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EE 454: Power System Operation and Control

Lecture Eighth
See Time Table Semester
Schedule Spring 2016

Credit EE 452: Power System Analysis

Three Pre-requisite
Instructor(s) Dr. Muhammad Asghar Saqib Contact
Tel. (HV Eng. Lab): 042-9902 9423

Room 104, Ground Floor Monday - Thursday

Office Office Hours
EE Department 02:00 pm – 03:00 pm

This course will mainly present the steady-state operation and control issues of
interconnected power systems. Comprehensive coverage of the power flow problem, for
an interconnected power system, using iterative techniques will be presented. Classical
optimization of continuous functions and their application to optimal dispatch of
generation will be covered. Transient behaviour of a synchronous machine and its
Course application in the transient stability of a power system are also important topics of the
Description course. The automatic-voltage regulator, load-frequency control and automatic-
generation control, which help operate a power system in steady state, will be covered in
detail. Throughout the course algorithms will be developed to simulate the behavior of a
power system and MATLAB will be extensively used. The students will also be
introduced to ‘Power Word Simulator’, which has the capability of analyzing very large
interconnected power systems.

Upon completion of the course, students will:

 Be able to understand the roles of numerical techniques in the solution of power-flow
 Understand the formulation of optimal power flow.
 Become familiar with the dynamic behaviour of synchronous machines.
 Understand the non-linear nature of power systems and obtain numerical solution for
the transient-stability analysis.
 Become familiar with the applications of control techniques in load-frequency
control systems.

 Power System Analysis by Hadi SAADAT, PSA Publishing, Third Edition, 2010.
 Power System Analysis and Design by J. Duncan GLOVER, Mulukutla S. SARMA
and Thomas J. OVERBYE, Thomson Learning, Fourth Edition, 2008. Accompanied
software at:
 Power System Analysis by John J Grainger & W.D. Stevenson, McGraw Hill, 1994.
 .Power System Analysis by Arthur R. BERGEN and Vijay VITTAL, Prentice Hall,
Second Edition, 2000.

 Sessional Marks (based on quizzes & class participation)30%

Grading  Midterm 30%
Policy  Final 40%
NOTE: Less than 75% attendance will result in ‘WF’ grade!
Lecture Plan

Course Contents Textbook Ref. Week *

Ch. 6
Introduction to power flow analysis; Bus admittance matrix 1
Ch. 6
Solution of non-linear algebraic equations; Gauss-Seidel power flow solution 2
Power flow and losses; Tap-changing transformers; Newton-Raphson power flow solution; Ch. 6
(Saadat) 3
Fast decoupled power flow solution
Introduction to optimal dispatch of generation; Non-linear function optimization with equality Ch. 7
(Saadat) 4
and inequality constraints
Operating cost of a thermal power plant; Economic dispatch neglecting losses and Ch. 7
(Saadat) 5
generator limits
Ch. 7
Quiz-1 5
Ch. 7
Economic dispatch neglecting losses and including and including generator limits 6
Ch. 7
Economic dispatch including losses; Derivation of loss formula 7
Ch. 7
Mid Term Examination 8
Introduction to synchronous machine transient analysis; Simplified models of synchronous Ch. 8
machines for transient analysis (Saadat)
Introduction to power system stability; Swing equation; Synchronous machines models for Ch. 11
stability studies (Saadat)
Ch. 11
Steady-state stability – small disturbances; Transient stability; Equal-area criterion 11
Application to three-phase fault; Numerical solution of non-linear equations; Numerical Ch. 11
solution of swing equation; Multi-machine transient stability (Saadat)
Ch. 11
Quiz-2 12
Ch. 12
Introduction to power system control; Basic generator control loops; Load-frequency control 13
Automatic generation control; AGC in a single-area system; AGC in multi-area system; Tie- Ch. 12
line bias control (Saadat)
AGC with optimal dispatch of generation; Reactive power and voltage control; Excitation Ch. 12
(Saadat) 15
system stabilizer
Ch. 12
AGC including excitation system; Introductory modern control application 16

Final Term Examination

 Experiment 1: Implementation of a case study regarding power flow analysis using Power Word
Simulator (PWS)
 Experiment 2: Calculation of Ybus and the determination of Ybus from the results of PWS-based
 Experiment 3: Gauss-Seidel power flow method: implementation of a three-bus system using
 Experiment 4: Newton-Raphson power flow method: implementation of a three-bus system
using PWS and MATLAB
 Experiment 5: Fast-decoupled power flow method and its implementation
 Experiment 6: Economic dispatch of generators in a loss-less power system – implementation
in PWS
 Experiment 7: Analysis of a power system containing regulating transformers – implementation
in PWS
 Experiment 8: A generator’s reactive-power capability curve and reactive-power compensation
– implementation in PWS
 Experiment 9: Network reduction and determining network’ equivalents – implementation in
 Assignment or semester project.