Ideal for homeschooling and self-directed learning!

DRAWING
Author of Drawing for Dummies and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated

BOOK 1: GETTING STARTED
Brenda Hoddinott

120 pages and more than 230 illustrations!
► Choose the right drawing supplies ► Set up a place to draw ► Make a portfolio and viewfinder frame ► 10 fun exercises and projects Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level: 6.84 Flesch reading ease score: 74.7

Brenda Hoddinott
Artist, illustrator, art educator, curriculum designer, forensic artist (retired), owner of Drawspace.com, and author of Drawing for Dummies, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated, and Drawing Book 1: Getting Started.

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Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. With the help of learn-to-draw books, she developed good drawing skills by the age of 16. In 1982 Brenda left her well established career as a portraitist, graphic designer, and forensic artist, to move to Nova Scotia with her family. In addition to resuming the various facets of her art career, she began learning to paint in oils. From 1988 to 1994, Brenda began exhibiting her paintings and drawings in provincial and regional art exhibitions and competitions. She was honored with more than twenty prestigious visual art awards during these six years. Brenda and her partner John live in the suburbs of Halifax, Nova Scotia with their two SPCA rescue dogs, Timber (Huskador) and Katie (Rottbeagle). Their blended family includes five adult children and two grandchildren.

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I

DRAWING
BOOK 1
GETTING STARTED
by Brenda Hoddinott
Author of Drawing for Dummies and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated

Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada

. without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. specifically the basics of drawing.drawspace. personal or otherwise. Brenda Hoddinott. or otherwise. resulting from the use or misuse of information and applications of any of the contents of this book.com or through her website at http://www. or transmitted by any method or means.com. book layout.com. Copyright © 2009 Brenda Hoddinott All rights reserved.com disclaim any responsibility for any liability. Canada Illustrations. Halifax. Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace. which is incurred as a consequence. damages. curriculum. NS.II This book is dedicated to my loving partner. electronically sent or transferred to additional individuals or companies other than the original purchaser of this electronic book. and cover design: Brenda Hoddinott Editor: Suzanne Beaton Brenda Hoddinott can be contacted at brenda@drawspace. mechanical. or risk. and it is intended to provide helpful and informative material on all aspects of the subject matter. recording. John Percy. directly or indirectly. loss. electronic. Publisher: Drawspace. This electronic publication contains the opinions and ideas of the author. No part of this electronic book shall be reproduced by any method or means. photocopying.

............................................1 Look into this Book .............................................11 In the time of the caveman .........................3 ArtSpeak ...............................................................14 Drawing is an action word .......3 Info Tidbit ...............................................................................................3 Warning! .............................................4 A few words on illustrations .........................................................................................................III CONTENTS ***************************************************************** Introduction ..............................................................................................................3 Sizing up the sidebars .................13 The Inside Scoop on Drawing ..........................................6 Part 1: Get Ready! .....................................................4 Art Quote ........7 Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing ......................................................................................................................................................................................15 YOU can draw! .............................................................................................................................................................................................................6 How to Use this Book .15 ...............5 Insights into the Parts ...........................................................4 Tip! ..................................................4 Action sidebar numbers and letters ..............................4 Eyeing action icons ...........................................................6 Part 3: Go Draw! ...............................................................................4 Step-by-step projects ..................12 Remembering the Renaissance ........................................................................9 A Brief History of Drawing ......................11 The birth of classical art ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Shaping up with exercises .............................................................................................6 Part 2: Get Set! ................................................................................................6 Part 1: Get Ready! ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................37 Sketchbooks and Papers ...................................................................................................................................................24 Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums .......................17 How the “lead” pencil got its name .................................................................................................................................................42 Sharpening your Mediums ....................................33 Check up on Tooth (without a Dentist!) ........................40 Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................38 Softcover...25 Picking out Proper Pencils ..............41 Tools for Erasing ...........................27 Other fun pencil mediums .....22 Combining soft and hard grades .............IV Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades ........................................................................39 Larger is not always better ...................................................29 Mechanical pencils .................................19 Hard is light ..........................27 Charcoal pencils .......29 Sticks and Stones (oops!) Powders ....................................................21 Soft is dark ..............................26 Wood-encased pencils ......................................................................................................................................23 Finding out your grade .........................................................................................................................................................................................................43 Pencil sharpeners ................................................................................................................................41 Kneaded erasers .........................................39 Weighing in on paper ..................................................................................................... or sheets? ....................................................................................................................................29 Woodless graphite pencils ..................................................34 The surface of a smooth tooth ..........................................................36 Textures on a rough tooth ..43 .......................41 Vinyl erasers ....................................................28 Graphite pencils ................................19 Making the Grade ......31 Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers ................................................................................17 Traveling Back in Time with Graphite ........18 The link between graphite and sheep .................................................................................................. hardcover.....................35 Big smile for a medium tooth ....................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................55 Must have .......................................................... Portfolio......57 Action 7B: Making a Portfolio ............................................................44 Pencil case ..........57 Deciding on a size ................................................................................................................................55 Nice to have ...........57 Supplies for a portable studio .................................................................................. and Viewfinder Frame .................................................Contents V Sandpaper blocks and sheets .............................................................................................................53 Chapter 7: Making a List...................................................................................................................................................................58 Option 2: Using two pieces of board ...45 Display boards ......................58 Option 1: Using one large sheet of board ......................46 Part 2: Get Set! ...........................................................................................................................................44 Viewfinder frame .....................................61 Adding ties and final touches ..................63 .....................50 Shedding light on your art ..............................................................47 Chapter 6: Setting up For Drawing ............52 Sitting correctly ...................................................................55 Action 7A: The Shopping List ....................................................56 Supplies for making a portfolio ..................................................................................................................................................43 A Few Extras ..............................................................44 Portfolio ..................................................... but not necessary .........50 Good Posture First! ........................52 Putting Together a Portable Studio .......................................................................................................................................57 Supplies for making a viewfinder frame .......................................................................................................................................................................................62 Action 7C: Making a Viewfinder Frame ..44 Stuff you can’t do without ........................................................46 Spray fixative ...................................................................................45 Nice to have..............51 How NOT to sit! .........................................................................................................................49 A Comfy Place to Sit and Draw .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................46 Manikins .....49 Choosing a drawing surface ..............................................................................44 Ruler ..........................................................

........67 Finding your natural hand movement ............................92 Create a sketch by framing your view ...............................................................................71 Action 9A: Sketching a Self-Portrait ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................VI Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Chapter 8: Give Yourself a Helping Hand .............................................................................90 Action 9F: Framing with a Viewfinder .....91 Three steps for framing a view ........................................................71 Action 9B: Creating Values with Squirkles ..................................................................................68 Part 3: Go Draw! ..................95 Action 10B: A Realistic Eye ..................76 Action 9D: Playing with Erasers .............................................81 Part 2: Straight-sided shape .................................................................................................................77 Action 9E: Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper ...........................................................................................................................................67 Leonardo the lefty ..........................................65 Holding your Mediums ..................................88 Just for fun! .........................................................................104 Squirkling shading for Mugly ................................................69 Chapter 9: Putting your Supplies to Work ...............................68 Rotating your paper as you draw .............................................................103 Outlining Mugly with neat lines .......................93 Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings ......................108 Glossary ........................................................72 Action 9C: Playing with Pencils ..........................................................................................................................80 Part 1: Circular shape ......................................................................115 ............................................................................................................95 Action 10A: Drawing a Caveperson ..........65 Becoming a Natural ..................99 Action 10C: Mugly Wigglebottom ...................................84 Part 3: Circle .................

When Brenda first approached me to write the forward for this. and advocate. Foreword . Brenda’s lesson plans and instructions accommodate a wide range of learning styles. and skill levels. including those who learn outside the boundaries of traditional and prescribed learning environments. Roughley VII ***************************************************************** I have known Brenda Hoddinott for many years. her third book. but has exceeded the expectations of her audience with this invaluable arts-based curriculum. my own journey has taken me into the field of education. Brenda played a pivotal role in helping me reconnect with my artist within. I didn’t believe that I was creative or artistic. but because I had been eagerly awaiting the completion of this learning resource. as she leads students on a journey of self-discovery through self-directed learning. Until that point. mentor.Foreword by Robert A. her genuine and compassionate nature extends to her teaching of art and drawing. I pursued undergraduate degrees in music and elementary and adult education. Not only because she asked me. For the past fifteen years. It was during a difficult life transition that she provided me with the gift of encouragement to explore my creative self-awareness. Many of the existing resources on the market are written and published without careful attention to the learning needs of the intended audience. access to quality learning and teaching materials is limited. The integration of my training has allowed me to participate in many roles: learner. Blending expertise with encouragement. with patience (and a sense of humor). However. I was filled with joy. Most notably. teacher. For many. As a learner. As an educator with graduate training and expertise in curriculum and instructional design. I believe that Brenda Hoddinott has not only responded to. Drawing Book 1: Getting Started – the first in a series for homeschooling families and self-directed learners. abilities. My perception of art and creativity was limited by my perfectionist ideals of what defined “artistic ability”.

I worked with children from kindergarten to grade six. University of Calgary .. Someone once said. negative implications resulting from the demise or discontinuation of arts-based education in traditional and homeschooling settings.. after years of study. and counseling psychology. And now. I have witnessed the long-term. As I transitioned from learner to teacher. Doctoral Student. we possess the intentions of creativity. BAEd. M. Brenda joins her learners as they discover their creative talents. and worldviews. Roughley B. abilities. and practitioners to build upon this quotation and consider that what one sees in their own self-reflection is the core of one’s creative identity. I have the pleasure of putting my academic “stamp of approval” in the front pages of this very unique and thorough approach to art education. It is my hope that you find this experience just as enlightening as you explore. unlearned. As an educator and co-learner with students of all ages. Later in my career. discover.. I have learned. learners. self-identities. Teaching and Learning Centre. unique humor. with a focus in special education. but are far too often limited by the influence of those who fear the unlimited possibilities that come from creative thinking. My current positions have merged my credentials and focus into three main areas: teacher development (teaching professionals how to teach)..VIII Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started My graduate work focused on educational and curriculum studies.A. Each chapter of this book represents a stage in the development and awareness of one’s artistic self. I became a consultant for change in curriculum development and inclusive education. In my various personal and professional roles. and detailed visual illustrations. Through her gentle and supportive directions. B. and inclusive education. I encourage readers. As a counseling practitioner. I have noticed the effect of inclusive and purposeful curriculum in the emergence of the creative self. “What we learn from others becomes our own through reflection”. MC. and relearned the importance of creativity and artistic expression in marking our developmental milestones and other life transitions.Ed.Ed. Robert A. (or even rediscover!) your own artist within. reflective practice. As human beings.. University of Calgary Instructor.

Vision is the ability to see. Introduction ArtSpeak ArtSpeak is a fun word used to describe the vocabulary of art. You are also introduced to several art related words and terms. you find out what to pack in a portable studio so you can comfortably draw outdoors. In addition. This sidebar is called ArtSpeak. Figure 02: A cartoon drawing is created with a pencil. you find out about each part of this book and all the different types of sidebars. and shows you how to use them. This book tells you about drawing supplies. Medium refers to any drawing tool (anything from a pencil to the burnt end of a stick) used to make marks on a surface. and it provides you with definitions of art words and terms. . Figure 01: A hand is drawing a cartoon. I also discuss how to set up a practical place to draw indoors. Figure 03: A regular pencil with a medium inside a wooden holder is a very popular drawing tool. Several simple exercises and projects help you warm up your drawing hand. Sidebar is a box of text (some have illustrations) that provides additional information about a topic. Finally. So.Introduction 1 ***************************************************************** YOU can learn to draw! All you need is some vision and a way to hold a drawing medium. sit back and relax as I tell you about this book and how to use it. Pencil refers to a broad category of drawing tools that have the medium inside a holder (Figure 03). Drawing (verb) refers to the process of applying a medium to a surface to create an image (Figure 01). In this introduction. I explain the very best way to work through this book. Drawing (noun) is an image created on a drawing surface with a drawing medium (Figure 02).

Figure 06: Five values from light to dark. Figure 05: Shading is added to the same sketch. . Shading (noun) refers to the various values within a drawing that make images appear three-dimensional. A sketch is usually done quickly with simple lines (Figure 04) and (or) shading (Figure 05). Sketch (noun) is a simple drawing of the important parts of a subject. Sketch (verb) refers to the process of doing a sketch. Text refers to the words used in writing. TIP! Save all your sketches and drawings! Someday. Values are the different shades of gray you make when adding shading to a drawing. ArtSpeak sidebars are identified by a cartoon icon of Albert Einstein. my parents had saved them for me.2 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Illustration is an image (such as a drawing) that is used to help explain text. Figure 04: Simple sketch of a seated man. Icon is an image (such as a drawing) used to identify a specific task or information. you may want to look back on your early works to see how much you’ve improved. Shading (verb) is the process of adding values to a drawing. Figure 08: Little girl with a doll. I created the drawings in Figures 07 and 08 when I was around 14. Figure 07: A family living in a log house in the forest. Luckily.

Figure 12: ArtSpeak icon is a cartoon of Albert Einstein’s face. Realism is a way of drawing in which living beings and objects are drawn as they appear in real life. so you can better understand what you read. and illustrations in this book. I tell you about. Classical drawing was later enhanced by the great artists of the Renaissance. . Look into this Book In this section. Classical drawing refers to the drawing methods invented by ancient Greeks and Romans for creating realistic drawings (called realism). projects. icons. Info Tidbit Info Tidbit sidebars (Figure 13) provide tidbits of information about art-related subjects. Tidbit icon is a simple flower rendered with classical drawing techniques. Figure 13: Info Figure 11: A lifelike drawing of an eye is an example of realism. you find five different sidebars (identified with circle-shaped icons) that are filled with useful information. Sizing up the sidebars Scattered throughout this book.Introduction 3 ArtSpeak Shape refers to the outward outline of a threedimensional object. and show you how to identify the various sidebars. ArtSpeak ArtSpeak sidebars (Figure 12) define the drawing words and terms in this book. exercises. Figure 09: Shading transforms the shape of a simple circle into the planet Earth. Figure 10: I used classical drawing methods to copy a work created by Leonardo da Vinci during the Renaissance. Renaissance (from the French word for “rebirth”) refers to the changes within European culture from the early twelfth century to the late sixteenth century. The artist tries to draw what he or she sees as realistically as possible. such as the history of art.

Figure 18: Step-by-step projects are identified with a hand holding a pencil. In addition. Shaping up with exercises Wherever you see the icon in Figure 17. an action icon identifies either an exercise or project. Projects usually take more time than exercises. energy. an exercise icon may ask you to do a simple sketch or drawing. Figure 17: Exercises are identified by an icon of a boy doing exercises. it’s time to complete a step-by-step project. Tip! A tip can be more than the pointy end of a stick! The tips inside these sidebars (Figure 15) can save you time. you find several action icons. Figure 16: Art Quote icon is an adorable cartoon called a Wooly Woo. Some ask you to make something and others ask you to gather your drawing supplies and draw. 9. Figure 14: Warning icon is a scaredlooking cartoon face with a nose shaped like an exclamation mark. Each exercise and project can be identified by the number of the chapter in which it appears. . Figure 15: Tip icon is a cartoon face on a light bulb. you find an exercise designed to help you make or use drawing supplies. Art Quote Quotes about art (Figure 16) provide insights into the creative minds of well-known artists. and frustration by telling you easier ways to do some tasks or how to take better care of your supplies. Each has two or more illustrated instructions to help guide you.4 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Warning! Better safe than sorry! Protect your drawings (or yourself) from potential dangers by following the advice in these sidebars (Figure 14). and 10. Eying action icons In Chapters 7. Action sidebar numbers and letters As you know. A letter identifies its order within the chapter. Step-by-step projects When you see the icon in Figure 18.

you may become inspired by examining the skills you are working to achieve. the first action sidebar in Chapter 7 is marked 7A (A is the first letter of the alphabet). the fourth illustration in Chapter 6 (a cartoon artist practicing his drawing skills on page 50) is marked Figure 604. maybe one of your artistic goals is to draw realistic animals (check out Figure 21). The icon identifies a project. ► AC T I ON 1 0 C ◄ Figure 20: Action 10C takes you step-by-step through the process of drawing a cartoon puppy named Mugly Wigglebottom. As an added bonus. this one is an exercise. the first illustration in Chapter 1 (a drawing of mountains on page 9) is marked Figure 101. As you can tell by the icon (Figure 19). A few words on illustrations You are not expected to draw all the illustrations in this book! Most drawings are intended to illustrate and help you understand the topics being discussed. For example. For example. Likewise. Do you happen to know the name of a good orthodontist? . The number and letter 10C (C being the third letter of the alphabet) identifies the third action in Chapter 10. Figure 21: A challenging drawing of a Shih Tzu who goes by the name of Panda. For example.Introduction 5 ► AC T I ON 7 A ◄ Figure 19: The first exercise in Chapter 7 helps you make out a shopping list for buying drawing supplies. Each illustration in this book is marked with a number based on its placement within a chapter.

from beginning to end. You find out about proper lighting. If an exercise or project is too difficult. When you begin to feel totally overwhelmed and frustrated. I offer the two following options: Plan A Slowly work through the entire book in sequence. go back to plan A and work through the book from beginning to end! . I help you set up a comfortable place to draw. However. doing each exercise along the way. and various ways to hold your pencil. Enjoy the illustrations and try your hand at the various exercises and projects that appeal to you. Plan B Read through this book in no particular order. you’ll be ready for Drawing Book 2: Lines and Spaces. By the time you reach the end of the book. You will encounter a few challenges with terminology (this is why you have a glossary in the back of the book). Each new piece of information. until you are happy with the results. skill. human nature being what it is. go back and try it again (and again if you need to). Part 3: Go Draw! The first two parts of this book prepare you for the activities in this part. or technique prepares you for the next. How to Use this Book This book is designed to be read in order . you find out what’s inside each of the three parts of this book.6 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Insights into the parts In this section. Part 1: Get Ready! Sit back and relax as I tell you about the drawing supplies you need to complete the exercises and projects in this book. Nine fun exercises and projects challenge you to put your drawing supplies to work as you learn several basic drawing skills and techniques. Part 2: Get Set! In this part. and some projects beyond your current skill level. ideal drawing surfaces. You also have the option of making an artist’s portfolio and viewfinder frame. good posture for drawing.

and weights of drawing papers ► How to select and protect the tooth of paper ► Vinyl and kneaded erasers ► Pencil sharpeners and sandpaper ► Pencil case. sizes.Part 1: Get Ready! 7 PART 1 GET READY! ► Simple history of drawing ► Process of learning to draw ► Fun history of graphite ► Grades of graphite ► Differences between B and H grades ► How grades affect the look of drawings ► Graphite and charcoal drawing mediums ► Wood-encased. viewfinder frame. and ruler ► Manikins. portfolio. display boards. and spray fixative . mechanical. and woodless pencils ► Drawing powders and sticks ► Textures.

8 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started .

In another drawing. the tallest trees on earth grow toward the sky. Figure 101: You won’t find this scene anywhere on planet Earth. ogres and trolls are chasing one another through a dark. I wonder if any other life forms besides stone faces live here? .Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 9 Chapter 1 Welcome to Drawing ***************************************************************** On a simple sheet of drawing paper. magical forest. How about a snow dragon dancing with polar bears and penguins? Or stone faces standing guard over a river valley in another galaxy far away? How many stone faces can you find in the drawing in Figure 101? Figures 102 and 103 show you a couple just to get you started.

many archeologists have excellent drawing skills. historians (people who study and write about history) have documented that Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy in the year 1452. Figure 103: See the face of a regal male warrior gazing toward the right. unaware of the creature with the huge open mouth waiting for lunch to walk by. you learn 32. mostly about the lives and activities of human beings and their environments. Figure 105: Prehistoric humans drew pictures like these on the walls of caves. (Obviously. Prehistoric describes the period in time before language was used to write and record history. History is a written record of the past.10 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started In this chapter. a very shortened version of history!) You also find out the real truth behind the silly gossip that you need a magical talent to become an artist. (As an aside. Figure 104: In Action 7B in Chapter 7. chin.) Figure 106: A drawing of an old arrowhead that looks similar to some that were discovered by archeologists. mouth. Can you find his nose. .000 years of art history by reading a thousand words. Archaeologist is a person who studies ancient peoples by finding and documenting the things they left behind. I show you how to make a simple portfolio. Figure 102: Imagine yourself strolling peacefully along this path. For example. and an eye? ArtSpeak Portfolio is a case in which artists store (or carry) drawings and papers to protect them from damage.

from the cave drawings of prehistoric humans. An artist’s style may be based on his or her personal preferences and art education. ArtSpeak Style refers to an artist’s approach to his or her own art. For example. realism is a well-known style. more than one shading technique may be suitable for a specific drawing. You can try your hand at drawing a human figure the way some prehistoric people did. For example. During prehistoric times in Africa. This section offers a brief background on drawing . Figure 107: Copies of prehistoric cave drawings created by cavemen (or cavewomen). the drawings recorded their stories without spoken language or written words. to the masterpieces of the Renaissance. In other words. a form of communication that is free of such rules as correct spelling or proper grammar. Figure 108: Drawing based on an actual prehistoric drawing discovered on a stone in Africa. Hence. an artist’s choice of a shading technique (or techniques) is generally based on his or her skill level and what works best to capture the subject. Archaeologists have discovered many of their drawings on the walls of caves. These drawings tell us a lot about how prehistoric humans lived. In the time of the caveman Artists have been drawing for at least 32. drawings of simple human figures (Figure 108) were added to burial stones. .Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 11 A Brief History of Drawing Drawing is a universally understood language. The drawings in Figure 107 are similar to prehistoric drawings found on the walls of caves in France.000 years. in Action 10A in Chapter 10. Technique is a well-known method (such as a specific way to do shading) that is used to accomplish a particular activity or task.

For example. and sculptures) that can be appreciated by the sense of sight. and people. Figure 109: The smoothly flowing lines of this drawing capture an antelope as it appeared on an ancient fresco. animals. or other large surface. . rock. A very well-known sculptor of the Renaissance was Michelangelo. Archeologists have found the remnants of murals and frescos painted on walls of buildings in ancient Greece and Rome. ceiling. copied from a fresco that had been buried under volcanic ash in Greece for more than 3500 years. or marble. Fresco is an artwork painted on a thin layer of plaster that covers a wall or ceiling. Visual art refers to artworks (such as drawings. woman. ancient Greek and Roman artists created realistic artworks of nature. Frescos that date back more than 3500 years have been discovered in Greece. paintings. The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (in Rome) is also a fresco that was painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512. Sculpture is a three-dimensional artwork that is made of a material such as bronze. The drawing in Figure 110 is copied from a mummy portrait that was discovered in Egypt. Murals have been discovered on the walls of prehistoric caves and inside ancient Egyptian tombs. Figure 109 is a drawing of an antelope. but others are remarkably well preserved. Many show major deterioration.12 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Mural is a drawing or painting on a wall. Sculptor is an artist who creates sculptures. as well as how people lived during these times. or child that was discovered attached to the face of a burial mummy. Mummy portrait is a painting of a man. The discovery of several of these artworks helps us understand the styles and techniques of the artists. and one of his most famous sculptures is the Statue of David. Many date back to the Roman occupation of Egypt. all the drawings in this book are considered visual art. The birth of classical art Long before the Renaissance.

Even today. Michelangelo. Hans Holbein. frescos. possibly a Roman soldier (Figure 110). and digital art. several breathtaking. Some of the more dedicated art students experimented with new ways of drawing and ended up creating new techniques. . and pottery.Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 13 In addition to murals. classical drawing techniques were greatly improved and many new techniques were born. created the most magnificent masterpieces our world has ever known. Hence. and Albrecht Dürer. During this time. sculpture. Throughout the Renaissance. many very famous artists (called “great masters”) further developed drawing as the most important of all visual arts. One of my favorite ancient paintings is a mummy portrait of a young man. many students of the masters eventually became masters themselves. The unknown artist used classical techniques to make the face appear three-dimensional. such as Leonardo da Vinci. I couldn’t resist the challenge of drawing someone who lived more than 2. realistic sculptures and paintings of people have survived the ravages of time. Between 1480 and 1527. Remembering the Renaissance The beginning of the Renaissance is identified by the very popular rebirth of classical drawing throughout Europe. Classical drawing techniques are considered the foundation of all visual arts including painting. Great masters. students of art all over the world are still learning from the masters of the Renaissance. I decided to include the flaws of the old wooden panels on which it was painted. art students were encouraged to study and practice the techniques of the most highly skilled artists (called “masters”). Figure 110: My goal was to create a drawing that looked like the ancient painting. coins. Figures 111 and 112 demonstrate classical drawing techniques from the High Renaissance.000 years ago. during the time known as the High Renaissance.

Check out the artist’s model and compare him to the drawing (Figure 113). Figure 112: Classical drawing techniques are used in a drawing of a young girl (based on a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci). and better understand the world around you. . Figure 113: An artist uses his creativity to make a few changes to the body of the model in his drawing. creativity is also enhanced.14 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 111: This classical drawing of a youth is copied from a work by Michelangelo. you automatically learn to observe. As your drawing abilities become stronger. The Inside Scoop on Drawing Throughout the process of learning to draw. appreciate.

Talent is nothing more than a word that describes the process in which you accept your ability to become a good artist. Drawing is also an action word. Both of these activities require some sort of action in order to be learned. With a little creative thought. Just as you learned to draw the letters of the alphabet. The closest relatives of drawing are printing and writing. The process of reading this and every other art book from cover to cover cannot improve your drawing skills. you must put your knowledge into practice! YOU can draw! Drawing is an easily acquired skill that everyone can learn. and other subjects.Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 15 Drawing is an action word Music students can’t learn to play piano by reading a music book without actually applying their knowledge to the action of playing a piano. All you need is some vision and a way to hold a drawing tool. In other words. learning to draw does not require a magical force to have been born within you. You need to actually draw to achieve strong skills. Figure 114: A photo of a horse in a field as viewed through the legs of another horse. People who expect to know how to ski after reading a book on skiing are not going to have any success until they actually go skiing. people. Being able to draw also allows you to take up other visual arts (such as digital art and painting) more easily than people who cannot draw. Figure 115: The horse has magically turned into a unicorn! . you can also learn to draw objects. Drawing provides a way for you to document how you see the world. artists can even change what they see in the real world into something completely different! Compare my reference photo in Figure 114 to the drawing in Figure 115. You can also learn to draw from your imagination. Simply put.

. My sketch of a horse’s head (Figure 116) demonstrates the classical technique of lightly rendering an underdrawing before beginning a final drawing (Figure 117). The techniques that you like best help determine your unique style. My drawing techniques reveal that I have been a student of the masters for most of my life. Leonardo da Vinci often used the technique of doing an underdrawing with metalpoint (refer to definition on page 18) before beginning a drawing or painting. Strong drawing skills eventually come to everyone who works hard.16 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Info Tidbit Developing your own style To develop a personal style of your own. ArtSpeak Underdrawing is a loosely rendered sketch that is created as a guide for a final drawing (or painting). You CAN draw! With lots of patience and hard work. and learn from those that you don’t like. Figure 116 shows an underdrawing of a horse. you first need to learn as many techniques as possible. Always take joy in your good drawings. you can become as good as you can imagine. Figure 117: The style I use to draw a horse’s head is similar to the styles of the drawings of the masters demonstrated in Figures 111 and 112. For instance. Figure 116: A very faint underdrawing identifies the basic shapes of a horse’s head.

Traveling Back in Time with Graphite In this section.Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 17 Chapter 2 Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades ***************************************************************** Something called “graphite” is the best friend of many artists who love to draw. Clay is a naturally occurring material that becomes hardened when dried. In this chapter. (When it comes to graphite. Figure 201: The base value of five different grades of graphite. . you discover a few fascinating tidbits about the history of graphite. You also learn about the grades of graphite. Some graphite drawings created hundreds of years ago are still around today. ArtSpeak Graphite is a soft black form of opaque (nontransparent) carbon found in nature. Hence. a B grade is not better than an H!) In addition. you examine drawings rendered with different grades of graphite to give you an idea of how B and H pencils affect the look of drawings. graphite has survived the test of time. Grade refers to the softness or hardness of the mixture used in the manufacture of drawing mediums. I share a little bit of fun information about graphite and its history. It is often mixed with clay to make various types of drawing tools for artists.

WARNING! Stay away from poor-quality graphite! When most people think of drawing. gold.18 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Another great thing about graphite is its ability to be erased. ancient artists made drawings with long. and so they became known as “leadpoint”. On the other hand. How the “lead” pencil got its name Before the discovery of graphite. but can scratch your drawing paper instead of going on smoothly. Therefore. During the Renaissance. When you look closely at old drawings. or copper. Some styluses had a fine point at one end and a blunter point at the opposite end so artists could draw both thin and thick lines. Styluses made of lead have been traced back to ancient Rome. Figure 202: The earliest stylus was a thin metal stick made of lead. Artists also used styluses to do underdrawings for more detailed drawings (and paintings). . producing a fine gray line. such as lead. Professional drawing pencils are made with a higher quality mixture of graphite and clay and make marks that flow more smoothly. the masters created many beautiful intricate drawings with only a stylus. an ordinary graphite pencil comes to mind (like the ones used by schoolchildren). many mistakes can be fixed. During the Renaissance. a word of caution: these pencils are not designed for drawing! Inexpensive graphite may work well for writing. On the downside. A stylus worked by leaving a thin deposit of metal on the surface of paper. The term “lead pencil” is often incorrectly used to describe graphite pencils that are made of graphite and clay (and contain no lead whatsoever). However. they are usually more expensive than pencils made for writing. styluses were also made from silver. you can often find a few of the faint lines from the underdrawings. Leadpoint is considered the ancestor of the modern graphite pencil. graphite pencils do produce a warm-toned gray line that looks very similar to the marks made by leadpoint. Styluses were made from a soft metal. ArtSpeak Stylus (sometimes called leadpoint or metalpoint) refers to a thin metal stick used for drawing. thin rods (referred to as “styluses”).

Artists often sharpened a chunk of graphite into a point and set it into a metal holder. pencils are labeled with a number-letter code depending on the amounts of graphite and clay in the mixture. Figure 204: A computer-generated image shows the base value of 17 different grades of graphite. News of the discovery of graphite soon traveled far and wide throughout the known world. These sharpened chunks became the very first graphite pencils! Making the Grade As you now know. . Farmers are thought to be the first people who found a practical use for graphite. Clay is hard and makes light marks. a 6B pencil has more graphite than clay and makes very dark marks.Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 19 The link between graphite and sheep Graphite was discovered in England somewhere between 1500 and 1560. They used a lump of graphite to mark their sheep so they could easily identify their flocks. and graphite quickly became a valuable drawing medium within artistic communities. To make shopping a little easier. Many art supply stores carry a broad range of grades. For example. graphite pencils are made with a mixture of graphite and clay. An HB grade is in the middle and can be called either an H or a B (Figure 204). Graphite is very black and soft and makes dark marks. Check out the cartoon drawing of a sheep in Figure 203. A 2H pencil has less graphite and therefore makes very light marks. Figure 203: A cartoon sheep proudly displays a big “X” marked on her wool with graphite.

4B. Figure 205: A range of different values can be created by each of these five grades of graphite. 2B. bolder approach. you may prefer to use mostly H grades. On the other hand. . 4B and 6B grades of pencils. HB. Figure 206: A realistic drawing of a dagger is created with 2H. and 6B. the advanced drawing of a replica of a medieval dagger (Figure 206) is drawn with only these five grades. 2B. Artists can draw a full range of values (Figure 205) with only five grades of graphite: 2H.20 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Trying to draw with 17 different pencils can be a nightmare! Besides. some grades make almost identical marks. Whenever you draw. HB. For example. For drawings needing a softer touch. a combination of B and H grades is a perfect choice. B grades may work better for drawing subjects needing a darker. And more often than not. your goal is to choose whichever grades of pencils can best give you the results you want.

However. ArtSpeak TIP! Always lay your graphite pencils somewhere safe so they don’t fall! Info Tidbit The word pencil comes from the Latin word pencillus (which means “little tail”). Small pieces of broken graphite can jam up the inside of the sharpener. Figure 207: Values created with four H pencils (HB is considered the darkest hard pencil). When a pencil falls to the floor.Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 21 Hard is light Hard pencils can’t make very dark values. circular part of an eye that adjusts its size under different lighting conditions. As a rule. hence. Pupil of an eye is the tiny. The drawing in Figure 209 is almost completely rendered with four different grades of hard pencils. Graphite is quite fragile .especially the softer grades. Figure 208: An arrow points to the pupil of an eye. they work best for small to medium drawings (unless. the graphite inside the core breaks. you have lots of patience). and the pencil becomes very difficult to sharpen. of course. they can create light to medium marks (Figure 207) that work well for some drawings. dark. . brittle medium ► Make light to medium marks ► Wear down slowly ► Need very little sharpening ► Create very thin to medium-width lines The lines made by H pencils are mostly thin and delicate. hard (H) pencils: ► Have a hard.

and can make very dark marks because they have more graphite than clay. Figure 210 shows the base value of four B grades of graphite. . and 2B pencils.22 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started I used a 2B (soft) pencil for only a few dark accents. 2H. 4H. HB. by pressing very gently with B pencils. such as the pupils of his eyes and tiny sections of the darkest shadows. Figure 209: This drawing of a friend (Christopher Church) playing a violin took more than a month to complete with 6H. However. Figure 210: Values created with four B pencils (HB is the lightest B pencil). Soft is dark B pencils tend to “B” soft. you can also create light and medium values.

and 6B pencils. medium. If you are patient. B pencils were used for the small drawing of a peach in Figure 212. B grades of pencils: ► Have a soft medium ► Make light. and are sold under the names Staedtler and Faber-Castell. 4B. you may need to use both B and H grades of pencils. . Figure 211: Loosely rendered sketch of a side-on view of a young man. and dark marks ► Wear down quickly ► Need to be sharpened frequently ► Can make thin to thick lines The darker marks created by B pencils are ideal for loosely rendered sketches on medium to large sheets of paper. Check out the sketch of the young man (Figure 211) created with only 2B and 4B pencils. B pencils can also work well for rendering detailed subjects on small sheets of paper. Combining soft and hard grades When you draw a subject with lots of light and dark values.Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 23 Generally speaking. Figure 212: Drawing of a peach using HB. 2B. and don’t mind constantly sharpening their points. Info Tidbit My favorite brands of graphite pencils are made in Germany.

expect to be surprised by how many different brands of pencils are available. But don’t be fooled! The grade of the graphite is written somewhere on the wood part of each pencil (Look closely at Figure 215). even though the grades are different (Figure 214). 4B.24 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started And what animal could show you a combination of B and H pencils better than a zebra (Figure 213)? The white stripes are shaded with 2H. and the black stripes are drawn with HB. Figure 215: Can you see the grade written on these three brands of pencils? . Professional pencils often look identical. 2B. HB. and 6B. and 2B. Figure 214: At first glance. Figure 213: A drawing of a baby zebra (named Spot) is created with both H and B grades of graphite. different grades of drawing pencils may all look the same. Finding out your grade When you go to an art store.

you need to begin learning to draw with mediums that are specifically designed for artists. As with most activities. ArtSpeak Charcoal is a drawing medium made from burnt organic material (such as wood). Charcoal pencils have a thin cylindrical stick of compressed charcoal inside a wooden casing.Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 25 Chapter 3 More Drawing Mediums ***************************************************************** In addition to graphite pencils. the better the tools. and the kind of marks it makes. Figure 302: A few different types of Figure 301: Shopping for drawing mediums is a big challenge when you have to choose from so many different types. In this chapter. charcoal that are designed for drawing. Charcoal sticks are made by compressing powdered charcoal into round or rectangular sticks. As with graphite. . the happier you are with the outcomes. I tell you about a few popular drawing mediums. I show you what each looks like. charcoal comes in various grades.

intricate drawings on small to medium-sized surfaces. I discuss three types of drawing pencils: wood-encased. The problem is how to remain an artist once he (she) grows up. Wood-encased pencil (4) (better known as a regular pencil) has a thin cylindrical stick of graphite or charcoal inside a wooden casing.26 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Drawing stick (1) is made by compressing and shaping a medium (such as graphite or charcoal) into a cylindrical or rectangular chunk. (3) mechanical pencils. mechanical. Mechanical pencil (3) has an internal mechanism that pushes a thin graphite lead. and woodless. Figure 303: Four types of drawing tools: (1) sticks. Several drawings invite you to compare the abilities of these pencils. and (4) wood-encased pencils. Sandpaper block is an artist’s tool with tear-off sheets of fine sandpaper used to sharpen the points of pencils. through the tip. Pablo Picasso . Figure 304: Pencils last longer if you sharpen only their points on a sandpaper block. loosely rendered drawings or very complicated. Wood-encased pencils Graphite pencils are ideal for either simple. (2) woodless pencil. Charcoal pencils are fantastic for medium to large drawings on large sheets of paper. Art Quote Every child is an artist. from the tiny tube inside the holder. Picking out Proper Pencils In this section. Woodless pencil (2) is a thick cylindrical stick of graphite wrapped in a vinyl casing.

.Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 27 Graphite pencils Figure 305: Most art supply stores carry a huge selection of professionalquality. Figure 308: Cartoon drawing of an emu is created with regular pencils. Charcoal pencils Charcoal pencils are a lot more messy than graphite. or a sandpaper block. You can sharpen the points of regular pencils with a pencil sharpener. Some artists prefer to draw with a slightly worn-down pencil point (Figure 306). The drawing in Figure 308 was created with graphite pencils. A sandpaper block kept the pencil points nice and sharp to do the scraggly feathers. some fine sandpaper. Figure 306: Marks made with the worn-down points of graphite pencils. Graphite pencils are a favorite drawing tool of many artists. The pencil points were slightly worn down to shade the eyes. Others constantly sharpen the graphite points to make thin marks (Figure 307). wood-encased drawing pencils. Figure 307: Thin lines drawn with freshly sharpened graphite pencils. but (thanks to the wooden holder) less messy than sticks of charcoal.

you need to keep the point sharpened with a sandpaper block. A heavy-duty utility knife works best for cutting away some of the wood so you can sharpen the exposed charcoal with a sandpaper block. Charcoal is fun to work with and is ideal for drawing anything . WARNING! Utility knives are VERY dangerous! Utility knives are as sharp as razors! One small slip of the knife can cause permanent damage to your hand or fingers. remember to tell that person to be very careful!) You may even want to completely stay away from charcoal pencils and use charcoal sticks instead. which is much softer than graphite. .” ask someone to help you sharpen charcoal pencils. Figure 310: Various marks made by a charcoal pencil. (And. Check out the charcoal drawing in Figure 311. and objects. So.including people. They are a little messier. Soft grades of charcoal simply crumble and break when you try to sharpen them in a pencil sharpener. if you don’t want to “draw blood. Figure 309: Most charcoal pencils are a little thicker than graphite pencils. scenery.28 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Wonderful black marks can be made with charcoal (Figure 310). They should only be used by responsible adults who are handy with tools. but can do everything a pencil can do (and more). Hard grades of charcoal can be carefully sharpened in a pencil sharpener with an oversized opening. If you want thin lines.

TIP! Purchase only professional-quality mechanical pencils You can find inexpensive novelty mechanical pencils in many stores. Figure 312: A sampling of mechanical pencils. However. but in the long run. The marks they make stay approximately the same size. A professional-quality mechanical pencil designed for drawing is expensive. When well cared for. I have several that are more than 15 years old. professional mechanical pencils that are designed for drawing can only be found in art supply stores.Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 29 Figure 311: A loosely rendered charcoal sketch of Christopher Church playing his violin. but they tend to last much longer than the department store variety. it tends to be more economical than constantly buying woodencased pencils. a mechanical pencil can last a very long time. . Mechanical pencils Mechanical pencils (Figure 312) are a super alternative to pencils that need to be sharpened constantly. Most are expensive. even after hours of drawing. Other fun pencil mediums Two other types of pencil mediums that are well worth having are: mechanical pencils (they never need sharpening) and woodless pencils.

check the size! Read the label on each package of leads you want to buy.) Leads of the same grade are sold in a single package. A mechanical pencil can be loaded with leads of different grades ranging from very hard to soft. (However. they can also make very thin lines (Figure 315). A 0. For example. you may have to buy a package of each of the grades you want to use.5 mm mechanical pencils and various grades of leads. Woodless pencils rarely need to be sharpened in a pencil sharpener. .5 mm mechanical pencil. your hands stay clean as you work. Woodless graphite pencils Obviously.7 mm leads are too big to fit through the pointed end of a 0. Figure 313: Drawing of an unusual glass bottle TIP! Before you buy leads for a mechanical pencil. bolder strokes than regular pencils. Figure 314: Marks made with a woodless pencil.7 mm is a great choice for sketching loosely or drawing on a large surface (or both). woodless pencils do not have a wooden casing! A thick rod of graphite is surrounded by a thin (usually vinyl) casing. completely rendered with 0. so. you should load only one grade at a time. 0. hence.30 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Mechanical pencils come in different sizes. and are great for subjects needing wider. A 0.5 mm is the most popular size and works best for drawing on small to medium-sized sheets of paper. When the points are sharpened. to make sure they are the right size for your mechanical pencil. A few strokes on sandpaper and the points are sharp! They can make lots of different marks (Figure 314).

(if messy isn’t your style) you may prefer to wrap your finger in a piece of paper towel first. Sticks are great for rendering any subject. but they are well worth having. you simply dip your finger into the powder and draw! Or. Both are messy. and especially for medium to large sketches and drawings. .Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 31 Sticks and Stones (oops!) Powders Graphite and charcoal sticks are not considered pencils. Figure 315: A wood-encased graphite pencil worked well for creating three sketches of my grandson. Surprisingly. Figure 316: Drawing powder can be made from graphite or charcoal sticks. Then. but lots of fun! For instance. strong lines. The flat ends and sides can be used for broad strokes (Figure 317). charcoal and graphite sticks are one of the few art mediums that work well when broken! The crisp edges of broken pieces are fantastic for rendering thin. you can rub a charcoal or graphite stick on sandpaper to make powdered charcoal or graphite (Figure 316). Brandon.

You can also use erasers to draw with either charcoal or graphite (Figures 318 and 319). Try to combine graphite and charcoal in a drawing and you can see what I mean! Use either graphite or charcoal mediums in a drawing . However.but not both together.32 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started You can use a charcoal stick. and sticks. . Figure 318: Various marks created by erasing sections of a layer of charcoal. Figure 319: A winter scene created with charcoal pencils. Figure 317: A small sample of marks you can make with a stick. powder. In addition. charcoal and graphite do not usually play (or work) well together. You simply apply some powder to the paper’s surface and erase sections to create an image. charcoal powder. and a charcoal pencil in the same sketch. as well as erasers. you can combine a graphite stick and graphite powder with various graphite pencils to create a drawing.

You examine artworks done on different papers to give you an idea of how a paper can affect the look of a drawing. In this chapter. . To further confuse artists. Figure 403: Watercolor paper with a rough tooth. and weights of various drawing papers so you can make wise choices when you go shopping. sizes. medium. ArtSpeak Tooth refers to the surface texture of paper. and rough tooth is bumpy with lots of craters and peaks. Figures 401 to 403 show you highly magnified views of shading with a 6B pencil on papers with a smooth. medium tooth has a slightly uneven texture. and rough tooth. I tell you about the textures. I also explain how artists (not dentists) protect the tooth of paper. almost every store with an arts or crafts department carries some type of drawing paper.Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 33 Chapter 4 Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers ***************************************************************** Picking out drawing paper is a scary task for even the most experienced artists. Figure 401: Printer paper with a smooth tooth. Some papers are great for drawing and others are not. Figure 402: Drawing paper with a medium tooth. Paper with a smooth tooth is flat and silky.

vegetable matter. Figure 306: A single drop of liquid can appear so shiny that it almost sparkles. However. I discuss the tooth of three common types of paper. In this section. 7. The mixture was scooped up with a screen and placed into a wooden mold. others prefer very rough paper. This time-consuming process included the following seven basic steps: 1. The mold was shaken until most of the water drained through the screen. Materials such as plants. The sheets of paper were then hung to dry. and rags were chopped up into fibers. a sense of touch.34 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Info Tidbit Drawing Papers during the Renaissance Shopping for drawing papers is no doubt a challenge. Flattened sheets of fibers were stacked into a pile with a layer of woolen cloth or felt in between each. Check up on Tooth (without a Dentist!) The more tooth a paper has. Some artists like smooth drawing paper. leaving a flattened layer of fibers. 2. and many prefer paper that is somewhere in between. ArtSpeak Texture refers to the surface detail of an object. Figure 305: A child’s knit sweater is bumpy and soft. 5. and a general knowledge of the object. The type of texture can be identified with vision. Water was then added to create a soupy mixture. the rougher it feels. 3. can you imagine having to make your own drawing paper? During the Renaissance. I also show you how a paper’s tooth can influence the look of a drawing. Most of the remaining moisture was squeezed out by pressing down on the stack. 6. When completely dry. Figure 304: Short fur (as on cats) is soft and silky. drawing papers were handmade. the paper was usually coated with a substance (such as a gelatin mixture) to make it suitable for drawing. 4. .

Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 35 The surface of a smooth tooth The surface of smooth tooth papers (that are designed specifically for artists). smooth watercolor paper. The realistic drawing of a cat in Figure 407 was rendered with graphite on a professionalquality. feels relatively even and silky. Artists who prefer drawing highly detailed subjects often choose papers with a smooth tooth. . His beautiful coat of striped fur looks very soft. but is not shiny. Figure 407: A detailed drawing of Bill the cat on smooth paper.

36 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Big smile for a medium tooth Medium tooth papers are ideal for most drawing subjects. TIP! Stay away from papers with a glossy surface! Smooth drawing paper is wonderful. and therefore too smooth for graphite or charcoal to properly stick to it. . They work beautifully for creating a full range of values and lots of different textures. Figure 408: Sketchbook paper with a medium tooth is perfect for capturing the texture of an owl’s feathers. but glossy paper is just plain awful. Glossy paper is toothless. Many sketchbooks have paper with a medium tooth and are a fantastic choice for beginners.

and some craters show through as white. Drawings can be ruined when papers with acid deteriorate and turn yellow. The peaks and craters of rough watercolor paper helped create the wonderful textured shading in Figures 410 and 411. Many smooth watercolor papers are hot pressed. He who works with his hands and his head is a craftsman. Fun patterns and textures often appear when the peaks of the paper grab the graphite. He who works with his hands and his head and his heart is an artist. Saint Francis of Assisi Figure 409: A hardcover sketchbook protects your papers and drawings from being wrinkled. Drawing books and papers often have labels that tell you the paper is acid-free. Before you buy a sketchbook. Hardcover refers to a durable type of book cover that is made from a thick and unbendable material.Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 37 ArtSpeak Acid-free refers to a high-quality and long-lasting paper that has had the acid removed from the pulp in the papermaking process. Textures on a rough tooth Rough paper is terrible for tiny detailed drawings. . look for a label that says the paper is acid-free. Hot pressed refers to a paper that is pressed through hot cylinders during its manufacture. Softcover sketchbooks are inexpensive. Just because the cover of a sketchbook says it’s suitable for drawing doesn’t mean it’s acid-free. you need to handle them carefully so the paper doesn’t wrinkle. but ideal for sketching on large sheets of paper. however. WARNING! Stay away from acid! Don’t be fooled by cheap imitations of goodquality drawing paper. Art Quote He (or she) who works with his hands is a laborer. Softcover describes a flexible book cover that is usually made of paper.

The quality. Figure 411: A close-up view shows how rough paper can help render the texture of a tree trunk. are much more important than whether you purchase individual sheets or a sketchbook (or both).38 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 410: The bumpy. As an extra perk. 100% cotton. size. and weight of paper. The surface works beautifully for most drawing media and all subjects. Info Tidbit My favorite drawing paper is Arches. hot pressed watercolor paper with a 140 lb weight. this paper is similar to that used by the masters during the late Renaissance. jagged textures of trees are captured on watercolor paper with a rough tooth. Sketchbooks and Papers Art supply stores sell individual sheets of papers that are designed specifically for drawing. acidfree. A sketchbook has several sheets of drawing paper in a book format. .

A professional-quality paper for everyday use should have at least a 50 lb (260 g/m²) weight. A hardcover sketchbook is much more durable. everyday printer paper has a 20 lb (75 g/m²) weight and therefore is too thin (and too smooth) for drawing. However. So. remember to apply only a little bit of pressure to your pencil when you draw. Weighing in on paper The “weight” of paper describes the thickness of individual sheets of paper. the tooth is flattened beyond repair. For example. If your shading begins to look shiny. and protects the paper inside. Individual sheets of drawing paper need to be stored on a flat surface inside a hard-sided portfolio. Additional shading will no longer hold fast to the paper’s surface. the paper can be easily wrinkled and damaged. Avoid pressing too hard when you want darker shading . but is easily torn and damaged. Figure 412: A small sampling of drawing papers and sketchbooks. it’s much too expensive for everyday use. Thick paper is more durable than thin because it weighs more. the hard cover provides a solid surface on which to work when you’re away from your desk or table. You can also feel the paper to make sure it’s thick. hardcover.Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 39 Softcover. As an extra perk. inexpensive. Thin paper weighs very little. Heavy Arches drawing paper has a 140 lb (300 g/m²) weight and is perfect for drawing masterpieces. TIP! Always take good care of a paper’s tooth! The tooth of any paper can be easily destroyed by pressing too hard on its surface with your pencil. .switch to a softer B pencil instead. The weight of a paper is usually marked on the packaging or front cover. or sheets? Even though softcover sketchbooks are relatively inexpensive. Softcover sketchbooks have to be carefully stored on a flat surface.

I give you a checklist so you know exactly what you need to buy (or find at home). most large sketchbooks (over 16 by 20 inches) are softcover. you’ll know all you need to know about drawing supplies.40 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Larger is not always better Choose a sketchbook or drawing papers in a size that is easy to transport when you travel. However. On the other hand. hard surface to prevent the paper from bending. Figure 413: A large sheet of drawing paper can be attached to a drawing board with clamps. Individual sheets of paper (Figure 413) come in many sizes. you need to store the sketchbook on a large. In Chapter 9. In Chapter 7. Are you tired of reading yet? Keep going . Info Tidbit TIP! Check before you buy! Check out art supply. and department stores in your community to find out what types of drawing paper are available. you can select the best type of paper for your needs (and budget!). stay away from sketchbooks under 9 by 12 inches or your drawing options become too limited. Hence.by the end of Chapter 6. stationery. you finally have a chance to pick up a pencil and begin drawing! . A really big sheet can be cut down into smaller sheets. if you prefer making large drawings. Some types are inexpensive and others can be quite costly. Then.

(3) manikins. and the ones you should avoid. and (5) spray fixative. however. Tools for Erasing In this section. Erasers that are designed specifically for artists can be purchased in an art supply store. they do provide a fun way to strengthen your visual and drawing skills. you find out about two types of art erasers that are very gentle to the surface of your paper: vinyl and kneaded. I also suggest a few extra items to consider adding to your shopping list. (2) a metal ruler. To erase tiny details or draw thin lines.Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics 41 Chapter 5 Adding to the Basics ***************************************************************** In addition to pencils and paper. In this chapter. (4) a small knife for cutting paper. Figure 501: A few more art supplies: (1) pencil cases. I tell you about the supplies that work best for drawing.) . Vinyl erasers Vinyl erasers (Figure 502) have many practical uses. For example. They can erase small or large sections of drawings. as well as pull out (erase) light sections from a layer of graphite or charcoal. (If the edges of your vinyl eraser are worn. you need to have a few other drawing supplies. manikins are certainly not necessary for learning how to draw. such as pencil sharpeners and erasers. a sharp knife can be used to cut off the end. you can use the sharp edge of a regular block eraser.

I pulled out light values with a kneaded eraser. However. The sharp edge of a vinyl eraser created the brightest whites. (2) eraser wheel. Figure 504: With the help of erasers. In Chapter 9. kneaded erasers eventually get too dirty to work well. Kneaded erasers Kneaded erasers (Figure 503) are a real joy! They don’t leave annoying eraser crumbs on your paper.42 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 502: Three popular types of vinyl erasers: (1) regular blocks. and can easily be molded into a point or wedge for erasing. you simply stretch and reshape it (also known as “kneading”) several times. a three-dimensional sphere seems to come out of the dark. First of all. You can also use a kneaded eraser to carefully pat or gently rub a section of a drawing to lighten lines or values. I covered my paper with a layer of charcoal. TIP! To clean a kneaded eraser. I show you how to draw with your kneaded eraser (Action 9D: Playing with Erasers). so pick up some extras. Then. . and (3) pencil erasers and refills. Figure 503: Kneaded erasers are simple boring blocks until you begin molding and stretching them. The drawing of a sphere in Figure 504 was created with the help of both vinyl and kneaded erasers. Dark shadows and crisp outlines were added with a charcoal pencil.

As for sheets of sandpaper. Figure 505: Four of my favorite pencil sharpeners. choose a simple. Stay away from toy sharpeners. and use the next sheet. When the top sheet of sandpaper becomes worn and dirty. Lots of different stores carry sharpeners . you simply tear it off. you need a pencil sharpener. especially those for which you can purchase replacement blades (available at most art supply stores). sturdy. hand-held (preferably metal) pencil sharpener. Sandpaper blocks have sheets of fine sandpaper attached to a wooden base. Sandpaper blocks are not expensive. . WARNING! The wrong eraser can ruin your drawings! Stay away from erasers that are colored (especially the pink ones) or very hard (such as those on the ends of some pencils). and battery-operated or expensive sharpeners. Make sure the surface is a fine grade (look for anything that falls between 100-180 grit).especially if they carry school supplies. check out a building supplies store or a department store with a hardware department. You simply hold the wooden handle as you sharpen your pencil point on the sandpaper. so pick up more than one. art supply stores are your best bet. The sharpeners in Figure 505 last a very long time. Sandpaper blocks and sheets Sandpaper preserves the wooden sections of your pencils that could otherwise get quickly eaten up by your sharpener. Sandpaper blocks are more difficult to find. Pencil sharpeners If you use any type of pencil media.Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics 43 Sharpening your Mediums Pencil sharpeners and sandpaper (blocks or sheets) are a must for keeping your mediums (also called media) in shape. throw it away. Instead. Sandpaper sharpens just the exposed sections of medium instead of both the wood and the medium. The best ones have two openings: a small one for regular graphite pencils and a large one for oversized pencils.

You don’t need to spend a lot of money on supplies to learn how to draw well. WARNING! Keep your drawing supplies. Portfolio Drawings stored in a pile on a shelf (or anywhere that’s dusty or within direct sunlight) can be damaged easily. An all-metal ruler with raised edges may be a little more expensive. erasers. damaged. you may have tried using something like the edge of a book as a ruler.) Pencil case A container for storing your pencils. and as a guide for cutting straight pieces of drawing paper. Metal rulers are easy to clean. ruler. it has measurement guidelines). TIP! You can make a sanding tool similar to an artist’s sandpaper block. narrow pieces. . Stuff you can’t do without In this section. resist the temptation to pick up a bunch of stuff you really don’t need and may never use. and pets safe! Always put your supplies away in a container when you are done drawing.44 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started A Few Extras Have fun wandering through art supply stores! However. (I have two large dogs who consider pencils and erasers to be chew toys!) In addition. I discuss four more necessities: pencil case. and their raised edges protect your drawings from being smudged as you draw lines. A ruler comes in handy for outlining drawing spaces. however. Cut sheets of fine sandpaper into long. or destroyed. you can avoid the frustration of always searching for misplaced items. and other smaller drawing supplies is essential . many tend to be very expensive (especially those made of leather). A hard-sided portfolio can protect your drawing paper and completed drawings from becoming wrinkled.especially if you have small children or pets in your home. and use a heavy-duty stapler to hold them together at one end. if you keep everything together in one place. portfolio. Ruler At some point in your life. I speak from experience when I say this is not a great idea! A good-quality ruler does a far better job and is much easier to use (plus. and viewfinder frame. small children. (In Chapter 7 you find step-by-step instructions for making a portfolio and viewfinder frame. but can last a lifetime with proper care. You can buy many types of wonderful portfolios in art supply stores.

or a shape you outline on your paper. but not necessary Before you go shopping for additional drawing supplies. display board. Small ones are great for planning compositions from photos.Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics 45 ArtSpeak Viewfinder frame is an adjustable. a manikin. Figure 508: A section of a cartoon face is viewed through the opening of a viewfinder frame. It can be the shape of a sheet of paper itself. and spray fixative should be the top three items on your list. you can remove most of the clutter and unnecessary objects from your view. such as a square. Figure 507: Drawing of Figure 506: A simple viewfinder frame. so you can draw only the exciting parts. a spider within a square drawing space. Nice to have. Large viewfinder frames are ideal for finding a composition when you are outside trying to choose a drawing subject. or circle. Drawing space (also called a drawing surface or a drawing format) is the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. As you adjust its size. rectangle. A viewfinder frame helps you visually weed out boring stuff in a scene. In doing so. Viewfinder frame Beginners to drawing often include too many objects in their drawings. you can choose an ideal composition for a drawing. . see-through rectangle or square that allows you to look at a drawing subject from various viewpoints. Composition refers to the arrangement of the various parts of your drawing subject within the borders of a drawing space.

In addition to female and male figures. require no bathroom breaks. ► Two or three thin coats are better than one thick coat (less is more!). and don’t talk your ears off! Manikins can be manipulated into numerous poses and viewed from any angle. Spray fixative A spray fixative that is designed for graphite and charcoal can protect your completed drawings from being accidentally smudged. you can also purchase animals. ► Make sure you read the directions carefully. WARNING! Don’t use spray fixative on your unfinished drawings! You can’t erase problem areas after your drawing has been sprayed.46 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Display boards Bulletin or display boards (I especially love the metal ones with magnets) are relatively inexpensive and provide display space for your drawings. However. keep the following in mind: ► Spray only in a well-ventilated area (such as outdoors). before you use a spray fixative. You can even choose a wall in your home (or use your fridge) for an ongoing exhibition of your work. manikins are wonderful models: they don’t move. . Figure 509: A simple sketch of a figure is created with the help of a manikin. Manikins Often made of wood.

Part 2: Get Set! 47 PART 2 GET SET! ► Ideal surfaces on which to draw ► Proper lighting for drawing ► Good posture for sitting to draw ► What to pack in a portable studio ► Creating your shopping list ► Make an artist’s portfolio ► Construct a simple viewfinder frame ► Three ways to hold your drawing medium ► Discover your natural hand movement .

48 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started .

ArtSpeak Drafting desk (or drafting table) is an adjustable worktable with a slanted top (Figure 601). Clips (usually made of metal) can be used to attach sheets of paper to a drawing board (Figure 603). peaceful. I tell you about drawing surfaces and lighting that work well for creating art in your home. . I also tell you how to pack up a portable drawing kit so you can take your love of drawing wherever you go. A Comfy Place to Sit and Draw Your special artistic place in your home should be as relaxing. and properly hold your pencils as you work. In addition. When assembling your drawing supplies. Figure 602: A sketch of a horse is attached to a drawing board with a clip. you may already have many of these items. be sure to check around your home. Drawing board is a portable. smooth surface (often made of wood) used for sketching and drawing (Figure 602). I show you how to sit comfortably for drawing. and free of distractions as possible. lightweight. Figure 603: A popular type of clip is called a Boston Bulldog. Figure 601: A simple drawing of a drafting desk (and chair) that is adjusted for drawing.Chapter 6: Setting up for Drawing 49 Chapter 6 Setting up for Drawing ***************************************************************** In this chapter.

Experiment with your tape on a small piece of drawing paper to find out if it can be safely removed. Masking tapes designed for painting the interiors of homes. Plexiglas. A flexible-neck study lamp is designed to focus light directly on your drawing surface (Figure 605). An adjustable sloped table or drafting desk is a fantastic choice. Consider a natural light source from a window in the daytime and from a lamp for evenings and overcast days. Info Tidbit A drawing board is easy to make (if you know an adult who is handy with a saw). desk. Many art stores sell different types of inexpensive drawing boards in various sizes. Shedding light on your art To prevent your eyes from becoming tired or strained. TIP! Some types of tapes can damage your paper. . Figure 604: An artist is sketching on paper that is attached to a drawing board with a clip. Drawing papers can be held in place with either clips or tape. or another sturdy product to a size slightly larger than your favorite drawing paper. Art supply stores usually carry large clips and special tapes for attaching paper to a drawing board. Another option is to prop up a drawing board at an angle on a regular table or desk. always make sure you have good lighting. Use sandpaper to sand it until its surface and edges are very smooth. Consider such options as a table.50 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Choosing a drawing surface You can easily find a surface on which you can comfortably draw. drafting desk. smoothly finished plywood. Simply cut a piece of thin. or drawing board. also work fairly well.

the top of your paper is farther away from you than the bottom. check out the cost of replacement bulbs. you usually find this out the hard way . not just for your health. As a result. When you create large drawings on a flat surface (such as a table or desk).Chapter 6: Setting up for Drawing 51 An ideal lamp mimics natural daylight. so. . Unfortunately. For example. use something to prop up your sketchbook or paper so your drawing surface is sloped. if you are drawing a figure. I think it comes from a mixture of your surroundings. and luck. Art Quote WARNING! Don’t attempt large drawings on a flat (horizontal) surface! Instead. some types can cost almost as much as (or more than) the lamp itself. read the packaging carefully before you buy! Also.after your drawing is complete. Francis Bacon Good Posture First! Sitting correctly (and eating your vegetables) is very important. you can end up with all sorts of problems trying to draw accurate proportions. the people you meet. his or her head may end up too big for the body. Figure 605: An artist sits comfortably at a drafting desk with an attached lamp shedding light on his drawing. I don’t think people are born artists. but also for improving your drawing skills.

52

Drawing Book 1: Getting Started

Good posture and a comfortable, adjustable chair can prevent your muscles from becoming strained and sore. Arrange your chair and drawing surface so you can easily move your hand, arm, shoulder, and upper body as you draw.

How NOT to sit!
Many people do not sit up straight. They hunch or lean over too much, and twist their bodies into all sorts of positions that place their back out of proper alignment (Figure 606).

Figure 606: How NOT to sit!
You become uncomfortable very quickly when you are not sitting properly.

TIP!
To prevent cramping and repetitive movement injuries, move your fingers and wrist as little as possible when you draw. You should be moving your lower and upper arm (and sometimes your shoulder and upper body as well). If you absolutely have to move your fingers and wrist (for example, to draw tiny details), take a break every ten minutes to relax your hand and wrist.

Sitting correctly
Most drafting tables and some office chairs have height adjustments. You can also position your chair closer or farther away from your table. Refer to Figure 607 and arrange your table and chair until you can: ► Sit up straight with your feet flat on the floor (or on a raised surface such as a footstool). ► Distribute your body weight evenly on both hips. ► Bend your knees at a right angle. ► See your drawing clearly without bending your lower back. ► Comfortably rest your lower arm on the table.

Chapter 6: Setting up for Drawing

53

Once you are used to sitting correctly, you can fully focus on drawing.

Putting Together a Portable Studio
In this section, I suggest practical supplies for bringing your love of drawing on any type of excursion, such as to a local park or a picnic at the beach. Learning to draw is learning to see! The more you practice the faster your skills improve!
Figure 607: A cartoon artist shows you how to sit
properly at a drafting desk.

Doing sketches on a regular basis trains your brain to see as an artist (a fun way to see the world). A very thorough visual examination of your drawing subject imprints its image into your mind. You can then draw what you see in your sketchbook - often with only a few simple lines. For example, sometimes all you need is a wiggly line to capture a section of land. Figure 608 shows a simple sketch of the lake behind my home.

Figure 608: Simple lines capture a sky, hills, a lake,
trees, and a few plants.

You should keep a few drawing materials packed and ready to travel.

54

Drawing Book 1: Getting Started

When you feel like drawing outdoors, you can just grab your portable studio and go. First of all, you need something in which to carry your art materials. A backpack or fabric bag with handles is great. Select something large enough to hold everything you need. Naturally, you need a surface on which to draw. You can bring a drawing board, paper, and clips (or tape). A hardcover sketchbook is a great alternative to sheets of paper; its hard cover serves as a drawing surface. Add a pencil case filled with pencils, erasers, sandpaper blocks, and a pencil sharpener. Here’s a list of additional things you may want to bring along: ► A viewfinder frame. ► Your portfolio (if you use sheets of drawing paper). ► Plastic bags to protect your drawings (and you) in case of rain. ► Beverages and snacks. ► Wipes or paper towels for clean-up (especially if you use charcoal). ► A small camera to take photos of inspirational scenes and objects. ► Depending on where you go, you may need bug repellent. ► Oh, and don’t forget your sunscreen and a hat!

Art Quote

When we speak of Nature it is wrong to forget that we are ourselves a part of Nature. We ought to view ourselves with the same curiosity and openness with which we study a tree, the sky or a thought, because we too are linked to the entire universe.
Henri Matisse

Save all your sketches! By examining your older sketches, you can measure how much your skills have advanced. In addition, as your creativity and artistic vision improves, you may look back on your early works with a new appreciation. For example, a face may be hidden within a sketch of an old log. (Remember the stone faces hidden in Figure 101 in Chapter 1.)

(I show you how to use a viewfinder frame in Action 9F in Chapter 9. The following lists are guides for making your own shopping list. acid-free paper: 9 by 12 inches (or larger) ► Package of inexpensive sheets of paper (printer/copy paper works well) . and Viewfinder Frame ***************************************************************** In this chapter. ► Sketchbook with medium tooth. You then follow step-by-step illustrated instructions to make a portfolio and viewfinder frame. Supplies needed: Paper and pencil (or pen).Chapter 7: Making a List.) ► AC T I O N 7 A ◄ The Shopping List Goal: Write out a shopping list so you can go shopping for your supplies. Portfolio. your first exercise is to make a shopping list and buy your drawing supplies. and Viewfinder Frame 55 Chapter 7 Making a List. Portfolio. Must have Plan to purchase (or find around your home) the items on this list first: Figure 701: Shopping for art supplies.

HB. or table with a drawing board ► Lamp ► Metal ruler ► Metal clips (if you plan to use a drawing board) ► Comfortable chair ► Portfolio case (for storing your completed drawings) ► Viewfinder frame (Supplies for making a portfolio and viewfinder frame are on the next page. you can shop for items from this list: ► Wooden manikins ► Bulletin or display board ► Spray fixative ► Mechanical pencils with 2H. 2B. . and 2B leads ► A selection of good-quality drawing papers ► Camera ► Hardcover sketchbook ► Graphite sticks and woodless pencils ► Pencil-type vinyl eraser TIP! When buying matboard or cardboard to make a viewfinder frame.56 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ► Regular vinyl eraser ► Kneaded eraser ► Pencil case ► 2H. 4B. making it hard to concentrate on the view inside.) Nice to have As your skills improve and you have extra money. and 6B wood-encased pencils ► Sturdy handheld pencil sharpener ► Sandpaper blocks or sheets of fine-grit sandpaper ► Drawing surface. When using a brightly colored viewfinder frame. such as a drafting desk. HB. your eye is grabbed by the loud color. stay with neutral rather than bright colors.

a utility knife. ► Strong string. sharp utility knife ► Straight edge or long ruler with a metal edge ► Sharp tool (such as a scratch awl or a large nail) for punching holes for ties.Chapter 7: Making a List. and a ruler. Portfolio. thin rope. as well as some of the extra items suggested on Page 54. you need the following: ► Roll of wide tape (duct tape is great and comes in lots of fun colors) ► Heavy-duty. Figure 702: A homemade portfolio. or shoelaces (long enough to tie the portfolio closed in three places) ► Acid-free cardboard or matboard (usually offered in a wide selection of colors at framing and art supply stores) ► Drawing supplies for adding a design (optional) Supplies for making a viewfinder frame Besides acid-free board. ► AC T I O N 7 B ◄ Making a Portfolio Goal: Make and design your very own unique portfolio. you also need two large paper clips. . Supplies for a portable studio You need a second set of basic drawing supplies. and Viewfinder Frame 57 Supplies for making a portfolio If you (or someone else) plan to make a portfolio.

each needs to be the finished size. or two pieces at 16 by 20 inches each). . Place your large sheet of board (colored side facing up) on a flat surface. Suggested portfolio sizes include: ► 16 by 20 inches (one sheet at least 32 by 20 inches. The colored side in the illustrations is shown as gray. For example. you can use either one large sheet or two smaller pieces. If your board is already the size you want. Trim the large piece of board to the overall size you want. Deciding on a size The finished size of your portfolio needs to be a little larger than your largest sheet of drawing paper. 2. Hence. ► 20 by 30 inches (one sheet at least 40 by 30 inches. Option 1: Using one large sheet of board 1.especially along the bottom. One large folded sheet of board makes a slightly stronger portfolio than two smaller pieces .it may not need to be trimmed.58 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Gather your supplies on a large. take into account that you need to fold it in half. you may want the colored side facing outward on your portfolio. cutting the board on the dining room table may not be the best idea! You may want to ask an adult for help. When choosing board. flat surface that can’t be damaged with a sharp knife. or two pieces at 20 by 30 inches each). If you decide on one large sheet. TIP! Some boards (such as matboard) are colored on one side and white on the other. If you buy two pieces (one for each side). simply ignore references to color. Measure the board first . Refer back to the previous section for suggested sizes. the finished portfolio will be half the size of your board. Keep in mind that it needs to be folded in half (peek ahead to Figure 703). If your board is the same color on both sides. go to step 2. In other words.

Use a long ruler or straight edge to draw a straight line along the points. Measure the board and mark the center points along the width. and then mark the halfway distances of the sides and top of each half with a dot (to mark where the ties go).Chapter 7: Making a List. Add wide tape to all four edges of the large board. The sides have one dot. 5. Measure. 7. if your board is 32 by 20 inches. Figure 704: Dots mark the spots where the ties attach. . and an HB pencil to mark the points. Portfolio. and the edges are made strong with wide tape. Use a sharp tool to punch holes where each of the six dots is marked. See Figure 704. If your board is 40 by 30 inches. the center points need to be at 20 inches. the middle points are at 16 inches. Use an HB pencil. and each is halfway between the edge and the center line. Use a ruler to measure. and Viewfinder Frame 59 3. 4. 6. Figure 703: A straight line is drawn down the center of the board. For example. The top and bottom edges have two. This line shows you where you later score (slightly cut) the board (Figure 703).

all is not lost. tape over the scored seam at the bottom.60 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 8. TIP! If you accidentally end up with two pieces. With your knife and a straight edge. 11. 9. Gently fold the large sheet of board inward along the scored line. Simply continue on and follow the instructions for working with two pieces instead of one. you’ll have two pieces of board instead of one scored piece. Figure 706: The bottom edge of portfolio (the folded edge) has been reinforced with strong tape. With the portfolio closed. To make this seam super strong. Continue on to the Adding ties and final touches section on page 62. The basic construction of the portfolio is complete (Figure 706). and the inner fold line section is reinforced with wide tape. . Figure 705: Portfolio is folded along the score line. Open the portfolio and tape over the inside center seam. use two strips of tape (Figure 705). 12. 10. Be very careful. The colored side should now be on the outside. if you cut too deeply into the board. cut very slightly (sometimes referred to as “scoring”) along the straight line on the colored side.

3. Use a sharp tool to punch holes where the dots are marked. The inside surfaces should now be facing you (Figure 708). use two strips of tape (Figure 708). 5. Figure 708: The boards are butted together and then taped together with wide tape. Measure. . Tape both pieces together. 4. Do not mark dots on the sides without tape. reinforce all but one long edge of each piece of board. Figure 707: Three sides of each piece are reinforced with wide tape.Chapter 7: Making a List. and then mark dots at the halfway distances of the sides and top of each piece of board. Butt the bottoms of each piece of board tightly together on a flat surface. 2. These dots show you where to punch holes for the ties (Figure 707). These sides are the bottom of your portfolio. and Viewfinder Frame 61 Option 2: Using two pieces of board 1. 6. Using wide tape. To make the seam super strong. You end up with three holes on each piece of board. Portfolio. the holes for the ties are marked and then punched with a sharp tool. Place the boards colored side up so the two wide edges that are not taped (the bottom of the portfolio) are close together.

If the hole is bigger than the knot. You have the option of decorating either one side or both with creative designs. you finish your portfolio by adding ties. Each of the six ties needs to be between 12 to 16 inches long. Use at least two strips of wide tape to reinforce the bottom edge on the outside. tie the knot in the end that has been cut. Use wide tape to secure the knotted ends of the ties to the inside (Figure 712). Thread a tie through each of the six holes from the inside. If you use shoelaces. Refer to Figure 711. Tie a knot in the end of each tie. 1. Figure 711: The laces are threaded through the holes from the inside toward the outside. In this section. you may get away with using half for each tie (if they are long). The end with the knot needs to be on the inside.62 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 7. The holes for ties should line up on the top and sides. If using a half. it doesn’t matter on which end you tie a knot. you can tie additional knots on top of the first so the end won’t go through the hole. Adding ties and final touches Figure 709: The bottom edge of the portfolio is reinforced with strong tape. Refer to Figure 710. See Figure 709. If you use a full shoelace for each tie. 8. 2. . Fold the portfolio so the colored sides are on the outside. 3. Figure 712: Wide tape covers the knotted ends Figure 710: A knot is tied on one end of a shoelace.

► AC T I O N 7 C ◄ Making a Viewfinder Frame Goal: Make a viewfinder frame. Figure 713: The portfolio awaits a spiffy design.Chapter 7: Making a List. Figure 715: A homemade viewfinder frame. and Viewfinder Frame 63 4. Add a design or drawing to the sides of your portfolio. 5. The portfolio in Figure 714 has a drawing of daisies on the front. Figure 714: A drawing of daisies graces one side of a portfolio case. Portfolio. Set up your supplies on a flat space that is adult-approved. Place your drawing paper and drawings inside and tie the ties. Close the portfolio. You may prefer to use it as is. Figure 713 shows the outside of an undecorated portfolio. . Decorating your portfolio is completely optional. You can probably think of oodles of other ideas to decorate your portfolio.

don’t be afraid to ask for help using a knife. 1. Figure 718: A closeup view of my grandson (Brandon) is selected with the help of a viewfinder frame. Bigger ones are ideal for finding a composition when you are outside trying to choose a subject. Use two large paper clips to join the two pieces together to form a frame. the more you can block distracting and unwanted objects from your view. Again. This means that the corners should form a ninety-degree angle (also known as a right angle). Refer to Figure 716. keep in mind that the wider your frame. Figure 717: Two L-shaped pieces of matboard are joined with paper clips so the inside becomes either a square or rectangle. Smaller ones are great for planning compositions from photos. . Refer to Figures 717 and 718. When choosing a size. Use a ruler and a utility knife to cut two identical L-shaped pieces of cardboard any size you want. Figure 716: Each L-shaped piece of matboard needs to be cut perfectly square. 2.64 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Consider making several viewfinder frames in different sizes.

If you move only your fingers and wrist. or on an angle ► The size of your drawing paper ArtSpeak Straight line provides the shortest connection between any two points. Figure 801: Several straight lines that are drawn in six different directions. Choosing the most comfortable way to hold your medium depends on the following: ► Your choice of medium ► Whether your drawing surface is flat. Straight lines can be drawn in any direction. . shoulder. you discover how these simple actions can quickly advance your current drawing skills. your lines may end up looking shaky and rigid. Holding Your Mediums The way you hold your drawing mediums can affect the look of your drawings. Creating smoothly flowing lines requires broad.Chapter 8: Give Yourself a Helping Hand 65 Chapter 8 Give Yourself a Helping Hand ***************************************************************** Moving your drawing hand naturally and rotating your paper as you work can improve your artistic outcomes. In this chapter. and upper body as you draw. arm. gentle movements of your whole arm. Adjust your chair and table until you can easily move your hand. vertical.

66 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 802 illustrates how most people hold their pencil when first beginning to write and draw. Experiment with each of the three ways to hold your drawing mediums. but with practice you do get used to them. and is ideal for holding pencils or sticks of graphite and charcoal.) This method is ideal for creating small drawings on a flat or sloped surface. . Figure 804: An ideal way to hold various types of drawing mediums for sketching. (Remember to move your arm rather than just your fingers and wrist. This method requires movement from your arm. The method shown in Figure 804 requires movement from your arm and shoulder. You can hold your pencil this way when you work on a sloped or vertical surface. bold sketches. The second way of holding a pencil (Figure 803) is great for rendering a medium to large sketch (or drawing) on a sloped or vertical surface. Figure 802: Holding a pencil in the most familiar and traditional manner. and sometimes your shoulder and upper body as well. Figure 803: How to hold a pencil when you are creating big. You may find a couple of these methods a little awkward at first.

mostly drawn at the same angle. I found myself in awe of his shading lines . Many aspiring artists simply jump into drawing without taking the time to discover their natural hand movement. I took the time to check out some of Leonardo da Vinci’s drawings. and helps you find and use yours. The next logical step is to find the most natural way to move your pencil as you draw. you can choose from three different ways to hold your pencil. and from the lower right to the upper left. Leonardo’s shading lines appear to be rendered from the upper left to lower right. Figure 806: I turned this drawing sideways as I worked so I could imitate Leonardo’s lines with my own natural hand movement.Chapter 8: Give Yourself a Helping Hand 67 Becoming a Natural As discussed in the previous section. I used a graphite pencil to render a study of one of Leonardo’s pen-andink drawings. most people don’t even know they have one! This section explores the natural hand movement of Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo the lefty You can tell a lot about artists by examining their art. Examine the close-up view of the shading lines in Figure 806). Figure 805 shows my drawing of an old man’s face. . Recently. Figure 805: This drawing of an old man (including the marks and age spots on the paper) is copied from a drawing by Leonardo. As a matter of fact.

Pay attention to how you make these lines. However. Some will feel comfortable and others will feel awkward. Art Quote The artist ought first to exercise his hand by copying drawings from the hand of a good master. and you should try to use it to your advantage whenever possible. You should rotate your drawing paper as you work to take full advantage of your natural hand movement. Info Tidbit Many experts claim that Leonardo da Vinci was left-handed because of the way he drew straight lines (slanted from the upper left to lower right). In Action 9E in Chapter 9. Rotating your paper as you draw Professional artists have many secret ways to make sure their drawings turn out well.68 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Finding your natural hand movement You natural hand movement may not be the same as either Leonardo’s or mine. they often rotate their paper. Remembering to always rotate your paper takes lots of practice. This is the natural hand movement of many left-handed artists. you are rotating your paper all the time without even thinking about it. But. This is your natural hand movement. Leonardo da Vinci . Try your hand at drawing sets of slanted straight lines in your sketchbook (Figure 807). Right-handed artists (like me) often draw lines from the upper right to the lower left. In addition to using their natural hand movement. you can try your hand at drawing shapes by rotating your paper. Figure 807: A sketchbook page has lines that slant in many directions. there will be one motion that feels the most comfortable. Use many different ways of moving your pencil or changing the slant of your lines. before you know it.

Part 3: Go Draw! 69 PART 3 GO DRAW! ► Action 9A: Sketching a Self-Portrait ► Action 9B: Creating Values with Squirkles ► Action 9C: Playing with Pencils ► Action 9D: Playing with Erasers ► Action 9E: Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper ► Action 9F: Framing with a Viewfinder ► Action 10A: Drawing a Caveperson ► Action 10B: A Realistic Eye ► Action 10C: Mugly Wigglebottom .

70 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started .

Draw a portrait of yourself as realistically as possible. ► AC T I ON 9 A ◄ Sketching a Self-Portrait Goal: Document your current drawing skills by drawing yourself. a 2B pencil. TIP! Always sharpen your pencils before you begin a drawing project. Supplies needed: Paper.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 71 Chapter 9 Putting Your Supplies to Work ***************************************************************** Finally! Time to draw! In this chapter. You also discover how to use a few basic drawing techniques. sign your name. and a mirror. you complete a few exercises and projects designed to teach you how to use your supplies. Set yourself up for drawing where you can clearly see your reflection in a mirror. When you’re finished. put your drawing away in a safe place. and give yourself a big hug! . erasers. write the date on the back.

I chose this name based on the method of mixing squiggles with circles to create shading. 2B. . Each grade of pencil has a different base value. Figure 901: Squirkling is great for drawing wool on a cartoon sheep. Figure 902: Advanced drawing of a tiny section of a phone that is completely rendered with squirkles. Value scale is a range of different values that are drawn in order from light to dark or from dark to light (Refer to Figure 903). and 6B graphite pencils.72 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Squirkling is a simple shading technique in which randomly drawn curved lines (called “squirkles”) create values. Apply a medium amount of pressure. Many of my students from the past three decades are very familiar with this word! In this project. Allow your pencils to do most of the work. you create five different values with five grades of pencils. Figure 903: A value scale created with squirkles. as well as highly realistic works by professional artists (Figure 902). 4B. Supplies needed: Paper and 2H. What do you get when you cross squiggles with circles? You get Squirkles! Squirkling is a simple method of shading that uses randomly drawn curved lines to create values. HB. Squirkling is ideal for simple drawings by beginners (Figure 901). Don’t press too hard or too softly with your pencil. ► AC T I ON 9 B ◄ Creating Values with Squirkles Goal: Find out the base value of each of your five grades of graphite pencils.

Speed increases with lots of practice. don’t add any more. If a section has a lot of lines.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 73 1. Surprise! Math is a very important part of drawing! But don’t grumble yet .I’ll be introducing the various math skills very gently. The white spaces can be many different shapes. TIP! Take your time! Work very slowly and closely watch your line as it curves around within this square. In the first square. Small squirkles make much smoother values than large ones. draw a curved line through it so it becomes two small spaces. Mark the grade of one of your pencils under each square. Accuracy is much more important than speed. use a 2H pencil to scribble (squirkle) curved lines that twist and bend in many directions. and divide it into five squares that are each 2 by 2 inches. Figure 905: Each square is marked with a grade of pencil from the lightest (on the left) to the darkest. 3. but they should be approximately the same size. Your goal is to create a light value. If you see a very large white space (the white of your paper). Figure 904: I used a ruler to outline a drawing space that is 2 by 10 inches (divided into five squares). Draw a rectangle that is 2 inches high by ten inches long. Refer to Figures 906 and 907. . 2.

4. If you make a value that looks too light. Refer to Figures 907 to 915. a 4B in the fourth. Figures 908 and 909: A slightly darker value is created by an HB Pencil. Use the same method to draw squirkles in each of the other four squares. Use an HB pencil in the second square. and a 6B in the fifth. you can simply add a few extra squirkling lines to make it slightly darker. Figures 910 and 911: The middle value is made with a 2B pencil.74 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figures 906 and 907: A 2H makes a very light value. a 2B in the third. . Make sure that each new value you draw is slightly darker than the previous one. Try squinting your eyes a little to see the squirkles as a value.

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Figures 912 and 913: A 4B
grade of pencil makes a dark value.

Figure 914:
The darkest value is drawn with a 6B.

Figure 915: A value scale of five
different values.

You have completed a value scale from light (on the left) to dark (on the right). Prop up your drawing and stand a few feet away. Can you see five different values from light (on the left) to dark (on the right)? 5. Draw another value scale from dark (on the left) to light (on the right). Refer to Figure 916. When you’re done, pat yourself on the back ten times.

Figure 916: A value scale from dark to light.

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Drawing Book 1: Getting Started

► AC T I O N 9 C ◄

Playing with Pencils
Goal: Draw three sets of lines with each of your five pencils.
Figure 917: Many different values of lines can
be made with only five grades of pencils.

Supplies needed: Paper and 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B graphite pencils. As you know from Action 9B, each grade of pencil makes a different base value. However, did you know that each grade on its own can make several values? In this project I show you how to create light, medium, and dark lines with each of your pencils. To do this, you simply vary the pressure you apply to your pencil. 1. Use a 2H pencil to draw a light, medium, and dark set of three straight lines (nine lines in total). ► Set of three light lines: Apply very little pressure to your pencil. ► Set of three medium lines: Use a medium amount of pressure. ► Set of three dark lines: Press firmly with your pencil. Remember to rotate your paper so you can use your natural hand movement.

Art Quote

What we call creative work ought not to be called work at all, because it isn’t. I imagine that Thomas Edison never did a day’s work in his last fifty years.
Figure 918: Three different values of lines
made with a 2H grade of pencil. Stephen B. Leacock

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77

2. Use the same technique to draw three different lines with each of your other four pencils (Figure 919).

Figure 919: Fifteen sets of lines result in a wide range of different values.

Congratulations! You now have a better idea of how artists make several different values with only one pencil. Put one finger on the tip of your nose and walk seven steps in a straight line.

► AC T I O N 9 D ◄

Figure 920:
Lines and shapes created with erasers.

WARNING!
This project is very messy!
Stay away from light-colored carpets or fabrics. Cover your drawing surface with paper or plastic before you begin.

Playing with Erasers
Goal: Draw lines and shapes with an eraser instead of a pencil. Supplies needed: Heavy white drawing paper with a medium tooth, a 2B or 4B charcoal stick, 2B or 4B charcoal pencil, vinyl eraser, kneaded eraser, and paper towels.

In this section. . or you’ll grind the charcoal into the paper so much that it won’t erase (thereby defeating the whole purpose of this project). Most artists are familiar with drawing dark values on a light surface. Gently does it! Don’t press hard with the charcoal. Use a piece of paper towel to VERY GENTLY blend the whole surface. Figure 923: A section of my paper is filled in with charcoal and then very gently blended. you can also draw light values on a dark surface by using an eraser (or erasers).78 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Blending is the process of gently rubbing shading with a blending tool (such as a facial tissue or paper towel) to evenly distribute the drawing medium over sections of the surface of drawing paper. you experiment with two different types of erasers as drawing tools. as you will soon see. 1. Don’t apply too much pressure. my section is 6 by 3 inches – but larger is even better! 2. Figure 921: A section of shading before it is blended. However. The charcoal needs to sit on the top of the paper’s tooth – not flatten it! In real life. Figure 922: The same shading after it was blended with a facial tissue. Use the side of a charcoal stick to smoothly fill in a section of your paper.

For a few ideas refer to Figures 924 and 925. . did you know that he could draw well? He often sketched his ideas and drew diagrams of the inventions on which he worked. Use your erasers however you wish to experiment with pulling light values from the darkened drawing surface. 4. Use your imagination and the same process to create more drawings. and kneaded erasers molded into various shapes. Info Tidbit Thomas Edison is best known as an inventor (he helped invent many wonderful items such as the light bulb and motion picture camera). and shapes are pulled out of the charcoal with the edges of vinyl erasers. You can also use your charcoal pencil to draw more details after the white sections are erased (Figure 926). Figures 924 and 925: A few lines. dots. However.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 79 3.

a 2B graphite pencil. Figure 927: Three shapes created by using my natural hand movement and rotating my paper. go wash the charcoal off your face. vinyl eraser. ► AC T I ON 9 E ◄ Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper Goal: Draw three different shapes by rotating your paper and using your natural hand movement. . and kneaded eraser. Supplies needed: Paper. ninety-nine percent perspiration. and put a big smile on your face! Figure 926: I used a charcoal pencil to add a few dark lines to my eraser drawing. Art Quote Genius is one percent inspiration. Thomas Edison When you’re done.80 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started TIP! Completed charcoal drawings should always be sprayed with a fixative so they don’t smudge too badly.

Rotate your paper so the word “TOP” is on the side (Figure 929).Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 81 You find two illustrations beside each step. It’s more important to get used to rotating your paper so you can use your natural hand movement. one for righties and the other for lefties. Write the word “TOP” at the top of your paper so you don’t get lost. 3. Figure 928L Figure 928R Figure 929L Figure 929R . 2. 1. the lefty one is on the left and the righty one is on the right. TIP! Don’t worry about copying my drawings exactly! Just take your time and do your best. Draw the first part of the shape (Figure 928). Part 1: Circular shape Your goal in this section is to draw a shape using only curved lines. To help you remember which drawing is which.

Draw the third part of the shape (Figure 932). Figure 932L Figure 932R . Figure 930L Figure 930R 5. Draw the second part of the shape (Figure 930).82 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 4. Figure 931L Figure 931R 6. Rotate your paper until the word “TOP” is on the bottom (Figure 931).

they are mirror images of one another. Draw the final part of the shape (Figure 934). When placed side by side. Figure 935L Figure 935R . Then. Figure 933L Figure 933R 8. Examine your drawing of a circular shape while patting yourself on the head and standing on one foot. Rotate your paper until the word “TOP” is on the top again. Rotate your paper until the word “TOP” is on the other side (Figure 933). Figure 934L Figure 934R 9. compare my final lefty and righty drawings (Figure 935).Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 83 7.

1. Lefty’s need to rotate their paper for this step and righties don’t. Figure 937L Figure 937R . Write the word “TOP” at the top of your paper. To help keep you on track. I have numbered each line (Figure 936). righty illustrations are on the right and lefty ones are on the left. Info Tidbit In Drawing Book 2: Lines and Spaces. However. Again. I show you how to draw very straight lines freehand (without a ruler). and refer to Figure 937 as you draw lines 1 and 2. locate lines 1 and 2 in Figure 936. Figure 936: The lines are numbered in the order in which you draw them. Righties and lefties draw the exact same shape this time (rather than mirror images). Make sure you leave lots of room on your paper for the other eight lines that outline this shape. Before you begin. you still need to turn your paper in different directions as you work. you draw a ten-sided shape with straight lines.84 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Part 2: Straightsided shape In this section.

Rotate your paper again and draw line 4 (Figure 939). Complete your drawing of the straight-sided shape by following along with figures 940 to 943. By now you know how to follow along with illustrations to complete a drawing. Figure 939R Figure 939L 5. Rotate your paper and draw line 3 (Figure 938). Figure 938L Figure 938R 4. . Take your time and refer back to Figure 936 if you get lost.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 85 3.

I was astonished at how much the old man had learned in seven years.86 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 940L Figure 940R Figure 941R Figure 941L Art Quote “When I was a boy of 14. But when I got to be 21.” Mark Twain . my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the old man around.

and upside-down. . Then stand up and wiggle your whole body! Figure 944: If this shape was part of a familiar object.Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 87 Figure 942L Figure 942R Figure 943R Figure 943L Rotate your paper until your shape is right-side-up again (Figure 944). slanted. what would it be? Try looking at it sideways.

You may prefer to draw a circle without drawing the square first.88 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started TIP! A square can help you draw a better circle! 1. try drawing it inside a square. Use a ruler to measure and draw a square on your paper (Figure 945). Your circle should only touch the sides of the square at each of these four marks. simply ignore the square outlines in the illustrations. Part 3: Circle Most artists consider circles to be the most difficult shape to draw. Figure 945: When you want a really good-looking circle. In this section. If so. 1. Measure and then mark a small dot (or line) at the halfway point of each of the four sides. You may be quite surprised by how well you do with help from your new skills using your natural hand movement and rotating your paper. you try your hand at drawing a circle. Follow along with Figures 946 to 950 to draw a circle. 2. Figure 946L Figure 946R .

Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 89 Figure 947L Figure 947R Figure 948L Figure 948R Figure 949L Figure 949R .

Erase your square outline (if you drew it).90 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. another with straight lines. Have fun transforming your shapes into something more interesting. ears. Remember to use your natural hand movement and rotate your paper as you draw. How can you make them more interesting? Easy! Turn them into something or somebody. I spent many hours drawing random shapes and giving them faces (as well as noses. . Figure 950 Figure 951 Figure 952: As a child. hair. use your imagination to turn each into something or somebody. and a circle. You can turn each shape around in any direction. A few lines and squirkles (and an imagination) gave my shapes a little personality (Figure 952). Just for fun! So. now you have three very boring shapes (Figure 951). Challenge: Draw three more shapes: one with curved lines. and hats). Stand up and turn around in a circle three times. Then.

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ArtSpeak
Drawing from life refers to the process of drawing from an actual person, animal, or scene, rather than from a photograph or computer image. Landscape format (sometimes called a horizontal format) is a rectangular drawing space that is rotated so the two longer sides are at the top and bottom (Figure 953). Portrait format (sometimes called a vertical format) is a rectangular drawing space that is rotated so the two shorter sides are at the top and bottom (Figure 954).
Figure 953: A fun drawing of a
cartoon snake fits nicely into a landscape format.

Figure 954: A portrait format works well for this drawing of a giraffe.

► AC T I ON 9 F ◄

Framing with a Viewfinder
Goal: Use a viewfinder frame to choose a composition from a photograph, then set up a drawing space, and draw what you see inside the borders of the frame. Supplies needed: Photograph, viewfinder frame, ruler, drawing paper, pencils, erasers, and pencil sharpener.
Figure 956: Fishing shacks viewed
through a viewfinder frame.

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Drawing Book 1: Getting Started

Info Tidbit
Unfortunately, I was unable to put any actual scenes into this book (grin). Hence, this project (and many others) are based on photographs. However, keep in mind that the basic process for using a viewfinder frame with a photo is almost identical to viewing drawing subjects from life.

Three steps for framing a view
To give you an idea of how a viewfinder frame works, I have broken down the process into three basic steps (refer to Figure 957): 1. I choose a photo that I really like. It’s a landscape format, and I want to draw the fishing shacks in a portrait format. 2. I adjust the two parts of the viewfinder frame until I find a portrait format that I like. 3. I draw what I see inside the frame. (I decided not to draw the boat on the right.)

Figure 957: Working with a viewfinder frame includes:
(1) choosing a photo, (2) deciding on a composition, and (3) drawing what you see inside the frame’s opening.

Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work

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Create a sketch by framing your view
1. Choose a photograph. If you want to draw from a valuable or cherished photo, scan and print a copy rather than work from the original. Better still - take a photo of something simple that you want to draw and then print it. 2. Place your viewfinder frame on top of the photo and choose the section you want to draw. Continuously adjust both sections of the viewfinder frame until the part you want to draw is completely in view. Remember, you can choose either a square, vertical, or horizontal drawing format. Use a pen or pencil to mark small dots on the photo inside the four corners of the frame. Check out the small dots marked in blue in Figure 959. Remove the viewfinder frame, and use a ruler to connect the dots to outline a square or rectangle (Figure 960).

TIP!
Choose a photo that you really like! Make sure your subject is something that looks like it might be fun to draw. You may become bored with a subject that doesn’t appeal to you. Make sure the photo isn’t fuzzy, out of focus, or in really bright light or dark shadows. You can’t draw something you can’t see.

Figure 958: Photo
I took of a fun duckshaped candle that I wanted to draw.

Figure 959: The
section of the photo that I want to draw is framed inside a viewfinder frame.

3. decide if you want to leave out something that you see in your photo. First of all. Figure 960: The section of the photo that I want to draw is outlined.94 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Cast shadow is a dark section on a surface adjacent to (beside) an object (or living being) that receives little or no direct light. A fun part of being an artist is that you can decide to change what you see in a photo before you draw. Examine the cast shadow (cast by the duck candle) on the surface of the table in the lower right of Figure 960. quack like a duck as you flap your arms like wings! . For example. outline a drawing space on your paper that is the same shape and proportions as the outlined section of your photo. I decided to not include the edge of the table. Draw your subject with any medium and in any way you want. or 6 by 9 inches (three times the size of the original). Then. you can make a larger drawing by using a drawing format that is 4 by 6 inches (twice the size). if the outline on your photo is 2 by 3 inches. For example. Figure 961: I decided to do a simple line drawing of the duck-shaped candle. or the cast shadow in my drawing. When you are done. the background clutter.

► AC T I ON 1 0 A ◄ Drawing a Caveperson Goal: Draw a human figure that looks like a prehistoric cave drawing. Remember to rotate your paper so you can use your natural hand movement. and the third takes you through the entire process of drawing . Supplies needed: Paper. then add a head. the second encourages you to put your squirkling skills into action to draw the pupil of an eye. erasers. Figure 1001: A simple drawing of a caveperson. ruler.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 95 Chapter 10 Three Simple Drawings ***************************************************************** This chapter presents three fun projects that put your new drawing skills into action. you use curved lines to draw a body. two arms and two legs. Use a ruler to draw a rectangular drawing space that is approximately 3 inches wide by 5. 1. Be patient with yourself. and finally draw hands and feet. drawing lines and shapes freehand requires lots of practice before you can do it well. The first challenges you to draw several shapes with curved lines. In this project.5 inches long. . and a 2B pencil.from sketching lines to adding shading.

the torso is a little closer to the left side of the rectangle than the right. Draw the lower sections of the arms and the hands (Figure 1005).the torso. The upper part of the body is finished . Plan where to draw the torso on your paper so you leave room for a head. Figure 1002 Figure 1003 4. Draw a partial oval-shape (Figure 1002) as the main section of the body (called a torso). 5. the whole torso fits into the top half of the drawing space. . Also. Add a head and neck (Figure 1003). head. Draw the upper part of the arms (Figure 1004). For example. and hands all fit nicely into the upper half of your drawing space.96 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. 3. and legs. arms. if you look closely. arms.

. The way to learn a trade is to work at it. Begin with the determination to succeed. Their paint was often made from plants or animal blood.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 97 Figure 1004 Figure 1005 Art Quote Info Tidbit “The way to learn to do things is to do things.” Henry Ford Long before people learned to write. and the work is half done already. they used bones or sticks dipped into paint to draw their stories on the walls of caves. Success teaches how to succeed.

Figure 1008: Five prehistoric cave drawings. Figure 1006 Figure 1007 Challenge: Use your imagination to create other prehistoric drawings. hunters with bows. . Refer to Figure 1008 for ideas. 3. For instance. you can draw animals. Draw the lower parts of the legs and the feet (Figure 1007).98 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. Add the upper legs and knees (Figure 1006). or people dancing around a fire.

highlight (3). as well as the edge of the upper eyelid. Figure 1011: Simple drawing of a pupil. kneaded and vinyl erasers. Supplies needed: Paper. 2B. Figure 1009: The parts of an eye include the: iris (1).Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 99 ArtSpeak Iris (1) is the colored circular part of an eyeball surrounding the pupil (2) (defined on page 21). ► AC T I ON 1 0 B ◄ A Realistic Eye Goal: Lightly sketch the shapes of an iris. you focus on the highlight. Upper eyelid (4) is a movable fold of skin that opens and closes to protect the eyeball. and 6B pencils. and highlight (3). and a pencil sharpener. and highlight and add shading with squirkles. Use an HB pencil to lightly sketch a circular shape as the iris of an eye. sandpaper block. and iris. HB. Remember to press very lightly. and white of the eye (5). pupil (2). upper eyelid (4). 1. Eyeball (also called the white of the eye) is the entire spherical section of an eye that is protected inside an opening in the skull (Figure 1010). pupil. a highlight. pupil (2). Highlight (3) is the brightest area where light bounces off the surface of the eye. an iris. Figure 1010: A drawing of an eyeball with an iris (1). and the edge of the upper eyelid. . Refer to Figure 1012. In this project. pupil.

Its location indicates that a light is shining on the eye from the upper left. This curved line begins and ends at the highlight. Sketch a small circular shape in the upper left section of the iris (Figure 1013). Use your kneaded eraser to gently erase the section of the iris above the edge of the upper eyelid (Figure 1016).100 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. The upper sections of irises are usually hidden under the upper eyelid (represented by a simple curved line). Use a curved line (almost a circle) to draw the pupil of the eye (Figure 1014). 3. This line represents the lower edge of the upper eyelid. 5. This is the highlight. Add a slightly curved line cutting through the upper section of the iris (Figure 1015). Figure 1015 Figure 1016 . Figure 1012 Figure 1013 Figure 1014 4.

Press very gently on your pencil to keep the lines light. Also. Figure 1017: A light source from the upper left creates a shadow (1) on the lower right surface of an egg. and lots of white paper is showing through. as well as a cast shadow (2) on the surface on which the egg sits. Therefore. or on a surface that is adjacent to an object or living being (called a cast shadow) (2). Press firmly with an HB pencil to add slightly darker shading around the edges of the iris (especially next to the edge of the eyelid). Use freshly sharpened HB and 2B pencils to shade in the dark values of the iris (Figure 1019). Press gently with a 2B pencil to make the shading closest to the edge of the upper eyelid even darker. Shadows can be on the surface of an object or living being (1). 7. The more uneven you draw the squirkles. The upper section of an iris is often in the shadow of the upper eyelid. the better the shading of the eye will look. 6. . make sure your squirkle lines curve in all different directions.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 101 ArtSpeak Shadow refers to any dark area where direct light from a light source is blocked (or partially blocked) by an object or living being. Figure 1018: The overall value of the iris is light. some lines need to have large curves and others should be smaller. Add a few tiny squirkles to the iris with an HB pencil (Figure 1018).

the highlight is left white. 3. 2. Add the darkest shading of the iris (Figure 1020). Naturally. sit comfortably in your chair and relax your eyes as follows: 1. you should see very few white spaces still showing in these sections. Figure 1019: The shading is darker in the upper section of the iris and around its edges. 9. Close your eyes lightly. Use your 2B pencil again. Relax your body and stay in this position for two minutes. Some of the light shading is still showing around the lower section of the pupil. Use your vinyl eraser to clean up any smudges or fingerprints on your drawing paper. Make sure your pencil is freshly sharpened.102 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 8. Rub your hands together quickly until the palms of your hands feel warm. 5. . The darkest shading of all is in the pupil. Now. Figure 1020: The darkest shading in the iris is directly below the edge of the upper eyelid. 4. 10. At this point. Cover each of your eyes gently with the palm of a hand (the section close to your wrist). Place your fingers lightly on your forehead. and this time press firmly (but not too hard) to make the outer edges of the iris and the shadow under the upper eyelid darker. Use a 6B pencil and squirkles to fill in the pupil (Figure 1020).

and ears are symmetrical. Figure 1023: The center of a drawing of wings that do not touch is marked with a line of symmetry. 2H. and (or) values on opposite sides of a center line (which is often imaginary). . both sides need to be symmetrical. 4B. Many drawing subjects. Figure 1021: The wings in this drawing are symmetrical. sandpaper block. and 6B pencils. each is a mirror image of the other. In other words. In this project.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 103 ArtSpeak Symmetry in drawing is a balanced arrangement of lines. On each side of a line of symmetry is a mirror image of the other side. 2B. Figure 1024: Mugley’s nose. such as vases and frontal views of faces. shapes. Supplies needed: Paper. HB. simple illustrated instructions guide you through the process of drawing an adorable puppy. ► AC T I ON 1 0 C ◄ Mugly Wigglebottom Goal: Use a line of symmetry to outline a cartoon and then add shading with squirkles. Line of symmetry is a line (real or imaginary) down the center of a drawing (or section of a drawing). dividing it in half. and a pencil sharpener. face. kneaded and vinyl erasers. Figure 1022: A line of symmetry (shown in blue) identifies the center point of wings that touch. look more believable when drawn the same on both sides.

and facial features proportionately correct.104 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started TIP! Protect your drawing as you work! Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. ears. your goal is to use a line of symmetry to draw Mugly’s head. Use your ruler and an HB pencil to outline a square drawing space. Figure 1025 . Each time you work on a new section. A line of symmetry helps you draw both sides of Mugly symmetrical. remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. 2. Outlining Mugly with neat lines In this section. Draw a very faint line of symmetry down the center of your page. Measure carefully! My line of symmetry is two inches from each side of my drawing space. Refer to Figure 1025. Mine is 4 by 4 inches. Keep your pencils sharpened so your lines stay crisp and thin. but feel free to make your drawing space larger. 1. This prevents you from smudging your drawing.

Draw a smaller oval (his nose) inside the large one (Figure 1027). Use an HB pencil to sketch a wide oval as the lower section of Mugly’s head (also called a muzzle) (Figure 1026). 5. His nose and mouth need to fit inside this oval. Add a tiny circle below his nose as his mouth. Figure 1026 Figure 1027 .Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 105 3. His mouth is slightly to the right of the line of symmetry (just to give him a little extra personality). Leave lots of space above and on the sides for the top of his head and ears. Both sides of his muzzle are approximately the same size and shape. 4. You can use a ruler to measure distances if you want.

Figure 1028 Figure 1029 . Draw another curved line as the top of his head (Figure 1029). Erase and redraw any sections with which you are not happy. 7. His very long ears will extend above this line and below the lower edge of his chin. Add two curved lines as the sides of the upper part of his head (Figure 1028).106 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 6. Pay close attention to where each line begins and ends. Examine the reflection of your drawing in a mirror to help locate problem areas. Take note that these lines are also symmetrical. Seeing his head in reverse gives you a brand new perspective on its symmetry.

Figure 1032 You may prefer to turn your drawing paper upside-down to draw his eyes. His eyes are upside-down U-shapes with circles inside. Figure 1030 Figure 1031 9. Compare your drawing to Figure 1033 and make any changes you feel are needed.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 107 8. Draw his long floppy ears (Figures 1030 and 1031). . Continue referring to your line of symmetry to keep his ears symmetrical. Draw his eyes (Figures 1032 and 1033).

draw the value scale on a separate sheet of paper. Squirkling shading for Mugly In this section. Figure 1034 . Number each value from 1 to 5 and mark the grades of the pencils used. Redraw any sections that were accidently erased. You may have room in an upper or lower corner of the same sheet you are using for drawing Mugly. If not. Refer to Action 9B on page 72. Draw a value scale to use as a shading guide (Figure 1034).108 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 1033 Use your vinyl or kneaded eraser to carefully erase your line of symmetry. 10. your goal is to add shading and texture to Mugly with squirkles.

Draw the squirkles very carefully and slowly.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 109 11. Figure 1035 Figure 1036 . Therefore. Use your imagination to think of Mugly as threedimensional to help you decide which areas are in shadow. Assume a direct light source is shining from the upper left. the overall shading on the left needs to be slightly lighter than on the right. Do not rush your shading. Use a 1-2H value (Figure 1034) to add the shading you see in Figures 1035 to 1038.

Very light squirkles are all around the edges of the nose except for a section in the upper right that is left white. A few extra squirkles are added to the nose over a small section of the first layer to create a crescent shape in the lower left. Before you add shading to the nose. this shadow area on the nose becomes even darker when you switch to a darker pencil. take note of the locations of the squirkles. your speed will increase all by itself. Figure 1037 Figure 1038 . As you soon discover.110 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started When your shading skills become strong.

Use a 2-HB value to add medium values (Figures 1039 to 1042). Figure 1039 Figure 1040 . Don’t miss the dark shadows cast from his ears onto his upper head. the highlights of the eyes are outlined so you remember to leave them white. Begin with the ear on the left. Leave the inner sections of shading light. In Figure 1040. Only add medium values over those light values that are closest to the edges of the various shapes.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 111 11.

112 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Medium values are added along the edges of the lower section of his muzzle. Figure 1042 . and the tiny round opening that is his mouth (Figure 1041). Figure 1041 The crescent shape of the nose becomes darker when you add middle values (Figure 1042).

Use 3-2B and 4-4B values to add shading to his eyes. Feel free to outline the pupil before you begin shading the eyes. If you want.Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 113 11. you can shade Mugly’s eyes the same as in Project 10B: A Realistic Eye. Also. Refer to Figures 1043 to 1046. Figure 1043 Figure 1044 . refer to the close-up view in Figure 1044. Use value 3-2B for the dark shading on the outer edges of his left ear and upper head. Add shading to his eyes and the darkest shadow sections of his fur.

gather your drawing supplies and create more drawings of subjects you enjoy! Figure 1046 . Figure 1045 Collect all the drawings you completed as you worked through this book.114 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Additional dark values are added to tiny sections of his fur and nose in the darkest shadow sections. Then. Use a 5-6B value to make the mouth and the pupils of his eyes a little darker. 12. Put all your drawings away in a safe place. Don’t miss the shadow on his lower face cast by his nose (Figure 1046). Sign your name and write the date completed on the back of each.

many archeologists have excellent drawing skills. For example. ArtSpeak sidebars help you understand the meanings of drawing words and terms that appear in the exercises and projects in this book. Classical drawing was later enhanced by the great artists of the Renaissance. Clay (Page 17) is a naturally occurring material that becomes hardened when dried. Cast shadow (Page 94) is a dark section on a surface adjacent to (beside) an object (or living being) that receives little or no direct light. Drawing books and papers often have labels that tell you the paper is acid-free. (As an aside. Charcoal pencils (Page 25) have a thin cylindrical stick of compressed charcoal inside a wooden casing. Clips (Page 49) (usually made of metal) can be used to attach sheets of paper to a drawing board. As with graphite. Archaeologist (Page 10) is a person who studies ancient peoples by finding and documenting the things they left behind. Blending (Page 78) is the process of gently rubbing shading with a blending tool (such as a facial tissue or paper towel) to evenly distribute the drawing medium over sections of the surface of drawing paper. Hence. charcoal comes in various grades. Knowing the meanings of these words allows you to better understand the text.) Charcoal sticks (Page 25) are made by compressing powdered charcoal into round or rectangular sticks. Drawings can be ruined when papers with acid deteriorate and turn yellow. . ArtSpeak (Page 1) is a fun word used to describe the vocabulary of art. your drawing experiences become more enjoyable. Composition (Page 45) refers to the arrangement of the various parts of your drawing subject within the borders of a drawing space. Charcoal (Page 25) is a drawing medium made from burnt organic material (such as wood).Glossary 115 ***************************************************************** This glossary provides definitions of most of the art-related words and terms used throughout this book. clay is mixed with graphite to make graphite drawing mediums. Classical drawing (Page 3) refers to the drawing methods invented by ancient Greeks and Romans for creating realistic drawings (called realism). and less frustrating! Glossary Acid-free (Page 37) refers to a highquality and long-lasting paper that has had the acid removed from the pulp in the papermaking process.

The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (in Rome) is also a fresco that was painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512. Drafting desk (Page 49) (or drafting table) is an adjustable worktable with a slanted top. Hardcover (Page 37) refers to a durable type of book cover that is made from a thick and unbendable material. or scene. It can be the shape of a sheet of paper itself. For example. Eyeball (Page 99) (also called the white of the eye) is the entire spherical section of an eye that is safely protected within an opening in the skull. Drawing space (Page 45) (also called a drawing surface or a drawing format) is the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. Drawing powder (Page 31) refers to tiny loose particles of a drawing medium that have been broken down from a solid into a powder. Drawing board (Page 49) is a portable. Drawing (verb) (Page 1) refers to the process of applying a medium to a surface to create an image. animal. lightweight. Grade (Page 17) refers to the softness or hardness of the mixture used in the manufacture of drawing mediums. frescoes that date back more than 3500 years have been discovered in Greece. It is often mixed with clay to make various types of drawing tools for artists. rectangle. drawing powder can be made by using coarse sandpaper to wear away sections of graphite and charcoal sticks. such as a square. For example.116 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Curved line is created when a straight line curves or bends. Figure (Page 11) refers to the body of a human being. Highlight (Page 99) is the brightest area where light bounces off the surface of the eye. Figure (Page 1) is a diagram or picture that illustrates text. rather than a photograph or computer image. Drawing stick (Page 26) is a drawing tool that is made by compressing and shaping a medium (such as graphite or charcoal) into a round or rectangular chunk. or circle. For example. The hard cover protects your papers and drawings from being wrinkled. Graphite (Page 17) is a soft black form of opaque (non-transparent) carbon found in nature. Drawing (noun) (Page 1) is an image created on a drawing surface with a drawing medium. Curved lines can be drawn in any direction and be any length. Drawing from life (Page 91) refers to the process of drawing from an actual person. Fresco (Page 12) is an artwork painted on a thin layer of plaster that covers a wall or ceiling. the first figure in this book (Figure 01) is a drawing of a hand sketching a cartoon. or a shape you outline on your paper. smooth surface used to support an artist’s sketchbook or drawing paper. .

or child that was attached to the face of a burial mummy. Illustration (Page 2) is an image (such as a drawing or photograph) that is used to enhance the reader’s understanding of text and (or) make text more interesting. but can become too dirty to work properly. Landscape format (Page 91) (sometimes called a vertical format) is a rectangular drawing space that is rotated so the two longer sides are at the top and bottom. For example. They do not wear away like other types of erasers. Manikin (Page 41) is a model of a figure or animal (often made of wood) that is used for learning how to draw. Mechanical pencil (Page 26) is a drawing tool that has an internal mechanism that pushes a thin graphite lead.Glossary 117 History (Page 10) is a written record of the past. Mummy portrait (Page 12) is an ancient painting of a man. Leonardo da Vinci was a master of painting and drawing. Line of symmetry (Page 103) is a line (real or imaginary) down the center of a drawing (or section of a drawing). Iris (Page 99) is the colored circular part of an eyeball surrounding the pupil. For example. Others have mostly illustrations and a small amount of text to describe each illustration. Most manikins have bendable joints so they can be manipulated into various poses. Many smooth watercolor papers are hot pressed. Media (Page 43) (also called mediums) refers to more than one drawing medium. cartoon icon of Albert Einstein. Kneaded eraser (Page 42) is an artist’s tool made of a grey or white pliable material that can be shaped by hand for accurate erasing. Many date back to the Roman occupation of Egypt. historians (people who study and write about history) have documented that Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy in the year 1452. Some books (such as a picture book) have only illustrations and no text. Hot pressed (Page 37) refers to a paper that is pressed through hot cylinders during its manufacture. through the tip. from the tiny tube inside the holder. mostly about the lives and activities of human beings and their environments. Master (Page 13) refers to someone who is an expert in a specific profession or area of study. Kneaded erasers are designed to absorb and pick up particles of graphite and charcoal without leaving behind eraser crumbs. dividing it in half. For example. Icon (Page 2) is a visual image (such as a drawing) used to identify a specific task or information. . in this book ArtSpeak sidebars are identified with a circular. Metalpoint (Page 18) is a thin stick used for drawing and made from a type of metal. Medium (Page 1) refers to a drawing tool (anything from a pencil to the burnt end of a stick) used to make marks on a surface. Leadpoint (Page 18) (also called a stylus) is a thin metal stick made of lead and used for drawing. woman. On each side of a line of symmetry is a mirror image of the other side.

For example. Portrait format (Page 91) (sometimes called a horizontal format) is a rectangular drawing space that is rotated so the two shorter sides are at the top and bottom.118 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Mural (Page 12) is a drawing or painting on a wall. Regular pencil (Page 1) (also called a wood-encased pencil) has a drawing medium encased inside a cylindrical wooden casing. or other large surface. dark circular-shaped part of an eye that adjusts its size under different lighting conditions. Sandpaper block (Page 26) is an artist’s tool with tear-off sheets of fine sandpaper used to sharpen the points of pencils. Portfolio (Page 10) is a case in which artists store (or carry) drawings and papers to protect them from damage. Pencil (Page 1) refers to a broad category of drawing tools that have a medium inside a holder. Sculptor (Page 12) is an artist who creates sculptures. a mechanical pencil holds replaceable thin cylindrical sticks of medium that are manually loaded into a tiny tube inside a holder. . a very well-known sculptor of the Renaissance was Michelangelo. and one of his most famous sculptures is the statue of David. For example. Realism (Page 3) is a way of drawing in which living beings and objects are drawn as they appear in real life. murals have been discovered on the walls of prehistoric caves and inside ancient Egyptian tombs. For example. Renaissance (Page 3) (from the French word for rebirth) refers to the changes within European culture from the early twelfth century to the late sixteenth century. Shading (verb) (Page 2) is the process of adding values to a drawing. For example. On the other hand. the process of drawing a turtle can also be referred to as rendering a drawing of a turtle. a regular pencil (also called a woodencased pencil) has a medium encased inside a wooden cylinder. A self portrait is usually rendered by memory or by drawing his or her reflection in a mirror. Render (Page 3) describes the process of making something happen. or marble. Many prehistoric humans drew pictures on the walls of caves instead. Prehistoric (Page 10) describes the period in time before written language was used to record history. Shading (noun) (Page 2) refers to the various values within a drawing that make images appear three-dimensional. Self-portrait (Page 71) is a drawing or painting an artist creates using his or her own face and (or) body as a model. Sculpture (Page 12) is a threedimensional artwork that is made of a material such as bronze. ceiling. Score (Page 59) is the process of cutting very slightly into a thin object (such as cardboard or heavy paper) so as to fold it evenly. Right angle (Page 64) is created when a horizontal straight line meets a vertical straight line at a ninety-degree angle. The artist tries to draw what he or she sees as realistically as possible. rock. Pupil of an eye (Page 21) is the tiny.

In this book. Straight line (Page 65) provides the shortest connection between any two points. Subject (Page 11) refers to whatever an artist chooses to draw. Many drawing subjects. Symmetry (Page 103) is a balanced arrangement of lines. An artist’s style may be based on his or her personal preferences and art education. Squirkling is ideal for simple drawings by beginners as well as highly realistic works by professional artists. A sketch is usually done quickly with simple lines and (or) shading. popular drawing subjects include people. Stylus (Page 18) (sometimes called leadpoint or metalpoint) refers to a thin metal stick used for drawing. Styluses made of lead have been traced back to ancient Rome. look more believable when drawn the same on both sides. Shadows can be on the surface of an object or living being. Straight lines can be drawn in any direction. Shape (Page 3) refers to the outward outline of a three-dimensional object. however. For example. Spray fixative (Page 41) is a transparent coating sprayed onto an artwork to help the medium adhere to the paper. go look in a mirror! With commitment. For example. Sidebar (Page 1) is a box of text (some have illustrations) that provides additional information about a topic. To find out what a talented person looks like. and scenery. you need to handle them carefully so the paper doesn’t wrinkle. both sides are symmetrical. In other words. and dedication. Softcover (Page 37) describes a flexible book cover that is usually made of paper. such as vases and frontal views of faces. animals. or copper. Talent (Page 10) refers to the process of self-discovery during which you realize that you have the interest and motivation needed to become exceptional in a specific area. Sketch (noun) (Page 2) is a simple drawing of the important parts of a subject. and (or) values on opposite sides of a center line (the center line is often imaginary). shapes. realism is a well-known style. Squirkling (Page 72) is a simple shading technique in which randomly drawn curved lines (called “squirkles”) create values.Glossary 119 Shadow (Page 101) refers to any dark area where direct light from a light source is blocked (or partially blocked) by an object or living being. objects. so the drawing doesn’t smudge. flowers. gold. Each side provides a mirror image of the other. Sketch (verb) (Page 2) refers to the process of doing a sketch. During the Renaissance. or on a surface that is adjacent to an object or living being (called a cast shadow). Style (Page 11) refers to an artist’s approach to his or her own art. Softcover sketchbooks are inexpensive. a sidebar called ArtSpeak provides you with definitions of art words and terms. . you can turn your talent into a skill. styluses were also made from silver. patience.

and sculptures) that can be appreciated by the sense of sight. more than one shading technique may be suitable for a specific drawing. Vision (Page 1) is the ability to see. . Paper with a smooth tooth is flat and silky. Hence. or any other drawing subject. Upper eyelid (Page 99) is a movable fold of skin that opens and closes to protect the eyeball. It’s an invaluable tool for planning a composition. Wood-encased pencil (Page 26) (better known as a regular pencil) has a thin cylindrical stick of graphite or charcoal inside a wooden casing. figures. Tooth (Page 33) refers to the surface texture of paper. and what works best to capture the subject. Underdrawing (Page 16) is a loosely rendered sketch that is created as a guide for a final drawing (or painting). Woodless pencil (Page 26) is a thick cylindrical stick of graphite wrapped in a vinyl casing. Text (Page 2) refers to the words used in writing. Value scale (Page 72) is a range of different values that are drawn in order from light to dark or from dark to light. Visual art (Page 12) refers to artworks (such as drawings. Viewfinder frame (Page 45) is an adjustable. an artist’s selection of a shading technique is generally based on his or her skill level. For example. The type of texture can be identified with vision. landscapes. all the drawings in this book are considered visual art. a sense of touch. and rough tooth is bumpy with lots of craters and peaks. medium tooth has a slightly uneven texture. and can be used for portraits. and a general knowledge of the object. Values (Page 2) are the different shades of gray made when adding shading to a drawing. paintings. Vinyl eraser (Page 41) is soft. For example. nonabrasive artist’s tool that erases graphite and charcoal more cleanly than a regular pink eraser (which has been known to make holes in paper and ruin drawings).120 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Technique (Page 11) is a well known method (such as a specific way to do shading) that is used to accomplish a particular activity or task. Texture (Page 34) refers to the surface detail of an object. see-through rectangular or square frame that allows you to look at a drawing subject from various viewpoints.

sizes.In this book: ► Simple history of drawing ► Process of learning to draw ► Fun history of graphite ► Grades of graphite ► Differences between B and H grades ► How grades affect the look of drawings ► Graphite and charcoal drawing mediums ► Wood-encased. portfolio. and weights of drawing papers ► How to select and protect the tooth of paper ► Vinyl and kneaded erasers ► Pencil sharpeners and sandpaper ► Pencil case. mechanical. and woodless pencils ► Drawing powders and sticks ► Textures. display boards. and spray fixative ► Ideal surfaces on which to draw ► Proper lighting for drawing ► Good posture for sitting to draw ► What to pack in a portable studio ► Supplies to add to your shopping list ► Make an artist’s portfolio ► Construct a simple viewfinder frame ► Three ways to hold your medium as you draw ► Discover your natural hand movement ► Action 9A: Sketching a Self-Portrait ► Action 9B: Creating Values with Squirkles ► Action 9C: Playing with Pencils ► Action 9D: Playing with Erasers ► Action 9E: Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper ► Action 9F: Framing with a Viewfinder ► Action 10A: Drawing a Caveperson ► Action 10B: A Realistic Eye ► Action 10C: Mugly Wigglebottom . viewfinder frame. and ruler ► Manikins.

author of Drawing for Dummies. after years of study.Ed. “My current positions have merged my credentials and focus into three main areas: teacher development (teaching professionals how to teach). Roughley B. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People. M.$20. B.. the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. and Drawing Book 1: Getting Started. Hence. I have the pleasure of putting my academic “stamp of approval” in the front pages of this very unique and thorough approach to art education.” Robert A.Ed.com. MC. BAEd....00 (U.drawspace. Brenda Hoddinott Art educator. forensic artist (retired).com . visual artist. and owner of Drawspace. And now. Doctoral Student. and inclusive education. illustrator. Teaching and Learning Centre. Published by http://www. University of Calgary My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. University of Calgary Instructor.A. in creating a passion for the subject matter.S..) Drawing Book 1: Getting Started is the first in a series of instructional books for homeschooling families and selfdirected learners. reflective practice.

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