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Geometry

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Lines In n-Space

2.3. Some Simple Properties Of Straight Lines In Rn

2.4. Lines And Vector-Valued Functions In n-Space

2.5. Lines In 3-Space And In 2-Space

2.6. Exercises

2.7. Planes In Euclidean n-Space

2.8. Planes And Vector-Valued Functions

2.9. Exercises

2.10. The Cross Product Of Two Vectors In R3

2.11. The Cross Product Expressed As A Determinant

2.12. Exercises

2.13. The Scalar Triple Product

2.14. Cramer's Rule For Solving A System Of Three Linear Equations

2.15. Exercises

2.16. Normal Vectors To Planes In R3

2.17. Linear Cartesian Equations For Planes In R3

2.18. Exercises

2.19. The Conic Sections

2.20. Eccentricity Of Conic Sections

2.21. Polar Equations For Conic Sections

2.22. Exercises

2.23. Cartesian Equation For A General Conic

2.24. Conic Sections Symmetric About The Origin

2.25. Cartesian Equations For The Ellipse And The Hyperbola

2.26. Cartesian Equations For The Parabola

2.27. Exercises

2.28. Miscellaneous Exercises On Conic Sections

2.2. Lines In n-Space

Rn is an analytic model of n-D Euclidean space En. Thus, the geometric concepts

and properties of En are expressed in terms of n-tuples of real numbers in Rn.

Definition (Point)

A point is a vector (n-tuple) in Rn.

Definition (Line)

Let P be a point and A a non-zero vector.

A line through P and parallel to A is the set of points

L P; A P tA : t R P tA

Properties

2.3. Some Simple Properties Of Straight Lines In Rn

Definition (Parallelism of Vectors)

Two vectors A and B are parallel iff A B for some R .

Theorem 2.1

Proof of

Hence, A B where R . That is, A and B are parallel.

Proof of

Q P tA P t B P B where t R

Hence, L P; A L P; B .

Given a line L and a point Q not on L, there is one and only one line L' through Q and

parallel to L.

Proof

If P Q , there is 1 and only 1 line containing both P and Q.

Proof

Let L' be another line that goes through both P and Q. Since L' goes through P, we

have L ' L P; A for some nonzero A. Now, L' also goes through Q so that

Example

From theoem 2.4, we see that Q is on L P, A iff A and QP are parallel, i.e.,

Q P A.

Two vectors A, B R n are linearly dependent iff they lie on the same line through

the origin.

Proof

If both are nonzero, they are dependent iff B A for some R .

2.4. Lines And Vector-Valued Functions In n-Space

The line L P; A can be considered as the track of a moving particle with position X

at time t given by

X t P tA (2.1)

X : R L P, A R n and t X t

The scalar t is often called a parameter and (2.1) a vector parametric equation, or

Consider a line passing through points P and Q. By theorem 2.4, it can be written as

X t P t Q P 1 t P tQ

Note that X a X b

1 a P aQ 1 b P bQ

i.e., a b Q P 0

which means a b since Q P A 0 . Hence, 2 points on the line are distinct

iff their parameters are distinct.

and X b if a c b or b c a .

A pair of points P and Q are congruent to another pair P' and Q' if

2.5. Lines In 3-Space And In 2-Space

Consider eq(2.1) for the case of 3-space.

x p ta y q tb z r tc (2.2)

which are known as scalar parametric equations, or simply, parametric equations,

for the line.

For 2-space, only the 1st two equations in (2.2) are required. The parameter t can

then be eliminated to give

x p yq

b x p a y q 0 (2.3)

a b

which is called a Cartesian equation for the line. Provided a 0 , we can put it in

the point-slope form,

b

yq x p

a

b

where the point p, q and slope are easily discerned.

a

Eq(2.3) can also be written in terms of dot products, namely,

N X P 0

Theorem 2.6

PN

Let L be a line in R2 given by N X P 0 and let d .

N

Then X d X L.

PN

X N

N N

Proof

N P N X X X N N X N

PN

X d

N

PN

N N P N Q.E.D.

N N

Corollary

Let Q be a point not on L, then

P Q N

X Q d X L

N

where the equality applies iff X Q is the projection of P Q and d is called the

distance of Q to L.

2.7. Planes In Euclidean n-Space

Since 2 lines define a plane, the linear span L A, B is a plane defined by the lines

L 0, A and L 0, B . To make the plane pass through a point P, one needs only to

Definition: Plane in Rn

A set M of points is called a plane if there exists a point P and 2 L.I. vectors A and B

such that

M P sA tB | s, t R

Theorem 2.7

Two planes M P sA tB and M ' P sC tD through the same point P

Proof

Conversely, if M M ' , then for any given s and t, there exist s' and t' such that

P sA tB P s ' C t ' D sA tB s ' C t ' D

i.e., L A, B L C , D . Q.E.D.

Theorem 2.8

Proof

Definition: Parallelism

Theorem 2.9

Given a point Q not on plane M, there is one and only one plane M' that contains Q

and parallel to M.

Proof

Theorem 2.10

Let P, Q, R be 3 points not on the same line. There is one and only one plane M

containing these 3 points. Furthermore,

M P s Q P t R P (2.4)

Proof

Theorem 2.11

3 vectors A, B, C are L.I. iff they lie on the same plane through O.

Proof

2.8. Planes And Vector-Valued Functions

X : R2 M

s, t X s, t P sA tB (2.6)

where X is called a vectored valued function of 2 real variables. The scalars s and t

are called parameters and eq(2.6) is called a parametric, or vector, equation of the

plane. For vectors in Rn, eq(2.6) represents n scalar equations. Taking as example

the case R3 and write

P p1 , p2 , p3 A a1 , a2 , a3 B b1 , b2 , b3 X x, y , z

we have

x p1 sa1 tb1 y p2 sa2 tb2 z p3 sa3 tb3

Eliminating s and t gives a linear equation of the form

ax by cz d

known as the Cartesian equation of the plane.

Example

Let M P sA tB with P 1, 2,3 , A 1, 2,1 and B 1, 4, 1 .

x 1 s t y 2 2 s 4t z 3 s t

To obtain the Cartesian equation, we solve s, t from the 1st and 3rd eqs

s t x 1

st z3

to get

1 1

s x z 4 t x z 2

2 2

Substituting them into the 2nd eq gives

y 2 x z 4 2 x z 2

or y 6 x 3 z

2.10. The Cross Product Of Two Vectors In R3

Definition: Cross Product

The cross product of 2 vectors A and B in R 3 is defined as another vector C A B

with components

A B i ci ijk a jbk

where the Einstein notation of implied summation over repeated indices is used and

ijk 1 if i,j,k is odd permutation of 123

0

otherwise

Carrying out the summations, we have

A, B, C R 3 and R ,

(a) A B B A

(c) A B A B A B

(d) A A B 0

(e) B A B 0

A B A B A B

2 2 2 2

(f)

Proof

For (d), we have

A A B ijk ai a j bk jik ai a j bk [ ijk jik ]

ijk a j ai bk [ i j ]

0 [ x x x 0 ]

For (f),

A B A B A B ijk a j bk ilm al bm

2

we have

A B jl km jm kl a j bk al bm a j bk a j bk a j bk ak b j

2

A A B B A B B A B

2

A

2 2 2

[see Fig.2.5]

For (g): using (f), we have

B A B

2 2 2

A B O A

Examples

From property (a), we have

A A A A 0

Also, writing the jth component of the ith coordinate unit vector as

ei j ij

we have

e e

i j k klm ei l e j

m

klm il jm kij ijk

e i e j ijk e k (1)

Note that geometrically, (1) can be implemented in 2 ways; thus giving rise to the

right and left handed coordinate systems (see Fig.2.4)

Theorem 2.13

Let A and B be L.I. in R3, then

(a) A, B, and A B are L.I.

(b) Every vector in R3 orthogonal to both A and B are scalar multiples of A B .

Proof

(a)

Let C A B . Since A and B are L.I., C 0 . Consider the equation

A B C 0

Taking C on both sides reduces it to C C 0 so that 0 . Since A and B are

L.I., we must have 0 . QED

(b)

Let N be orthogonal to both A and B. By part (a), A, B, and C A B are L.I. so

that they form a basis in R3. Hence, we can write

N A B C (2)

Taking N on (2) gives N N N C .

Taking C on (2) gives C N C C .

2

Hence,

theorem is proved.

2.11. The Cross Product Expressed As A Determinant

An nn determinant is defined as

e1 e 2 e3

C ei A B i ijk e i a j bk a1 a2 a3

b1 b2 b3

2.13. The Scalar Triple Product

The scalar triple product is given by

a1 a2 a3

A B C ijk ai b j ck b1 b2 b3

c1 c2 c3

Theorem 2.14

Proof

If B and C are linearly dependent, then B C 0 and theorem is proved.

If B and C are L.I., then there exists , , , not all zero, such that

A B C 0

For the former case, B and C are dependent and the theorem is proved. For the latter

case, theorem 2.13 says that B, C and B C form a basis so that

A B C B C

2

Taking

A B C

QED.

2.14. Cramer's Rule For Solving A System Of Three Linear

Equations

A set of simultaneous equations

a1 x b1 y c1 z d1

a2 x b2 y c2 z d 2 (2.11)

a3 x b3 y c3 z d 3

can be written as a single vector equation

Ax By Cz D (2.12)

in obvious notations.

Provided A B C 0 , we have

d1 d 2 d3 d1 b1 c1

b1 b2 b3 d 2 b2 c2

D B C c c2 c3 d b c

x 1 3 3 3

AB C a1 a2 a3 a1 b1 c1

b1 b2 b3 a2 b2 c2

c1 c2 c3 a3 b3 c3

and analogously for y and z. This is known as the Cramer's rule.

2.16. Normal Vectors To Planes In R3

Definition: Normal Vector

Theorem 2.15

(b) M X X P N 0

Proof

(b) Proof is analogous to that for the line discussed in section 2.5.

Theorem 2.16

Given a plane M through P with a normal vector N and

PN

d (2.17)

N

PN

X tN with t

N N

Proof

Corollary

The shortest distance from a point Q to a plane M is

Q P N

d

N

2.17. Linear Cartesian Equations For Planes In R3

Eq(2.16) can be expressed in terms of components. Setting

N a, b, c P x1 , y1 , z1 X x, y , z

we have

a x x1 b y y1 c z z1 0 (2.18)

which is known as the Cartesian equation for the plane. An alternative form is

ax by cz d (2.19)

where

d ax1 by1 cz1 N P

Eq(2.19) is called a linear equation in x, y and z. In general, a linear equation in R3

represents a plane and vice versa.

Two planes with parallel normal vectors are said to be parallel to each other.

Thus, the planes

ax by cz d1 ax by cz d 2

are parallel. Furthermore, the (shortest) distance between them is

d1 d 2 d1 d 2

N a 2 b2 c 2

More generally, the angle between 2 planes is defined as the angle between their

normal vectors.

2.19. The Conic Sections

A right circular cone can be generated by rotating a generator line G about an axis

A with which it intersects at an angle 0 at the vertex P. Each of the

4

upper and lower portions is called a nappe of the cone. The curves obtained by the

intersection of a plane with the surface of the cone are called conic sections or simply

conics. Depending on the angle of the plane, one can obtain 3 types of curves [see

Fig.2.9]. With the help of the icecream-cone proof [see text], they can be identified

with the parabola, ellipse and hyperbola defined in Fig.2.10.

2.20. Eccentricity Of Conic Sections

Description of the conics in vector algebra terms made use a quantity called e.

Definition: Conics

Given a directrix line L and a focus point F not on L, a conic section is a set of points

X satisfying

X F ed X , L (2.20)

where e is a positive real number called the eccentricity and d X , L is the distance

if e 1 .

Alternative Form

Now, given a point P on L, we can write

X P N

d X , L X P N

N

where N

X F e X P N (2.21)

This can be simplified by setting P F d N

L [see Fig.2.12]. Thus,

d

X F e X F N (2.22)

2.21. Polar Equations For Conic Sections

Setting the fous at the origin, i.e., F 0 , eq(2.22) simplifies to

d

X e X N (2.23)

r e r cos d (2.24)

and X N

If X is on the same side of the directrix as the focus, r cos d 0 so that (2.24)

becomes

ed

r e d r cos r (2.25)

e cos 1

If X is on the other side of the directrix from the focus, r cos d 0 and (2.24)

becomes

ed

r e r cos d r (2.26)

e cos 1

Since, here, is restricted to 0 while r, e, d 0 , eq(2.26) cannot be

2

satisfied for any if e 1 . In other word, only hyperbola can have a branch on the

other side of the directrix from the focus.

If e 1 , there is no restriction on so that 0 2 as befits an ellipse.

1

For e 1 , is restricted to cos 1 .

e

2.23. Cartesian Equation For A General Conic

Eq(2.22) can be written as

FN

X F e X N d a

eX N (2.29)

a2

2

2X F F e2 X N 2eaX N

2 2

X (2.30)

Setting

X x, y F f1 , f 2 n , n

N 1 2

2

Ax 2 Bxy Cy 2 Dx Ey G 0 (2.32)

with

2

positive, respectively. [Caution: our is the negative of that given in the text].

2.24. Conic Sections Symmetric About The Origin

Consider the cartesian equation

a2

2

2X F F e2 X N 2eaX N

2 2

X (2.30)

where

a e d FN (2.30a)

If (2.30) is to be symmetric about the origin, i.e., invariant under X X , all terms

in odd powers of X must vanish. Hence

F aeN (2.35)

Combining this with (2.30a) gives

2

FN e2 e d

ae d F N if e 1

1 e2

ed

a (2.36)

1 e2

Putting these back to (2.30) gives

2

a 2e2 e2 X N a2

2

X

a 2 1 e 2

2

e2 X N

2

X where e 1 (2.37)

which is clearly symmetric about the origin. Since (2.37) is also invariant under

N

N , there are 2 pairs of symmetrically placed directrices and foci. According

. From exercise 7 in sec 2.28, the directrices

to (2.35), the foci are at points aeN

a

intersect the line joining the foci at points N.

e

To find the intersects of the curve (2.37) on the line joining the foci, we set X N

2 e 2 2 a 2 1 e 2

a

are called the vertices of the central conics given by

These points at X a N

(2.37). The segment that joins them are called the major axis if the conic is an

ellipse, the transverse axis if the conic is a hyperbola.

To find the intersects of the curve (2.37) on the line that passes through the origin and

where M

perpendicular to the major/transverse axis, we set X M N

0.

Eq(2.37) then becomes

2 a 2 1 e 2 a 1 e2

Since X and hence must be real, there is no solution for e 1 . For ellipses with

e 1 , the segment that joins these points are called the minor axis.

2.25. Cartesian Equations For The Ellipse And The Hyperbola

in Standard Position

Consider again the central conics

a 2 1 e 2

2

e2 X N

2

X (2.37)

1,0 , we have

Setting X x, y and N

x 2 y 2 e 2 x 2 a 2 1 e 2

x2 y2

1 (2.38)

a 2 a 2 1 e 2

which is called the standard form of the central conics. The foci are at

ae,0 . The directrices are vertical lines intersecting the x-axis at points

aeN

a a

N ,0 .

e e

x2 y2

1 (2.39)

a 2 b2

and

b2

c ae a 1 a 2 b2

a2

x2 y2

1 (2.40)

a 2 b2

and

b2

c a e a 1 a 2 b2

a2

y2 x2 b

or y x

b2 a 2 a

b

These give 2 lines with tangents that pass through the origin. They are called

a

asymptotes of the hyperbola. See Fig.2.14.

2.26. Cartesian Equations For The Parabola

Consider the conics equation for a parabola

X F X P N (2.21)

Taking X x, y , N

(2.21) becomes

x c y2 x

2

x c y2 x

2 2

or y 2 2 c x 2 c2 (2.43a)

becomes

y 2 4cx (2.43)

y y0 4 c x x0

2

2.28. Miscellaneous Exercises On Conic Sections

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