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EE 454: Power System Protection

Lecture 8th
See Time Table Semester
Schedule Spring 2016

Power System Analysis

Three + One Pre-requisite Power System Transmission &
Instructor Muhammad Bilal Contact

Room 114, Ground Floor

Office Office Hours To be announced
EE Department

This course is intended to provide the basic theory, principles and practice of power
system protection. Different relaying schemes will be discussed for overcurrent,
Course differential and distance protections. The applications of these relays will be
Description explored in the protection of distribution lines, transformers, bus bars, rotating
electrical machines, power capacitors and transmission lines. The effects of power
system dynamics on relay applications will also be discussed.

Upon completion of the course, students will:

• Be able to understand the three-layered structure of Electric Power System and
purpose and importance of Power System Protection.
• Be able to understand the roles of CTs and VTs in power system protection.
• Become familiar with the concept of primary and backup protections, and local
and remote protection.
• Understand the concepts and applications of non-directional and directional
overcurrent relays, definite time overcurrent and inverse definite minimum time
overcurrent relays.
• Study the distance protection of transmission lines and operating principle and
characteristics of different types of distance relays.
• Become familiar with the applications of differential relays in transformers and
bus bar protections.
• Learn how to apply different protection schemes to electrical apparatus in
industry and industrial power plants.

Power System Relaying by Stanley H. HOROWITZ and Arun G. PHADKE, John
Wiley & Sons, 4th Edition, 2014.
Textbooks OPTIONAL:
• Practical Power System Protection by L.G. Hewitson, Mark Brown and Ramesh
Balakrishnan, NEWSON Press, 2005.
• Protective Relays Application Guide published by GEC ALSTHOM

• Class Participation + Quizzes 30%

Grading • Midterm 30%
Policy • Final 40%
NOTE: Less than 75% attendance will result in ‘WF’ grade!
Lecture Plan
Lec. No. Course Contents Textbook Ref. Week*

1 Introduction of Subject. - 1

Introduction to Protective Relaying; Power System Structural

2 Considerations; Neutral Grounding of Power System, Relaying aspects Ch.1 1
of different Power System Bus Configurations.
The Nature of Relaying: Primary and Backup Protection; Single and
3 Ch.1 2
Three Pole Tripping and Reclosing.

Elements of Protection System and International Practices. Discussion

4 Ch.1 2
on selected End Problems.

5 Relay Operating Principles; Detection of Faults; Relay Designs; Fuses; Ch.2 3

6 Electromechanical Relays; Plunger-Type Relays; Induction-Type Relays Ch.2 3

Solid-State Relays; Solid-State Instantaneous Over-Current Relays;

Solid-State Distance Relays; Computer Relays; Other Relay Design
7 Ch.2 4
Consideration and Control Circuits; Discussion on selected End
Current and Voltage Transformers Introduction; Steady State
8 Ch.3 4
Performance of CTs; Transient Performance of CTs;
Quiz-1 Ch. 1 to 3 (3.3) 5

9 Special Connections of CTs; Linear Couplers and Electronic CTs; VTs; Ch. 3 5

Coupling Capacitor CTs; Transient Performance of CCVTs and

10 Ch. 3 5
Electronic VTs; Discussion on selected End Problems.

Non-pilot Overcurrent Protection of Transmission Lines Introduction;

11 Fuses; Sectionalizers and Reclosers; Inverse Time-Delay Overcurrent Ch. 4 6

(TDOC) Relay Setting Rules; Pickup-Settings; Time Dial Settings. Relay

12 Coordination of (TDOC), Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays, Ch. 4 6
Coordination of Instantaneous Overcurrent Relay

Directional Overcurrent Relays, Discussion on Related Examples,

13 Introduction of Polarizing; Potential Polarizing; Current Polarizing; Ch. 4 7
Discussion on selected End Problems.

Non-pilot Distance Protection of Transmission Lines Introduction;

14 Ch. 5 7
Stepped Distance Protection; R-X Diagram;

Three-Phase Distance Relays; Distance Relay for Phase-to-Phase

15 Faults and Ground Faults; Behavior of Relay in Unfaulted Phases; Effect Ch. 5 8
of Fault Resistance on the Operation of Distance Relay

Distance Relay Types; Relay Operation with Zero Voltage; Poly-phase

16 Ch. 5 8
Relays, Relays for Multi-Terminal Lines
Mid Term Examination Ch. 1 to 5 (5.8) 9
Protection of Parallel Lines; Incorrect Operation of Relays; Effect of
17 Transmission Line Compensation Devices and Load ability of Relays; Ch. 5 10
Discussion on selected End Problems.

Rotating Machinery Protection Introduction; Stator Faults; Phase-faults

18 Ch. 7 10
protection, Related Examples

Stator Ground Fault Protection, Design Examples, Rotor Faults,

19 Unbalanced Currents; Overload; Over speed; Abnormal Voltages and Ch. 7 11
Frequencies; Loss of Excitation; Loss of Synchronism

Power Plant Auxiliary System: Auxiliary system design, Circuit breaker

20 application, Phase fault protection, Ground fault protection, Bus transfer Ch. 7 11
schemes, Generator breaker

Winding Connections; Startup and Motoring; Inadvertent Energization;

21 Torsional Vibration and Sequential Tripping; Discussion on selected End Ch. 7 12

Transformer Protection Introduction; Overcurrent Protection; Percentage

22 Ch. 8 12
Differential Protection

Causes of False Differential Currents; Magnetizing inrush current during

Energization, Harmonic content of the inrush current, Magnetizing inrush
23 Ch. 8 13
during fault removal, Sympathetic Inrush-Current, Transformer over-
excitation, CT saturation

Supervised Differential Relays; Three-Phase Transformer Protection,

24 Ch. 8 13
Design Example.

Quiz-2 Ch. 5, 7 & 8 (8.6) 14

Volts per Hertz Protection, Nonelectrical Protection; Pressure Devices,

25 Ch. 8 14
Temperature Devices.

Protection Systems for Transformers, Discussion on selected End

26 Ch. 8 14
Bus, Reactor and Capacitor Protection: Introduction to Bus Protection,
27 Overcurrent Relays, Percentage Differential Relays, High-Impedance Ch. 9 15
Voltage Relays.
Moderately High Impedance Relays, Linear couplers, Directional
28 comparison, Partial differential protection Ch. 9 15

Introduction to shunt reactor protection, Introduction to shunt capacitor

29 bank protection, Static var compensator protection. Ch. 9 16

Tutorial Session: Discussion on course contents discussed in previous

30 weeks. Ch.5, 7 to 9 16
Selected End Problems
Final Term Examination Ch. 1-5, 7-9
List of Experiments of Power System Protection (PSP) Lab

Before Mid Term Exam

Exp # 1. Study of characteristics of DMT and IDMT type overcurrent relay.

Exp # 2. Study of characteristics of Directional DMT and IDMT over current relay.
Exp # 3. Study of characteristics of over and under voltage relay.
Exp # 4. Study of characteristics of Ground Fault Neutralizer (GFN).
Exp # 5. Study of steady state performance of CT and VT.
Exp # 6. Study of characteristics of over and under frequency relay
Exp # 7. Study of characteristics of reverse power relay.

After Mid Terms

Exp # 8. Coordination of DMT and IDMT overcurrent relays.

Exp # 9. Coordination of DMT and IDMT type Overcurrent and Directional Overcurrent
Relays in Parallel Transmission Lines.
Exp # 10. Neutral Grounding of Synchronous Generator through Grounding Transformer.
Exp # 11. Study of Buchholz Relay Characteristics and Operation.
Exp # 12. Demonstration of AC Motor protection system.
Exp # 13. Study of characteristics of single-phase differential relay.
Exp # 14. Ground Fault Detection in an Ungrounded System.

Students will perform experiments in groups.
Each group will consist of 3 to 4 students.