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Applied Thermal Engineering
journal homepage: www.elsevi er.com/locate/apthermeng
Research Paper
Boiling incipience of subcooled water ﬂowing in a narrow tube using wavelet analysis
M. Shibahara ^{a} ^{,}^{⇑} , K. Fukuda ^{a} , Q.S. Liu ^{a} , K. Hata ^{a} , S. Masuzaki ^{b}
^{a} Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, 511Fukaeminamimachi, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 6580022, Japan ^{b} National Institute for Fusion Science, 3226, Oroshicho, Toki, Gifu 5095292, Japan
highlights
Incipient boiling phenomena of subcooled water in a narrow tube were observed. The boiling signal was analyzed by the wavelet decomposition method. The semiempirical correlation of the boiling incipience was obtained.
article info
Article history:
Received 25 August 2017 Revised 15 November 2017 Accepted 28 December 2017 Available online 28 December 2017
Keywords:
Incipient boiling
Subcooled boiling
Upward ﬂow
Narrow channel
Wavelet
abstract
Various incipient boiling phenomena for subcooled water ﬂowing in a uniformly heated narrow tube were observed experimentally. The boiling signal was analyzed using the wavelet decomposition method. The boiling incipience of subcooled water in the narrow tube was recorded by a sound level meter at various ﬂow velocities. A platinum tube was used as the experimental tube with an inner diam eter of 1.0 mm. The length of the experimental tube was 23.2 mm. The tube was heated by the Joule effect
using a direct current. The inlet temperature and ﬂow velocities ranged 285–346 K and 2.5–14 m/s, respectively. The surface superheat ascended with an increase of the heat ﬂux until the incipient boiling point was reached. The initial temperature overshoot did not appear as the outlet pressure increased. Since the existing correlations underestimated the incipient heat ﬂux, a semiempirical correlation of the boiling incipience was obtained based on the experimental data. The predicted value of the new correlation is in agreement with the experimental data within ±30%. 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Understanding of the boiling incipience in tubes is important for the safety assessment of industrial applications, since sub cooled liquid is used in various ﬁelds, such as plasma facing com ponents (PFC) in fusion reactors, rocket engines, and hydrogen storage that utilize narrow channels [1]. The liquid channel cooling is also used in insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules that are used in hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, and electric propul sion ships [2]. With the increase in the IGBT power density, dynamic cooling technology is required and the detection of the boiling incipience is more important for the safe operation of these power electronics. Furthermore, the knowledge of boiling incipi ence is necessary to design the divertor of the PFC. Since the edge localized mode incurs high heat ﬂux at the divertor [3], the
⇑ Corresponding author. Email address: sibahara@maritime.kobeu.ac.jp (M. Shibahara).
13594311/ 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
prediction of the boiling incipience in a cooling tube is an issue to be considered in the thermal design of the PFC. Since their convective heat transfer coefﬁcients are higher than those of gases, the convective heat transfer of various liquids was investigated experimentally and empirical correlations have been suggested [4–6]. For mini and microchannels, many studies of heat transfer characteristics have been conducted over the past decade [7]. Even though micro channels are known to enhance the heat transfer coefﬁcient, the boiling incipience has not been clearly investigated so far. For conventional tubes up to an inner diameter of 2.0 mm, the boiling incipience can be predicted by the Bergles and Rohsenow [8] or Sato and Matsumura [9] correla tions. In contrast, Ghiaasiaan and Chedester [10] mentioned that the predictions calculated by the correlations in [8] or [9] were lower than the results of Ghiaasiaan and Chedester’s [10] and Ina saka et al.’s [11] experiments. Since the accuracy of these correla tions is not satisfactory for micro scale phenomena, Ghiaasiaan and Chedester suggested the use of a new correlation modiﬁed by Davis and Anderson’s model [12] using a ratio of thermocapillary
596 M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604
Nomenclature 

A 

a _{j} 

j (–) 

b 

C 

c 
constant in Eq. (13) 

c 
_{h} 

c 
_{p} 

d 
inner diameter, m 

d _{j} 

f 
boiling signal (–) 

fs 
frequency, Hz 

h 

h _{f}_{g} 

I 
direct current, A 

J 

k 
coverage factor (=2) (–) 

L 
length, m 

MAE 
mean absolute error,% 

n 

Nu 

P 
pressure, kPa 

Pr 

P 
_{c}_{r} 
critical pressure, kPa 
P 
_{r}_{e} 

Q 
heat transfer rate, W 

Q _{i} 

Q _{0} 

_ 

Q 

q 
heat ﬂux, W/m ^{2} 

q _{i} 

Re 

R 
_{0} 
electrical 
R 
electrical resistance, X 

R 
^{⁄} 
critical cavity radius 
R 
_{B} 
Bubble radius, m 
R 
_{a} 
average roughness, lm 
R 
_{s} 
standard resistor, X 
R _{T} 

R _{y} 
maximum height, lm 

R _{z} 

r 
radius, m 

r _{x} 
lead resistance, X 

s 

surements (–) 

T 
temperature, K 

T 
_{a} 
average temperature, K 
T 
_{i} 

t 
time, s 

t _{9}_{5} 

degrees of freedom (–) 

D T _{s}_{a}_{t} 
heat generation rate, W/m ^{3}
incipient heat ﬂux, W/m ^{2}
=qud/l, Reynolds number (–)
inner surface area of the experimental tube, m ^{2}
approximation coefﬁcient at the decomposition level of
systematic standard uncertainty (–)
coefﬁcient in Eqs. (23), (24) and (31)
speciﬁc heat of the platinum tube, J/kg K
speciﬁc heat at constant pressure, J/kg K
detail coefﬁcient at the decomposition level of j (–)
heat transfer coefﬁcient, (W/m ^{2} K)
latent heat of vaporization, J/kg
maximum decomposition level of signal (–)
number of experimental data (–)
=hd/k, Nusselt number (–)
=lc _{p} /k, Prandtl number (–)
=P _{o}_{u}_{t} /P _{c}_{r} , reduced pressure, kPa
heat transfer rate at the boiling incipience, W
initial exponential heat input, W/m ^{3}
resistance at 0 C (=1.38 10 ^{} ^{3} ), X
electrical resistance of the experimental tube, X
tenspot average roughness, lm
random standard uncertainty of the mean of N mea
incipient surface temperature, K
student’s t value at a speciﬁed conﬁdence level with v
=T _{s} T _{s}_{a}_{t} , surface superheat, K
D T _{s}_{u}_{b}_{,}_{i}_{n} =T _{s}_{a}_{t} T _{i}_{n} , inlet liquid subcooling, K
U 

u 
ﬂow velocity, m/s 

V 
volume, m ^{3} 

V 
_{I} 

V 
_{R} 

V 
_{T} 

v 

w 
weighting factor 

X 
Fourier transform 

y 

Greek symbols 

a 

b 

e 

/ 
scaling function (–) 

k 

l 
viscosity, Ns/m ^{2} 

v 

q 
density, kg/m ^{3} 

r 
surface tension, N/m 

r _{s}_{f} 

t 

s 
0 
unbalanced voltage, V
speciﬁc volume, m ^{3} /kg
expanded uncertainty
voltage of the standard resistor, V
voltage of the experimental tube, V
distance from the wall, m
coefﬁcient of R _{T} (3.78 10 ^{} ^{3} ) (–)
coefﬁcient of R _{T} (5.88 10 ^{} ^{7} ) (–)
emissivity of platinum (–)
thermal conductivity, W/mK
number of degrees of freedom (–)
StefanBolzmann constant (=5.67 10 ^{} ^{8} W/m ^{2} K ^{4} ) (–)
= ^{R} Q ðt Þdt =Q ðt Þ; efolding time, s
w 
wavelet (–) 
f 
ratio of thermocapillary forces and aerodynamic forces 
in Eq. (25) (–) 

x 
frequency response, dB 
Subscripts 

exp 
experimental value 
B 
bubble 
BR 
Bergles and Rohsenow 
GC 
Ghiaasiaan and Chedester 
f 
liquid 
g 
vapor 
h 
heater 
i 
inner 
in 
inlet 
MIC 
microphone 
o 
outer 
out 
outlet 
pred 
predicted value 
s 
surface 
sat 
saturation 
SLM 
sound level meter 
sur 
surrounding 
SM 
Sato and Matsumura 
sub 
subcooling 
w 
wall 
WSE 
windscreen effect 
WSC 
windscreen correction 
and aerodynamic forces. However, there is a limitation on the
applicability of the model due to experimental restrictions.
Other investigators studied the heat transfer characteristics,
including the critical heat ﬂux (CHF) for water, using small plat
inum tubes and obtained the correlations of forced convection in
the tubes at various experimental conditions [13–15]. However,
the boiling incipience was not clariﬁed because the pump noise
was too high at high ﬂow velocities.
To obtain a high accuracy correlation of boiling incipience in
narrow tubes, this study focuses on the measurement of the boiling
incipience using the wavelet decomposition method (WDM) [16].
Various incipient boiling phenomena for subcooled water ﬂowing
in a uniformly heated narrow tube were observed and the boiling
signal was analyzed using WDM. Based on the experimental data
and their analysis, an empirical correlation of the boiling incipience
was obtained.
M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604
597
2. Experimental setup for the boiling incipience
The experimental facility of the subcooled ﬂow boiling is shown
in Fig. 1. The experimental facility consists of three parts: a data
acquisition system for the temperature of the experimental tube
(ET), the ﬂuid temperature, and the pressure measurements; a heat
input control system; and a water loop with a pressurizer, a non
seal pump, a preheater, a Coriolis mass ﬂow meter, and a cooler.
A platinum tube (d = 1.0 mm, L = 23.2 mm), with a material purity
of 99.99%, was used as the ET. The tube was soldered to the silver
coated copper plates in the test section. The ET was installed ver
tically in the test section. To measure the sound of the boiling
incipience, a sound level meter that can analyze the spectrum of
the boiling incipience was used.
The exponential signal of the heat generation rate was gener
ated in a programmable computer. The signal was supplied to
the controllable DC power supply through a digital to analog (D/
A) convertor. The heat generation was calculated by Ohm’s law,
V _{R} I, where V _{R} is the voltage drop of the ET and I is the current cal
culated using the voltage drop across a standard Manganin electric
resistor, with resistance R _{s} . The average temperature of the ET was
measured by a double bridge circuit in the data acquisition system.
Platinum was used for the ET for high accuracy temperature mea
surements of electrical resistance thermometry. Using the unbal
anced voltage V _{T} , of the double bridge circuit, the electrical
resistance R _{T} , can be obtained. The relationship between R _{T} and
the average temperature T _{a} , was previously calibrated as R _{T} =
R _{0} (1 + aT _{a} + bT _{a} ^{2} ) using the water circulation.
The heat ﬂux q, was calculated using the following energy
balance:
q ¼
V h
A h
Q _ q _{h} c _{h}
dT _{a}
dt
ð1Þ
where V _{h} , A _{h} , Q _ , q _{h} , c _{h} , and t, denote, respectively, the volume of the
ET, the inner surface area of the ET, the heat generation rate, the
density of the ET, the heat capacity of the ET, and time. The heat
generation rate Q _ was deﬁned with a long efolding time _{s}_{:}
Q _ ¼ Q _{0} expðt =sÞ.
To calculate the surface temperature of the ET, the following
steady heat conduction equations were solved:
k _{h} r ^{2} T þ Q _ ¼ 0 

@ T 


k _{h} @ r 
^{} r ¼r _{i} 
¼ q 

@ T 

¼ 0 

@ r 
^{} r¼r 
_{o} 
ð2Þ
ð3Þ
ð4Þ
Fig. 1. Schematic of the experimental set up.
598 M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604
T _{a} ¼
1
Þ Z
pðr ^{2} r
o
2
i
r
i
r o
2prT ðr Þdr
ð5Þ
where r _{i} , r _{o} , and k _{h} are the inner diameter, the outer diameter, and
the thermal conductivity of the ET, respectively. The calculations of
surface temperature and the heat loss from the outer surface of the
ET are shown in Appendix A.1.
The liquid temperature and pressure at the inlet and outlet of
the test section were measured by a Ktype sheathed thermocou
ple and a strain gauge transducer, respectively.
During the experiment, the inlet temperatures ranged from 285
to 349 K, with corresponding subcooling ranging from 76 to 156 K.
The deionized water was pressurized up to 800 kPa. The ﬂow
velocity ranged from 2.5 to 14 m/s and the inlet pressure ranged
from 238 to 855 kPa. To determine the saturated temperature in
the ET, the outlet pressure of the ET was calculated using Hall
and Mudawar’s correlation [17]. The experimental conditions are
listed in Table 1. The surface roughness of the ET was measured
by a HANDYSURFE35A proﬁlometer.
The relative uncertainties were estimated using ANSI/ASME PTC
19.1 [18] guidelines as follows:
Heat generation rate
d
_
Q
_
Q
¼
ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
v
u
u
t
R ! 2
_
@ Q
@ V
dV _{R}
V R
2
þ
I ! 2
_
@ Q
@ V
dV _{I}
V I
2
Heat ﬂux
ð6Þ
dq ¼ 
u u
@ q ^{} ^{2} d Q _ ! 2 þ
@ q 2
dT _{a} 2 
ð7Þ 

q t _ @ Q _ Q @ T _{a} T a Average temperature 

dT _{a} T a ¼ where 
s ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ w ^{2} 1
@ T _{a} @ V _{T} 2
dV _{T} V T 2 þ w ^{2} 2
@ T _{a} @ R _{T} 2
dR _{T} R T 2 
ð8Þ 

U RSS; V 
ð9Þ 

w _{1} ¼ 
U RSS; V þ U RSS; R 

w _{2} ¼ 1 w _{1} 
ð10Þ 

U RSS; V _{T} V T U RSS;R R Table 1 
¼ s ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
^{b} V T V T 2 þ t 95
^{s} V T V T 2 ¼ s ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
b R R 2 þ t 95
s R R 2 
ð11Þ ð12Þ 

Experimental conditions. 

Heater material 
Platinum 

Inner diameter 
1.0 mm 

Outer diameter 
1.8 mm 

Heated length 
23.2 mm 

Surface roughness 
R _{a} 
0.31 _{l}_{m} 

R _{y} 
1.48 lm 

R _{z} 
1.10 lm 

efolding time 
9, 18 s 

Flow velocity 
2.5–14 m/s 

Inlet 
temperature 
285–349 K 

Inlet 
pressure 
238–855 kPa 

Outlet pressure 
213–827 kPa 
s R
R
¼
s ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
^{X}
n
_{k}_{¼}_{1} ðR k R LS;k Þ ^{2}
N c
ð13Þ
n and c in Eq. (13) are the number of data points and a constant
value for the leastsquare (LS) method, respectively.
Inner surface temperature
dT _{s}
T s
¼
s ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
@
T _{s}
@
T _{a}
2
dT _{a}
T a
2
þ
@ T _{s}
@ q
2
dq
q
2
Inlet and outlet temperatures
dT TC
T TC
¼
s ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
@
T TC
@ V TC
2
dV TC
V TC
2
þ
@ T TC
@ V AMP
2
dV AMP
V AMP
2
Inlet and outlet pressures
dP
P
¼
s ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
@ P
@ V _{P}
2
dV _{P}
V P
2
þ
@ P
@ V AMP
2
dV AMP
V AMP
2
Mass ﬂow rate
dG
G
¼
s ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
@ G
@ V _{G}
2
dV _{G}
V G
2
þ
@ G
@ V AMP
2
dV AMP
V AMP
2
ð14Þ
ð15Þ
ð16Þ
ð17Þ
The maximum relative errors of these measurement parameters
are summarized in Table 2. Since the sound measurement is
affected by the wavelength, the uncertainties of the frequency
responses were shown in Appendix A.2.
3. Experimental method
The experiment was conducted at various experimental condi
tions described in Table 1. Deionized (DI) water was used in the
experiment. The water ﬂowed through an ion exchanger at least
30 min before the experiment. The DI water was deaerated by boil
ing it at around atmospheric pressure in the pressurizer, where it
was subsequently pressurized up to the prescribed pressure. After
the pressurization in the water loop, the DI water was supplied by
a circulation pump, through the preheater, to the test section.
When the DI water ﬂowed to the prescribed temperature and pres
sure, the heat input provided from the DC power supply was
applied to the ET. As the heat ﬂux of the ET increased with the
increasing electric current, nucleate boiling began. When the heat
ﬂux reached a critical heat ﬂux, measurements such as the average
temperature of the ET, the ﬂow velocity of DI water, the inlet and
outlet pressures were stopped at each experimental condition.
Fig. 2 shows the schematic of the test section. The boiling incip
ience was detected by a microphone (13.2 mm dia.) in the sound
level meter (RION NL42) during the experiment. The microphone
was placed across the ET. The distance between the microphone
and the ET was approximately 20 mm and the sensitivity of the
sound measurement are shown in Appendix A.3. The height of
the microphone was approximately 10 mm from the outlet of the
ET since the location of boiling incipience was estimated around
Table 2
Measurement uncertainties.
Variables 
Uncertainties 
Heat generation rate 
±2.0% 
Heat ﬂux 
±2.4% 
Average temperature 
±2.8% 
Inner surface temperature 
±2.8% 
Inlet and outlet temperatures 
±0.7 K 
Inlet and outlet pressures 
±2.6 kPa 
Mass ﬂow rate 
±0.011 kg/min 
M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604
599
Fig. 2. Schematic of the test section.
Fig. 3. Typical boiling curves at outlet pressures of (a) 229 kPa and (b) 415 kPa.
11 mm from the thermal entry region of the ET based on the exper
imental result. Then, the boiling spectrum was analyzed by WDM
using a commercial application from the MATLAB wavelet tool
box [19]. The WDM was proposed by Mallat [16]. The advantages
are the denoising of the signal from pump noise and the separa
tion of the boiling sound. The discrete wavelet transform of a
square integral function can be expressed as
w _{j}_{;}_{k} ðt Þ ¼ 2 ^{j}^{=}^{2} wð2 ^{j} t kÞ
ð18Þ
where, w and j are a wavelet and a decomposition level, respec
tively. The Daubechies’ order of 4 was used in this study. The boiling
signal f(t), can be decomposed as
0
f ðt Þ ¼ ^{X}
k
a _{} _{j}_{;}_{k} u _{} _{j}_{;}_{k} ðt Þ þ X j¼ J
X
k
d _{j}_{;}_{k} w _{j}_{;}_{k} ðt Þ
ð19Þ
where, a _{j} , /(t), J and d _{j} , denote, respectively, the approximation
coefﬁcient at the decomposition level of j, the scaling function,
the maximum decomposition level of signal, the detail coefﬁcient
at the decomposition level of j [19].
4. Results and discussion
Fig. 3 shows typical boiling curves at outlet pressures of (a) 229
kPa and (b) 415 kPa and a 7 m/s ﬂow velocity. The surface super
heat D T _{s}_{a}_{t} , ascends with an increase in heat ﬂux q, along the fol
lowing convection correlation [14], until the incipient boiling
point is reached:
Nu ¼ 0:001Re ^{1}^{:}^{2} Pr ^{0}^{:}^{4}
L
d
^{} 0:08
l
l
w
^{} 0:14
ð20Þ
As shown in Fig. 3(a), after boiling inception occurs, D T _{s}_{a}_{t}
decreases, then ﬂuctuates slightly due to nucleate boiling, and sub
sequently increases again with an increase in q. We believe that the
initial temperature overshoot is due to the activation of neighbor
ing large cavities that are initially ﬂooded [20]. As _{D} T _{s}_{a}_{t} increases, it
seems that cavities whose mouth radii are smaller begin to serve as
bubble nuclei and the number of nucleation sites on the inner
surface increases. Then, originally ﬂooded cavities of mouth radii
larger than that of the maximum unﬂooded cavities will be acti
vated by the bubbles originating from the neighboring cavities.
600 M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604
Fig. 4. Detection of the boiling incipience point by WDM at a ﬂow velocity of 7 m/s and an outlet pressure of 229 kPa.
Fig. 5. Comparison between the experimental data and proposed ONB correlations of (a) Bergles and Rohsenow [8] and (b) Sato and Matsumura [9].
D T _{s}_{a}_{t} would decrease with an increase in the number of activated
cavities. Boiling from originally unﬂooded cavities would be super
seded by the boiling from the activated cavities, which require
smaller D T _{s}_{a}_{t} to maintain boiling. After the initial temperature
overshoot, nucleate boiling developed, accompanied with the acti
vation of neighboring initially ﬂooded large cavities, and q reached
a maximum value. Namely, the maximum heat ﬂux reached the
socalled wellknown critical heat ﬂux (CHF).
On the contrary, in Fig. 3(b), the initial temperature overshoot
does not appear as the system pressure increases. Since the activa
tion of neighboring initially ﬂooded large cavities is dependent on
the experimental condition, (i.e., system pressure, subcooling, ﬂow
velocity, and surface condition) the prediction of the boiling incip
ience is complicated.
Fig. 4 shows a typical time variation of a heat ﬂux q, a surface
temperature T _{s} , and a detail coefﬁcient d _{2} of wavelet transform at
a decomposition level of 2. As shown in Fig. 4, T _{s} gradually
increases with an increase in q, which changes at around 85 s
due to the boiling incipience, corresponding to d _{2} . Since the incip
ient boiling point is often deﬁned as the discrepancy point of the
convective correlation, we conﬁrmed that the discrepancy point
corresponds to the onset of d _{2} at various experimental conditions,
such as the liquid subcooling and the ﬂow velocity. These heat ﬂux
and surface temperatures at the incipient boiling point are deﬁned
as q _{i} and T _{i} .
Fig. 5 shows comparisons between the measured q _{i}_{,}_{e}_{x}_{p} and the
proposed onset nucleate boiling (ONB) correlations of (a) Bergles
and Rohsenow [8] in Eq. (21) and (b) Sato and Matsumura [9] in
Eq. (22), deﬁned as follows:
q _{i} ¼ 5:3P ^{1}^{:}^{1}^{5}^{6} ½1:8ðT _{i} T _{s}_{a}_{t} Þ ^{2}^{:}^{4}^{1}^{=}^{P} ^{0}^{:}^{0}^{2}^{3}^{4}
q i ¼
k _{f} h _{f}_{g} ðT _{i} T _{s}_{a}_{t}
Þ
2
8rT _{s}_{a}_{t} ðv _{g}
_{v} f _{Þ}
ð21Þ
ð22Þ
where P, T _{i} , T _{s}_{a}_{t} , k _{f} , h _{f}_{g} , r, and v are the system pressure in kPa, the
surface temperature at the boiling initiation, the saturated temper
ature, the thermal conductivity, the latent heat of vaporization, the
surface tension, and the speciﬁc volume, respectively. As shown in
Fig. 5, these correlations underestimated the measured q _{i} in the
experiment.
M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604
601
Kennedy et al. [21] and Ghiaasiaan and Chedester [10] also
compared their experimental data and the correlations proposed
by (a) Bergles and Rohsenow [8] and (b) Sato and Matsumura
[9]. Since the predicted values of these correlations show a similar
trend to Fig. 5, Ghiaasiaan and Chedester [10] modiﬁed the Sato
and Matsumura correlation using the ratio of the thermocapillary
and aerodynamic forces, as follows:
q _{i} ¼
k _{f} h _{f}_{g} ðT _{i} T _{s}_{a}_{t}
Þ
2
C 8rT _{s}_{a}_{t} ðv _{g}
_{v} f _{Þ}
C ¼ 22f ^{0}^{:}^{7}^{6}^{5}
ð23Þ
ð24Þ
where f is the ratio of the thermocapillary forces and aerodynamic
forces, given as
f ¼
r _{f} r _{w}
q _{f} u ^{2} R ^{}
R ^{} ¼
s ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
2rT _{s}_{a}_{t} ðv _{g} v _{f} Þk _{f}
q _{i} h fg
ð25Þ
ð26Þ
where R ^{⁄} is the critical cavity radius that satisﬁes the surrounding
superheated liquid layer. A linear temperature proﬁle was used
with boundary conditions obtained using the ClausiusClapeyron
relation, as follows:
T j _{y}_{¼}_{y} _{B} ¼ T _{B}
@ T
@ y
^{} y¼y _{B}
¼
@
T
_{B}
@
R
_{B}
ð27Þ
ð28Þ
The restriction for the correlation is C = 1.
Fig. 6 shows a comparison between the Ghiaasiaan and Chede
ster correlation in Eq. (23) and the experimental data. C in Eq. (24)
was calculated using Eqs. (25) and (26) with the q _{i} measured in the
experiment. Although the predicted values of the correlation are
improved compared with those of Fig. 4, the accuracy of the corre
lation is insufﬁcient because C was lower than 1.0. Hence, their
correlation is not applicable to this experiment.
Fig. 7 shows the relationship between C and f in narrow tubes.
The open symbols depict Ghiaasiaan and Chedester’s data [10] and
Fig. 7. Relationship between C and f.
the dashed line shows their correlation calculated from Eq. (24),
while the ﬁlled symbols indicate the authors’ experimental data.
As the outlet pressure of the tube increases, C decreases with a
decrease in f. It was found that C is dependent on f and P _{o}_{u}_{t} , as
shown in Fig. 7.
Since the value of C depends on P _{o}_{u}_{t} at the same f, the relation
ship between an exponent of f and the reduced pressure P _{r}_{e} , is plot
ted in Fig. 8. The exponent, n, increases with an increase in P _{r}_{e} , thus,
the following correlation can be obtained by the LS method.
n ¼ 8:3P ^{0}^{:}^{5}
re
ð29Þ
Fig. 9 shows the relationship between the values of lnðC Þ=8:3P ^{0}^{:}^{5}
re
and f. In this ﬁgure, the values of lnðC Þ=8:3P ^{0}^{:}^{5}
re
increase with
increasing f. Consequently, the empirical correlation was obtained
as follows:
Fig. 6. Comparison of the Ghiaasiaan and Chedester correlation [10] and the current experimental data.
Fig. 8. Relationship between an exponent of f and P _{r}_{e} .
602 M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604
Fig. 9. Relationship between ln(C)/8.3P _{r}_{e} ^{0}^{.}^{5} and f.
Fig. 10. Comparison of the empirical correlation and the experimental data.
lnðC Þ ¼ 8:3P ^{0}^{:}^{5} ð2:89 þ lnðf ^{0}^{:}^{8}^{7} ÞÞ re 
ð30Þ 
Table 3 

MAE of the correlations. 

This leads to 
Correlation 
Ref. 
MAE (%) 


p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ P re 
ð31Þ 
Bergles and Rohsenow Sato and Matsumura 
[8] [9] 
52.3 58.6 

Ghiaasiaan and Chedester 
[10] 
48.0 

Eq. (31) is substituted into Eq. (23), then T _{i} can be obtained 
Present study 
26.5 
since q _{i} can be calculated by the experimental range.
A comparison between this correlation and the experimental
data is plotted in Fig. 10. The predicted value of the correlation is
in agreement with the experimental data within ±30%. The excess
errors of the correlation are due to the initial temperature over
shoots, as referenced in Fig. 3. The accuracy of the correlation could
be improved to take into account the inﬂuence of initial tempera
To evaluate the correlations of references [8–10] and present
the study quantitatively, the following mean absolute error
(MAE) formula was used and the MAE of each correlation is listed
in Table 3. The correlation obtained by Eqs. (23) and (31) is consid
ered to be suitable to express the experimental data in this
ture overshoots. 
research. 


Reference sound 
Reference sound 

180 
^{o} 
180 
^{o} 

0 
o
210 o
150
o
120
o
o
60
1

0 
o
210 o
150
o
120
o
o
60
1


5 
5 

dB 
10 
dB 
10 

15 
15 

20 
90 
^{o} 
20 
90 
^{o} 

300 330 ^{o} 30 ^{o} kHz 2 kHz 4 kHz
8 
300 330 ^{o} 30 ^{o} kHz 2 kHz 4 kHz
8 

0 
^{o} 

0 
^{o} 


(a) Horizontal direction 
(b) Vertical direction 
Fig. 11. Directional characteristics of the sound measurement on the reference sound.
M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604
603
Fig. 12. FFT proﬁle for the sound waves at a ﬂow velocity of 7 m/s.
Table 4 Total expanded uncertainty of the frequency response [23].
Nominal frequency (Hz)
Total expanded uncertainty (dB)
63 0.3
80 0.3
100 0.3
125 0.3
160 0.3
200 0.2
250 0.2
315 0.2
400 0.2
500 0.2
630 0.2
800 0.2
1000 0.2
1250 0.3
1600 0.3
2000 0.3
2500 0.3
3150 0.3
4000 0.4
5000 0.4
6300 0.4
8000 0.4
MAE ¼
1
N ^{X}
^{j}^{q} i;pred ^{} ^{q} i;exp ^{j}
^{q} i;exp
100 !
5. Concluding remarks
ð32Þ
Various incipient boiling phenomena for subcooled water ﬂow
ing in a uniformly heated narrow tube were observed experimen
tally. The boiling signal was analyzed using wavelet decomposition
method. The results showed that the initial temperature overshoot
did not appear as the outlet pressure increased. It was found that
the incipient heat ﬂux is dependent on pressure and non
dimensional parameter expressed by a ratio of thermocapillary
forces and aerodynamic forces (f). Since existing correlations
underestimated the incipient heat ﬂux, a semiempirical correla
tion of the boiling incipience was obtained based on the experi
mental data. The predicted value of the new correlation is in
agreement with the experimental data within ±30%.
Acknowledgements
This work was partly supported by the JSPS KAKENHI Grant
Numbers JP16K18322 and JP15K05828. This work was partly per
formed with the support and under the auspices of NIFS Collabora
tion Research program (NIFS17KEMF100).
Conﬂict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that
there is no conﬂict of interest.
Appendix A
A.1. Calculations of the surface temperature and the heat loss from the
outer surface of the ET
The temperature distribution of the ET can be obtained by solv
ing the conduction equation in steady state (see Eq. (2)) as follows:
T ðr Þ¼

_ _ Q r ^{2} Q r ^{2} o 4k ^{þ} 2k ln r þ T _{a} qr _{i}
4r 2

2
r ln r o o 1 2 

r 2 i


4ðr ^{2} r Þ ^{2} k 2 
o 
i 

o i lated by the following equations: T _{s} ¼ T ðr _{i} Þ ¼ T _{a} qr _{i}
4r 2

2
r ln r 
1 


4ðr ^{2} r Þ ^{2} k 2 
o 
o o 
2 

o i ðr ^{4} r ^{4} Þ ^{} qr _{i} 
2 

o i T _{o} ¼ T ðr _{o} Þ ¼ T _{a} qr _{i} 
2ðr ^{2} r Þk ^{ð}^{r} o 2 i i o 4r 2 2 r ln r 
1 


4ðr ^{2} r Þ ^{2} k o 2 i 
o

o
o 
2 

ðr ^{4} r ^{4} Þ ^{} o i 
qr _{i} r ^{2} o 

2ðr ^{2} r o 2 i 
_{Þ}_{k} ð1 2 ln r _{o} Þ 
2r ^{2} ln r _{i} Þ
1 2 
ðr 
4 
4 
Þ 


o 
r 
i 

ðA1Þ 

2 
ln r i 1 


r 
i 

2 
ðA2Þ 

2 
ln r i 
1


r i 

2 ðA3Þ 
ln r
The inner and outer surface temperatures of the ET are calcu
The radiation loss at the boiling incipience was calculated by
the StefanBolzmann law as follows:
Q _{r} ¼ r _{s}_{f} e½T ^{4} T _{s}_{u}_{r} pd _{o} L
o
4
ðA4Þ
where r _{s}_{f} , e, T _{o} , T _{s}_{u}_{r} and d _{o} denote, respectively, the Stefan
Bolzmann constant, the emissivity of platinum (=0.0536 at 505.6
K [22]), the outer surface temperature, the surrounding tempera
ture (=283.65 K) and the outer diameter (=0.0018 m). The total heat
transfer rate at the boiling incipience can be estimated by the fol
lowing equation:
Q _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} ¼ Q _{i} þ Q _{r}
ðA5Þ
Since the ratio of the Q _{r} and Q _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} was 0.002%, the heat loss was
negligible in the experiment.
604 M. Shibahara et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 132 (2018) 595–604
A.2. The uncertainty of the frequency response for the sound
measurement
Table 4 shows the uncertainty of the frequency response [23]
for the microphone (MIC) and the sound level meter (SLM) based
on JIS C 15091 [24]. The total expanded uncertainty can be
calculated as follows:
U _{x} ¼ k
q ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
x
MIC ^{þ} ^{x} SLM ^{þ} ^{x} ^{2} WSE ^{þ} ^{x} WSC ^{2}
2
2
ðA6Þ
where x is an uncertainty of frequency response and k is used as a
covering factor to have a level of conﬁdence of approximately 95%.
A.3. The sensitivity of the sound measurement
Fig. 11 shows the directional characteristics of the sound
measurement on the reference sound [23]. The sensitivity for
sound waves is affected by the horizontal and vertical directions
as the frequency increases. However, for the boiling incipience
sounds, since the spectrum peak of the sound waves analyzed by
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was within 1 kHz as shown in
Fig. 12, the inﬂuence of the measurement location for the micro
phone is negligible in the experiment.
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