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TYPE 1 HYPERSENSITIVITY

TYPE 1 HYPERSENSITIVITY
Children: Usually food such as egg, grains
Sometimes inhalants, creams

Adults: Usually inhalants such as pollen, house dust mite


Sometimes food such as shell fish, creams and other cosmetics

Reactions occur immediately after contact with allergen. Due to IgE binding to
allergen on mast cell surface. Common reactions are:
Hay fever, asthma, allergic gastroenteritis, dermatitis
TYPE 2 HYPERSENSITIVITY
TYPE 2 HYPERSENSITIVITY
Mediated by IgG and IgM.

Usually occur due to antigen (e.g. pharmaceutical, Blood type antigens on red blood
cell) on cell surface protein. Upon antibody binding sets off classic complement
pathway. Generate inflammatory mediators and also MAC. Results in destruction of
cells due to MAC and inflammation.

E.g: Hemolysis of red blood cells of newborn if incompatible with Mom’s.


Grave’s disease – antibodies against thyroid receptor
Myasthenia gravis – antibodies against acetylcholine receptor
TYPE 3 HYPERSENSITIVITY
TYPE 3 HYPERSENSITIVITY
Mediated by IgG and IgM.

Antibody-antigen reaction results in complexes that are deposited in tissue &


capillaries. In tissue sets of classic complement reaction and generation of
inflammatory mediators. Can block capillaries. Inside blood vessels also set of
complement reaction resulting in inflammation and damage to vessel.

e.g. Serum sickness. Happens after injection with an anti-venom. Result in


immune complexes if person receiving anti-venom has antibodies against it.
Farmer’s lung. IgG and IgM against inhalants form complexes in lung.
TYPE 4 HYPERSENSITIVITY
TYPE 4 HYPERSENSITIVITY
Mediated by Th1 cytokines and Tc and macrophages.

Occur some time after exposure to antigen and called delayed type hypersensitivity
reactions.

E.g: Tuberculin reaction when given intradermal injection with tuberculosis


antigen (intracellular pathogen so Th1 and Tc available).
Poison ivy dermatitis reaction (Poison binds to cell proteins as hapten and
activates Th1).
SUMMARY: HYPERSENSITIVITY

ADCC= antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity