlying relationship between the methods is linear • optimum values of n and n' are used (Gilbert.1051.8) ρ = 0. CI is the cost of an inaccurate measurement.

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