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SAV ALSIMHO £002. @The Mandible@ ‘The mandible or the lower jaw is the largest and strongest bone of the face, and it articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joint. ‘The mandible consists of a horseshoe-shaped body and a pair of rami ‘The body of the mandible meets the ranmis on each side at the angle of the mandible ‘The body of the mandible, on its external surface in the midline, has a faint ridge indicating the line of fasion of the two halves during development at the symphysis menti. The mental foramen can be seen below the second premolar tooth; it transmits the terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. Skull Anterior View Nasal bone, Supraorbital noten Glabella (et frontal bone) [foramen] (of frontal bone) ‘Coronal suture Orbital curface of frontal bon: Parietal bone Lesser wing of sphanoid bone Laerimal bone: 9 oF 5 Greater wing of sphenoid bone Frontal process of zygomatic bone “Temporal bone Orbital surface of Orbital plate of ethmoid bone zygomatic bone \ Temporal process of Pempendioular plate of ethmeid bony zygomatic bone iddle nasal concha of ethmoid bone| Zygoraticofacial foramer Zygomatic process of maxi Ramus et mandible Orbital curtaee of maxi Body of mandible Infracrbital foramen Cof maxilla Frontal process of maxilla ‘Aweolar process of maxilla Saterior nasal spine (ot maxilla Mental tubercle (of mandible) ental protuberance (of mandible) ‘2 GeIsr Skull Lateral View Zygomatic prosess of temporal Coronal suture “Articular tubercle of temporal bone Superior temporal ine Temporal fossa Inferier temporal ine Peerion Squamous part of loreater wing sphenoid bone temporal bone |Giabela (of trortal bone! Supracrbital notch Iforament (ot ‘frontal bone) Lambdoid suture Orbital plate of ethmoid bene Groove of temporal bone for middle temporal artery Lzorimal bene Nazal bene Exemal occipital Fossa of lacrimal sae" . protuberance ‘cipital bone Frontal process i of maxilla bone Eremal acoustic meatus (01 temparal bone) Mtastoid process of temporal bone Head [caput] of condylar process (of Infraotbital foramen (ef maxilla bone) ‘etetior nasal spine (Of maxilla bone) sAbveolar process of mania bone Zygomaticotacial ramen (ot zygomatic bone) Temporal process of sygomatio bone Ye Bygomatis rah Mental foramen (of mandislay ‘Ramus of mandible ‘Oblique line of mandible Body of mandible Mandible Left Posterior View Notsh Gnoicure) Head Koaput) alonyrala ne Mandible of adult Mandible of aged person (edentulous) SAV ALSIMHO £002. On the medial surface of the body of the mandible in the median plane are seen the mental spines; these give origin to the genioglossus muscles above and the genichyoid muscles below. The mylohyoid line can be seen as an oblique ridge that runs backward and laterally from the area of the mental spines to an area below and behind the third molar tooth. The submandibular fossa, for the superficial part of the submandibular salivary gland, lies below the posterior part of the mylohyoid line. ‘The sublingual fossa, for the sublingual gland, lies above the anterior part of the mylohyoid line . The upper border of the body of the mandible is called the alveolar part; in the adult it contains 16 sockets for the roots of the teeth. The lower border of the body of the mandible is called the base. The digastric fossa is a small, roughened depression on the base, on either side of the symphysis menti . It is in these fossae that the anterior bellies of the digastric muscles are attached. condylcid process (head) inguita mylonyors mossle , va mental tortor recta! acpoct (oft a0) lotora! aepoct (ght kde) _- oreater horn osm) ryeatgosve sytonvold aaron genichyoia . enytohyokd fonts <_ » tyrone Eat) siSrnohyotd cigastric and stylohyoe loser horn (orm) ‘The ramus of the mandible is vertically placed and has an anterior coronoid process and a posterior condyloid process, or head; the two processes are separated by the mandibular notch . On the lateral surface of the ramus are markings for the attachment of the masseter musele. On the medial surface is the mandibular foramen for the inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. In front of the foramen is a projection of bone, called the Hingula, for the attachment of the sphenomandibular ligament . The foramen leads into the mandibular canal, which opens on the lateral surface of the body of the mandible at the mental foramen The incisive canal is a continuation forward of the mandibular canal beyond the mental foramen and below the incisor teeth. The coronoid process receives on its medial surface the attachment of the temporalis muscle. Below the condyloid process, or head, is a short meck. articutar zygomatic process zygomat ‘arch (cut) i 44 fossa head ot mancibie tendon of ee : : 4 romporalis 7 external i ag tstory meatus mandibuiat atch, neck of mrandinie prosens ramus of of mandible masons angie of maraitie @Temporomandibular Joint @ a Articulation Articulation occurs between the articular tubercle and the anterior portion of the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone above and the head (condyloid process) of the mandible below . The articular surfaces are covered with fibrocartilage. a Type of Joint The temporomandibular joint is synovial. The articular dise divides the joint into upper and lower cavities . 4Capsule The capsule surrounds the joint and is attached above to the articular tubercle and the margins of the mandibular fossa and below to the neck of the mandible. aLigaments The lateral temporomandibular ligament strengthens the lateral aspect of the capsule, and its fibers run downward and backward from the tubercle on the root of the zygoma to the lateral surface of the neck of the mandible . This ligament limits the movement of the mandible in a posterior direction and thus protects the external auditory meatus. The sphenomandibular ligament lies on the medial side of the joint . It is a thin band that is attached above to the spine of the sphenoid bone and below to the lingula of the mandibular foramen. It represents the remains of the first pharyngeal arch in this region The stylomandibular ligament lies behind and medial to the joint and some distance from it. It is merely a band of thickened deep cervical fascia that extends from the apex of the styloid process to the angle of the mandible Joint Action Arieular wbercte ticutar ico Jaws clased Jaws widely opened (hinge and gliding action combined) Jaws slightly opened (hinge action predorninates) Temp oromandibular Jome Lateral and Medial Views Sphenomandibular fgament Lateral view sy Lateral @emporomandibular) ligament joint capsule Styloid process: Stylemandibular ligament Va ancl nerve 4 q") bo ‘and otie ganglion Middle meningeal artery capsule ‘Purieulotemporal nerve Masillary artery: Inferior alveolar nerve Lingual nerve Sphenomandibular igament Stylomandibular Igament hiylohyoid arteny and Medial view: The articular disc divides the joint into upper and lower cavities . Itis an oval plate of fibrocartilage that attached circumferentially to the capsule. Itis also attached in front to the tendon of the lateral pterygoid muscle and by fibrous bands to the head of the mandible. These bands ensure that the dise moves forward and backward with the head of the mandible during protraction and retraction of the mandible. ‘The upper surface of the disc is concavoconvex from before backward to fit the shape of the articular tubercle and the mandibular fossa; the lower surface is concave to fit the head of the mandible. Synovial Membrane This lines the capsule in the upper and lower cavities of the joint . ‘Nerve Supply Auriculotemporal and masseteric branches of the mandibular nerve @ Movements of Temporomandibular Joint @ The mandible can be depressed or elevated, protruded or retracted. Rotation can also occur, as in chewing. In the position of rest, the teeth of the upper and lower jaws are slightly apart. On closure of the jaws, the teeth come into contact. 1- Depression of the Mandible : As the mouth is opened, the head of the mandible rotates on the undersurface of the articular dise around a horizontal axis. To prevent the angle of the jaw impinging unnecessarily on the parotid gland and the stemocleidomastoid muscle, the mandible is pulled forward. This is accomplished by the contraction of the lateral pterygoid muscle, which pulls forward the neck of the mandible and the articular dise so that the Latter moves onto the articular tubercle . The forward movement of the disc is limited by the tension of the fibroclastic tissue, which tethers the dise to the temporal bone posteriorly. Depression of the mandible is brought about by contraction of the digastries, the genichyoids, and the mylohyoids; the lateral pterygoids play an important role by pulling the mandible forward. 2- Elevation of the Mandibl The movements in depression of the mandible are reversed. First, the head of the mandible and the dise move backward, and then the head rotates on the lower surface of the disc. Elevation of the mandible is brought about by contraction of the temporalis, the masseter, and the medial pterygoids. The head of the mandible is pulled backward by the posterior fibers of the temporalis. The articular dise is pulled backward by the fibroclastic tissue, which tethers the disc to the temporal bone posteriorly. 3- Protrusion of the Mandible: The articular dise is pulled forward onto the anterior tubercle, carrying the head of the mandible with it, All movement thus takes place in the upper cavity of the joint. In protrusion, the lower teeth are drawn forward over the upper teeth, which is brought about by contraction of the lateral pterygoid muscles of both sides, assisted by both medial pterygoids. 4- Retraction of the Mandible: The articular dise and the head of the mandible are pulled backward into the mandibular fossa. Retraction is brought about by contraction of the posterior fibers of the temporalis 5. Lateral Chewing Movements: These are accomplished by alternately protruding and retracting the mandible on each side. For this to take place, a certain amount of rotation occurs, and the muscles responsible on both sides work alternately and not in unison. ® Important Relations of the Temporomandibular Joint @_ Anteriorly: The mandibular notch and the masseteric nerve and artery Posteriorly: The tympanic plate of the extemal auditory meatus_and the glenoid process of the parotid gland. Laterally: The parotid gland, fascia, and skin . Medially: The maxillary artery and vein and the auriculotemporal nerve. The muscles of mastication are summarized in the following: Muscle Origin Insertion Nerve Supply ‘Actlon Muscle of Scalp Occpitoftonals Occipital belly ghest muchal line of ——_Epieranial Facial nerve Moves scalp on skull cipal bone aponeurosis an! raises eyebrows Fromtal belly ‘Skin and superficial fascia of eyebrows Museles of Facial Expression Otbieulars ocult Palpebral part Medial palpebral Lateral palpebral Facial nerve Closes eyelids and ligament raphe dilates lacrimal sac Orbital pant Medial palpebral Loops retum to Facial nerve ‘Throws skin around ligament and adjoining origin orbit into fol 40 bone protect eyeball Cougator superciii — Supercliary arch Skin of eyebrow Facial nerve Vertical wrinkles of forehead, as in frowning Compressor nasi Frontal process of, Aponeurosis of Facial nerve Compresses mobile maxilla bridge of nose nasal cartilages Dilator nas: Maxila ‘Al af nese Facial nerve Widens nasal aperture Proeerus Nasal bone Skin between Facial nerve ‘Wrinkles skin of nose eyebrows Otbieulars ois Maxill, mandible, and Encircles oral orifice Facial nerve CCompresses tips ski together Dilator Muscles of Lips Levatorlabii: superiors alaeque nasi Levaior abi ssipetiors Zygomaticus minor Zygomaticus major > Arise from bones and fascla around oral aperture Facial nerve Separate lips: Lxatorangull os and inset into substance of ips Risorus Depressor anguli oris Depressor labii inferioris Mentalis Buccinatoe Outer surface of aveolar margins of maxilla and Facial nerve Compresses cheeks mandible and pterygomandibutar ligament an lips against teeth Platysma ‘See Table 11-5 Muscles of Mastication Masseter Zygomatic arch Lateral surface ramus Mandibular division Elevates mandible to of mandible of trigeminal nerve ocelude teeth Temporalis Floor of temporal fossa ——-Coronoid process of Mandibular division Anterior and superior mandible cof trigeminal nerve fibers elevate mandible; posterior fibers retract mandible Lateral pterygoid Neck of mandible ——-Mandibulardivision Pulls neck of mandible (two heads) sphenoid and lateral and articular disc of trigeminal nerve forward plerygoid plate Medial pterygoid Tuberosity of maxilla Medial surface of Mandibular division Elevates mandible (two heads) and lateral pterygoid angle of mandible of trigeminal nerve 10 mandibular articular tubercle articular cartilage fossa articular disc synovial membrane lateral pterygoid muscle A head neck of mandible ae \ x ~™ lateral pterygoid temporalis digastric (posterior belly) massoter ‘digastric thyrobyoia (anterior belly) sternohyoia omonyoia c (Superior belly) Figure 11-35 Temporomandibular joint with mouth clased (A) and with the mouth open (B). Note the position of the head of the mandible and articular disc in relation to the articular tubercle in each case. ©. The attachment of the muscles of mastication to the mandible. The arrows indicate the direction of their actions. TSA SSRSTETTBTST SAT suporticial temporal artery nerve to masseter auricuiotemporal nerve oe sat nerves temporalis maxillary nerve chorda, tympani ephenomandibula’ ligament lingual spinal part of nerve, ‘accestory nerve mylohyoid internal jugular vein morve to mylohyoid interior betly stylopharyngeus lingual artery of digastric ‘Herve to tho mylohyoid and ‘anterior belly of agasine stylogiossus lingual nerve subvnanarbulat anion @ The Mouth @ aThe Lips The lips are two fleshy folds that surround the oral orifice They are covered on the outside by skin and are lined on the inside by mucous membrane. The substance of the lips is made up by the orbicularis oris muscle and the muscles that radiate from the lips into the face. Also included are the labial blood vessels and nerves, connective tissue, and many small salivary glands. The philtrum is the shallow vertical groove seen in the midline on the outer surface of the upper lip. Median folds of mucous membrane “the labial frenulae” connect the inner surface of the lips to the gums. 4The Mouth Cavity The mouth extends from the lips to the pharynx. The entrance into the pharynx, the oropharyngeal isthmus, is formed on each side by the palatoglossal fold . ‘The mouth is divided into the vestibule and the mouth cavity proper. Inspection of Oral Cavity Dorsum of Tongue and Palate aifa Inspection of Oral Cavity Sublingual Region - Anterior Vestibule Fimbriated told Frenulum of upper tip Peterior lingual gland Deep lingual artery and weins and lingual nerve: Sublingual fold with openings of sublingual duct= Submandibutar duct Sublingual canuncle with ‘opening of submandibular duct Sublingual gland Frenulum of tongee Frenulum af lower lip @Vestibule® The vestibule lies between the lips and the cheeks externally and the gums and the teeth intemally. This slitlike space communicates with the exterior through the oral fissure between the lips. When the jaws are closed, it communicates with the mouth proper behind the third molar tooth on each side. The vestibule is limited above and below by the reflection of the mucous membrane from the lips and cheeks to the gums. The lateral wall of the vestibule is formed by the cheek, which is made up by the buccinatar musde and is lined with mucous membrane. The tone of the buccinator muscle and that of the muscles of the lips keeps the walls of the vestibule in contact with one another. The duct of the parotid salivary gland opens on a small papilla into the vestibule opposite the upper second molar tooth @Mouth Proper® The mouth proper has a roof and a floor. aRoof of Mouth The roof of the mouth is formed by the hard palate in front and the soft palate behind 4Floor of Mouth The floor is formed largely by the anterior two thirds of the tongue and by the reflection of the mucous membrane from the sides of the tongue to the gum of the mandible. A fold of mucous membrane called the frenulum of the tongue connects the undersurface of the tongue in the midline to the floor of the mouth. Lateral to the frenulum, the mucous membrane forms a fringed fold, the plica fimbriata . The submandibular duct of the submandibular gland opens onto the floor of the mouth on the summit of a small papilla on either side of the frenulum of the tongue . The sublingual gland projects up into the mouth, producing a low fold of mucous membrane, the sublingual fold. Numerous ducts of the gland open on the summit of the fold. Inspection of Oral Cavity Tateral Oral Vestibule Roof of Mouth - Soft Palate Posterior View ‘Canilaginous auditory (Eustachian tube Levator well palatini musele (out) Basilar part of ‘secipttal Bone Pharyngebasilar fascia Tensor wali palatini muscle Lewator well palatini muscle| decal prerygaid muscle dou Medial pterygoid plate Choanae Tendon of tensor veli pal Prerygoid hamulus PRerygoid hamulus Levator well palatini muscle (cut Superior pharyngeal Patatepharyngeus muscle (eut) ‘constrictor muscle LUseutar muscle Palatapharyngeus muscle 16 Lymphatic Drainage of Tongue Lateral View Central collecting wessele Bacal collecting vessels Communication to opposite side Apical collecting vessels Marginal collecting vessels Internal jugular Submental node chain of nodex Submandibular nede 17 Roof of Mouth - Hard and Soft Palates Anterior View Incisive papilla Incisive fossa Greater palatine artery and nerve Greater palatine foramen Transverse palatine folds (rugae Longitudinal patatine raphé (raga) Lasser palatine foramen Palatine process of maxilla: Lasser palatine atery and nerves ‘Tendon of tensor Horizontal plate of palatine bone. F - val palatini muscle Palatine glands Palatine aponeurosis (from tensor veli patatini muscle “ Prerygoid hamulus Interdighating fibers of Bucsinator musele levator vali palatni muscle prerygomandbular aphé Superior pharyngeal Uvular muscle constrictor muscle Retromalar glands Faiataglossus muscle 4 Palatopharyngeus muscle Palatine tonsil 18 Floor of Mouth - Musculature Lateral, Slightly Inferior View process Digastri muscle (posterior belly) Stylahyoid musele Hyoglassus muscle Digastrie muscle {anterior belly) Greater hom ef hyd bone Fibrous loop tor intermediate digastric tendon Iiedian raph of mylohyoid muscle Lesser ham of hyoid bane Body of hysid bone Stemohycid muscle Omohyeid muscle Thyrohyoid muscle A a hs Floor of Mouth - Musculature Anteroinferior View Digastrie rmusole (anterior ‘Stylohyoid musle htylohyoid ousale Digastrie musele (posterior belly) Hyoglossus musole Fibrous loop for ier Imermediane im digests tendon Ae Floor of Mouth - Musculature Posterosuperior View Superior mental spine for ‘origin of genioglossus muscle Ungual nerve Sublingual gland Inferior abvectar, nerve and and anery Iohyoid erve and ery haylohyci muscle lSubmandibutar gland and duet” Lesser hom of hyoid bone muscle (out) Greater ham ‘of hyoid bone a ad Body of hyoid ban @Mucous Membrane of the Mouth @ In the vestibule the mucous membrane is tethered to the buccinator muscle by elastic fibers in the submucosa that prevent redundant folds of mucous membrane from being bitten between the teeth when the jaws are closed. The mucous membrane of the gingiva, or gum, is strongly attached to the alveolar periosteum @Sensory Innervation of the Mouth® Roof: The greater palatine and nasopalatine nerve from the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve Floor: The lingual nerve (cammon sensation), a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. The taste fibers travel in the chorda tympani nerve, a branch of the facial nerve. Cheek: The buccal nerve, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (the buccinator muscle is innervated by the buccal branch of the facial nerve.( @The Teeth @ aDeciduous Teeth There are 20 deciduous teeth: four incisors, two canines, and four molars in each jaw. They begin to erupt about 6 months after birth and have all erupted by the end of 2 years. The teeth of the lower jaw usually appear before those of the upper jaw. 4Permanent Teeth There are 32 permanent teeth: four incisors, two canines, four premolars, and six molars in each jaw . They begin to erupt at 6 years of age, The last tooth to erupt is the third molar, which may happen between the ages of 17 and 30. The teeth of the lower jaw appear before those of the upper jaw. Teeth - Deciduous and Permanent. Age of Eruptions Upper central incisor (th yei Vpper canine (euspid) (1 thy 12th year} LUpper lateral incisor (Sth year) Upper tst premolar (Sth year) Upper 2nd premolar 10th year) Upper tst molar Cth year) Upper 2nd molar (12th- 13th yey lUpper and molar C20. 24 Upper tst molar (18-21 months Upper central incizor @ 10 months) lUpper lateral incisor (@- 10 . sind molars (Vth. 26th year) lUpper canine (ouspid) (1 20 Lower canine (eurpid) (15 21 Lower lateral incisor (18-21 Lower 3nd molar (12th: 13th yest Lower central incisor 4 9 months) | : - Lower tst molar (ith year) [Lower 1st molar (16- 21 months: J Lower 2nd malar (0- 24 months} Lower 2nd premolar (10th year) Lower 1st premolar (Bth year) Lower eanine Couspid) (1tth- 12th year) 4 (ae 4 Lower tateral incisor (ith year) Lower central incisor (@th yest) eCbecEIey Teeth - Upper and Lower Permanent Incisive fossa Palatine process lot maxilla Horizontal plate of palatine bore Greater palatine foramen’ Lesser palatine foramen Upper permanent teeth Lower permanent teeth ale Anatomy of a Tooth Ierpresimal spaces Papila “ Gubstantia eburneay Cemenur Bone spical foramina Pulp containing Gingival (jum) epithelium (stratified) Epithelial stachmer Lamina propria of gingiva Gun) (mandibular or rmaniary parioctoum Periodontium (alveolar periosteum) (Gubstantia ossea) f Eat estat adamant crown Intarglobular spaces ‘Odontablast layer ele and nerves Root (central) eanale containing wersels and nerves Teeth - Left Upper and Left Lower Permanent Labiobuccal View Upper Upper, Upper central lateral «= eanine Upper premolars incisor ineisor ——(euspid) ve d | WH | tig yy 1 2 3 Isteral oe Lomer proretae ineser__lretsor (ouspidy Lower molars @The Tonque® The tongue is a mass of striated muscle covered with mucous membrane. The muscles attach the tongue to the styloid process and the soft palate above and to the mandible and the hyoid bone below. The tongue is divided into right and left halves by a median fibrous septum. Mucous Membrane of the Tongue : The mucous membrane of the upper surface of the tongue can be divided into anterior and posterior parts by a V-shaped sulcus, the sulcus terminalis The apex of the sulcus projects backward and is marked by a small pit, the foramen cecum. The sulcus serves to divide the tongue into the anterior two thirds, or oral part, and the posterior third, or pharyngeal part. The foramen cecum is an embryologic remnant and marks the site of the upper end of the thyroglossal duct 4 The tongue papillae: Three types of papillae are present on the upper surface of the anterior two thirds of the tongue: the filiform papillae, the fungiform papillae, and the vallate papillae. The mucous membrane covering the posterior third of the tongue is devoid of papillae but has an irregular surface, caused by the presence of underlying lymph nodules, the lingual tonsil. The mucous membrane on the inferior surface of the tongue is reflected from the tongue to the floor of the mouth. In the midline anteriorly, the undersurface of the tongue is connected to the floor of the mouth by a fold of mucous membrane, the frenulum of the tongue. On the lateral side of the frenulum, the deep lingual vein can be seen through the mucous membrane. Lateral to the lingual vein, the mucous membrane forms a fringed fold called the plica fimbriata . Tongue Dorsum. Median glosscepiglttic fold Epialotie Lateral glossoepiglttic fold allecula Palatepharyngeal ach and muscle Palatine tonsil (cut) Lingual tonsil ingual fololes) Root Palatoglassal ach and musele (out) Foramen eecum Sulous terminalis Nallate papillae ren enlarged on Plate 526: Flite papilae Body Flor papilae Fungiform papila Median sulcus f ‘SCI. GEIGY il Tongue - Schematic Stereogram Area Indicated on Plate 524 Vallte papilla Lingual tonsil Fungitom papilla Comitied tip of papi Squamous epithelium uot of gland Lymph follicles Mucous glands Taste buds Furow Connective tissue Lingual glands (serous glands of Ebner} Intrinsic musele | Section of taste bud upper gecond molar tooth uvuta / opening of parotid duct palatopharyngeal fold = buceinator muscle palatine tons —H palatoglossal fold ining vestibule ‘sulcus terminalis: vattate papillae ‘are pe posterior wall of oral part of pharyax foramen cecum plica fimbriata lingual vein frenulum of tongue lingual nerve ‘sublingual fold lingual artery openings of ducts of subiingual giand ‘opening of submandibular duct Figure 11-72 A. Cavity of the mouth. Cheek on the left side of the face has been cut away to show the buccinator muscle and the parotid duct. B. Undersurface of the tongue. @Muscles of the Tonque@ The muscles of the tongue are divided into two types: intrinsic and extrinsic. alntrinsic Muscles : These muscles are confined to the tongue and are not attached to bone. They consist of longitudinal, transverse, and vertical fibers. Nerve supply: Hypoglossal nerve Action: Alter the shape of the tongue aExtrinsic Muscles : These muscles are attached to bones and the soft palate. They are the genioglossus, the hyoglossus, the styloglossus, and the palatoglossus. Nerve supply: Hypoglossal nerve The origin, insertion, nerve supply, and action of the tongue muscles are summarized in the following: Table 17-8 Muscles of Tongue Muscle Origin Insertion Nerve Supply _ Action Intrinsic Muscles Longitudinal Median septum Mucous Hypoglossal Alters shape of tongue and submucosa membrane neive Transverse Vertical Extrinsic Muscles Genioglossus Superiorgenial ‘Blends with Hypogiossal _Protrudes apex of tongue spine ofmandible other muscles nerve through mouth of tongue Hyoglossus. Body and greater Blends with Hypoglossal —_Dapresses tongue cornu of hyoid other muscles nerve bone of tongue Styioglossus Styloid process of /—_Blends with Hypogiossal Draws tongue upward and temporal bone other muscles nerve backward of tongue Palatoglossus Palatine Side oftongue Pharyngeal_ —_—Pulls roots of tongue aponeurosis plexus upward and backward narrows oropharyngeal isthmus 31 Muscles of Tongue Sagittal Section Styloid process Pharyngobasilar fascia Palstopharyngeus muscle Mestoid process Palatoglossus muscle Inferior longitudinal muscle of tongue Digastric muscle Ipostarior belly) Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle Stylahyoid ligament Styloglossus muscle lossopharyngeus muscle (pant of superior pharyngeal constrictor) Stylopharyngeus muscle Stylohycid muscle Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle Digastric muscle (posterior belly) Genioglossus muscle Hyoglossus muscle Ilohyoid muscle (out Hyoid bone Fibrous loop for intermediate digastric tendon ie Intermediate tendon of via digastric muscle (oun) ciny-aai Geniohy sid muscle Tongue and Related Structures Sagittal Section Superior pharyngeal constrictor musele Palztoglossus muscle styleglossus musole Lingual nerwe, submandibular ganglion Stylohyeid igarnent| Deep lingual artery and ‘venae comitartes, Stylepharyngeuz musela Hyoglassus muscle (eut) Ungual artery Extemal caratid artery Intemal iuguiar Facial Dorsal lingual amery Suprahyoid artery syed bod LUngual vein (vena comitans 4 ee Common trunk for ‘facial, rotromandibular, Submandibular duct Sublingual artery and vein Genichyoid muscle of hypoglossal nerve) Hypoglassal nerve evclonariey @Blood Supply@ The lingual artery, the tonsillar branch of the facial artery, and the ascending pharyngeal artery supply the tongue. The veins drain into the internal jugular vein. @Lymph Drainage @ Tip: Submental lymph nodes Sides of the anterior two thirds: Submandibular and deep cervical lymph nodes Posterior third: Deep cervical lymph nodes @Sensory Innervation @ Anterior two thirds: Lingual nerve branch of mandibular division of trigeminal nerve (general sensation) and chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve (taste) Posterior third: Glossopharyngeal nerve (general sensation and taste) Movements of the Tonque® Protrusion: The genioglossus muscles on both sides acting together Retraction: Styloglossus and hyoglossus muscles on both sides acting together Depression: Hyoglossus muscles on both sides acting together Retraction and elevation of the posterior third: Styloglossus and palatoglossus muscles on both sides acting together Shape changes: Intrinsie muscles Tongue and Mouth Horizontal Section - Superior View Orbiculats ors muscle Buoeinator muscle Buecopharyngeal fascia, Facial artery and wein Peery gomaneibular raph, : Styleglossus muscle Lingual nerve and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle i Stylopharyngeus muscle Masseter muscle " Ircemal jugular vein, intemal . carotid artery, and nerves IK, Ramus of mandible, Yand Xl in carotid sheath Inferior alveolar Palataglessus muscle artery, vein and nerve in palatoglossal arch Medial f Palatine tonsil weeryocid Palatepharyngeus muscle in Fetromandibular-vein palatopharyngeal arch Exemal 14 -tuccopharyngeal fascia and oaritd artery i : retropharyngeal space Panotid gland Prevertebral fascia Facial nerve Langus capitis muscle Digastric muscle (posterior belly) Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion Stemocleidomastold - : Stylohyoid muscle muscle rs Sectioned below lingula of mandible - cae 35