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Experiment #2

Turbidity Testing Using the Nephelometric Method

Name: Parva Desai


Student ID: 300910675
Section: 242 -101
Date of submission: 23rd feb 2018

Professor: Jovan stefanovaic


Purpose:
This method covers the determination of turbidity in drinking, ground, surface, and saline
waters, domestic and industrial wastes.
The applicable range is 0-40 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU). Higher values may be
obtained with dilution of the sample.

Results:

Standard concentration: 0 mg/L


Actual measured value of standard: 1.07 NTU
Your measured unknown value: 1.90 NTU

Conclusion:

The measured standard value is 1.07 NTU whereas the measured unknown (#20) value is 1.90
NTU.
It is clear from the above mentioned values that it is in the range of the criteria of drinking
water standards. The systems which use direct filtration method, the turbidity cannot be higher
than 1.0 NTU whereas those who use other than this method should follow the state limits,
which states that the turbidity cannot exceed the limit of 5 NTU.

Drinking water should have a turbidity of 5 NTU/JTU or less. Turbidity of more than 5 NTU/JTU
would be noticed by users and may cause rejection of the supply. • Where water is chlorinated,
turbidity should be less than 5 NTU/JTU and preferably less than 1 NTU/JTU for chlorination to
be effective.

Accuracy:

Because we have wildly different and practically unpredictable optical characteristics, such as
the way they absorb and reflect light. From technology to technology, differences in the
combination of incident light source, detection angle, and number of detectors, together with
the natural variation in sample optical characteristics, lead to different measurement results.
Because of this potential for variability, it is important to also provide information on the type
of technology used to collect a given set of data.

Perhaps the most significant practical consideration in turbidity measurement is the difference
in measured values among different instruments that have been calibrated with a natural
sample as a standard. Differences in the spectral characteristics of the light source/detector
combination are the most important reason for different instruments giving different values for
the same sample. This is why it is important to use at least some other laboratory-made
substance that has repeatable spectral characteristics as a primary standard.

If a comparative calibration or comparative verification is performed and read on a different


instrument, it is necessary to use a technology that best matches. At the very least, match the
most important factor.

Questions:

1. There are some errors which can affect the results:

a) The Blank cuvette should be free of finger prints, scratches, etc. It should be clean and
free from any dirt. It is because the final readings can be affected.
b) The turbidity of the sample should be measured immediately so as to prevent
temperature changes and particles flocculation and sedimentation due to changing
sample characteristics. It can also affect the final results.