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Int. J. Agric.Sc & Vet.Med.

2015 Arpana Raikwar and P C Shukla, 2015

ISSN 2320-3730 www.ijasvm.com


Vol. 3, No. 1, February 2015
© 2015 www.ijasvm.com. All Rights Reserved
Research Paper

DIAGNOSIS OF MASTITIS IN DAIRY GOATS


Arpana Raikwar1* and P C Shukla1

*Corresponding Author: Arpana Raikwar,  arpnajbp@gmail.com

Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland (udder) that causes a chemical and physical
reaction in milk produced by goats. Diagnosis of mastitis is based on signs and history of the
herd. A microbiologic milk culture, a Somatic Cell Count (SCC), or an Enzyme-Linked
ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) test are used to diagnose infection. The SCC and the California
Mastitis Test (CMT) are the most common tests used to diagnose mastitis in dairy goats. The
Modified California Mastitis Test (MCMT) was found to be most convenient and easy for diagnosis
of mastitis. The sometic cell count was found to be confirmatory test for clinical and subclinical
mastitis in goats. The somatic cell count value in mastitis ranged from 37.64-79.60 x 105 cells
per ml of milk. On bacteriological examination, overall 78 samples were cultured out of which 69
(88.46%) samples of which were found to be positive for mastitis. The bacterial load, i.e., aerobic
plate count was found to be 9.0-30.8 x 10-3 CFU/ml of milk which get reduced to 3.1-17.5 x 10-3
CFU/ml of milk after treatment. Coliform count were found to be 2.1-8.7 x 10-3 CFU/ml of milk
which get reduced to 0.3-3.8 x 10-3 CFU/ml of milk after treatment.

Keywords: Caprine mastitis, SCC, MCMT, Coliform count

INTRODUCTION or milk. These may vary greatly in severity during


Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland the course of the disease. Clinical cases can be
(udder) that causes a chemical and physical defined as subacute (mildly clinical) when
reaction in milk produced by goats (Radostits symptoms include only minor alterations in the
et al., 2000). It is more frequent in dairy and meat milk and the affected quarter such as clots, flakes,
goats raised under intensive and semi-intensive or discolored secretion. The quarter may also be
management practices. It can be manifested in slightly swollen and tender. Acute mastitis cases
two forms: subclinical form and clinical and may are characterized by sudden onset, pain, heat,
be acute or chronic. swelling, redness and reduced as well as altered
Clinical mastitis (that which is observable) is milk secretion from affected halves. Abnormal
characterized by visible abnormalities in the udder secretion in the form of clots, flakes, or watery
1
Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Science and A.H., MPPCVV, Jabalpur, MP, India.

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Int. J. Agric.Sc & Vet.Med. 2015 Arpana Raikwar and P C Shukla, 2015

milk is the clinical sign most consistently Table 1: Sources, Number and Breed
observed (Shearer and Harris, 1992). of Lactating Goats Screened
No. of Breed
Diagnosis of mastitis is based on signs and S. Location of
Animals
No. Animal ND J B S
history of the herd. A microbiologic milk culture, a Screened

Somatic Cell Count (SCC), or an Enzyme-Linked 1. LSF, Adhartal 17 - 7 - 10

ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) test are used to 2. Amanala 7 . 4 . 3

diagnose infection. However, the microbiological 3. Ghamapur 11 9 1 1 .

culture is the most reliable source of diagnosis 4. Sadar 24 16 2 4 2

of mastitis of goats. Research data suggest that 5. Madar tekri 28 17 6 4 1


microbiologic culture of a single milk sample is 6. Bhedaghat 32 19 8 5 -
reliable for detection of causal agent of the 7. Hanumantal 24 14 6 2 2
infection (Radostits et al., 2000). 8. Belkheda 38 23 12 3 -
9. Garha 18 9 - 8 1
The SCC and the California Mastitis Test
10. Patan 21 10 7 3 1
(CMT) are the most common tests used to
Total 220 117 53 30 20
diagnose mastitis in dairy goats. However,
Note: ND – Non Descript; J – Jamnapari; S – Sirohi; B – Barberi.
research has shown a lower significant
relationship between the SCC and mastitis in recorded such as breed, age, lactation number,
goats. The CMT is used to detect subclinical stage of lactation, seasons, flock size and number
mastitis. The test is based on the reaction of halves affected. Clinical parameters viz., rectal
between the CMT reagent and the DNA genetic temperature, heart rate, respiration rate and pulse
material of the somatic cells. A higher rate, palpation and inspection of udder for the
concentration in somatic cells leads to a higher detection of abnormalities viz., inflammatory
CMT score. CMT scores are directly related to swelling, fibrosis of mammary tissue, if any will
average somatic cell counts (Leite-Browning, also be record.
2008).
Testing of Milk Samples
MATERIALS AND METHODS Modified California Mastitis Test (MCMT): The
MCMT was performed as per the method
Sources of Animals
described by Devi (1989). The reagent was
The present investigation was conducted at
prepared by adding 2 ml. Stock solution B
livestock farm, Adhartal and private goat keepers
(bromocresol purple reagent) to make volume 100
in the nearby areas of Jabalpur. A total of 220
ml by adding remaining volume of Stock-solution
lactating goats belonging to non descript,
A (Sodium lauryl sulphate reagent).
Jamnapari, Barbari and Sirohi breeds were
screened (Table 1). Equal quantity of milk and MCMT reagent was
added in a mastitis paddle, giving gentle swirling
Epidemiological Studies motion in a horizontal plane with minimum
Epidemiology of mastitis in goats were studied agitation did mixing of the contents. In negative
at the organized/unorganized farms taking cases, the mixture remains liquefied. Grading of
different parameters, about individual animals, the test of positive samples was done according

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Int. J. Agric.Sc & Vet.Med. 2015 Arpana Raikwar and P C Shukla, 2015

to the intensity of viscous and gel formation, Table 2: MCMT Grading in Mastitis
reflecting the degree of inflammation and No. of Positive Quarters
Score Percentage
leukocyte count. It was scored as trace, 1+ and for Mastitis (n = 106)
3+ reaction depending on the amount of gel +1 14 13.20
formation. +2 40 37.73

Sometic Cell Count: The procedure for SCC +3 52 49.05

was adopted as per method by Shukla (1980). employed being simple, cheap, quicker, also
The leukocyte count in the mastitic milk was made having the reliability and applicability under field
to assess the degree of infection in the respective condition as also advocated by Bawaskar (2000)
halves. The CMT positive milk (showing flakes or and Adbel-Redy and Sayed (2008). However less
change in consistency) samples were collected efficacy of MCMT was reported by Contreras
in sterile small glass vials. The name or number
(1996), Bhujwal et al. (1996), Kurundkar (2003)
of goat and halves from which the sample(s)
and Gebrewahid (2012).
collected was labeled on vials. For this purpose
the right half and left half of animals were On the basis of the result of CMT, SCC and
designated as RH and LH, respectively. The milk Bacterial count the infected goats were subjected
sample collected in vials were transported on ice to various treatments. The result of the curative
to the laboratory at Collage of Veterinary Science therapy was judged by retesting the milk sample
and Animal Husbandry, Jabalpur for further after 7 days. Thirty goats were included in the
examination. study were divided into 5 groups comprising of 6
animals. They are named as G1, G2, G3, G4.
Bacterial Count: In the present study, Total viable
count and total coliform count of the CMT positive Sometic Cell Count (SCC): The milk sample
milk samples were determined according to the positive for mastitis by MCMT were further
methods described by Koshy and Padmanaban proceeded for SCC. The pre- treatment and post-
(1989) and Sarker et al. (1996) with minor treatment SCC/ml of milk samples were
modifications. recorded in all the does of different groups
selected for therapeutic regime (Table 3).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Somat ic cell count is an accept ed
Modified California Mastitis Test (MCMT)
quantitative index for mastitis and is used to
In present study, a total of 220 does were evaluate the quality of milk and to predict the
screened for mastitis; out of which 78 (35.55%) udder infection. During the present investigation
does were found to be positive as evident by the mean milk value of apparently healthy does
formation of gel or viscous mass on CMT was 8.20 ± 0.47 x 10 5 cells/ml. There was a
paddle. MCMT score of +1, +2 and +3 was significant increase (54.7 ± 5.06 x 10 5 cells/ml)
noticed as 13.20%, 37.73% and 49.05% of in the mean value of SCC in the animals
quarter respectively in does affected with
affected with mastitis. These observations tally
mastitis (Table 2).
with the reports of Muley (2003) and Nava et
In the present study for detection of SCM, al. (2008) who have observed an increase in
Modified California Mastitis Test (MCMT) was SCC value of mastitic milk.

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Int. J. Agric.Sc & Vet.Med. 2015 Arpana Raikwar and P C Shukla, 2015

Table 3: Comparison of Sometic Cell Count (105 cells/ml) at Pre and Post Treatment
in all Treatment Groups

Pre-treatment SCC (105 cells/ml) Post-treatment SCC (105 cells/ml)


Groups t-value
Range Mean ± SE Range Mean ± SE
G1 37.45 – 70.24 54.7 ± 5.06 12.23 – 20.25 17.3 ± 2.21* 6.22
G2 40.98 – 80.02 61.6 ± 4.42 22.81 – 44.20 34.51 ± 3.85 3.85
G3 35.59 – 67.90 51.02 ± 3.91 18.52 – 39.42 31.6 ± 1.97 6.70
G4 37.22 – 71.01 50.2 ± 3.32 12.22 – 23.77 19.1 ± 1.32* 5.66
Note: * Significant (P < 0.05); SE – Standard Error; SCC – Sometic Cell Count.

Table 4: Comparison of Total Viable Count (103 CFU/ml) at Pre and Post Treatment
in all Treatment Groups

Pre-treatment TVC (103 CFU/ml) Post-treatment TVC (103 CFU/ml)


Groups t-value
Range Mean ± SE Range Mean ± SE
G1 9.0 – 18.4 13.3 ± 6.82 3.1 – 7.9 5.5 ± 3.89 * 10.14
G2 25.3 – 30.5 27.7 ± 4.89 14.2 – 23.6 18.1 ± 4.24 10.62
G3 23.1 – 30.4 27.4 ± 5.42 17.0 – 23.9 21.5 ± 4.51 11.40
G4 16.2 – 24.1 18.1 ± 6.47 10.0 – 17.5 9.9 ± 4.54 * 14.12
Note: * Significant (P < 0.05); SE – Standard Error; TVC – Total Viable Count; CFU – Colony Forming Unit.

Table 5: Comparison of Coliform Count (103 CFU/ml) at Pre and Post Treatment
in all Treatment Groups

Pre-treatment CC (103 CFU/ml) Post-treatment CC (103 CFU/ml)


Groups t-value
Range Mean ± SE Range Mean ± SE
G1 2.1 – 9.7 4.0 ± 1.58 0.3 – 2.5 1.3 ± 0.61 * 6.40
G2 1.6 – 8.7 4.5 ± 1.42 1.0 – 4.2 2.0 ± 0.22 7.24
G3 2.5 – 8.8 4.9 ± 1.63 1.8 – 4.4 2.5 ± 0.28 8.04
G4 2.5 – 8.4 4.1 ± 1.17 0.8 – 3.8 1.7 ± 0.38 * 12.59
Note: * Significant (P < 0.05); SE – Standard Error; CC – Coliform Count; CFU – Colony Forming Unit.

Bacterial Examination of Milk Samples: Out of In the present study, Total Viable Count and
78 samples cultured bacteriologically 69 (88.46%) Coliform Count had been done to determine the
yielded bacterial growth. Nine samples were found bacterial load in mastitic milk.
bacteriologically negative. These findings are in
Total Viable Count (TVC): The pre and post
close agreement with Dadhich et al. (2002) who
treatment TVC values of goats of group G1, G2,
have isolated 90.90% pathogens from milk
G3 and G4 have been recorded (Table 4).
samples. However, these findings are differ with
the finding of Karthick and Ramprabhu (2007) Coliform Count (CC): The pre and post treatment
Who have found that uninfected milk samples may Coliform count values of goats of group G1, G2,
have 67.4% bacteria. G3 and G4 have been recorded (Table 5).

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Int. J. Agric.Sc & Vet.Med. 2015 Arpana Raikwar and P C Shukla, 2015

CONCLUSION 6. Devi B K (1989), “Studies on Subclinical


From the findings of the present study it can be Mastitis in Cows with Special References to
Incidence, Etiology, Sensitivity and
concluded that MCMT is the best, most sensitive
Treatment in Malwa Region of Madhya
and easy test for detection of mastitis. The
Pradesh”, M.V.Sc. and AH Thesis, JNKVV,
sometic cell count, Total Viable count and
Jabalpur, India.
Coliform count were found to be equally and
reliable diagnostic test for the confirmatory 7. Gebrewahid T T, Abera B H and Menghistu
diagnosis of mastitis. H T (2012), “Prevalence and Etiology of
Subclinical Mastitis in Small Ruminents of
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