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What is voice?
Voice (more technically known as diathesis) is a grammatical feature that describes the relationship between
the verb and the subject (also known as the agent) in a sentence. More specifically, voice describes how the
verb is expressed or written in relation to the agent.
There are two main types of voice: active voice and passive voice. A third type of voice called “middle”
voice also exists but is less commonly used. Here are some examples of the three types of voice:

 “She wrote a novel.” (active voice)

 “The house was purchased by an elderly couple.” (passive voice)
 “The cat licked itself.” (“middle” voice)

Active voice
A verb is in the active voice when the agent of the verb (the person or thing that performs the action specified
by the verb) is also the subject of the sentence. The active voice is the most common type of voice in both
spoken and written English, and is generally considered to be the default voice.
Not all active-voice verbs are required to take an object. Any object present, however, must come after the verb
(which always comes after the agent). For example:

 “The boy sang a song.” (with an object, a song)

 “I am watching a movie.” (with an object, a movie)
 “Vivian sings well.” (without an object)

Passive voice
A sentence uses the passive voice when the subject is acted upon by the verb. Passive-voice sentences are
structurally opposite to active-voice sentences, with the object (now the subject* of the sentence)
coming before the verb and the verb coming before the agent of the action. A passive-voice verb is used in the
past participle form preceded by the auxiliary verb be, and the preposition by is inserted before the agent to
form a prepositional phrase. For example:

 “Angie will perform a famous piano piece tomorrow night.” (active voice)
 “A famous piano piece will be performed by Angie tomorrow night.” (passive voice)

 “Thousands of people have already read his new book.” (active voice)
 “His new book has already been read by thousands of people.” (passive voice)

(*When converting a sentence from active to passive, the original object becomes the new subject due to its
position at the beginning of the sentence. At the same time, the agent changes into the object of a prepositional
Unlike active-voice, passive-voice sentences do not require agents. If an agent is unknown or irrelevant, you
may eliminate the prepositional phrase containing the agent. For example:

 “The light bulb was patented by Thomas Edison in 1880.” (with agent)
 “The light bulb was patented in 1880.” (without agent)

 “The wedding venue has been decided on by the bride and groom.” (with agent)
 “The wedding venue has been decided on.” (without agent)
“Middle” voice
The term “middle” voice describes a type of voice that is a combination of sorts between the active and passive
voices. The middle voice is not clearly defined in the English language; that is, it does not have a verb form
specific to it. It does, however, contain several odd or irregular verb usages that are said to correspond most
closely with the middle voice of other languages.
In most “middle”-voice sentences, the agent performs the verb’s action on itself. To compensate for the lack of
a middle-voice verb form, these verbs are typically followed by a reflexive pronoun. For example:

 “My girlfriend always checks herself in the mirror before we go out.”

 “The dog bit itself on the tail.”

“Middle” voice can also be used to describe some intransitive verbs. These verbs syntactically appear active
(agent + verb) but function more similarly to verbs in the passive voice. In other words, the agent is being acted
upon (like the passive voice) despite its position in front of the verb (as in the active voice). For example:

 “The lasagna cooked in the oven for several hours.” (The verb cook is acting upon the agent lasagna.)
 “The bicycle broke without warning.” (The verb break is acting upon the agent bicycle.)


Active Voice
What is active voice?
The active voice is a type of grammatical voice in which the subject of a sentence is also the agent of the verb—that is,
it performs the action expressed by the verb. In active-voice sentences, the agent always comes before the verb. For

 “My friend bought a new car.” (My friend performed the action bought.)
 “She enjoys watching movies.” (She performs the action enjoys.)
 “Barney is talking to his sister.” (Barney is performing the action talking.)

A direct object is not always required for active-voice verbs. When an object is included, however, it must come
directly afterthe verb. For example:

 “I am drinking some tea.” (with a direct object, some tea)

 “The boy hid his report card from his parents.” (with a direct object, his report card)
 “Dr. Johnson will speak at the convention.” (without a direct object)

When to use the active voice

Typically, the active voice is preferable to the passive voice, as it requires fewer words and expresses a clearer
relationship between the verb and its agent. The active voice is generally thought of as the default voice in spoken and
written English.

The following sections contain circumstances in which you should always try to use the active voice over the passive
When there is no direct object
Because passive-voice sentences require direct objects (which are turned into subjects when converted from active to
passive voice), sentences without direct objects must be active. For example:

 “That man has painted for more than 40 years.”

 “We departed immediately after the grand finale.”
 “The kids chatted for several minutes.”

These sentences cannot be put in the passive voice, because there is no direct object to become the subject. As an
example, let’s try making the first sentence passive:

 “For more than 40 years, has been painted by the man.” (What has been painted?)

We can see that it no longer makes any sense when structured in the passive voice, so it must remain active.

When the agent is important

The active voice is commonly used to emphasize the importance of an agent in a sentence. By using the active voice, we
can highlight an agent’s responsibility for or involvement with a particular action. The examples below demonstrate the
differences between an important agent (active voice) and an unimportant agent (passive voice):

 “The employees drink lots of coffee before work every day.” (active voice—describes the employees in relation
to the act of drinking coffee)
 “Lots of coffee is drunk by the employees before work every day.” (passive voice—describes the act of drinking
coffee in relation to the employees)

 “Sir Isaac Newton discovered gravity more than 300 years ago.” (active voice—emphasizes Newton’s
responsibility for the discovery of gravity)
 “Gravity was discovered by Sir Isaac Newton more than 300 years ago.” (passive voice—emphasizes the
discovery of gravity over Newton’s involvement)

When the agent is known or relevant

You should always use the active voice if an agent is identifiable or contains information that is relevant to the rest of
the sentence. For example:

 “Shawn stole a menu from the restaurant.” (The speaker knows or is familiar with Shawn.)
 “A veterinarian found an abandoned puppy by the road.” (The speaker knows that it was a veterinarian who
found the puppy and believes the information is relevant.)
 “Dr. Li opened the hospital in 1989.” (The speaker knows the name of the person who started the hospital and
the information is relevant to the conversation.)

On the other hand, when an agent is unknown or irrelevant, we usually switch to the passive voice and eliminate the
agent altogether. For example:

 “A menu was stolen from the restaurant.”

 “An abandoned puppy was found by the road.”
 “The hospital was opened in 1989.”

When expressing an authoritative tone

The active voice may also be used to stress the authority of an agent. This authoritative tone is a strategy commonly
used in copywriting, advertising, and marketing in order to convince consumers of the beneficial effects of a product or
service. It may also be used to establish a command or to more strongly emphasize an agent’s responsibility for an
action. For example:

 “Brushing your teeth at least twice a day is recommended by dentists.” (passive voice)
 “Dentists recommend brushing your teeth at least twice a day.” (active voice—emphasizes the authority of
the dentists)

 “All of your broccoli must be eaten by you before dessert is served.” (passive voice)
 “You must eat all of your broccoli before dessert is served.” (active voice—emphasizes your responsibility to eat
your broccoli)

When the agent is an ongoing topic

Agents that can perform multiple actions may be treated as topics. Making an agent an ongoing topic
places emphasis on that agent instead of the actions it performs. When an agent acts as a topic, it usually remains the
primary subject in most active-voice sentences used to describe or refer to it. This can be seen most prominently in
works of fiction, in which protagonists typically perform numerous actions throughout a story.

For example, look at how the passage below describes a fictional protagonist named Caroline:

 “Caroline jumped back and gasped. She was afraid of spiders and despised the feeling of their silky webs on her
skin. But she knew it was time to face her fears. Sighing and brushing herself
off, Caroline slowly continued down the path toward the hill.”


Passive Voice
What is passive voice?
The passive voice is a type of grammatical voice in which the subject is acted upon by the verb. In passive-voice
sentences, the subject is the receiver of the action (i.e., what would be the direct object in an active-voice sentence).
For example:

 “The concert was attended by many young people.” (The subject the concert receives the action of attended.)
 “The necklace is being made by a child.” (The subject the necklace receives the action of being made.)

Passive-voice verbs are always preceded by the auxiliary verb be and are in their past participle forms. While the
receiver of the action comes before the verb, the person or thing performing the action (known as the agent)
comes after the verb and is preceded by the preposition by to form a prepositional phrase. For example:

 “The lights were turned off by the janitor.” (The lights is the subject, but the janitor performs the action turned
 “Final exams will be taken by students on Friday.” (Final exams is the subject, but students performs the
action taken.)
 “Letters to Santa are sent by children every year.” (Letters to Santa is the subject, but children performs the
action sent.)

Converting the active voice into the passive voice

You may only convert a sentence from the active voice into the passive voice if there is a direct object. As we’ve seen,
this direct object becomes the subject in the passive voice. For example:

 “A high school track and field star won the race.” (active voice)
 “The race was won by a high school track and field star.” (passive voice)

 “Local businesses are handing out pamphlets near the mall.” (active voice)
 “Pamphlets are being handed out by local businesses near the mall.” (passive voice)

If an active-voice sentences does not contain a direct object, it cannot be converted into the passive voice, as the
sentence will lack coherency without a subject. For example:

 “The kids are playing outside.” (active voice)

 “Is being played by the kids outside.” (What is being played by the kids?)

Converting the passive voice into the active voice

You may only convert a sentence from the passive voice into the active voice if there is an identifiable agent of the verb.
In the active voice, this agent becomes the subject. For example:

 “This blanket was knitted by my grandmother.” (passive voice)

 “My grandmother knitted this blanket.” (active voice)

 “The deer was being chased by a bear.” (passive voice)

 “A bear was chasing the deer.” (active voice)

If a passive-voice sentences does not contain an agent, it cannot be converted into the active voice, as the sentence will
lack coherency without a subject. For example:

 “The Great Pyramid of Giza was constructed more than 4,000 years ago.” (passive voice)
 “Constructed the Great Pyramid of Giza more than 4,000 years ago.” (Who constructed the Great Pyramid of

When to use the passive voice

The passive voice is less commonly used than the active voice because it is wordy and often lacks clarity; however, there
are several cases in which using the passive voice may be necessary or preferable.

The following sections contain various circumstances in which you might wish to use the passive voice instead of the
active voice.

When the receiver of the action is important

The passive voice may be used to emphasize the importance of the receiver of the action. (In contrast, the active voice
typically emphasizes the importance of the agent.) The examples below demonstrate the differences between
an important receiver of the action (passive voice) and an important agent (active voice):

 “The school dance will be organized by the science teachers this year.” (passive voice—emphasizes
the activity in relation to the organizers)
 “The science teachers will organize the school dance this year.” (active voice—emphasizes the organizers in
relation to the activity)

 “She is always being praised by her parents.” (passive voice—emphasizes she in relation to her parents)
 “Her parents are always praising her*.” (active voice—emphasizes her parents in relation to her)

(*When the pronoun she is converted into an object, it becomes her.)

When the agent is unknown, irrelevant, or implied

Occasionally, the agent of an action may be unknown or irrelevant to the rest of a sentence, or it may already be
heavily implied through the action or receiver of the action. In these cases, the agent may be eliminated altogether
(which can only be done with the passive voice—not the active voice). For example:
 “My missing wallet was returned to a lost-and-found.” (unknown agent—we don’t know who returned the
missing wallet)
 “A popular play is being performed at the local theater.” (irrelevant agent—the names of the performers are
 “Bathing suits are usually sold in the summer months.” (implied agent—we can assume that the agent
is clothing storesor something similar)

When softening an authoritative tone

Because the passive voice places less emphasis on the responsibility of the agent and more emphasis on the receiver of
the action, we can use the passive voice to express commands in a softer, less authoritative tone than those expressed
through the active voice. For example:

 “Inexperienced mountaineers should not attempt Mount Everest.” (active voice—emphasizes inexperienced
mountaineers’ responsibility to avoid the mountain)
 “Mount Everest should not be attempted by inexperienced mountaineers.” (passive voice—emphasizes the
difficulty or danger of the mountain)

If the agent is clearly implied, it may be eliminated for the sake of conciseness:

 “You need to finish this project by tomorrow.” (active voice)

 “This project needs to be finished by you by tomorrow.” (passive voice with agent)
 “This project needs to be finished by tomorrow.” (passive voice without agent)

When expressing a professional, neutral, or objective tone

Various forms of writing, including scientific reports and instruction manuals, use the passive voice to express
a professional, neutral, or objective tone. Typically, the receiver of the action functions as the primary topic throughout
the text. The agent is usually removed due to irrelevance or to avoid a sense of subjectivity. For example:

 “The experiment was conducted over the course of two weeks.”

 “Once Part A has been inserted into Part B, tighten the screws with a screwdriver.”
 “Adverse reactions to the medication should be assessed and treated by a medical professional.”


Middle Voice
What is middle voice?
The so-called middle voice is an approximate type of grammatical voice in which the subject both performs and
receivesthe action expressed by the verb. In other words, the subject acts as both the agent and the receiver (i.e.,
the direct object) of the action. For example:

 “He injured himself playing rugby.” (He is the agent and himself is the receiver of the action.)
 “The cat is scratching itself.” (The cat is the agent and itself is the receiver of the action.)

Middle-voice verbs follow the same syntactic structure as in the active voice (agent + verb), but function semantically
as passive-voice verbs. As a result, the middle voice is described as a combination of the active and passive voices.
Because there is no verb form exclusive to the middle voice, it is often categorized as the active voice since it uses the
same verb structure in a sentence. The following examples highlight the similarities between the two:

 “Some snakes have tried to eat inedible things.” (active voice)

 “Some snakes have tried to eat themselves.” (middle voice)
 “The man accidentally hit his face.” (active voice)
 “The man accidentally hit himself in the face.” (middle voice)

How to identify the middle voice

We can distinguish the middle voice from the active voice by determining whether there is a reflexive pronoun after the
verb (in the direct object position) or an intransitive verb acting upon the agent.

When the direct object is a reflexive pronoun

Because the agent is also the receiver of the action in the middle voice, we can clarify this connection by inserting a
reflexive pronoun after the verb. The reflexive pronoun assumes the role of the direct object and indicates that the
agent is acting upon itself. For example:

 “The child warmed herself by blowing into her hands.” (Herself is a reflexive pronoun that refers to the child.)
 “Small dogs tend to hurt themselves when playing with bigger dogs.” (Themselves is a reflexive pronoun that
refers to small dogs.)

Many middle-voice verbs are transitive verbs and therefore require a direct object in the form of a reflexive pronoun.
Without a reflexive pronoun, the receiver of the action becomes unclear, and the sentence loses coherence. For

 “The child warmed by blowing into her hands.” (What or whom did the child warm?)
 “Small dogs tend to hurt when playing with bigger dogs.” (What or whom do small dogs tend to hurt?)

Reusing the agent instead of adding a reflexive pronoun will affect the coherence of the sentence or even change its
meaning altogether:

 “The child warmed the child by blowing into her hands.” (implies the child warmed a different child)
 “Small dogs tend to hurt small dogs when playing with bigger dogs.” (implies small dogs tend to
hurt other small dogs)

Likewise, using a personal pronoun instead of a reflexive pronoun will change or confuse the meaning of the verb’s

 “The child warmed her by blowing into her hands.” (implies the child warmed a different child)
 “Small dogs tend to hurt them when playing with bigger dogs.” (indicates an unspecified object of the
verb hurt other than small dogs)

However, there do exist certain verbs for which the reflexive pronouns are implied and may therefore be eliminated.
For example:

 “My father is shaving himself in the bathroom.” (with the reflexive pronoun himself)
 “My father is shaving in the bathroom.” (without reflexive the pronoun)

 “She always stretches herself before doing yoga.” (with the reflexive pronoun herself)
 “She always stretches before doing yoga.” (without reflexive the pronoun)

When the verb is intransitive and acting upon the agent

Certain intransitive verbs can be used to modify an agent (usually an inanimate object) that is also the receiver of the
action. In the middle voice, this type of verb does not take a reflexive pronoun (or any direct object). For example:

 “My sister’s lunch is cooking on the stove.” (Cook is an intransitive verb indicating what is being cooked.)
 “This car doesn’t drive smoothly anymore.” (Drive is an intransitive verb indicating what is being driven.)
 “Her engagement ring broke in half.” (Break is an intransitive verb indicating what is being broken.)
However, active-voice verbs can also be intransitive and are expressed identically to middle-voice verbs. For example:

 “The boy laughed when he heard the joke.” (Laugh is an intransitive verb indicating who is laughing.)
 “Someone is crying in the hallway.” (Cry is an intransitive verb indicating who is crying.)

You can determine whether an intransitive verb is in the active voice or the middle voice by changing the verb into
the passive voice. Doing so will convert the intransitive verb into a transitive verb and the agent into the receiver of the
action. If the meaning of the sentence stays roughly the same, it is in the middle voice. If the meaning changes
dramatically or lacks coherence, it is in the active voice. For example:

 “My sister’s lunch is cooking on the stove.” (original)

 “My sister’s lunch is being cooked on the stove.” (passive voice)

Because cook can be converted into a transitive verb in the passive voice without altering the meaning of the original
sentence, we know that the original sentence must be in the middle voice.
Here is another example:

 “The boy laughed when he heard the joke.” (original)

 “The boy was laughed when he heard the joke.” (passive voice)

When converted into the passive voice, the original sentence loses coherence; therefore, we know it must be in
the active voice.

perturb - Disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed.

Synonyms: cark, disorder, disquiet, unhinge, distract, trouble

Usage: She was rather perturbed by the news that her father was seriously ill.

redact - Formulate in a particular style or language.

Synonyms: couch, put, frame, cast

Usage: Your presentation is solid, but I have asked Michael to redact portions of the text to make it more accessible to
our Japanese business partners.

molder - To crumble to dust; disintegrate.

Synonyms: rot, decompose

Usage: Far better that crows and ravens ... should pick my flesh from my bones, than that they should be prisoned in a
workhouse coffin and molder in a pauper's grave.

expedite - Speed up the progress of; facilitate.

Synonyms: hasten

Usage: I will do all I can to expedite the processing of your paperwork, but it could still take over a week for your
application to be approved.

dissect - To examine, analyze, or criticize in minute detail.

Synonyms: analyze, break down, take apart

Usage: They dissected the plan afterward to learn why it had failed.

amateur - an athlete who does not play for pay

Antonyms: pro, professional

increase - the act of increasing something; "he gave me an increase in salary"

Antonyms: decrement, reduction, step-down, diminution, lessening, drop-off, minify, lessen, diminish, fall

scarcity - a small and inadequate amount

Antonyms: abundance, copiousness, teemingness

nonpartisan - a person who is nonpartisan

Antonyms: drumbeater, zealot

insulator - a material such as glass or porcelain with negligible electrical or thermal conductivity

Antonyms: conductor


Thanks to

Terrorism implies the use of violence to terrorize a population or government for certain political, religious or
ideological purpose. The threat of terrorism has become a worldwide concern with several parts of the world
reeling under frequent terrorist strikes. With little concern for human lives, terrorists continue to strike with
impunity, leaving a trail of death and destruction, wherever they choose to inflict their blows.

There have been several terror attacks in India, resulting in grievous loss of lives and properties. Here we are
providing you some useful articles on terrorism under various categories according to varying words limits.
You can choose any of them as per your need:




Terrorism has emerged as a major threat to the unity and integrity of India. The masterminds of terror seek to
achieve their objectives by creating an atmosphere of fear with a view to destabilize India. The major regions
affected by terrorist activities in India include Jammu and Kashmir, east-central and south-central India
(Naxalism) and the Seven Sisters (North-East).

Causes behind terror:

Unemployment has been one of the major causes due to which terrorist groups lure the young generation
easily by providing them hoards of easy money. In return, the youngsters have to spread hatred, and indulge
in bloodbath and killings on the street.

Poverty stricken young people belonging to poor socio-economic background are the ultimate target of the
ISI, as they get easily influenced to do their bidding in return of easy money.

A Wide Network: India has already been ranked among the top ten terrorism affected countries in the world.
Apart from radical terrorism affected states such as Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Tripura, Assam, Nagaland and
Manipur, there are other states which have been victims of Naxalite terrorism, which emanated from
Naxalbari village in West Bengal through a movement by the landless against the land owners of that village.
This movement soon spread across the country.

Currently, there are various terrorist organizations operating in the country in a clandestine manner with their
members hard to be recognized. The authorities have established their links with various international
terrorism organizations most of which are being operated on a global level to supply arms, ammunition in
different countries to destabilize the nation.


Poverty and unemployment are among the major reasons fuelling the growth of terrorism in India. If we want
to curb terrorism, we are required to address the causes which have given rise to radicalization of youth in
different parts of the country.


Terrorism means the unlawful use of violence (or the threat of violence) intended to create terror for
achieving a religious, economic, ideological or political goal, in deliberate disregard of the safety of victims.

According to a report issued by the Global Terrorism Index 2014, India was ranked among the top ten
countries greatly affected by terrorism activities.

Causes of terrorism in India

There are several causes of terrorism in India. To begin with, there are political reasons for the growth of
terrorism in India. This is primarily seen in The North-East region. The state government there have failed to
control and manage large-scale illegal Muslim immigration from Bangladesh.

Economic causes too contribute to terrorism in India. These include rural unemployment, exploitation of
landless labourers by those who own land and lack of land reforms. The major states affected by such causes
include Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. The absence of land reforms, rural
unemployment, exploitation of landless labourers by land owners, economic grievances and perceptions of
gross social injustice in these states have given rise to ideological terrorist groups such as the various
Marxist/Maoist groups waging a war against the respective state government.

Thirdly, religious causes too lead to terrorism in India. Punjab witnessed the growth of terrorism when certain
organisations of Sikhs led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale raised the demand for Khalistan, an independent
state for Sikhs. Some elements belonging to different organisations shifted to terrorism for the creation of a
separate state known as Khalistan for the Sikhs. Similarly, Jammu & Kashmir has been reeling under religious
extremism which seeks to appropriate all rights for Muslim majority.

Agencies Fighting Terrorism in India

National Intelligence Wings: Among them, mention can be made of Intelligence Bureau, an internal
intelligence agency under the Ministry of Home Affairs; the Research and Analysis Wing, an external
intelligence agency under the Cabinet secretariat; the Defence Intelligence, and the intelligence directorate
generals of the armed forces.

Physical security agencies: Among them, we have the Central Industrial Security Force, which is responsible
for security at airports and sensitive establishments, and the National Security Guards (NSG), a specially
trained force, which is called in the wake of emergencies such as hijacking, hostage-taking, etc. Then we have
the Special Protection Group (SPG), which is responsible for the security of the prime minister and former
prime ministers.

Paramilitary forces: Not to be left behind, forces such as Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and the Border
Security Force (BSF), assist the police in counter-terrorism operations in times of need.

The Army: The Indian Army has a significant role in India’s fight against terrorism. It has a permanent position
in J&K, which is bearing the brunt of large-scale infiltration from Pakistan and the presence of divisive
elements within the troubled state.


At the immediate level, terrorism results in loss of lives and livelihood, and destruction of properties. But
overall, terrorism creates a negative environment for the growth of trade and commerce, leading to huge
losses, recession and unemployment. India needs a strong political will to fight the scourge of terrorism

Terrorism is an act of repeated violence committed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for
peculiar, criminal or political reasons. The immediate human victims of terrorism are generally chosen
randomly or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message

India has long been a victim of terrorism. Terrorism in India is said to be largely sponsored by Pakistan,
through its secret service and intelligence agency, Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). Pakistan has consistently
denied its involvement, but in July 2016, the Indian Government released the data on a series of terror strikes
in India since 2005 that claimed 707 lives and left over 3,200 injured, all pointing at Pakistan’s involvement.

Kidnapping: Terrorists’ favourite weapon

Kidnapping has been a favourite tactic employed by terrorist groups whether they are religious or non-
religious for ransom. They have sought to make others agree to their demands through kidnapping. For
instance, a Romanian diplomat was kidnapped by the Khalistan Commando Force, a Sikh terrorist group, in
New Delhi in 1991. Similarly, the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front kidnapped some Israeli tourists in J&K in

Global Linkages

Terrorist groups have affinity with terrorist groups of their ilk in other countries. For instance, the Marxist
groups of India are aligned with Maoist groups of Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. The separatist, terrorist
Kashmiri outfits are connected with the religious, fundamentalist and jihadi organizations of Pakistan. Similar
is the link between the Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) with jihadi elements in Pakistan and Saudi

The overseas diaspora too funds and supports home-grown terrorist groups both in moral and material terms.
In its heydays, the Khalistan movement in Punjab found a resonance with the overseas Sikh community in the
UK and Canada and flourished rapidly. The Mirpuris, migrants from Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, who have
settled in Western countries, are said to help Kashmiri organizations in all sorts of ways. Similarly, the Marxist
groups within India find encouragement and support from the people of Marxist leanings within the overseas
Indian community.

Causes of Terrorism

There are several causes of terrorism in India: political, economic, and religious.

The political cause of terrorism is primarily seen in Tripura and Assam where the political factors resulted in
terrorism after the respective state governments failed to control and manage the large-scale illegal Muslim
immigration from Bangladesh. The terrorist outfits capitalized upon the alienation of the daughters and sons
of the soil who did not wish to share the opportunities of employment with the refugees.

Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh are prime examples of economic causes of terrorism in
India. Factors such as rural unemployment, exploitation of landless labourers and lack of land reforms created
perceptions of gross social injustice. All this led to the rise of ideological groups such as the several
Marxist/Maoist groups waging a war against the State.
One of instance of religious terrorism was the growth of Sikh militancy in Punjab for the creation of an
independent Sikh nation called Khalistan. In Jammu and Kashmir, the dream of a separate Kashmir nation has
drawn many Muslim organizations together against India.


Terrorist activities have extremely adverse implications for any country, India being no exception. Terrorism
poses a deadly threat to the unity and integrity of the nation. The society, media and political parties must
make it a common cause to fight the menace of terrorism in a cohesive and united spirit. We have to show to
the world that we are not a soft state in dealing with any terrorist strikes on our soil.


Terrorism can be defined as an intentional act of terror or violence on the part of clandestine individual/s,
group or state actors to inflict death, injury or property damage, or induce fear among its victims. Terrorism
seeks to take refuse in posturing of political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other

The victims of violence are generally chosen from a target population, to serve a message. Terrorism poses a
grave threat to the citizens of India.

Terrorism: Spreading tentacles in India

India has been tackling the menace of terrorism ever since its independence. Jammu and Kashmir has always
been a troubled state with Pakistan using it as a means of waging a proxy war against India. The North-East
region has been the hotbed of part insurgent-part terrorist movements. The nation also had to grapple with
the pro-Khalistan movements in Punjab in the eighties though now the situation has returned to normal

Causes of terrorism

Political factors led to insurgency-cum-terrorism especially in Assam and Tripura. The governments of these
states failed to control large-scale illegal immigration of Muslims from Bangladesh. It resulted in insurgent
movements that raised the demand of economic benefits for the sons and daughters of the soil.

Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar are prime examples of economic
causes behind terrorism. Against the backdrop of the absence of land reforms, rural unemployment,
exploitation of landless labourers by land owners, etc, the economic grievances of people of the states
multiplied, giving rise to ideological terrorist groups such as the various Marxist/Maoist groups operating
under different names. They consider the ideology of Marx, Engel, Mao, Lenin as the only valid economic
path. All of them resort to terrorist activities to reclaim social justice for the people.

In J&K, there is an unmistakable religious angle to terrorism. Pakistan has been making consistent efforts to
cause religious polarization in the state. The state has various pro-Pak terrorist organizations such as Jaish-e-
Mohammad and Hizbul Mujahideen.

Funding of Terrorism

Terrorist and insurgent groups in India receive funding from various sources such as Pakistan’s Inter-Services
Intelligence (ISI); religious, fundamentalist and pan-Islamic jihadi organizations in Pakistan; ostensibly
charitable organizations in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia; the mafia group led by Dawood Ibrahim who operates
from Karachi, Pakistan.
Sometimes, terrorists resort to extortions and ransom payments for releasing hostages, and collect
contributions — voluntary or forced — from the people living in the area where they operate. Narcotics
smuggling is another source of funding for terrorist organizations and they use informal hawala channel to
transmit funds.

Terrorist Attacks in India

Terrorists have struck time and again in India. Some of such incidents are as follows:

1985 bombing of an Air India flight from Canada to India, killing all 329 people on board.

1993 Mumbai bomb blasts, which killed about 250 civilians.

2001 Attack on Indian Parliament on 13 December 2001, in which 9 policemen and parliament staff were
killed, besides all five terrorists who were identified as Pakistani nationals.

2005 Delhi bombings on 29 October 2005, which killed more than 60 people and injured at least 200 others.

2006 Varanasi bombings in which 15 people were reported to have been killed and as many as 101 others
were injured.

2006 Mumbai attack, when two of the prime hotels, a landmark train station, and a Jewish Chabad house, in
South Mumbai, were attacked and sieged.

2007 Hyderabad bombings, where two bombs exploded almost simultaneously on 25 August 2007.

2007 Mecca Masjid bombing in Hyderabad which left 15 people dead in the immediate aftermath.

2008 Bangalore serial blasts in which two people were killed and 20 injured.

2010 Varanasi bombing on 7 December 2010 that killed a toddler, and set off a stampede in which 20 people,
including four foreigners, were injured.

2011 High Court bombing on Wednesday, 7 September 2011 at outside Gate No. 5 of the Delhi High Court,
killing 12 people and injuring 76.

2013 Naxal attack in Darbha valley, Chhattisgarh, which killed 28 people.

2015 Gurdaspur attack in Dina Nagar, Gurdaspur, Punjab, killing 10 people.

2016 attack at Pathankot Air Force Station, killing 7 people.

2016 Pampore attack, claiming 8 lives.

2016 Uri attack that left 20 dead.

2016 Baramulla attack and 2016 Handwara attack at Rashtriya Riffles Camp.

Conclusion: Terrorism presents a grave challenge to the people and government of India. If we want to
effectively deal with this menace, the entire nation needs to stand united to fight the perpetrators of terror.
All political parties need to rise above their partisan lines to give a befitting reply to terrorists and their
masterminds operating from across the borders. India has to demonstrate that it is not a soft state but a
capable nation with zero tolerance to any terrorist activities carried out by the enemies of the nation.


Terrorism is the unlawful act done by group of people by the unofficial or unauthorized use of violence to
directly create terror and fear among common people for achieving their targets including personal, social,
religious, political, and ideological aims.


Now-a-days people are really afraid of the terrorism and terrorists attack all time. It has become a warm topic
as it is a big social issue. Here we have provided simply worded essay on terrorism for the students. Terrorism
Essay written here are in very easy and simple English language.


Terrorism is the unlawful act of violence which is used by the terrorists to make people fear. Terrorism has
become a common social issue. It is used to threaten common public and government. Terrorism is used by
various social organizations, politicians and business industries to achieve their goals in very easy way. A
group of people who take support of terrorism are known as terrorists. Explaining terrorism is not so easy as it
has spread its roots very deep. Terrorists have any rule and law; they only use violent acts intending to create
and enhance level of terror in the society and country.



Terrorism has become a big national and international problem all over the world. It is a global issue which
has affected almost all the nations throughout the world directly or indirectly. Opposing terrorism has been
tried by many countries however; terrorists are still getting support by someone. Terrorism is a violent act of
terrifying the common public anytime in the day or night. Terrorists have many objectives such as spreading
threat of violence in the society, fulfilling political purposes, etc. They make civilians of the country their
primary target.

Some of the examples of terrorism are bombing of US Embassy, atom bomb attack on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki, etc. The main goal of the terrorists is fulfillment of their demands by the government of a specific
country. They contact online social media or newspaper, magazine, etc to spread their voices to the public
and government. Sometimes, terrorists attack is done to fulfill the religious and ideological goal.


India is a developing country who has faced many challenges in the past and currently, terrorism which a big
national problem. It has faced challenges like hunger death, illiteracy, poverty, inequality, population
explosion and terrorism which have affected its growth and development to a great extent. Terrorism is a big
threat fighting with a government and common public for the purpose of religion, motherland, and other
unreasonable motives of the terrorists. Terrorists call themselves brave soldiers however, they are not real
soldiers. Real soldiers never hurt common public and they fight only to save their country from the enemies.
Real soldiers fight to fulfill the purpose of a nation. Whereas terrorists fight to fulfill their own, individual and
unfair purposes.
A national soldier is fully responsible for his all the responsibilities however a terrorist never do that.
Terrorists got their name from the word terror. Earlier, terrorism was limited to some specific areas like state
of Jammu and Kashmir however; now-a-days, it has spread to almost all the areas especially regions of north
eastern India. Recently, the terrorist attack in India was in Taj Hotel and Nariman house in Mumbai. In that
attack, India had lost lives of many people and suffered financial loss.


Terrorism is a big national issue which is using the human mind to get complete victory. Terrorism is terrifying
the mind of the human being to make them weak so that they can rule the nation again. It needs to be solved
on international level. We all should think about terrorism together to finish it from the root. We should make
a strong policy to completely destroy its kingdom as well as removing the striking terror from the human
minds. Terrorism uses violent ways to achieve the purpose and get positive result.

Terrorism is the act of violence performed by the group of people called terrorist. They become very common
people and somehow they lost their control over the mind because of some unfair natural disasters or unfair
activities with them by others which make them unable to fulfil desires in normal and accepted ways. Slowly
they are taken under the confidence of some bad people in the society where they are promised to get
fulfilled all the desires. They get together and form a group of terrorists to fight with their own nation, society
and community. Terrorism has affected all the youths of the country, their growth and development.

It has pulled the nation many years back from the proper development. Terrorism is ruling the country just
like Britishers, from which we again need to be free. However, it seems that terrorism would always continue
spreading its root to deep because some rich people from our nation are still supporting them to fulfill their
unfair purposes.


India had faced lots of challenges such as poverty, population growth, hunger, illiteracy, inequality, and many
more however, terrorism is highly dangerous till now affecting the mankind and humanity. It is more than
dangerous and frightening disease which is affecting the people mentally and intellectually. Whether it exists
in the small (Ireland, Israel, etc) or big (USA, Russia, etc) countries; it has challenged both to a same level.
Terrorism is act of using international violence by the group of frustrated people means terrorists to achieve
some political, religious or individual goals. The spread of terror by the terrorists is increasing day by day.

Terrorism has no any rule and laws, it only attacks on society or colony or crowd of the innocent people living
in order to spread terror as well as give pressure to government to complete their demands. The demands of
the terrorist become very specific to fulfil only what they want. It is a greatest threat to mankind. They never
compromise their friends, family, innocent kids, woman and old people. They only want to explode atom
bomb at the place of people crowd. They shoot on crowd, hijack flight and other terror activities.

Terrorist target to spread terror in their preferred areas, region or country within minimum time. Previously, it
is supposed that terrorist’s activities were limited to the Kashmir only however, it has spread its roots to all
over the country. There are many terrorist groups exists in the nation with their special name depending on
their name. Two main types of terrorism are political terrorism and criminal terrorism depends on their works.
Terrorists are well-trained group of people prepared to perform some specific purpose. More than one
terrorist group are trained to perform different purposes. It is like a disease which is spreading regularly and
need some highly effective medicine for permanent removal.


Terrorism is the process unfair and violent activities performed by the group of trained people called
terrorists. There is only one boss who gives strict orders to the group to perform particular activity in any
ways. They want money, power and publicity for the fulfilment of their unfair ideas. In such conditions, it is
media which really helps to spread the news about terrorism in the society of any nation. Group of terrorist
also take support of the media by especially contacting them to let them know about their plan, ideas and

Various groups of the terrorists are named according to their aims and objectives. Acts of terrorism affects the
human mind to a great extent and makes people so fear that they fear to go outside from their own home.
They think that there is terror everywhere outside the home in the crowd like railway station, temple, social
event, national event and so many. Terrorists want to spread terror within specific area of high population in
order to publicize for their act as well as rule on people’s mind. Some recent act of terrorism are 9/11 attacks
on the U.S. and 26/11 attack in India. It has affected the financial status and humanity to a great extent.

In order to reduce the terror and effect of terrorism from the nation, a tight security arrangement is done on
the order of government. All the places which are crowded because of any reasons like social programmes,
national events like Republic day, Independence Day, temple and etc. Each and every person has to follow the
rules of security arrangement and has to pass from the automatic machine of full body scanner. Using such
machines, security get help in detecting the presence of terrorists. Even after arrangement of such tight
security, we are still unable to make it effective against the terrorism.

Our country is spending lots of money every year to fight against the terrorism as well as remove the terrorist
group. However, it is still growing like a disease as new terrorists are getting trained on daily basis. They are
very common people like us but they are trained to complete some unfair act and forced to fight against their
one society, family and country. They are so trained that they never compromise their life, they are always
ready to finish their life while fighting. As an Indian citizen, we all are highly responsible to stop the terrorism
and it can be stopped only when we never come into the greedy talk of some bad and frustrated people.



Terrorism is such a hot topic today that everyone discusses about it and considers it as a major threat to the
social, political and economic stability of a country. Many preventive measures are taken by the countries at
large to uproot terrorism from the world and establish peace globally. But it is not so easy to accomplish; yet
certainly not impossible. Given the many cases of terror attacks in our society, many institutions organize
discussions and speech giving ceremonies with a view to actively engage the youth of our country. So if you
have any such assignment, you can look up our comprehensive and lucid collection of speeches which may
make your task easier. Having a collection of both short speech on terrorism and long speech on terrorism,
you can use any of them as a reference point and prepare an effective terrorism speech.



Hon’ble Principal, Vice Principal, Respected Fellow Teachers and My Dear Students – I welcome you all to our
school seminar hall. First of all, let me wish warm greetings to everyone present here!
Just like always, we have again assembled to discuss and exchange our thought process on the most pertinent
issues that concern us and our country at large. And today, we are going to discuss yet another burning issue
from which the whole world is suffering, i.e. Terrorism. Since I feel so strongly about this subject; I have
chosen this topic in order to raise awareness of my students and make them realize in what ways it has
affected the world. Though my personal opinion is not different from the rest of the world, I would still like to
share it with you all and say that terrorism has caused a major havoc on our planet and unsettled the lives of
everybody. It is owing to the growing terrorist attacks that many brave soldiers and countless innocent people
are losing their lives; the world’s economy has suffered a serious breakdown and most important of all it has
created a fear in everyone’s heart that their lives are not safe anywhere.

If you reverse the clock time, you will realize that the history is replete with the horrifying incidents of
terrorist attacks. We can never sleep carefree at night, cannot walk freely on streets because in some way or
the other we live under a constant threat of attack that hovers around and mainly because of the growing
terrorist attacks and cases of murder. This is the reason we are often being told by our loved ones to avoid
being at crowded places, especially during the festive seasons. Terrorism is that activity, which is purposely
carried out by a group of men or several terrorist organizations to generate fear or panic amongst the masses
with the sole aim to cause damage to their lives and property. It is such a hideous exercise to unsettle
people’s peaceful lives and destroy their families.

The wound of Mumbai Terrorist Attack, i.e. 26/11 is still not healed and the world is witnessing an alarming
rate of increase in such activities: from Pakistan bomb attacks to terrorist attacks on Mumbai Taj Hotel, from
the Twin tower attack in America to bombings in London. These heinous activities are carried out by the
terrorist groups without any fear in their hearts.

Unfortunately, people like us become terrorists, whose minds are brainwashed by the terrorist organizations
(belonging to such places as Afghanistan, Iraq and Taliban), to that extent that they are even willing to
become suicide bombers and become appalling examples of human weapon to be used by the terrorist

The aim of these terrorist activities is to wear down the social, economical and political machinery of our
country or other countries in the world. As per the statistics revealed to the public, the country US spends
nearly $5 million every year in order to combat terrorism. In fact, our country is also showing an active
participation to uproot this issue; through an alliance called POTA, which is formed by our Indian government
to deal with this growing threat.

So let’s take a pledge together that we will put every bit of our efforts to stop these heinous activities of crime
and murder and strengthen our country by enlightening the people and raising their consciousness towards it.

Thank You!


Warm Greetings to the Hon’ble Chairman of ABC Social Activist Group, Committee Members and Dear

I welcome you all to the 26th Annual Discussion Program organized to raise consciousness of the people
towards the sensitive issues that our country is grappling with. And since the news of terror attacks and bomb
blasts always remain in the news highlights, I considered to take up this topic for today’s discussion and

Even though the cases of criminal violence and war threats have been making rounds since the time of human
existence; the whole idea of terrorism shrouded in a form of political brutality traces its roots in le terreur, i.e.
the revolution in France. In the beginning, a word to define the callous attitude of a revolutionary government
regime (where around forty thousand people were beheaded) during the late 19th century was referred to as
the act of “terrorism” implying almost solely to the anti-government group violence, like the Russian
Narodnaya Volya, i.e. “Will of the People”. It is since then that the designation of terrorist groups or their
actions has differed with the changing political aims and assumptions.

There are many questions that are raised on terrorism, such as how terrorism facilitates the disruption of a
national political system or its social institutions? In what way terrorism act as a catalyst for a rapid social
change? Then, in what manner can terrorism define the social correlation between a frustrated minority and
the ruling political group, or between a deprived group and one that enjoys a complete monopoly by
employing force? A comprehensive sociological view on terrorism is only possible through the discussion of
political events that unfold on a large scale, not only in terms of cumulative numerical statements, but also by
examining its impact on the society.

There is no reason to deny that terrorism demobilizes and discourages populations and creates ruptures in a
society even though in a striking contrast it also works as an integrative mechanism in bringing people
together for a common goal. Terrorism creates chaos in a society and disrupts the law and order of a state or
a country, i.e. kidnapping or killing of people from one sect by another sect on religious grounds or owing to
the sub-cultural distinctions. However, no act of terrorism can ever be a method for speeding up the historical
changes or a ploy for achieving any goals.

A recent terrorist attack that took place was on July 11, 2017. It was an attack on Amarnath Yatra in Anantnag
where seven casualties were recorded and more than 19 people got severely wounded. Another incident that
preceded it was the 2017 Bhopal-Ujjain bombing terror attack on a passenger train that occurred on 7th
March. The bombing incident unfolded at Jabri Railway Station in the district of Shajapur, Madhya Pradesh,
wounding 10 travelers.

Even though sociologically terrorists may not be able of toppling up the social order; however they do create
ruptures within that order and weaken the administrative capacity of the officials as well as the ruling elite.

It is, therefore, not right to encourage or shelter the anti-social elements in our society and we all should
become a little more pro-active in terms of keeping a close watch on our surroundings and reporting things to
police if we observe anything suspicious. This is all I have to say!

Thank You!


Good Morning Ladies and Gentlemen!

Before this event begins, I would like to thank all the people for gathering here and take this opportunity to
say a few words on terrorism. As we all know that today this event is organized in this area to spread
awareness about terrorism amongst people. It has become very important for people to understand what is
terrorism actually?
Terrorism could be defined simply as it is an unlawful act that is to create violence among people. Now-a-days
fear of terrorism is spreading rapidly all over the world. Terrorists spread terrorism on the name of religion
and people are living in a fear of losing lives of their loved ones, especially those who are living in vulnerable
places. There are many terrorists groups such as ISIS, AL-QUAEDA, etc. Directly or indirectly, whole world is
getting affected by the spread of terrorism. Terrorist activities take place due to political, religious, personal
and ideological gains. As the whole world is suffering from this problem called terrorism, thus it could be
solved internationally. Only one or few countries are not responsible for it.

India had faced many problems as a nation in her entire history and terrorism is a biggest of them. There are
many instances where the country had gone through the fear of terrorism and the most obscene attack was
on the Taj Hotel which had left an awful impact on a whole country. The country had faced a huge loss of lives
and had gone through economical crises during this attack. These kinds of attacks exercised by those terrorists
are for their political and other unjustified gains. They do unjustified killings for their unjustified demands.
These attacks aimed to demobilize people and make the whole country suffer in various aspects.

Many people from our own country are in the support of these terrorist attacks and they think that what
these terrorists are doing to their own country is justified and this is meriting shame for us. All these attacks
exercised to create hoax among people. Recently, terrorists attacked pilgrims in South Kashmir’s Anantnag
due to which seven of those pilgrims were killed including five women and 12 got injured. Is it still justified to
kill those innocent people? No religion says to kill people, but they are only people who do killings on the
name of religion. Thus, India is spending a lot of money on country’s security every year to stop attacks done
on the nation and to fight against terrorism, but these groups of terrorists are so highly trained that they still
manage to secretly enter in our country. Our country may not be the safest country, but it has the latest
technological security devises to fight against these terrorists groups.

The world can overcome this dangerous problem only when the awareness among people will increase and
when the countries will come together to solve this problem with unity.

On this note, I would like to end my speech and extend special thanks to all of you for joining us today and for
making this event such a success.


Respected principal, Respected Teachers and My Dear Friends!

As we all know that today this event is organized in this auditorium to spread knowledge about terrorism
amongst young generations and as a head girl I would like to take this opportunity to say few words on
terrorism. As we all are cognizant of today’s biggest problem of the entire world and thus it is very important
to understand that what is terrorism and why is terrorism? To use unlawful violence against people or
property to achieve political objectives is called terrorism. The spread of terrorism is for their political and
personal gains.

We all know that our country had gone through many internal and external threats in the history, but
terrorists had disseminated its roots all over the country that it has become very difficult to counter it. It has
its huge impact, especially on our country’s youth. Many children, especially from Islam community are
getting trapped in their net of violence. Our country is getting victimized many times by those terrorists and
hence there are many examples of their attacks. Recently, there were two such cases in 2017. First, on March
7, 2017 terrorists had attacked Bhopal-Ujjain passenger train with bombs. The bombing occurred at Jabri
Railway Station of Shajapur district of Madhya Pradesh in which 10 passengers got injured. Secondly, on July
11, 2017 terrorists attacked Amarnath Yatra in Anantnag of Jammu and Kashmir. In this attack seven pilgrims
were dead and six pilgrims got injured. These killings of innocent people are totally unjustified and such
attacks are completely unlawful.

Due to these attacks our country had suffered from huge loss of lives and economical instability. Although,
these attacks were mostly occur under the northern-western region of the country. The most effected state of
our country is Jammu and Kashmir. The people living in this state are still living under fear of these terrorists’
attacks. But these days terrorists are striving to spread their roots deep down in this whole country as well as
in the whole world.

Not only we, but the whole world is suffering due to these terrorists groups. Many countries like Iraq and Iran
got trapped almost fully under these groups. The people living in these countries are still fighting for their
freedom. Terrorism is a cause of different ideologies and religions of people. Religion varies from place to
place on this earth and due to this when two different people of different religion meet; it causes a clash of
different ideologies. We all have to understand that every person has its own way of thinking and set of

Thus, terrorism is not only a specific country’s problem and this whole world wants to get rid of the terrorism.
It is absolutely impossible for one country to solve the problem of terrorism. It is an international problem and
thus action should be taken internationally by every country.

On this note I would like to conclude my speech and you may have your snacks now.




Terrorism refers to any act or activity that terrorizes. It may be one person who becomes a victim or many
people who suffer because of an act of terrorism. Terrorism is an evil that must be shunned ruthlessly. Where
there is any form of terrorism, there is destruction of peace and harmony. Terror attacks lead to bloodshed
and death, and loss of property. Terrorism disrupts the nation’s growth and development.

Social and economic development depends on peace and harmony. Terrorism must be destroyed at all cost to
promote social and economic prosperity, and for the establishment of peace and harmony. We have shared
below some useful and striking slogans on terrorism; you can select any terrorism slogan as per your need:


Say no to terrorism!

Terrorism destroys peace.

Terrorism destroys harmony.

Terrorism jeopardizes development.

Terrorism endangers the nation’s stability and peace.

Terrorism is a poison; shun it.

Terrorism is anti-national.
Terrorism stunts growth and development.

The nation’s well being depends on peace and stability; shun terrorism!

Terrorism is unhealthy for the nation and the people.

Fight terrorism, it is an evil.

Terrorism is anti-social.

Terrorism is anti-development.

Terrorism does not allow peace to reign.

Terrorism disrupts normal life.

Terrorism disturbs normalcy.

Terrorism destroys economic development.

Terrorism disrupts tourism.

Terrorism frightens the public.

Terrorism installs fear; scare away terrorism.

Terrorism destabilizes the nation; ruthlessly destabilize terrorism.

Terrorism threatens the well being of the people.

If terrorism raises its ugly head, destroy it!

Don’t destroy peace; destroy terrorism!

Kill terrorism, not peace!

Say no to terrorism, it destroys life!

Protect life, destroy terrorism!

If terrorism flourishes, life perishes!

Uphold peace; destroy violence and terrorism!

Where there is terrorism, there is no peace and harmony!

Terrorism blocks the nation’s development.

Terrorism brings to naught the nations’ progress.

Terrorism nullifies growth and development.

Terrorism brings to naught progress and prosperity!

Make progress sustainable; disable terrorism!

Disable terrorism; enable peace!

Disarm terrorism; fortify development!

What dialogue can achieve, terrorism can never!

Terrorism seeks to frighten; scare away terrorism!

Be bold; frighten terrorism away!

Terrorism is the way of cowards; be bold to build peace!

Fight terrorism; usher in peace!

When terrorism enters, peace gone; banish terrorism!

Banish terrorism; relish peace!

Discard terrorism; let peace and harmony reign!

Stop terrorism in its tracks; let peace and harmony flourish!

Terrorism jeopardizes prosperity; destroy terrorism!

Terrorism is a bane to society, banish it!

When terrorism is shunned, peace flourishes!

Terrorism is a curse to the nation; destroy it!