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Electrical Machine design

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M.V.Ramana Rao
ELECTRCAL MACHINE DESIGN
Instruction : 4 Periods per week
Duration of University Examination : 3 Hours
University Examination : 75 Marks
Sessional : 25 Marks
Class Test : 20 Marks
Assignment : 5 Marks

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Design of Electrical Machines is
“Art & Science”

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Suggested Reading:
1. A.K. Sawhney, A Course in Electrical Machines Design,
Dhanpat Rai and Sons, 1996.

2. R.K. Agarwal, Principles of Electrical Machine Design,


ESS Kay Publications, Naisarak, New Delhi, 1994.

3. V.N.Mittle, Design of Electrical Machines, Standard


Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 1992.

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UNIT I : Electrical Engineering Materials
Conducting Materials Magnetic Materials Insulating materials

UNIT II : Magnetic Circuit


Rotating machine or Transformer Magnetic circuit

UNIT III : Electrical Circuit & Thermal Circuit


Winding of machines Cooling system

UNIT IV : Transformer Design


Design Principles of rotating machines

UNIT V : Computer Aided Design

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Electrical Engineering Materials
Resistivity of the materials
10-9 10-7 10-5 10-3 10-1 101 103
Ag
Cu Al Ni Ge Ge Si
Fe Sb Bi
Au
Graphite (Dopped) (pure) (pure)
METALS SEMI CONDUCTORS

105 107 109 1011 1013 1015 1017

Window Bakelite Porcelain Lucite PVC SiO2


glass Diamond Mica
Rubber, Nylon
Polyethylene
INSULATORS
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ELECTRICAL CONDUCTING MATERIALS

Materials serving as electrical conductors can be divided into main


groups, namely
1. High Conductivity Materials.
• These materials are used for making all types of windings
required in electrical machines, apparatus and devices, as well as for
transmission and distribution of electric energy. These materials
should have the least possible resistivity.

2. High Resistivity Materials (Alloys).

• These materials are used for making resistances and heating


devices.

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HIGH CONDUCTIVITY MATERIALS
The fundamental requirements to be met by high conductivity
materials are
(i) Highest possible conductivity (least resistivity)
(ii) Least possible temperature co-efficient of resistance
(iii) Adequate mechanical strength, in particular, high tensile
strength and elongation characterizing to a certain degree of the
flexibility, i.e., absence of brittleness
(iv) Rollability and drawability which is important in the
manufacture of wires of small and intricate sections
(v) Good weldability and solderability which ensure high reliability
and low electrical resistance of the joints
(vi) Adequate resistance to corrosion
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•Copper
•Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor combining, as
it does, high electrical conductivity with excellent mechanical
properties and relative immunity from oxidation and corrosion under
service conditions.
•It is highly malleable and ductile metal.
• It can be cast, forged, rolled, drawn, machined.
•Mechanical working hardens it but annealing restores it to soft
state.

Copper is universally used for windings of electrical machines also


because it is easily workable without any possibility of fracture.
Further it can be soldered easily which simplifies the jointing process.

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Aluminium
Aluminium is joining ever increasing applications for a number of
economic and engineering reasons, primarily the high demand for
conductor materials which cannot be met by copper production
alone.
Therefore, aluminium which is the conductor material next to copper
is used.
Also aluminium is available in abundance on earth‟s surface. Pure
aluminium is softer than copper and, therefore, can be rolled into
thin sheets (foils).
Aluminium cannot be drawn into very fine wires on account of its
low mechanical strength.

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Copper loss in conductor

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Comparison of Aluminium and Copper Wires

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Alloys of Copper
1. Bronze. Copper base alloys containing tin, cadmium,
berryllium and certain other metals are generally called „bronzes‟
and used as high conductivity materials. All bronzes possess high
mechanical strength as compared with copper, but have higher
resistivities.
Beryllium Copper. It has been found that the addition of 1—2.5 per cent
beryllium to copper makes a hard alloy which is capable of being rolled and
formed into springs and contact strips. Therefore, it is used for current
carrying springs, brush holders, sliding contacts and knife switch blades. Its
resistivity is 3 to 6 times that of copper.

Cadmium Copper. Alloys containing 1.1 per cent cadmium give wires
which are stiffer, harder and of higher tensile strength than hard-drawn
copper. It is used for making contact wires and commutator segments.
Cadmium copper is also used for cage windings because it can be flame
brazed without deterioration.
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2. Brass.
•This finds a very wide application in electrical engineering field. It
generally contains 66 per cent copper and 34 per cent zinc.
• It has greater mechanical strength and wear resistance than copper,
but considerably lower conductivity (high resistivity).
•Brass is easily shaped by press forming methods, lends itself to
deep drawing, has good weldability and solderability and is fairly
resistant to corrosion.
•Therefore, it has gained wide use in the manufacture of electrical
apparatus as curreht tarrying and structural materials.

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Properties of Copper Alloys

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MATERIALS OF HIGH RESISTIVITY
•Conductors of high resistance are used where it is actually
desired to dissipate electrical energy as heat i.e., in starting
and regulating devices for motors etc.
• In such cases it is usual to call the high resistance
conductors as resistors, resistance coils, resistance
elements or heating elements.

•Materials of high resistivity are primarily alloys of different metals.

•Among metals that have been particularly important as basic


materials for making these alloys, the following may be mentioned :
nickel, silver and iron.

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They can be classified according to their purpose.
Three categories are

(i) The first group consists of materials used in precision


measuring instruments and in making standard resistances
and resistance boxes.

(ii) The second group consists of materials from which


resistance elements are made for all kinds of rheostats and
similar control devices.

(iii) The third group consists of materials suitable for


making high temperature elements for electric furnaces,
heating devices and loading rheostats.
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Materials Used for Precision Work

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Materials Used for Rheostats
The resistance materials used in making rheostats can have a large
thermo-emf and a large resistance temperature co-efficient. But this
material should meet special requirements such as a high
permissible working temperature and low cost, the latter being
dictated by the fact that these materials are required in large
quantities in widely used devices and equipment where large
changes in resistance are allowed.

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Materials Used for Heating Devices

Resistance Wire Data


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SUPERCONDUCTORS
Materials exhibiting zero value of resistivity are
known as „superconductors‟.

A large number of metals become super-conducting below


a particular temperature characteristic of the particular
metal. This temperature is known as the transition
temperature.

Table gives the transition temperatures.

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The resistance also depends upon the value of resistivity.

Therefore, if we have a material of zero resistivity its


resistance will be zero (and hence I2R loss will also be
zero) irrespective of the value of conductor area.

Thus with such a conductor we can use a very high value


of current density (and hence a very high value of flux
density in air) giving very small machine volume and
there will be an added advantage of absence of iron parts
in the machine.

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Transition Temperatures

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•Superconductivity will disappear if the temperature of material is
raised above its critical temperature or if a sufficiently strong
magnetic field or current density is employed.

•This critical magnetic field i.e. the field at which superconductivity


vanishes and the critical current density are a function of
temperature and are low for high temperatures.

• The transition from the superconducting state to conducting state


is reversible.

•Coming back to electrical machines, with the introduction of


superconducting materials, much higher current densities are
possible and practical machines working at low temperatures
(below the transition temperature of the materials used) may be
developed.

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•Super cooled coils can produce flux densities of 10 Wb/m2 or
higher. In comparison, it is only possible (with great difficulty) to
produce a flux density of 0.1 Wb/m2 in the absence of iron parts, by
using normal coils at room temperature.

•Therefore, it is clear from above that with the development of


superconductors, the machine sizes may be considerably reduced.

•Superconducting transformer windings and rotor windings of large


alternators have been developed but the experiments show that they
are not yet economically feasible.

•This is because the advantages of superconductivity must be


balanced against the capital, operating and energy- loss costs of
providing it.
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MAGNETIC MATERIALS
All magnetic materials possess magnetic properties to a greater or a
lesser degree.

The magnetic properties of materials are characterized by


their relative permeability.

In accordance with the value of relative permeability, materials


may be divided into three broad classes.
1. Ferromagnetic materials.
2. Paramagnetic materials.
3. Diamagnetic materials.
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1. Ferromagnetic materials.
The relative permeabilities of these materials are much greater
than unity and these permeability values are dependent upon the
magnetizing force.

2. Paramagnetic materials.
These materials have their relative permeabilities only slightly
greater than unity. The value of susceptibility is thus positive for
these materials.

3. Diamagnetic materials.
These materials have their relative permeabilities slightly less than
unity. In both Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic materials the value
of permeability is independent of the magnetizing force.

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When a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic field, there
is considerable distortion and, therefore, the force exerted is very
large.

This property makes ferromagnetic materials very useful for


electrical engineering applications. Iron, nickel, cobalt, and many
of their alloys are ferromagnetic.

To these substances can be added certain other ferromagnetic alloys


and compounds containing aluminium, chromium, manganese,
copper and silver.

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TYPES OF MAGNETIC MATERIALS
1. Soft magnetic materials. 2. Hard magnetic materials.
1. Soft magnetic materials.
The hysteresis loss depends upon the
area of hysteresis loop. For this reason,
magnetic cores used in alternating
magnetic fields are made from materials
whose hysteresis loops are more or less
narrow as shown in Fig. These
materials are called soft magnetic
materials.
Soft magnetic materials are used in the
manufacture of electrical machines,
transformers and many kinds of
electrical apparatus, instruments and
devices.
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2. Hard magnetic materials.
Materials with broad hysteresis loops Fig. are called hard magnetic
materials.
These materials are used in certain types of electrical machines of
low power rating, and in all kinds of instruments and devices
requiring permanent magnets which set up magnetic fields of their
own.

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SOFT MAGNETIC MATERIALS
Soft magnetic materials employed in commercial practice may be
considered under the following three classifications

(i) Solid core materials

(ii) Electrical sheet and strip

(iii) Special purpose alloys.

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Solid Core Materials
•These materials are normally used for parts of magnetic circuits
carrying steady flux such as cores of d.c. electromagnets, relays and
field frames of d.c. machines.

•The basic requirement used for steady magnetic fields is high


permeability, particularly at high values of flux densities.

• For majority of uses it is also desirable that hysteresis be low. The


principal materials used are soft iron, relay steel, cast steel, cast iron
and Ferro-cobalt (an alloy of 35 percent cobalt and 65 per cent
iron).

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1. Iron, low carbon and silicon steel. *

2. Cast iron. *

3. Gray cast iron.

4. Cast Steel. *

5. Soft Steel.
6. Ferro-cobalt.

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Sheet Steels
Electrical Steel Sheets (Non-oriented Steel).
In the early days of electrical industry the sheet material used for
the magnetic circuits of electrical machines and the cores of the
transformers was iron with a low content of carbon and other
impurities.

This had one major disadvantage.—that of „ageing‟.

Ageing is the term used to denote the deterioration of magnetic


performance in service, caused by increase in coercive force and
hysteresis loss which in turn caused cumulative overheating and
subsequent breakdown.

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•However, it was discovered that a great improvement in magnetic
properties could be obtained by alloying silicon with iron. At
present the laminations used in electrical machines and in
transformers working at or near supply frequencies are made of
silicon steel in which the content of silicon lies from about 0.3% to
4.5% by weight.
•Addition of silicon virtually eliminates ageing problem, gives
reduced hysteresis loss and increased resistivity thereby reducing
eddy current loss.

• Unfortunately the addition of silicon has two serious drawbacks


as the percentage of silicon increases, it is found that there is some
loss of permeability at higher flux densities and loss of ductility.
Therefore, above about 5% silicon content, the resulting alloy is
very brittle and cannot be punched or sheared.
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•In rotating electrical machines, it is desirable to work the iron parts
at higher values of flux density in order to achieve a higher output to
weight ratio.

•The magnetic material therefore should have a high saturation flux


density and hence the presence of silicon is a disadvantage.

•Therefore in rotating electrical machines


we use steels of low silicon content 0.5% or
less these steels are termed as
“dynamo grade steels”.

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Sheet steels possessing higher silicon content (4—5%
silicon) called “transformer grade steels” are
mainly used in transformers as not much importance
is attached to the magnetizing current.

This steel is called high resistance steel (h.r.s.) on account


of its high resistivity and consequently low eddy current loss.

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Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Steel. (CRGO).
By far the largest portion of magnetizing mmf in a normal rotating machine is
required for the air gap, but if iron is worked too far in saturation region of its B-H
curve, the mmf required for iron parts of magnetic circuit would be very large.
Since in order to keep down the size of the machine it is necessary to use a high
flux density, the natural outcome is to develop a material which allows iron parts to
be worked at high flux densities without requiring a large mmf and without causing
excessive iron loss
In ordinary hot rolled sheets the constituent crystals are disposed in a
random fashion. The crystallographic axes of the individual crystals
do not take up any special alignment with respect to the direction of
rolling, with sheet surface or with each other. As a result, hot rolled
sheets have a low value of permeability.

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The rolling direction of the material is magnetically superior to the
other directions in the sheet and this property led to the introduction
of “cold rolled grain oriented sheet steel”.
This steel is manufactured by a series of cold reductions and
intermediate annealings. This cold reduced material has strong
directional magnetic properties, the rolling direction being the
direction of highest permeability. This direction is also the direction
of lowest hysteresis loss.

This type of material is suitable for use in transformers and also for
large turbo-alternators since the axis of the core can be made to
correspond with the rolling direction of the sheet and therefore full
use is made of high permeability low loss direction of the sheet.

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The directional variations of iron loss and
magnetizing current of a typical specimen
of cold rolled grain oriented steel are given
in Fig.

The iron loss and magnetizing current in


the direction of rolling for a given peak
flux density are each taken as unity. For
example, relative iron loss and
magnetizing current are respectively 3.6
and 120 for magnetization on an axis at
600 to the direction of rolling.

The use of c.r.o.s. is highly advantageous


if its directional properties are properly
utilized. This steel can be worked to higher
flux densities than h.r.s.

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Special Purpose Alloys

In order to obtain high flux densities in weak magnetic fields in,


say instrument transformers, use is made of special magnetic alloys
having high initial and maximum permeability.

A group of iron alloys containing Nickel between 30 to 90 percent


with possible addition of molybdenum and chromium when given
appropriate treatment during manufacture show very high
permeability's at low flux densities and much lower losses than
iron.

The important alloys in this category are Permalloy and Mumetal.

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1. Mumetal.

It has a lower permeability but has high electrical resistance so that


eddy current losses are lower. It contains a certain amount of copper.

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2. Permalloys.
According to the nickel content, commercially produced, permalloys can
be divided into two groups : high nickel and low nickel.

High Nickel Permalloy.


It is alloyed with small amounts of molybdenum, molybdenum with
copper or molybdenum with chromium, the nickel content being as high as
80 percent. It has high initial and maximum permeability and high
resistivity. This makes it suitable for magnetic amplifiers, weak current
transformers, cored induction coils communication and control
equipments.

Low Nickel Permalloy.


It contains nickel from 38 to 50 per cent with additions of manganese,
silicon and chromium, It has lower permeability than high nickel variety
but has higher resistivity. It is used for making cores of transformers,
induction coils and chokes and communication equipment.
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3. Superpermalloy.

It consists of iron and nickel alloyed with copper and molybdenum.


This alloy is distinguished by its high purity. It has a very high initial
relative permeability of upto 100,000.

4. Perminvar.

It is often necessary to have a magnetic material in which the


permeability is independent of the field strength. Such materials
find applications in certain kinds of chokes and current
transformers. One of these alloys is perminvar, an alloy of iron,
nickel and cobalt. Its use is limited by high cost and difficulties in
its manufacture.
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5. Permendur.
For cores and poles of magnetic circuits whose purpose is to
provide a rather strong magnetic field in the air gap of apparatus
such as electromagnets, oscillographe, microphones etc.,

it is necessary to have a material capable of setting up a flux density


much greater than that obtained with electrical steel.

An alloy meeting above requirement is permendur, It contains 49


per cent cobalt and 2 per cent vanadium, and 49 per cent iron.

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Next
INSULATING MATERIALS
•Insulating materials or Insulants are extremely diverse in
origin and properties They are essentially nonmetallic, are organic
or inorganic, uniform or heterogeneous in composition, natural or
synthetic.

•Many of them are of natural origin as, for example, paper, cloth,
paraffin wax and natural resins, Wide use is made of many
inorganic insulating materials such as glass, ceramics and mica

•Many of the insulating materials are man-made products


manufactured in the form of resins, insulating films etc.

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Electrical Properties of Insulating Materials
An ideal insulating material should have
(i) high dielectric strength, sustained at elevated temperatures,
(ii) high resistivity or specific resistance
(iii) low dielectric hysteresis
(iv) good thermal conductivity
(v) high degree of thermal stability i.e. it should not deteriorate at
high temperatures.

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In addition to above the material should have good mechanical
properties such as ease of working and application, should be able
to withstand moisture, it should be non-hygroscopic vibration,
abrasion and bending, Also it should be able to withstand chemical
attack, heat and other adverse conditions of service.

In addition to above electrical properties, we must also consider the


mechanical properties of the material and its ability to withstand
moisture, chemical attack, heat and other conditions of proposed
service.

TEMPERATURE RISE AND INSULATING MATERIALS


theory

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CLASSIFICATION OF INSULATING MATERIALS
Classification of insulating materials for electrical machinery and
apparatus in relation to their thermal stability are given in Indian
Standard Publication No. 1271—1958.
.
The classification covers seven classes of insulating materials
generally used in electrical machinery and apparatus in relation to
their thermal stability in service.

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Classification : The recognized classes of insulating materials and
the temperature assigned to them are as follows

Class Temperature
Y (formerly 0) Y 900 C
A A 105° C
E E 120° C
B B 130° C
F F 155° C
H H 180° C
C C above 180° C
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Class of materials having a temperature limit lower than that for
class Y, is not included in this classification. Since the materials
falling in class are not widely used as insulation for windings for
machines, transformers or switchgear.

Insulation may be grouped into the following recognized classes

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Insulating Electrical Materials Used In Modern Electric
Machines
Mica. * Wood.
Mica folium. Silicones. *
Fibrous glass. * Epoxide thermosetting resins.

Asbestos. * Synthetic Resin. *


Petroleum-based mineral oils.
Cotton fibre.
Askarels.
Polyamides *
Synthetic-resin enamels.
Slot-lining materials. *

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Applications Of Insulating Materials
Some important materials in general use in electrical machines and
apparatus, such as those employed for the insulation of:

(i) Wires for magnet coils and windings of machines.


(ii) Laminations.
(iii) Rotating machines and transformers.

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Insulating Materials for Wires
•Small round wires are used in enormous quantities for the coil
windings of instruments, electromagnetic apparatus and electrical
machines.
•The principal requirements of the insulating materials to be used in
these cases are flexibility, thinness, rapidity of application, ability to
withstand stresses and abrasive actions during the process of
winding. The materials in general use are enamel, cotton, rayon, silk
and fibrous glass.

Enamel covering. * Fibrous Glass Covering. *

Cotton Covering. * Asbestos Coverings.

Silk Covering.
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Insulating Materials for Laminations
•The core stacks in modern machines are subjected to high pressures
during assembly and therefore to avoid metal to metal contact,
laminations must be well insulated.
•The main requirements of a good lamination insulation are
homogeneity in thin layers, toughness and high resistivity. The
following are the common insulating materials for laminations

1. Insuline. *

2. Oxide.

3. Varnish.

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Insulating Materials for Rotating Machines

•D.C. and A.C. motors and generators for industrial purposes are
usually insulated with class A or E materials, but turbo-alternators,
traction motors and aircraft machines are insulated with class B
materials to enable higher operating temperatures to be used for the
purpose of obtaining larger output from a given frame size.

•Class E insulation is commonly used for induction motors.

•Materials used for round wires are also employed for the
insulation of rectangular wires and may be applied by either
lapping or braiding.

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Insulating Materials for Transformers
•Fibrous (Class A) materials are usually employed for both air-
cooled and oil-cooled transformers, but the high-grade asbestos
paper tape is used in some air- cooled transformers when they are
required to operate in the Class B temperature range for the purpose
of reducing their weight (i.e., in portable welders and in aircraft).

•Cotton or oiled cambric is used for taping the coils of air-cooled


transformers (Class A temperature limits); the coils being
impregnated after taping.

•Synthetic-resin-bonded paper, treated pressboard or similar


material is used for the insulation between core and coils and also
between the primary and secondary windings.

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•Pressboard or presspaper is employed as spacers (to provide ducts
for the oil), packing between coils, barriers between coils and tank,
etc.

•High quality synthetic resin bonded paper, or alternatively a high


grade presspaper (Elephantide), in the form of cylinders and
flanges, is employed for the insulation between core and coils and
also between the primary and secondary windings.

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Resistance Wire Data

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1. Iron, low carbon and silicon steel.
Technically pure iron is widely used: in many kinds of electrical apparatus
and instruments as cores and pole shoes for eletromagnets, components for
relays, electrical instruments and other devices.
The most harmful impurity is carbon which sharply raises the coercive
force and hysteresis loss. Silicon produces a harmful effect on very pure
iron. But with the presence of oxygen in the iron, silicon is helpful as it
increases the grain size. This increase in grain size improves the soft
magnetic properties. During mechanical working the soft magnetic
properties of the materials deteriorate and, therefore, it should be annealed
in order to restore it to its initial state.
Low carbon electrical steel and iron have a comparatively low resistivity.
Electrolytic iron for example has a resistivity of 0.1 ohm per m and mm2.
Because of their low resistivity, these materials have large eddy current loss
if they are operated at high flux densities in alternating current fields. This
limits their use to fields carrying steady flux or weak alternating current
fields.
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2. Cast iron.
It has a low relative permeability and is used principally in field
frames when cost is of primary importance and extra weight is not
objectionable.

3. Gray cast iron.


It is magnetically inferior to wrought iron or steel but is used to a
limited extent because of ease of casting complex shapes.
Cast iron usually contains from 2.7 to 3.6 cent carbon, 2.0 to 2.7 per
cent silicon. Phosphorus ranges from 0.15 to 0.5 per cent and
sulphur under 0.15 per cent.

back
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4. Cast Steel.
Cast steel is extensively used for those portions of magnetic circuit
which carry steady flux and need superior mechanical quantities.
Good quality cast steel has Carbon 5.5%, Silicon 0.2%, Manganese
2.5%, Phosphorus 0.08% and Sulphur 0.05%.

5. Soft Steel.
Rolled and welded frames of soft steel plates are now widely used
in place of cast steel.

6. Ferro-cobalt.
It is characterized by very high permeability in the upper part of the
normal induction range. It has its saturation flux density 10 percent
higher than that of pure iron. Its cost is relatively high and its use is
limited to pole pieces where a high value of induction (flux density)
is desired.
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M.V.Ramana Rao
TEMPERATURE RISE AND INSULATING MATERIALS

•Every electrical machine is a power converting device. A generator


converts mechanical power into electrical power, a motor converts
electrical power into mechanical power and a transformer converts
electrical power at one voltage to electrical power at another voltage.

•During these processes of power or energy conversion, some waste


in energy is inevitable. In electrical machines the loss in energy
occurs in electric circuits and in portions of magnetic circuit which
carry varying flux. Further losses occur in machine parts subjected
to mechanical friction.

•The losses produced in the machine are converted into heat energy,
as a result of which the various parts of the machine are heated, i.e.,
their temperature rises above that of the surroundings.
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Next
•It is important to note that the losses are mainly produced in the
active parts of the machine i.e., in the iron parts which carry flux
and the conductors which carry current.

•Thus the heat energy appears mainly in the active parts resulting in
increase in temperature of iron and copper above that of the
ambient medium.

•In order to ensure reliable and satisfactory operation of electrical


machines, the heating of every part must be controlled within
certain definite limits. The losses in an electrical machine are of
importance not because they constitute a source of inefficiency, but,
because most of them result in temperature of windings rising
appreciably.

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Next
•This rise in temperature affects the insulating materials put to
isolate the windings from the iron parts. It is essential to ensure the
reliability of winding insulation as the insulating materials being to
deteriorate at relatively small temperatures.

•There is always a safe maximum temperature to which a particular


insulating material can be subjected to without losing its
effectiveness and as the temperature rise in a machine depends
upon the losses which in turn depend upon the output of the
machine, it is obvious that the maximum allowable load on
machine would be determined, first of all by maximum permissible
temperature of the insulating materials used in it.

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Back
Class Y.
This insulation consists of materials, or combinations of materials,
such as cotton, silk and paper without impregnation. Other materials
or combinations of materials can be included in this class, if by
experience or accepted tests they can be shown to be capable of
operating at class Y temperatures.

Examples of Class Y.
Cotton, silk, paper, cellulose, wood etc., neither
impregnated nor immersed in oil.

Back
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M.V.Ramana Rao
Class A.

This insulation consists of materials or combinations of materials


such as cotton, silk and paper when suitably impregnated or coated
when immersed in a dielectric liquid such as oil. Other materials or
combinations of materials may be included in this class, if by
experience or accepted tests they can be shown to be capable of
operation at class A temperatures.

Examples of Class A.
Materials of class Y impregnated with natural resins cellulose
esters, insulating oils, etc. Also included in this class are laminated
wood, varnished paper.

Back
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M.V.Ramana Rao
Class E.

This insulation consists of materials or combinations of materials


which by experience or accepted tests can be shown to be capable of
operating at class B temperature (materials possessing a degree of
thermal stability allowing them to be operated at a temperature 15°C
higher than class A materials).

Examples of Class E.
Synthetic resin enamels, cotton and paper laminates with
formaldehyde bonding, etc.

Back
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M.V.Ramana Rao
Class B.

This insulation consists of materials or combinations of materials


such as mica, glass fibre, asbestos, etc., with suitable bonding
substances. Other materials or combinations of materials,‟ not
necessarily inorganic, may be included in this class, if by
experience or accepted tests they can be shown to be capable of
operation at class B temperatures.

Examples of Class B.
Mica, gass fibre, asbestos with suitable bonding substances; built
up mica, glass fibre, and asbestos laminates.

Back
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M.V.Ramana Rao
Class F.

This insulation consists of materials or combinations of materials,


such as mica, glass fibre, asbestos, etc., with suitable bonding
substances as well as other materials or combinations of materials,
not necessarily inorganic, which by experience or accepted tests can
be shown to be capable of operation at class F temperatures
(materials possessing a degree of thermal stability allowing them to
be operated at a temperature 25°C higher than class B materials).

Examples of Class F.
Materials of class B with bonding materials of higher thermal
stability.

Back
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M.V.Ramana Rao
Class H.

This insulation consists of materials, such as silicon elastomer and


combinations of materials such as mica, glass fibre, asbestos, etc.,
with suitable bonding substances, such as appropriate silicon
resins. Other materials or combinations of materials may be
included in this class, if by experience or accepted tests they can
be shown to be capable of operation at class H temperature.

Examples of Class H.
Glass fibre and asbestos materials and built up mica, with silicon
resins.

Back
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M.V.Ramana Rao
Class C.

This insulation consists of materials or combinations of materials


such as mica, porcelain, glass and quartz with or without an
inorganic binder. Other materials or combinations of materials may
be included in this class, if by experience or accepted tests they
can be shown to be capable of operation at temperatures above the
class H limit. Specific materials or combinations of materials in
this class will have a temperature limit which is dependent upon
their physical, chemical and electrical properties.

Class C
Materials are not directly involved in machine design.
Back
8/8/2014 10:30:33 AM Electrical Machine Design
M.V.Ramana Rao
Mica.

Mica used in its virgin form or sheet state is difficult to work.


Therefore, it is used in the form of sheets of splittings with
shellac, bitumin or synthetic or polyester bending.

Micafolium.

It is a wrapping consisting of mica splittings which are to be


paper and air dried. It may be moulded directly on conductors,
then rolled and compressed between heated plates to solidify the
material and to expel air.

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M.V.Ramana Rao
Fibrous glass.

It is made from material which is free alkali metal oxides which


may form a surface coating that may attack the glass silicates.
Glass does not absorb moisture volumetrically, but may attract it
by capillary action between the fine filaments. Tapes and clothes
woven from continuous filament yarns of glass have a high
resistivity, thermal conductivity and tensile strength and form a
good class B insulation. The space factor of this insulating
material is good but the material is prone to abrasive damage.
These glass-silk coverings are used for wires of field coils or
much windings of induction motors.

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M.V.Ramana Rao
Asbestos.

This material is mechanically weak, even when woven with cotton


fibres, and is a poorer insulating material as compared with fibre
glass. Laminates of asbestos with synthetic resins have good
mechanical strength and thermal resistivity. Asbestos in the form of
wire and strip coverings have resilience and abrasion resistance.
However, the space factor is low.

Cotton fibre.

Fibre cotton woven from acetylates cotton, recently developed, have


remarkable resistance to heat, “tendering”. They are much less
hygroscopic than ordinary cotton materials.

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M.V.Ramana Rao
Polyamides.

Polyamides in the form of nylon tapes have high mechanical


strength and have a good space factor on account of their thinness.
Nylon film is one of the few plastic films having adequate resistance
to temperature and can withstand tearing.

Synthetic-resin enamels.

These enamels of the vinyl-acetate or nylon types have an excellent


smooth finish and have been used for much windings, with
considerable improvement in winding times and length of mean turn.
They also give good binding to windings.

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M.V.Ramana Rao
Slot-lining materials.

These materials in the past have been mica composites. However,


the mica content is easily dimaged in the forming. In small motors
a two-ply varnished cotton cloth bended to pressboard is found
satisfactory. On the other hand, three-ply material may serve for
heavier windings.

Wood.

Wood, the form of synthetic-resin-impregnates compresses


laminations, has proven itself to be a robust and accurate materials
for packing blocks, coil supports and spacers.

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M.V.Ramana Rao
Silicones.
Silicones are semi-inorganic materials with a basic structures of alternate
silicon and oxygen atoms. They are extremely resistant to heats. They act
binders in Class H insulation and permit their continuous operations at
180°C. Even when they disintegrate by excessive temperatures, the
residue is the insulator silica. Silicones are water-repellent and anti-
corrosive. They are used in dry (oil-less) transformers, traction motors,
mill motors and miniature aircraft machines operating over a winding
temperature range of 200 to —40°C. They have a high thermal
conductivity, improved heat transfer co-efficient, which facilitates heat
dissipation from conductors.

Epoxide thermosetting resins.


These materials have assumed importance in casting potting, laminating-
adhesive and varnishing applications and in the encapsulation of small
transformers.

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M.V.Ramana Rao
Synthetic Resin.
Bonded paper, cotton and glass-fibre with synthetic resin laminates have
good electrical and mechanical properties as sheets in large cylinders
and tubes.

Petroleum-based mineral oils.


They are extensively used in the cooling and insulation of immersed
transformers. The characteristics of importance are chemical stability,
expansion coefficient, resistance to sludging by oxidation, and viscosity.
Their electric strength is good when they are clean and moisture-proof.

Askarels.
They are synthetic non-flammable insulating liquids which, when
decomposed by an electric arc, evolve only as non-explosive gases. The
commonest askarel is a 60/40 mixture of hexachlorodiphenyl
trichlorovenzine giving a low pour point and a satisfactory viscosity/
temperature characteristic.
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M.V.Ramana Rao
Enamel covering.
This consists of a thin film of either oil base or synthetic base varnish
applied by drawing the wire through a trough of varnish and then through
a heated chamber so as to bake the varnish covering into a tough and
elastic film of high dielectric strength. The process is rapid and cheap
and, therefore, enamelled wire is used almost universally for the small
motors and industrial apparatus.
The commonly used enamels and their applications are given below
Refrigerator motors—Polyvinylformal, Polyesterimide
General motors—Polyesterimide (theic)
Oil cooled transformers—Polyamideimide
Cokes—Polyesterimide (theic)
Due to thinness of varnish coating (0.025 to 0.075 mm) a high space
factor is obtained for coil windings, which results in a saving in wire and
reduced overall dimensions for the coil compared with other forms of
covering.

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M.V.Ramana Rao
Cotton Covering.
It consists of a number of cotton threads wound helically on the wire in a
lapping machine. Cotton covered wire is manufactured either with a
single layer (single cotton covering S.C.C.) or two layers (double cotton
covering D.C.C.).
The thickness of cotton covering varies from 0.05 to 0.2 mm. D.C.C.
wires are largely used for coils of field magnets; armatures and a.c.
motors, as the cotton covering can withstand rougher handling than
enamel covering and it provides a cushioning effect or the bedding of
turns of the several layers. The coils are impregnated with varnish to
improve dielectric strength and the heat dissipating qualities.

Silk Covering.
It is used as covering for wires as it gives a high space factor. At present,
owing to its high price, it is not normally used.

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M.V.Ramana Rao
Fibrous Glass Covering.
It consists usually of a double lapping of threads of continuous glass
fibres. The thickness of double lapping for round wires is about 0.15 to
0.2 mm. Varnishing is essential to enable the covered wire to be handled
and manipulated during winding. Impregnation with varnish increases the
resistance of wire to abrasion and prevents absorption of moisture.
Fibrous glass coverings are employed for windings which are required to
operate in the class B temperature range.

Asbestos Coverings.
This covering was formally used for round wires when class-B insulation
was required. But such coverings have been superseded by coverings of
fibrous glass. The advantages of fibrous glass are its lower moisture,
absorption and considerably high space factor.

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M.V.Ramana Rao
1. Insuline.
This is a kaolin (China) mixture which is sprayed on to one or both sides
of the lamination. The total thickness of coating per lamination is 0.01 to
0.025 mm.

2. Oxide.
A natural oxide coating is formed on the sheets during the hot rolling
process. But this insulation cannot be depended upon as it may be
inadequate. Extra oxide coating, with a resistance about ten times as high
as the resistance of natural oxide coating, is applied. This process is termed
as “steam blueing”.

3. Varnish.
This is the most effective type of insulation now available. It makes the
laminations rustproof and is not effected by the temperatures produced in
electrical machines. Varnish is usually applied to both sides of lamination
to a thickness of about 0.006 mm on plates of 0.35 mm thickness. Varnish
gives a stacking factor of about 0.95.
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Back
8/8/2014 10:30:33 AM Electrical Machine Design
M.V.Ramana Rao
Magnetic Circuit

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Magnetic Circuit Design
FUNDAMENTALS OF MAGNETIC CIRCUITS
•The path of the magnetic flux is called a magnetic circuit.

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• In an electric circuit Ohm‟s law expresses a relationship between
current, emf, and resistance;
• While in a magnetic circuit, a similar relation exists relating
flux, mmf and reluctance.

Reluctance

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•For the case of a material of length l, and carrying a uniform
flux, the total mmf (AT) is:

In a series magnetic circuit, the total reluctance is the sum of


reluctances of individual parts

The total mmf acting around a complete magnetic circuit is then


given by

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M.V.Ramana Rao
In parallel circuits, the same mmf is applied to each of the parallel
paths and the total flux divides between the paths in inverse
proportion to their reluctances, as in corresponding electric circuits
or

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Dividing by AT, the applied mmf, we get

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Non-magnetic materials (like air etc.) have a constant value of
permeability and so the B-‟at‟ curve for them is a straight line
passing through the origin.
For air or any other non-magnetic material, mmf per metre

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MAGNETIC LEAKAGE
It is impossible to confine all the magnetic flux to a given path (there
being no magnetic insulator), and therefore the designer‟s problem
becomes that of providing a path of low reluctance to that comparatively
little flux leaks away from the path and then supplying a somewhat
larger mmf to compensate for the flux which leaks away.
This flux which strays away completes its circuit by paths which
prevents its utilization in the functioning of the apparatus or machinery.

For the operation of electric machinery, some air gaps are necessary in
the magnetic paths but these air gaps should be kept to a minimum of
„length and maximum of cross-section so as to reduce their reluctance.

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A long air gap of small cross-section would require a large mmf resulting
in large coils of many turns and would also result in a tendency for the
flux to wander away from its main path.

This flux which strays away from the


main path is called the leakage flux.
The leakage flux does not contribute to either transfer or conversion of
energy.
However, the leakage flux affects the performance of rotating machines
and transformers.
The leakage flux affects the excitation demands of salient pole
machines, the leakage reactance of windings on which the performance
of the a.c. machines is primarily based, the forces between windings,
especially under short conditions, voltage regulation of a.c. generation
and transformers, commutation conditions in d.c. machines, stray load
losses, circulating currents in transformer tank walls and several other
performance indices of importance.
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For magnetic circuit calculations, a term ‘leakage co-efficient’
is introduced in order to take into account the leakage flux.
The value of this leakage co-efficient is defined as

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CALCULATION OF TOTAL mmf IN A MAGNETIC CIRCUIT

•The calculation of total mmf required to establish the requisite flux


in a magnetic circuit involves the knowledge of dimensions and
configuration of the magnetic circuit.
•The magnetic circuit is split up into convenient parts which may
be connected in series or parallel

•The flux density is calculated in every part and mmf per unit length,
„at‟ is found by consulting „B-at‟ curves. The summation of mmf in
series gives the total mmf.

Assumptions

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Mmf for Air Gap

Consider the iron surfaces


on the two sides of the air
gap to be smooth as shown
in Fig.
The flux is uniformly
spread over the entire slot
pitch and goes straight
across the air gap.
* 8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design
M.V.Ramana Rao
Smooth armature
If we confine our attention to only
one slot pitch,
The reluctance of air gap

In a slotted armature, however, the effective area of flux path is


substantially decreased resulting in an increase in reluctance of
air gap.

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Slotted armature
Consider the case of a slotted
armature with a very small
gap length as shown in Fig.

The flux in this case is only


confined to the tooth width.

Effective or contracted slat pitch

Reluctance of air gap of a slotted armature

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There is, however, some fringing of flux around the teeth edges in a
slotted armature. The flux penetrates down the slot as shown in Fig.1

*
Fig.1 Fig.2
*
A simple method to calculate reluctance in this case is to assume
that the air gap flux is uniformly distributed over the whole of slot
pitch except for a fraction of slot width as shown in Fig. 2
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.. Effective or contracted slot pitch

Carter’s gap co-efficient

where Kcs is the “Carter‟s gap co-efficient” which depends


upon the ratio : slot width/gap length.

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The value of Carter‟s co-efficient can be taken from Fig.

Fig. Carter‟s Air Gap Co-efficient.


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An empirical formula which gives the value
of Kcs directly is
Another useful relationship which can be used for calculation of
Carter‟s co-efficient Kcs for parallel sided open slots is:

Reluctance of air gap with slotted armature

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Let ratio of reluctance of air gap of slotted armature to reluctance
of air gap of smooth armature be Kgs. Therefore,

reluctance of air gap of slotted armature


reluctance of air gap of smooth armature = =

where Kgs is called the gap contraction factor for slots


•Therefore, the reluctance of air gap with slotted armature is Kgs
times that with smooth armature.
Kgs has a value greater than unity.
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The provision of radial ventilating
ducts results in contraction of flux
in the axial direction as shown in
Fig.
It is clear that the effective axial
length of the machine is reduced
owing to presence of ducts and
this results in an increase in the
reluctance of air gap.

We can derive a similar expression


for ventilating ducts by treating
stacks of laminations as teeth and
the ducts as slots.

*
Where Kcd Carter‟s co-efficient for ducts.
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Let the ratio of reluctance of air gap with ducts to reluctance of
air gap without ducts be Kgd

Kgd is called gap contraction factor for ducts.

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*

where Kg is the ratio of reluctance of air gap of a slotted armature


with ducts to reluctance of air gap of a smooth armature without
ducts and is called total gap contraction factor for slots
and ducts.

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For induction motors, with slots on both sides of air, it is customary
to calculate gap contraction factors for both rotor and stator slots.

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•The reluctance of air gap with slotted armatures is higher than that*
with smooth armatures.

•The ratio of the two reluctances is equal to Kg, the gap contraction
factor.

•In other words, the mmf required for the gap with slotted armatures
is Kg times the mmf required for gap with smooth armatures

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mmf per metre for air gap = 800,000 B

(contraction in the air gap area) *

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Area of gap per pole

where S = total number of slots and p = number of poles.


Contracted or effective gap area per pole

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The above relation may be interpreted as that the length of air gap
is increased Kg times due to the provision of slots and ducts.
*

*
Therefore, Kg in this case is called “gap expansion factor.”

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Effect of Saliency.
• In the case of salient pole
machines, the length of air gap is
not constant over the whole pole
pitch.

•* This gives rise to different values


of air gap density over the pole
pitch.
• Thus to know the value of
reluctance of the air gap, it is
necessary to know the distribution
of magnetic field in air gap.

Fig. shows a typical flux distribution


curve for a salient pole machine.
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• The flux tubes passing from field to armature
• we have only to know the reluctance of one flux tube and the flux
flowing through it in order to find the mmf required for air gap

mmf required for air gap of salient pole machine :

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*

* where Kg = gap contraction factor for a gap length at the


centre of the pole.
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•Tha flux tube at the centre of pole is chosen because its actual
length is known.

•The length of the flux tube at the centre of the pole is exactly equal
to the length of air gap there.

•Therefore, the value of Kg is based upon the air gap length lg

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Field Form Factor Kf

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Problem :
Estimate the effective gap area per pole of a 10 pole, slip ring
induction motor with following data
stator bore =0.65 m, core length = 0.25 m, No. of stator slots = 90
stator slot opening = 3 mm, rotor slots = 120
rotor slot opening = 3 mm, air gap length = 0.95 mm
carter‟s co-efficient for ducts = 0.68,
Carter‟s co-efficient for slots = 0.46
number of ventilating ducts = 3
width of each ventilating duct = 10 mm.

* Effective air gap area per pole =


?
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r

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8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design
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Problem :
A 175 MVA, 20 pole water wheel generator has a core of length
1.72 m and a diameter of 6.5 m. The stator slots (open) have a
width of 22 mm, the slot pitch being 64 mm and the air gap length
at the centre of the pole is 30 mm. There are 41 radial ventilating
ducts each 6 mm wide. The total mmf per pole is 27000 A. The mmf
required for the air gap is 87% of the total mmf per pole. Estimate
the average flux density in the air gap if the field form factor is 0.7.

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? Electrical Machine Design
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2

Carter‟s co-efficient for slots

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*

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Net Length of Iron
The cores of magnetic circuits are built up with laminated steel
plates wherever required. These laminations or stampings are
insulated from each other by paper, stuck to one side of the
lamination, Kaolin clay or enamel.

It is clear that whole of the length is not occupied by iron ;


some part of the length is taken up by ventilating ducts and some
part by insulation between steel laminations and air spaces created
by irregularities in thickness of laminations.

It is usual to define iron space factor, called stacking factor,


as the ratio of actual length of iron in a stack of assembled core
plates to total axial length of stack.

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where Ki = stacking factor for iron which largely
depends upon thickness of plates and the type of insulating material
employed.
The manufacturers specify the stacking factor for a single
lamination.
The stacking factor for built up cores is smaller and an average
value of 0.9 may be assumed for all practical purposes.
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Mmf for Teeth
Tapered Teeth.

The mmf required for teeth can be easily calculated whatever may be
their shape, if the flux going down the slot is neglected. The
correction, to take slot flux into account, can be incorporated later on.

Following are the methods usually employed for the calculation of


mmf required for tapered teeth.
(a) Graphical Method.
(b) Three ordinate Method (Simpson‟s rule).

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notes
(a) Graphical Method.
The mmf per metre (H or „at‟)
for the whole length of tooth is
not uniform as the flux density
is not the same everywhere.

Therefore, to obtain correctly


the value of total mmf, it is
necessary to construct a graph
showing the manner in which
„at‟ varies over the length of the
tooth. The mean ordinate of this
graph gives the equivalent „at‟
for the whole of the tooth.

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(b) Three ordinate Method (Simpson‟s rule).
This method can be applied to teeth of
very simple form and of a small taper
and is based upon the assumption that
the curve relating „at‟ with flux
density, is a parabola.
In this method, values of „at‟ are
obtained at three equidistant points,
the ends of the tooth and its centre.

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This method is applied to teeth of small taper and is based upon the
assumption that value of „at‟ obtained for flux density at a section
1/3 of tooth height from the narrow end is the mean of „at‟ for whole
of the tooth.
This method is the most simple of all the methods and results are
sufficiently accurate if the teeth are worked at low saturation.

8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design


M.V.Ramana Rao
Real and Apparent Flux Densities
The real flux passing through the
teeth is always less than the total
or apparent flux. As a result, the
„real flux density‟ in the teeth is
always less than the „apparent flux
density‟.

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M.V.Ramana Rao
In an actual machine, taking the flux over one slot pitch, there are
two parallel paths.

1. Iron path.

2. Air path.

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M.V.Ramana Rao
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M.V.Ramana Rao
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8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design


M.V.Ramana Rao
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8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design


M.V.Ramana Rao
Apparent flux density
*

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Problem :

8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design


M.V.Ramana Rao
8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design
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8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design
M.V.Ramana Rao
Problem :

8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design


M.V.Ramana Rao
8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design
M.V.Ramana Rao
Problem :

8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design


M.V.Ramana Rao
8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design
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Electrical Machine Design
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8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design
M.V.Ramana Rao
ARMATURE LEAKAGE 1. Slot leakage flux.
The term “Armature” means the member which carries distributed d.c.
or a.c windings.
The leakage flux in armature of rotating machines is superimposed
upon the mutual (useful) flux in the air gap region. The distribution of
the air gap flux is modified on account of existence of leakage flux.
The distribution of total
flux in air gap region is
shown in Fig. (a).
However, the leakage
flux in the overhang has
a separate identity.
Fig.(b) shows its
arbitrary two
components, the mutual
(useful) flux and the
leakage flux.
8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design
M.V.Ramana Rao
2. Tooth top leakage flux.
This leakage flux passes from top of one tooth to the top of another
tooth. This leakage flux is quite important in machines having large
gap lengths like d.c. machines and synchronous machines while in
induction machines, it is normally negligible. Fig. shows the tooth
top leakage flux.

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M.V.Ramana Rao
3. Zigzag leakage flux
This flux passes from one tooth to another in a zigzag fashion
across the air gap (Fig. The magnitude of this flux depends upon
the length of air gap and the relative positions of tips of teeth.

8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design


M.V.Ramana Rao
4. Overhang leakage flux.
The overhang portion of armature windings produces a separate
leakage flux. Its magnitude depends upon the arrangement of
overhang and the proximity metal masses, such as core stiffness and
end covers having conducting and magnetic properties. Fig. shows
the overhang leakage flux. It is clear that this leakage flux has
distinct separate identity and does not modify the value and
distribution of the total flux.

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The iron surfaces around the air gap are not smooth and so the
calculation of mmf for the air gap by ordinary methods gives
wrong results. The problem is complicated by the fact that

1. One or both of the iron surfaces around the air gap may be
slotted so that the flux tends to concentrate on the teeth rather than
distributing itself uniformly over the air gap.

2. There are radial ventilating ducts in the machine for cooling


purposes which affect in a similar manner as above.

3. In salient pole machines, the gap dimensions are not constant


over whole of the pole pitch.

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M.V.Ramana Rao
The calculation of mmf necessary to maintain the flux in the teeth
is difficult owing to the following complex problems

1. The teeth are wedge-shaped or tapered when parallel sided slots


are used. This means that the area presented to the path of flux is
not constant and this gives different values of flux density over the
length of teeth.

2. The slot provides another parallel path for the flux, shunting the
tooth. The teeth are normally worked in the saturation region and
therefore their permeability is low, and as a result an appreciable
portion of the flux goes down the depth of the slots. The presence
of two parallel paths, the reluctance of one part depending upon the
degree of saturation in the other, makes the problem intricate.

8/8/2014 10:30 AM
Electrical Machine Design back
M.V.Ramana Rao
Anyone who stops learning is old,
whether at twenty or eighty.
Anyone who keeps learning stays young.
The greatest thing in life is to keep your
mind young.

8/8/2014 10:30 AM Electrical Machine Design


M.V.Ramana Rao
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M.V.Ramana Rao