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5 mole MgO PbCO3 CO2 Cu(NO3)2 NaOH 70 g 2.2 g 2.5 mole 80 g 0.04 mole
Number of particle = mole x NA
Volume = mole x molar volume (22.4 dm3)
C : RAM / RMM Substance Relative Atomic Mass (RAM or Mr) NaCl KOH MgO PbCO3 CO2 D : Chemical Formulae for Ions Chemical Name of cation / Name of cation / positive ion Formula positive ion + Hydrogen Silver H Lithium Iron (II) Sodium Iron (III) Potassium Lead (II) Calcium Lead (IV) Magnesium Ammonium Aluminium Stanum (II) Zinc Stanum (IV) Copper (I) Copper (II) E : Chemical formula for Ionic Compound Name Ionic Formula Hydrochloric acid HCl Sulphuric acid Nitric acid Ammonia gas Chlorine gas Hydrogen sulphide gas E
Substance Cu(NO3)2 NaOH Zn(NO3)2 Ca(OH)2 NH3 Chemical Formula
Relative Atomic Mass (RAM or Mr)
Name of anion / negative ion chloride bromide iodide hydroxide nitrate carbonate sulphate oxide
Name Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Barium hydroxide Sulphur dioxide gas Nitrogen dioxide gas Sulphur trioxide gas
Write a balance chemical and ionic equation using symbol and formula Reactant Balance chemical equation
1. Hydrochloric acid + Sodium hydroxide 2. Sulphuric acid + Barium hydroxide 3. Nitric acid + Potassium hydroxide 4. Hydrochloric acid + Magnesium (s) 5. Hydrochloric acid + sodium carbonate 6. Sulphuric acid + Copper (II) carbonate 7. Sulphuric acid + Ammonium carbonate 8. Nitric acid + Lead (II) carbonate 9. Hydrochloric acid + Zinc oxide 10. Sulphuric acid + Copper (II) oxide
HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq)
NaCl (s) + H2O (l)
Example : a) Li Li+ + eNa+ + e- b) Na c) K • As go down the group. Thus.8. the force of attraction between valence electron and nucleus become weaker. • Group 1 will tend to lose 1 e to form +1 charge ion to achieve the stable duplet (2) or octet (8) electron arrangement. 2 Li (s) + 2 H2O (l) • Can form an metal oxide 4 Li (s) + O2 (g) 2 Li2O (s) 2 LiOH (aq) + H2 (g) .8.8.18. • Can form an alkaline metal hydroxide and hydrogen gasses. it is easier to lose 1 electron to achieve duplet or octet electron arrangement.1 All alkali metal have one valence electron. The distance between the outermost shell occupied electrons with nucleus becomes further. less energy needed to overcome the weak force of attraction during melting and boiling. iii) Reactive alkali metal iv) Ability to lose electron to achieve a stable electron configuration Elements Symbols Electron configuration Density Size atom Melting point / Boiling point Reactivity Rubidium Caesium Francium Rb Cs Fr 2. So the size increasing down the group.32.1 2.Element 1 (Alkali metals) 188.8.131.52. Common characteristic i) Good conductor of heat and electricity ii) Gray in color with silvery and shiny surface when freshly cut. The valence electron become further from nucleus. Hence.1 2.8. the size is increasing.18.18. As the atomic size increases. the force of attraction between metal become weaker.18. As the result. Therefore they will have similar properties The atomic number of shells occupied increases.
thus the van der walls force between the outermost electron with nucleus become stronger.8 These electron arrangements are very stable.8 184.108.40.206.8. Therefore more heat energy is required to overcome the force during melting and boiling.18.8. They will not gain . Ar. Symbols Electron configuration Size atom Density Melting point / Boiling point Reactivity Elements Krypton Xenon Radon Kr Xe Rn 2.32. they are not chemically reactive .p increasing down the group. Kr) iv) Have low melting and boiling point compare to other alkali metal because they are held together by a weak Van der Waals force of attractions.8 2. This is because they have reached the stable electron configuration.18. - Elements in group 18 are not chemically reactive.220.127.116.11. lose or share electrons with other elements.8 2.p and m.8 2. Therefore.8. A stable electron configuration is having 2 electron valence (duplet) or 8 electron valence (octet) • • • • • • Helium : Neon : Argon : Krypton : Xenon : Radon : 2 2.8.18. Common characteristic i) Not reactive (inert gases) ii) Have stable electron configuration (duplet =2 or octet = 8) iii) Monatomic gasses (He.8 2. Ne.18.8. The number of shell occupied electron is increasing.18.8 Not chemically reactive Noble gasses have 2 or 8 valence electron Atomic size increasing because the number of shell occupied electron is increasing The increase in relative atomic mass is more than the increase in atomic size down the group. b.8 2.18.Element 18 ( noble gases) 1.