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<a href=Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Applied Thermal Engineering journal homepage: www.elsevi er.com/locate/apthermeng Research Paper Boiling incipience of subcooled water flowing in a narrow tube using wavelet analysis M. Shibahara , K. Fukuda , Q.S. Liu , K. Hata , S. Masuzaki Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, 5-1-1Fukaeminamimachi, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-0022, Japan National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292, Japan highlights Incipient boiling phenomena of subcooled water in a narrow tube were observed. The boiling signal was analyzed by the wavelet decomposition method. The semi-empirical correlation of the boiling incipience was obtained. article info Article history: Received 25 August 2017 Revised 15 November 2017 Accepted 28 December 2017 Available online 28 December 2017 Keywords: Incipient boiling Subcooled boiling Upward flow Narrow channel Wavelet abstract Various incipient boiling phenomena for subcooled water flowing in a uniformly heated narrow tube were observed experimentally. The boiling signal was analyzed using the wavelet decomposition method. The boiling incipience of subcooled water in the narrow tube was recorded by a sound level meter at various flow velocities. A platinum tube was used as the experimental tube with an inner diam- eter of 1.0 mm. The length of the experimental tube was 23.2 mm. The tube was heated by the Joule effect using a direct current. The inlet temperature and flow velocities ranged 285–346 K and 2.5–14 m/s, respectively. The surface superheat ascended with an increase of the heat flux until the incipient boiling point was reached. The initial temperature overshoot did not appear as the outlet pressure increased. Since the existing correlations underestimated the incipient heat flux, a semi-empirical correlation of the boiling incipience was obtained based on the experimental data. The predicted value of the new correlation is in agreement with the experimental data within ±30%. 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Understanding of the boiling incipience in tubes is important for the safety assessment of industrial applications, since sub- cooled liquid is used in various fields, such as plasma facing com- ponents (PFC) in fusion reactors, rocket engines, and hydrogen storage that utilize narrow channels [1] . The liquid channel cooling is also used in insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules that are used in hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, and electric propul- sion ships [2] . With the increase in the IGBT power density, dynamic cooling technology is required and the detection of the boiling incipience is more important for the safe operation of these power electronics. Furthermore, the knowledge of boiling incipi- ence is necessary to design the divertor of the PFC. Since the edge localized mode incurs high heat flux at the divertor [3] , the ⇑ Corresponding author. E-mail address: sibahara@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp (M. Shibahara). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.12.110 1359-4311/ 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. prediction of the boiling incipience in a cooling tube is an issue to be considered in the thermal design of the PFC. Since their convective heat transfer coefficients are higher than those of gases, the convective heat transfer of various liquids was investigated experimentally and empirical correlations have been suggested [4–6] . For mini- and micro-channels, many studies of heat transfer characteristics have been conducted over the past decade [7] . Even though micro channels are known to enhance the heat transfer coefficient, the boiling incipience has not been clearly investigated so far. For conventional tubes up to an inner diameter of 2.0 mm, the boiling incipience can be predicted by the Bergles and Rohsenow [8] or Sato and Matsumura [9] correla- tions. In contrast, Ghiaasiaan and Chedester [10] mentioned that the predictions calculated by the correlations in [8] or [9] were lower than the results of Ghiaasiaan and Chedester’s [10] and Ina- saka et al.’s [11] experiments. Since the accuracy of these correla- tions is not satisfactory for micro scale phenomena, Ghiaasiaan and Chedester suggested the use of a new correlation modified by Davis and Anderson’s model [12] using a ratio of thermocapillary " id="pdf-obj-0-5" src="pdf-obj-0-5.jpg">

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Applied Thermal Engineering

<a href=Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Applied Thermal Engineering journal homepage: www.elsevi er.com/locate/apthermeng Research Paper Boiling incipience of subcooled water flowing in a narrow tube using wavelet analysis M. Shibahara , K. Fukuda , Q.S. Liu , K. Hata , S. Masuzaki Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, 5-1-1Fukaeminamimachi, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-0022, Japan National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292, Japan highlights Incipient boiling phenomena of subcooled water in a narrow tube were observed. The boiling signal was analyzed by the wavelet decomposition method. The semi-empirical correlation of the boiling incipience was obtained. article info Article history: Received 25 August 2017 Revised 15 November 2017 Accepted 28 December 2017 Available online 28 December 2017 Keywords: Incipient boiling Subcooled boiling Upward flow Narrow channel Wavelet abstract Various incipient boiling phenomena for subcooled water flowing in a uniformly heated narrow tube were observed experimentally. The boiling signal was analyzed using the wavelet decomposition method. The boiling incipience of subcooled water in the narrow tube was recorded by a sound level meter at various flow velocities. A platinum tube was used as the experimental tube with an inner diam- eter of 1.0 mm. The length of the experimental tube was 23.2 mm. The tube was heated by the Joule effect using a direct current. The inlet temperature and flow velocities ranged 285–346 K and 2.5–14 m/s, respectively. The surface superheat ascended with an increase of the heat flux until the incipient boiling point was reached. The initial temperature overshoot did not appear as the outlet pressure increased. Since the existing correlations underestimated the incipient heat flux, a semi-empirical correlation of the boiling incipience was obtained based on the experimental data. The predicted value of the new correlation is in agreement with the experimental data within ±30%. 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Understanding of the boiling incipience in tubes is important for the safety assessment of industrial applications, since sub- cooled liquid is used in various fields, such as plasma facing com- ponents (PFC) in fusion reactors, rocket engines, and hydrogen storage that utilize narrow channels [1] . The liquid channel cooling is also used in insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules that are used in hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, and electric propul- sion ships [2] . With the increase in the IGBT power density, dynamic cooling technology is required and the detection of the boiling incipience is more important for the safe operation of these power electronics. Furthermore, the knowledge of boiling incipi- ence is necessary to design the divertor of the PFC. Since the edge localized mode incurs high heat flux at the divertor [3] , the ⇑ Corresponding author. E-mail address: sibahara@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp (M. Shibahara). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.12.110 1359-4311/ 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. prediction of the boiling incipience in a cooling tube is an issue to be considered in the thermal design of the PFC. Since their convective heat transfer coefficients are higher than those of gases, the convective heat transfer of various liquids was investigated experimentally and empirical correlations have been suggested [4–6] . For mini- and micro-channels, many studies of heat transfer characteristics have been conducted over the past decade [7] . Even though micro channels are known to enhance the heat transfer coefficient, the boiling incipience has not been clearly investigated so far. For conventional tubes up to an inner diameter of 2.0 mm, the boiling incipience can be predicted by the Bergles and Rohsenow [8] or Sato and Matsumura [9] correla- tions. In contrast, Ghiaasiaan and Chedester [10] mentioned that the predictions calculated by the correlations in [8] or [9] were lower than the results of Ghiaasiaan and Chedester’s [10] and Ina- saka et al.’s [11] experiments. Since the accuracy of these correla- tions is not satisfactory for micro scale phenomena, Ghiaasiaan and Chedester suggested the use of a new correlation modified by Davis and Anderson’s model [12] using a ratio of thermocapillary " id="pdf-obj-0-16" src="pdf-obj-0-16.jpg">

Research Paper

Boiling incipience of subcooled water flowing in a narrow tube using wavelet analysis

<a href=Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Applied Thermal Engineering journal homepage: www.elsevi er.com/locate/apthermeng Research Paper Boiling incipience of subcooled water flowing in a narrow tube using wavelet analysis M. Shibahara , K. Fukuda , Q.S. Liu , K. Hata , S. Masuzaki Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, 5-1-1Fukaeminamimachi, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-0022, Japan National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292, Japan highlights Incipient boiling phenomena of subcooled water in a narrow tube were observed. The boiling signal was analyzed by the wavelet decomposition method. The semi-empirical correlation of the boiling incipience was obtained. article info Article history: Received 25 August 2017 Revised 15 November 2017 Accepted 28 December 2017 Available online 28 December 2017 Keywords: Incipient boiling Subcooled boiling Upward flow Narrow channel Wavelet abstract Various incipient boiling phenomena for subcooled water flowing in a uniformly heated narrow tube were observed experimentally. The boiling signal was analyzed using the wavelet decomposition method. The boiling incipience of subcooled water in the narrow tube was recorded by a sound level meter at various flow velocities. A platinum tube was used as the experimental tube with an inner diam- eter of 1.0 mm. The length of the experimental tube was 23.2 mm. The tube was heated by the Joule effect using a direct current. The inlet temperature and flow velocities ranged 285–346 K and 2.5–14 m/s, respectively. The surface superheat ascended with an increase of the heat flux until the incipient boiling point was reached. The initial temperature overshoot did not appear as the outlet pressure increased. Since the existing correlations underestimated the incipient heat flux, a semi-empirical correlation of the boiling incipience was obtained based on the experimental data. The predicted value of the new correlation is in agreement with the experimental data within ±30%. 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Understanding of the boiling incipience in tubes is important for the safety assessment of industrial applications, since sub- cooled liquid is used in various fields, such as plasma facing com- ponents (PFC) in fusion reactors, rocket engines, and hydrogen storage that utilize narrow channels [1] . The liquid channel cooling is also used in insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules that are used in hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, and electric propul- sion ships [2] . With the increase in the IGBT power density, dynamic cooling technology is required and the detection of the boiling incipience is more important for the safe operation of these power electronics. Furthermore, the knowledge of boiling incipi- ence is necessary to design the divertor of the PFC. Since the edge localized mode incurs high heat flux at the divertor [3] , the ⇑ Corresponding author. E-mail address: sibahara@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp (M. Shibahara). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.12.110 1359-4311/ 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. prediction of the boiling incipience in a cooling tube is an issue to be considered in the thermal design of the PFC. Since their convective heat transfer coefficients are higher than those of gases, the convective heat transfer of various liquids was investigated experimentally and empirical correlations have been suggested [4–6] . For mini- and micro-channels, many studies of heat transfer characteristics have been conducted over the past decade [7] . Even though micro channels are known to enhance the heat transfer coefficient, the boiling incipience has not been clearly investigated so far. For conventional tubes up to an inner diameter of 2.0 mm, the boiling incipience can be predicted by the Bergles and Rohsenow [8] or Sato and Matsumura [9] correla- tions. In contrast, Ghiaasiaan and Chedester [10] mentioned that the predictions calculated by the correlations in [8] or [9] were lower than the results of Ghiaasiaan and Chedester’s [10] and Ina- saka et al.’s [11] experiments. Since the accuracy of these correla- tions is not satisfactory for micro scale phenomena, Ghiaasiaan and Chedester suggested the use of a new correlation modified by Davis and Anderson’s model [12] using a ratio of thermocapillary " id="pdf-obj-0-23" src="pdf-obj-0-23.jpg">

M. Shibahara a , , K. Fukuda a , Q.S. Liu a , K. Hata a , S. Masuzaki b

a Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, 5-1-1Fukaeminamimachi, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-0022, Japan b National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292, Japan

highlights

Incipient boiling phenomena of subcooled water in a narrow tube were observed. The boiling signal was analyzed by the wavelet decomposition method. The semi-empirical correlation of the boiling incipience was obtained.

article info

Article history:

Received 25 August 2017 Revised 15 November 2017 Accepted 28 December 2017 Available online 28 December 2017

Keywords:

Incipient boiling

Subcooled boiling

Upward flow

Narrow channel

Wavelet

abstract

Various incipient boiling phenomena for subcooled water flowing in a uniformly heated narrow tube were observed experimentally. The boiling signal was analyzed using the wavelet decomposition method. The boiling incipience of subcooled water in the narrow tube was recorded by a sound level meter at various flow velocities. A platinum tube was used as the experimental tube with an inner diam- eter of 1.0 mm. The length of the experimental tube was 23.2 mm. The tube was heated by the Joule effect

using a direct current. The inlet temperature and flow velocities ranged 285–346 K and 2.5–14 m/s, respectively. The surface superheat ascended with an increase of the heat flux until the incipient boiling point was reached. The initial temperature overshoot did not appear as the outlet pressure increased. Since the existing correlations underestimated the incipient heat flux, a semi-empirical correlation of the boiling incipience was obtained based on the experimental data. The predicted value of the new correlation is in agreement with the experimental data within ±30%. 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Understanding of the boiling incipience in tubes is important for the safety assessment of industrial applications, since sub- cooled liquid is used in various fields, such as plasma facing com- ponents (PFC) in fusion reactors, rocket engines, and hydrogen storage that utilize narrow channels [1]. The liquid channel cooling is also used in insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules that are used in hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, and electric propul- sion ships [2]. With the increase in the IGBT power density, dynamic cooling technology is required and the detection of the boiling incipience is more important for the safe operation of these power electronics. Furthermore, the knowledge of boiling incipi- ence is necessary to design the divertor of the PFC. Since the edge localized mode incurs high heat flux at the divertor [3], the

Corresponding author. E-mail address: sibahara@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp (M. Shibahara).

1359-4311/ 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

prediction of the boiling incipience in a cooling tube is an issue to be considered in the thermal design of the PFC. Since their convective heat transfer coefficients are higher than those of gases, the convective heat transfer of various liquids was investigated experimentally and empirical correlations have been suggested [4–6]. For mini- and micro-channels, many studies of heat transfer characteristics have been conducted over the past decade [7]. Even though micro channels are known to enhance the heat transfer coefficient, the boiling incipience has not been clearly investigated so far. For conventional tubes up to an inner diameter of 2.0 mm, the boiling incipience can be predicted by the Bergles and Rohsenow [8] or Sato and Matsumura [9] correla- tions. In contrast, Ghiaasiaan and Chedester [10] mentioned that the predictions calculated by the correlations in [8] or [9] were lower than the results of Ghiaasiaan and Chedester’s [10] and Ina- saka et al.’s [11] experiments. Since the accuracy of these correla- tions is not satisfactory for micro scale phenomena, Ghiaasiaan and Chedester suggested the use of a new correlation modified by Davis and Anderson’s model [12] using a ratio of thermocapillary

  • 596 M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604

Nomenclature

A

a j

 

j (–)

b

C

c

constant in Eq. (13)

c

h

c

p

d

inner diameter, m

d j

f

boiling signal (–)

fs

frequency, Hz

h

 

h fg

I

direct current, A

J

k

coverage factor (=2) (–)

L

length, m

MAE

mean absolute error,%

n

Nu

P

pressure, kPa

Pr

P

cr

critical pressure, kPa

P

re

Q

heat transfer rate, W

Q i

Q 0

_

Q

q

heat flux, W/m 2

q i

Re

R

0

electrical

R

electrical resistance, X

R

critical cavity radius

R

B

Bubble radius, m

R

a

average roughness, lm

R

s

standard resistor, X

R T

R y

maximum height, lm

R z

r

radius, m

r x

lead resistance, X

s

 

surements (–)

T

temperature, K

T

a

average temperature, K

T

i

t

time, s

t 95

 

degrees of freedom (–)

D T sat

heat generation rate, W/m 3

incipient heat flux, W/m 2

=qud/l, Reynolds number (–)

inner surface area of the experimental tube, m 2

approximation coefficient at the decomposition level of

systematic standard uncertainty (–)

coefficient in Eqs. (23), (24) and (31)

specific heat of the platinum tube, J/kg K

specific heat at constant pressure, J/kg K

detail coefficient at the decomposition level of j (–)

heat transfer coefficient, (W/m 2 K)

latent heat of vaporization, J/kg

maximum decomposition level of signal (–)

number of experimental data (–)

=hd/k, Nusselt number (–)

=lc p /k, Prandtl number (–)

=P out /P cr , reduced pressure, kPa

heat transfer rate at the boiling incipience, W

initial exponential heat input, W/m 3

resistance at 0 C (=1.38 10 3 ), X

electrical resistance of the experimental tube, X

ten-spot average roughness, lm

random standard uncertainty of the mean of N mea-

incipient surface temperature, K

student’s t value at a specified confidence level with v

=T s T sat , surface superheat, K

D T sub,in =T sat T in , inlet liquid subcooling, K

U

u

flow velocity, m/s

V

volume, m 3

V

I

V

R

V

T

v

w

weighting factor

X

Fourier transform

y

Greek symbols

 

a

b

e

/

scaling function (–)

k

l

viscosity, Ns/m 2

v

q

density, kg/m 3

r

surface tension, N/m

r sf

t

s

0

unbalanced voltage, V

specific volume, m 3 /kg

expanded uncertainty

voltage of the standard resistor, V

voltage of the experimental tube, V

distance from the wall, m

coefficient of R T (3.78 10 3 ) (–)

coefficient of R T (5.88 10 7 ) (–)

emissivity of platinum (–)

thermal conductivity, W/mK

number of degrees of freedom (–)

Stefan-Bolzmann constant (=5.67 10 8 W/m 2 K 4 ) (–)

= R Q ðt Þdt =Q ðt Þ; e-folding time, s

w

wavelet (–)

f

ratio of thermocapillary forces and aerodynamic forces

in Eq. (25) (–)

x

frequency response, dB

Subscripts

exp

experimental value

B

bubble

BR

Bergles and Rohsenow

GC

Ghiaasiaan and Chedester

f

liquid

g

vapor

h

heater

i

inner

in

inlet

MIC

microphone

o

outer

out

outlet

pred

predicted value

s

surface

sat

saturation

SLM

sound level meter

sur

surrounding

SM

Sato and Matsumura

sub

subcooling

w

wall

WSE

windscreen effect

WSC

windscreen correction

and aerodynamic forces. However, there is a limitation on the

applicability of the model due to experimental restrictions.

Other investigators studied the heat transfer characteristics,

including the critical heat flux (CHF) for water, using small plat-

inum tubes and obtained the correlations of forced convection in

the tubes at various experimental conditions [13–15]. However,

the boiling incipience was not clarified because the pump noise

was too high at high flow velocities.

To obtain a high accuracy correlation of boiling incipience in

narrow tubes, this study focuses on the measurement of the boiling

incipience using the wavelet decomposition method (WDM) [16].

Various incipient boiling phenomena for subcooled water flowing

in a uniformly heated narrow tube were observed and the boiling

signal was analyzed using WDM. Based on the experimental data

and their analysis, an empirical correlation of the boiling incipience

was obtained.

M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604

597

2. Experimental setup for the boiling incipience

The experimental facility of the subcooled flow boiling is shown

in Fig. 1. The experimental facility consists of three parts: a data

acquisition system for the temperature of the experimental tube

(ET), the fluid temperature, and the pressure measurements; a heat

input control system; and a water loop with a pressurizer, a non-

seal pump, a preheater, a Coriolis mass flow meter, and a cooler.

A platinum tube (d = 1.0 mm, L = 23.2 mm), with a material purity

of 99.99%, was used as the ET. The tube was soldered to the silver-

coated copper plates in the test section. The ET was installed ver-

tically in the test section. To measure the sound of the boiling

incipience, a sound level meter that can analyze the spectrum of

the boiling incipience was used.

The exponential signal of the heat generation rate was gener-

ated in a programmable computer. The signal was supplied to

the controllable DC power supply through a digital to analog (D/

A) convertor. The heat generation was calculated by Ohm’s law,

V R I, where V R is the voltage drop of the ET and I is the current cal-

culated using the voltage drop across a standard Manganin electric

resistor, with resistance R s . The average temperature of the ET was

measured by a double bridge circuit in the data acquisition system.

Platinum was used for the ET for high accuracy temperature mea-

surements of electrical resistance thermometry. Using the unbal-

anced voltage V T , of the double bridge circuit, the electrical

resistance R T , can be obtained. The relationship between R T and

the average temperature T a , was previously calibrated as R T =

R 0 (1 + aT a + bT a 2 ) using the water circulation.

The heat flux q, was calculated using the following energy

balance:

q ¼

V h

A h

Q _ q h c h

dT a

dt

ð1Þ

where V h , A h , Q _ , q h , c h , and t, denote, respectively, the volume of the

ET, the inner surface area of the ET, the heat generation rate, the

density of the ET, the heat capacity of the ET, and time. The heat

generation rate Q _ was defined with a long e-folding time s:

Q _ ¼ Q 0 expðt =sÞ.

To calculate the surface temperature of the ET, the following

steady heat conduction equations were solved:

k h r 2 T þ Q _ ¼ 0

 

@ T

k h

@

r

r ¼r i

¼ q

@ T

¼ 0

@ r

r¼r

o

ð2Þ

ð3Þ

ð4Þ

Heat Input control System Electric Electromagnetic Ref. Switch DC Amp. Signal Valve + D/A - Comparator
Heat Input control System
Electric
Electromagnetic
Ref.
Switch
DC
Amp.
Signal
Valve
+
D/A
-
Comparator
I
Shut-off Temp.
T a
Q
Pressurizer
T
A/D
÷
Divider
×
Multiplier
AC
Diff. Amp.
V T V I
V R V I
V
R S
I
Water loop
V I V T V I
V TL
Double
Data acquisition system
Bridge
R
circuit
2
R 1
V
T
R
2
r 0
: Thermocouple
R
T
P
3
: Pressure Gauge
Sound Level
R
Test Section
3
Meter
V
R
Exp. Tube
(R T )
Ion Exchanger
T
P
Bypass Loop
Cooler
Preheater
P
Coriolis Mass
Non-Seal Pump
Flow Meter
AC

Fig. 1. Schematic of the experimental set up.

  • 598 M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604

T a ¼

1

Þ Z

pðr 2 r

o

2

i

r

i

r o

2prT ðr Þdr

ð5Þ

where r i , r o , and k h are the inner diameter, the outer diameter, and

the thermal conductivity of the ET, respectively. The calculations of

surface temperature and the heat loss from the outer surface of the

ET are shown in Appendix A.1.

The liquid temperature and pressure at the inlet and outlet of

the test section were measured by a K-type sheathed thermocou-

ple and a strain gauge transducer, respectively.

During the experiment, the inlet temperatures ranged from 285

to 349 K, with corresponding subcooling ranging from 76 to 156 K.

The deionized water was pressurized up to 800 kPa. The flow

velocity ranged from 2.5 to 14 m/s and the inlet pressure ranged

from 238 to 855 kPa. To determine the saturated temperature in

the ET, the outlet pressure of the ET was calculated using Hall

and Mudawar’s correlation [17]. The experimental conditions are

listed in Table 1. The surface roughness of the ET was measured

by a HANDYSURF-E35-A profilometer.

The relative uncertainties were estimated using ANSI/ASME PTC

19.1 [18] guidelines as follows:

Heat generation rate

d

_

Q

_

Q

¼

ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

v

u

u

t

R ! 2

_

@ Q

@ V

dV R

V R

2

þ

I ! 2

_

@ Q

@ V

dV I

V I

2

Heat flux

ð6Þ

dq

¼

  • v ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

u

u

@ q 2 d Q

_

! 2

þ

@ q

2

dT a

2

 

ð7Þ

q

t

_

@ Q

_

Q

@ T a

T a

Average temperature

 

dT a

T a

¼

where

s ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

w 2

1

@ T a

@ V T

2

dV T

V T

2

þ w 2

2

@ T a

@ R T

2

dR T

R T

2

ð8Þ

U RSS; V

ð9Þ

w 1 ¼

U RSS; V þ U RSS; R

w 2 ¼ 1 w 1

 

ð10Þ

U RSS; V T

V T

U RSS;R

R

Table 1

¼

s ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

b V T

V T

2

þ t 95

s V T

V T

2

¼

s ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

b R

R

2

þ t 95

s R

R

2

 

ð11Þ

ð12Þ

Experimental conditions.

 
 

Heater material

Platinum

Inner diameter

1.0 mm

Outer diameter

1.8 mm

Heated length

23.2 mm

Surface roughness

R a

0.31 lm

R y

1.48 lm

R z

1.10 lm

e-folding time

 

9, 18 s

 

Flow velocity

2.5–14 m/s

Inlet

temperature

285–349 K

Inlet

pressure

238–855 kPa

Outlet pressure

213–827 kPa

s R

R

¼

s ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

X

n

k¼1 ðR k R LS;k Þ 2

N c

ð13Þ

n and c in Eq. (13) are the number of data points and a constant

value for the least-square (LS) method, respectively.

Inner surface temperature

dT s

T s

¼

s ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

@

T s

@

T a

2

dT a

T a

2

þ

@ T s

@ q

2

dq

q

2

Inlet and outlet temperatures

dT TC

T TC

¼

s ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

@

T TC

@ V TC

2

dV TC

V TC

2

þ

@ T TC

@ V AMP

2

dV AMP

V AMP

2

Inlet and outlet pressures

dP

P

¼

s ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

@ P

@ V P

2

dV P

V P

2

þ

@ P

@ V AMP

2

dV AMP

V AMP

2

Mass flow rate

dG

G

¼

s ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

@ G

@ V G

2

dV G

V G

2

þ

@ G

@ V AMP

2

dV AMP

V AMP

2

ð14Þ

ð15Þ

ð16Þ

ð17Þ

The maximum relative errors of these measurement parameters

are summarized in Table 2. Since the sound measurement is

affected by the wavelength, the uncertainties of the frequency

responses were shown in Appendix A.2.

3. Experimental method

The experiment was conducted at various experimental condi-

tions described in Table 1. Deionized (DI) water was used in the

experiment. The water flowed through an ion exchanger at least

30 min before the experiment. The DI water was deaerated by boil-

ing it at around atmospheric pressure in the pressurizer, where it

was subsequently pressurized up to the prescribed pressure. After

the pressurization in the water loop, the DI water was supplied by

a circulation pump, through the preheater, to the test section.

When the DI water flowed to the prescribed temperature and pres-

sure, the heat input provided from the DC power supply was

applied to the ET. As the heat flux of the ET increased with the

increasing electric current, nucleate boiling began. When the heat

flux reached a critical heat flux, measurements such as the average

temperature of the ET, the flow velocity of DI water, the inlet and

outlet pressures were stopped at each experimental condition.

Fig. 2 shows the schematic of the test section. The boiling incip-

ience was detected by a microphone (13.2 mm dia.) in the sound

level meter (RION NL-42) during the experiment. The microphone

was placed across the ET. The distance between the microphone

and the ET was approximately 20 mm and the sensitivity of the

sound measurement are shown in Appendix A.3. The height of

the microphone was approximately 10 mm from the outlet of the

ET since the location of boiling incipience was estimated around

Table 2

Measurement uncertainties.

Variables

Uncertainties

Heat generation rate

±2.0%

Heat flux

±2.4%

Average temperature

±2.8%

Inner surface temperature

±2.8%

Inlet and outlet temperatures

±0.7 K

Inlet and outlet pressures

±2.6 kPa

Mass flow rate

±0.011 kg/min

M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604

599

Microphone Electrode (-) Cu Microphone Electrode (-) Cu 20 Pt Pt Electrode Electrode(+) (+) Cu Cu
Microphone
Electrode (-)
Cu
Microphone
Electrode (-)
Cu
20
Pt
Pt
Electrode
Electrode(+)
(+)
Cu
Cu
Bakelite
Bakelite
(a) Perspective view
(b) Side view
10

Fig. 2. Schematic of the test section.

8 8 10 10 Pt d = 1.0 mm Pt d = 1.0 mm T sub,
8
8
10
10
Pt
d = 1.0 mm
Pt
d = 1.0 mm
T sub, in = 97 K
L/d = 23.2
u = 7 m/s
P
T sub,in = 118 K
= 415 kPa
P
= 229 kPa
L/d = 23.2
u = 7 m/s
out
out
CHF
CHF
7
7
10
10
Experimental data
Experimental data
Eq.(20)
Eq.(20)
Incipient Boiliing point
Incipient Boiling Point
6
6
10
10
1
10
10 2
1
10
10 2
T sat [K]
T sat [K]
(a)
(b)
q [W/m 2 ]
q [W/m 2 ]

Fig. 3. Typical boiling curves at outlet pressures of (a) 229 kPa and (b) 415 kPa.

11 mm from the thermal entry region of the ET based on the exper-

imental result. Then, the boiling spectrum was analyzed by WDM

using a commercial application from the MATLAB wavelet tool

box [19]. The WDM was proposed by Mallat [16]. The advantages

are the de-noising of the signal from pump noise and the separa-

tion of the boiling sound. The discrete wavelet transform of a

square integral function can be expressed as

w j;k ðt Þ ¼ 2 j=2 wð2 j t kÞ

ð18Þ

where, w and j are a wavelet and a decomposition level, respec-

tively. The Daubechies’ order of 4 was used in this study. The boiling

signal f(t), can be decomposed as

0

f ðt Þ ¼ X

k

a j;k u j;k ðt Þ þ X j¼ J

X

k

d j;k w j;k ðt Þ

ð19Þ

where, a j , /(t), J and d j , denote, respectively, the approximation

coefficient at the decomposition level of j, the scaling function,

the maximum decomposition level of signal, the detail coefficient

at the decomposition level of j [19].

4. Results and discussion

Fig. 3 shows typical boiling curves at outlet pressures of (a) 229

kPa and (b) 415 kPa and a 7 m/s flow velocity. The surface super-

heat D T sat , ascends with an increase in heat flux q, along the fol-

lowing convection correlation [14], until the incipient boiling

point is reached:

Nu ¼ 0:001Re 1:2 Pr 0:4

L

d

0:08

l

l

w

0:14

ð20Þ

As shown in Fig. 3(a), after boiling inception occurs, D T sat

decreases, then fluctuates slightly due to nucleate boiling, and sub-

sequently increases again with an increase in q. We believe that the

initial temperature overshoot is due to the activation of neighbor-

ing large cavities that are initially flooded [20]. As D T sat increases, it

seems that cavities whose mouth radii are smaller begin to serve as

bubble nuclei and the number of nucleation sites on the inner

surface increases. Then, originally flooded cavities of mouth radii

larger than that of the maximum unflooded cavities will be acti-

vated by the bubbles originating from the neighboring cavities.

  • 600 M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604

600 M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604 Fig. 4. Detection of

Fig. 4. Detection of the boiling incipience point by WDM at a flow velocity of 7 m/s and an outlet pressure of 229 kPa.

8 8 10 10 30 % 30 % Pt Pt d = 1.0 mm L/d =
8
8
10
10
30 %
30 %
Pt
Pt
d = 1.0 mm
L/d = 23.2
u 2.5-14 m/s
d = 1.0 mm
L/d = 23.2
u
2.5-14 m/s
-30 %
-30 %
7
7
10
10
6
6
P
P
10
10
out
out
825
kPa
825
kPa
412
kPa
621
kPa
621
kPa
412
kPa
232
kPa
232
kPa
5
5
10
10
10 5
10 6
10 7
10 8
10 5
10 6
10 7
10 8
q i,BG [W/m 2 ]
q i,SM [W/m 2 ]
(a)
(b)
q i,exp [W/m 2 ]
q i,exp [W/m 2 ]

Fig. 5. Comparison between the experimental data and proposed ONB correlations of (a) Bergles and Rohsenow [8] and (b) Sato and Matsumura [9].

D T sat would decrease with an increase in the number of activated

cavities. Boiling from originally unflooded cavities would be super-

seded by the boiling from the activated cavities, which require

smaller D T sat to maintain boiling. After the initial temperature

overshoot, nucleate boiling developed, accompanied with the acti-

vation of neighboring initially flooded large cavities, and q reached

a maximum value. Namely, the maximum heat flux reached the

so-called well-known critical heat flux (CHF).

On the contrary, in Fig. 3(b), the initial temperature overshoot

does not appear as the system pressure increases. Since the activa-

tion of neighboring initially flooded large cavities is dependent on

the experimental condition, (i.e., system pressure, subcooling, flow

velocity, and surface condition) the prediction of the boiling incip-

ience is complicated.

Fig. 4 shows a typical time variation of a heat flux q, a surface

temperature T s , and a detail coefficient d 2 of wavelet transform at

a decomposition level of 2. As shown in Fig. 4, T s gradually

increases with an increase in q, which changes at around 85 s

due to the boiling incipience, corresponding to d 2 . Since the incip-

ient boiling point is often defined as the discrepancy point of the

convective correlation, we confirmed that the discrepancy point

corresponds to the onset of d 2 at various experimental conditions,

such as the liquid subcooling and the flow velocity. These heat flux

and surface temperatures at the incipient boiling point are defined

as q i and T i .

Fig. 5 shows comparisons between the measured q i,exp and the

proposed onset nucleate boiling (ONB) correlations of (a) Bergles

and Rohsenow [8] in Eq. (21) and (b) Sato and Matsumura [9] in

Eq. (22), defined as follows:

q i ¼ 5:3P 1:156 ½1:8ðT i T sat Þ 2:41=P 0:0234

q i ¼

k f h fg ðT i T sat

Þ

2

8rT sat ðv g

v f Þ

ð21Þ

ð22Þ

where P, T i , T sat , k f , h fg , r, and v are the system pressure in kPa, the

surface temperature at the boiling initiation, the saturated temper-

ature, the thermal conductivity, the latent heat of vaporization, the

surface tension, and the specific volume, respectively. As shown in

Fig. 5, these correlations underestimated the measured q i in the

experiment.

M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604

601

Kennedy et al. [21] and Ghiaasiaan and Chedester [10] also

compared their experimental data and the correlations proposed

by (a) Bergles and Rohsenow [8] and (b) Sato and Matsumura

[9]. Since the predicted values of these correlations show a similar

trend to Fig. 5, Ghiaasiaan and Chedester [10] modified the Sato

and Matsumura correlation using the ratio of the thermocapillary

and aerodynamic forces, as follows:

q i ¼

k f h fg ðT i T sat

Þ

2

C 8rT sat ðv g

v f Þ

C ¼ 22f 0:765

ð23Þ

ð24Þ

where f is the ratio of the thermocapillary forces and aerodynamic

forces, given as

f ¼

r f r w

q f u 2 R

R ¼

s ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

2rT sat ðv g v f Þk f

q i h fg

ð25Þ

ð26Þ

where R is the critical cavity radius that satisfies the surrounding

superheated liquid layer. A linear temperature profile was used

with boundary conditions obtained using the Clausius-Clapeyron

relation, as follows:

T j y¼y B ¼ T B

@ T

@ y

y¼y B

¼

@

T

B

@

R

B

ð27Þ

ð28Þ

The restriction for the correlation is C = 1.

Fig. 6 shows a comparison between the Ghiaasiaan and Chede-

ster correlation in Eq. (23) and the experimental data. C in Eq. (24)

was calculated using Eqs. (25) and (26) with the q i measured in the

experiment. Although the predicted values of the correlation are

improved compared with those of Fig. 4, the accuracy of the corre-

lation is insufficient because C was lower than 1.0. Hence, their

correlation is not applicable to this experiment.

Fig. 7 shows the relationship between C and f in narrow tubes.

The open symbols depict Ghiaasiaan and Chedester’s data [10] and

3 10 Pt d = 1.0 mm sub,in = 76-156 K 2 10 L/d = 23.2
3
10
Pt
d = 1.0 mm
sub,in = 76-156 K
2
10
L/d = 23.2
P
out
825
kPa
621
kPa
10
412
kPa
232
kPa
1
-1
Ghiaasiaan and
10
Chedester [10]
Eq. (24)
-2
10
10 -4
10 -3
10 -2
10 -1
1
10
C

Fig. 7. Relationship between C and f.

the dashed line shows their correlation calculated from Eq. (24),

while the filled symbols indicate the authors’ experimental data.

As the outlet pressure of the tube increases, C decreases with a

decrease in f. It was found that C is dependent on f and P out , as

shown in Fig. 7.

Since the value of C depends on P out at the same f, the relation-

ship between an exponent of f and the reduced pressure P re , is plot-

ted in Fig. 8. The exponent, n, increases with an increase in P re , thus,

the following correlation can be obtained by the LS method.

n ¼ 8:3P 0:5

re

ð29Þ

Fig. 9 shows the relationship between the values of lnðC Þ=8:3P 0:5

re

and f. In this figure, the values of lnðC Þ=8:3P 0:5

re

increase with

increasing f. Consequently, the empirical correlation was obtained

as follows:

8 10 30 % Pt d = 1.0 mm L/d = 23.2 u 2.5-14 m/s -30
8
10
30 %
Pt
d = 1.0 mm
L/d = 23.2
u 2.5-14 m/s
-30 %
7
10
6
10
P
out
825
kPa
621
kPa
412
kPa
232
kPa
5
10
10 5
10 6
10 7
10 8
q i,GC [W/m 2 ]
q i,exp [W/m 2 ]

Fig. 6. Comparison of the Ghiaasiaan and Chedester correlation [10] and the current experimental data.

10 Pt d = 1.0 mm P 232-825 kPa out L/d = 23.2 Eq. (29) 1
10
Pt
d = 1.0 mm
P
232-825 kPa
out
L/d = 23.2
Eq. (29)
1
0.1
0.01
0.1
P
re
n

Fig. 8. Relationship between an exponent of f and P re .

  • 602 M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604

10 Pt d = 1.0 mm sub,in = 76-156 K L/d = 23.2 5 = 9,
10
Pt
d = 1.0 mm
sub,in = 76-156 K
L/d = 23.2
5
= 9, 18 s
0
P
out
825
kPa
-5
621
kPa
412
kPa
232
kPa
Eq. (30)
-10
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
ln
0.5
ln(C)/8.3P re

Fig. 9. Relationship between ln(C)/8.3P re 0.5 and f.

8 10 30 % Pt d = 1.0 mm L/d = 23.2 u 2.5-14 m/s -30
8
10
30 %
Pt
d = 1.0 mm
L/d = 23.2
u 2.5-14 m/s
-30 %
7
10
P
out
825
kPa
621
kPa
412
kPa
232
kPa
6
10
5
10
10 5
10 6
10 7
10 8
q i,exp [W/m 2 ]
q i,pred [W/m 2 ]

Fig. 10. Comparison of the empirical correlation and the experimental data.

lnðC Þ ¼

8:3P 0:5 ð2:89 þ lnðf 0:87 ÞÞ

re

ð30Þ

Table 3

 

MAE of the correlations.

 

This leads to

 

Correlation

Ref.

MAE (%)

  • C ¼ ð18f 0:87 Þ 8:3

p ffiffiffiffiffi

P re

ð31Þ

Bergles and Rohsenow Sato and Matsumura

[8]

[9]

52.3

58.6

 

Ghiaasiaan and Chedester

[10]

48.0

Eq. (31) is substituted into Eq. (23), then T i can be obtained

Present study

26.5

since q i can be calculated by the experimental range.

A comparison between this correlation and the experimental

data is plotted in Fig. 10. The predicted value of the correlation is

in agreement with the experimental data within ±30%. The excess

errors of the correlation are due to the initial temperature over-

shoots, as referenced in Fig. 3. The accuracy of the correlation could

be improved to take into account the influence of initial tempera-

To evaluate the correlations of references [8–10] and present

the study quantitatively, the following mean absolute error

(MAE) formula was used and the MAE of each correlation is listed

in Table 3. The correlation obtained by Eqs. (23) and (31) is consid-

ered to be suitable to express the experimental data in this

ture overshoots.

 

research.

 
   
Reference sound Reference sound
   

Reference sound

 

Reference sound

 
 

180

o

180

o

 

0

o 210 o 150 o 120 o o 60 1
o
210 o
150
o
120
o
o
60
1
 

0

o 210 o 150 o 120 o o 60 1
o
210 o
150
o
120
o
o
60
1
 

-5

-5

dB

-10

 

dB

-10

-15

 

-15

-20

90

o

-20

90

o

 

300

330 o

30

o

kHz

2

kHz

4

kHz

  • kHz

8

 

300

330 o

30

o

kHz

2

kHz

4

kHz

  • kHz

8

 

0

o

  • 12.5 kHz

 

0

o

  • 12.5 kHz

 

(a) Horizontal direction

 

(b) Vertical direction

 

Fig. 11. Directional characteristics of the sound measurement on the reference sound.

M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604

603

M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604 603 Fig. 12. FFT profile

Fig. 12. FFT profile for the sound waves at a flow velocity of 7 m/s.

Table 4 Total expanded uncertainty of the frequency response [23].

Nominal frequency (Hz)

Total expanded uncertainty (dB)

  • 63 0.3

  • 80 0.3

    • 100 0.3

    • 125 0.3

    • 160 0.3

    • 200 0.2

    • 250 0.2

    • 315 0.2

    • 400 0.2

    • 500 0.2

    • 630 0.2

    • 800 0.2

      • 1000 0.2

      • 1250 0.3

      • 1600 0.3

      • 2000 0.3

      • 2500 0.3

      • 3150 0.3

      • 4000 0.4

      • 5000 0.4

      • 6300 0.4

      • 8000 0.4

MAE ¼

1

N X

jq i;pred q i;exp j

q i;exp

100 !

5. Concluding remarks

ð32Þ

Various incipient boiling phenomena for subcooled water flow-

ing in a uniformly heated narrow tube were observed experimen-

tally. The boiling signal was analyzed using wavelet decomposition

method. The results showed that the initial temperature overshoot

did not appear as the outlet pressure increased. It was found that

the incipient heat flux is dependent on pressure and non-

dimensional parameter expressed by a ratio of thermocapillary

forces and aerodynamic forces (f). Since existing correlations

underestimated the incipient heat flux, a semi-empirical correla-

tion of the boiling incipience was obtained based on the experi-

mental data. The predicted value of the new correlation is in

agreement with the experimental data within ±30%.

Acknowledgements

This work was partly supported by the JSPS KAKENHI Grant

Numbers JP16K18322 and JP15K05828. This work was partly per-

formed with the support and under the auspices of NIFS Collabora-

tion Research program (NIFS17KEMF100).

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that

there is no conflict of interest.

Appendix A

A.1. Calculations of the surface temperature and the heat loss from the

outer surface of the ET

The temperature distribution of the ET can be obtained by solv-

ing the conduction equation in steady state (see Eq. (2)) as follows:

T ðr Þ¼

_

_

Q r 2 Q r 2

o

4k þ 2k

ln r þ T a

qr i

4r

2

2

r ln r

o

o

1

2

r

2

i

 

4ðr 2 r Þ 2 k

2

 

o

 

i

o

i

lated by the following equations:

T s ¼ T ðr i Þ ¼

T a

qr i

4r

2

2

r ln r

1

 

4ðr 2 r Þ 2 k

2

o

o

o

2

 

o

i

ðr 4 r 4 Þ

qr i

2

o

i

T o ¼ T ðr o Þ ¼ T a

qr i

2ðr 2 r Þk ðr

o

2

i

i

o

4r

2

2

r ln r

1

 

4ðr 2 r Þ 2 k

o

2

i

o

o

o

2

 

ðr 4 r 4 Þ

o

i

 

qr i r 2

o

2ðr 2 r

o

2

i

Þk ð1 2 ln r o Þ

2r 2 ln r i Þ

1

2

ðr

4

4

Þ

o

r

i

 

ðA1Þ

 

2

ln r

i

1

r

i

 

2

ðA2Þ

 

2

ln r

i

1

 

r

i

 

2

ðA3Þ

ln r

The inner and outer surface temperatures of the ET are calcu-

The radiation loss at the boiling incipience was calculated by

the Stefan-Bolzmann law as follows:

Q r ¼ r sf e½T 4 T sur pd o L

o

4

ðA4Þ

where r sf , e, T o , T sur and d o denote, respectively, the Stefan-

Bolzmann constant, the emissivity of platinum (=0.0536 at 505.6

K [22]), the outer surface temperature, the surrounding tempera-

ture (=283.65 K) and the outer diameter (=0.0018 m). The total heat

transfer rate at the boiling incipience can be estimated by the fol-

lowing equation:

Q total ¼ Q i þ Q r

ðA5Þ

Since the ratio of the Q r and Q total was 0.002%, the heat loss was

negligible in the experiment.

  • 604 M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604

A.2. The uncertainty of the frequency response for the sound

measurement

Table 4 shows the uncertainty of the frequency response [23]

for the microphone (MIC) and the sound level meter (SLM) based

on JIS C 1509-1 [24]. The total expanded uncertainty can be

calculated as follows:

U x ¼ k

q ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

x

MIC þ x SLM þ x 2 WSE þ x WSC 2

2

2

ðA6Þ

where x is an uncertainty of frequency response and k is used as a

covering factor to have a level of confidence of approximately 95%.

A.3. The sensitivity of the sound measurement

Fig. 11 shows the directional characteristics of the sound

measurement on the reference sound [23]. The sensitivity for

sound waves is affected by the horizontal and vertical directions

as the frequency increases. However, for the boiling incipience

sounds, since the spectrum peak of the sound waves analyzed by

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was within 1 kHz as shown in

Fig. 12, the influence of the measurement location for the micro-

phone is negligible in the experiment.

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