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The Gentlemen's agreement of Andhra Pradesh has a precedent in the Sribagh Pact of 1937
which was between the leaders of Rayalaseema and Coastal Telugu speaking districts of
Madras State to provide assurances for Rayalaseema in return for their willingness to join
Andhra State. This unbinding pact was largely forgotten probably because of the large
political representation the region has had in the state governments since independence.

When the Hyderabad State led by the Nizam of Hyderabad was invaded by India in
Operation Polo, there was a debate in the Telugu-speaking districts of the Hyderabad State
(1948–56) (also known as Telangana), on whether to join the newly formed Andhra State,
carved out of Telugu speaking districts of Madras state.

States Reorganisation Commission (SRC), in 1955, recommended that "the Telangana area is
to constitute into a separate State, which may be known as the Hyderabad State with
provision for its unification with Andhra after the general elections likely to be held in or
about 1961 if by a two thirds majority the legislature of the residency Hyderabad State
expresses itself in favor of such unification".[2]

Opposition to the merger[::]

Hyderabad Chief minister in his letter to the Congress President said that Communist parties
supported the merger for their political calculations. Hyderabad PCC chief said
overwhelming majority from Congress party opposed the merger and Communists were
elected in special circumstances in 1951 and Visalandhra was not a political issue in 1951 and
Assembly does not reflect people's view on this issue. He also said 80% of Congress
delegates who were elected in 1955 opposed merger. Government had to provide the
additional security for Communist leaders who supported the Visalandhra.[3] The locals
agitated against the non-locals in 1952 Mulki Agitation.

In Hyderabad assembly out of 174 MLAs On 3 December 1955, 147 MLAs expressed their
view. 103 MLA's (including Marathi and Kannada MLAs) supported the merger, 16 MLAs
maintained neutral stand and 29 opposed merger. Among Telangana MLAs, 25 Telangana
MLAs disagreed with the merger, 59 Telangana MLAs supported the merger . Out of 94
Telangana MLAs in the assembly, 36 were Communists(PDF), 40 were Congress, 11 were
Socialist party(SP), 9 were independents. Voting did not take place on the resolution because
Telangana proponents insisted on to including the phrase "As per the wishes of people" in the
resolution. [4] [5]

To convince the leadership of Telangana to join the new state, an agreement was reached
between the leaders of both sides on February 20, 1956. This came to be known as the
Gentlemen's agreement, allowed the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh in 1956,
against the SRC's recommendations.

Agreement text[::]
A Regional Standing Committee
1. There will be one legislature for the whole of Andhra Pradesh which will be the sole law
making body for the entire state and there be one Governor for the State aided and advised by
the Council of Ministers responsible to the State Assembly for the entire field of

2. For the more convenient transaction of the business of Government with regard to some
specified matters the Telangana area will be treated as one region.

3. For the Telangana region there will be a Regional Standing Committee of the state
assembly consisting of the members of the State Assembly belonging to that region including
the Ministers from that region but not including the Chief Minister.

4. Legislation relating to specified matters will be referred to the Regional committee. In

respect of specified matters proposals may also be made by the Regional Committee to the
State Government for legislation or with regard to the question of general policy not
involving any financial commitments other than expenditure of a routine and incidental

5. The advice tendered by the Regional Committee will normally be accepted by the
Government and the State Legislature. In case of difference of opinion, reference will be
made to the Governor whose decision will be binding.

6. The Regional Committee will deal with following matters:

i) Development and economic planning within the framework of the general

development plans formulated by the State Legislature.
ii) Local Self Government, that is to say, the Constitutional powers of Municipal
Corporations, Improvement Trusts, District Boards and district authorities for the
purpose of Local Self Government or Village Administration.
iii) Public health and sanitation, local hospitals and dispensaries.
iv) Primary and secondary education.
v)Regulation of admission to the educational institutions in the Telangana region.
vii) Sale of agricultural lands.
viii) Cottage and small scale Industries, and
ix) Agriculture, Cooperative Societies, Markets and Fairs.

Unless revised by agreement earlier this arrangement will be reviewed after ten years.

B. Domicile Rules : Telangana is regarded as a unit as far as recruitment to subordinate

services is concerned; posts borne on the cadre of these services may be reserved for being
filled up by persons who satisfy the domicile conditions as prescribed under the existing
Hyderabad Mulki Rules. ( 15 years of Stay in Telangana area and in written
document(affidavit) saying that he/she won't leave Telangana)

C. The position of Urdu. The Government of India would advise the state Government to
take appropriate steps to ensure that the existing position of Urdu in administrative and
judicial structure of the State is maintained for a period of five years.
D. Retrenchment of surplus personnel in the new State. The Government of India do not
anticipate any retrenchment. The intention is that so far as possible, the service personnel
from the Hyderabad State should be automatically integrated into the services of the Andhra
Pradesh without any process of screening. Should, however, any retrenchment be found
necessary, the entire personnel of the services of the enlarged State will be treated on equal

E. Distribution of expenditure between Telangana and Andhra Regions. Allocation of

expenditure with the resources of the state is a matter which falls within the purview of the
State Government and the State Legislature.. Since, however, it has been agreed to the
representatives of Andhra and Telangana that the expenditure of the new state on central and
general administration should be borne proportionately by the two regions and the balance of
income should be reserved for expenditure on the development of Telangana area, it is open
to the state government to act in accordance with the terms of agreement in making budgetary
allocations. The Government of India propose to invite the attention of the Chief Minister of
Andhra to this particular understanding and to express the hope that it will be implemented.

F. The existing educational facilities including Technical Education in Telangana should be

secured to the students of Telangana and further improved---

G. The cabinet will consist of members in proportion of 60:40 percent for Andhra and
Telangana respectively, out of 40% of Telangana ministers, one will be a Muslim from
Telangana. If the Chief Minister is from one region the other region should be given Dy Chief


Andhra region[6] Telangana Region

B. Gopal Reddy B. Rama Krishna Rao
Chief Minister, Andhra State Chief Minister, Hyderabad state
N. Sanjeeva Reddy K.V. Ranga Reddy
Gouthu Latchanna M. Chenna Reddy
Alluri Satyanarayana Raju J.V. Narsing Rao