Main article: Renewable energy Solar energy is the energy derived directly from the Sun.

Along with nuclear energy, it is the most abundant source of energy on Earth. The fastest growing type of alternative energy[1], increasing at 50 percent a year, is the photovoltaic cell, which converts sunlight directly into electricity.[2] The Sun yearly delivers more than 10,000 times the energy that humans currently use.[3] Wind power is derived from uneven heating of the Earth's surface from the Sun and the warm core. Most modern wind power is generated in the form of electricity by converting the rotation of turbine blades into electrical current by means of an electrical generator. In windmills (a much older technology) wind energy is used to turn mechanical machinery to do physical work, like crushing grain or pumping water. Hydropower is energy derived from the movement of water in rivers and oceans (or other energy differentials), can likewise be used to generate electricity using turbines, or can be used mechanically to do useful work. It is a very common resource. Geothermal power directly harnesses the natural flow of heat from the ground. The available energy from natural decay of radioactive elements in the Earth's crust and mantle is approximately equal to that of incoming solar energy. Alcohol derived from corn, sugar cane, switchgrass, etc. is also a renewable source of energy. Similarly, oils from plants and seeds can be used as a substitute for non-renewable diesel. Methane is also considered as a renewable source of energy.

[edit] Renewable materials
Further information: bioplastics and bioasphalt

Total solar (left), wind, hydropower and geothermal energy resources compared to global energy consumption (lower right).

[edit] Agricultural products
Techniques in agriculture which allow for minimal or controlled environmental damage qualify as sustainable agriculture. Products (foods, chemicals, biofuels, etc) from this type of agriculture may be considered "sustainable" when processing, logistics, etc. also have sustainable characteristics. Similarly, forest products such as lumber, plywood, paper and chemicals, can be renewable resources when produced by sustainable forestry techniques.

[edit] Water

Further information: Water resources Water can be considered a renewable material (also non-renewable) when carefully controlled usage, treatment, and release are followed. If not, it would become a non-renewable resource at that location. For example, groundwater could be removed from an aquifer at a rate greater than the sustainable recharge. Removal of water from the pore spaces may cause permanent compaction (subsidence) that cannot be renewed.

Global warming
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For past climate change, see Paleoclimatology and Geologic temperature record.

Global mean surface temperature difference relative to the 1961–1990 average

Comparison of ground based (blue) and satellite based (red: UAH; green: RSS) records of temperature variations since 1979. Trends plotted since January 1982.

Mean surface temperature change for the period 2000 to 2009 relative to the average temperatures from 1951 to 1980.[1]

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. According to the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the 20th century.[2][A] Most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century has been caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, which result from human activity such as the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation.[3]Global dimming, a result of increasing concentrations of atmospheric aerosols that block sunlight from reaching the surface, has partially countered the effects of warming induced by greenhouse gases. Climate model projections summarized in the latest IPCC report indicate that the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the 21st century.[2] The uncertainty in this estimate arises from the use of models with differing sensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrations and the use of differing estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, probably including expansion of subtropicaldeserts.[4] Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects include changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, species extinctions, and changes in agricultural yields. Warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe, though the nature of these regional variations is uncertain.[5] Another major[6][7] worldwide concomitant of global warming, and one which is presently happening as well as being predicted to continue, is ocean acidification, which is likewise a result of contemporary increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. The scientific consensus is that anthropogenic global warming is occurring.[8][9][10][B] Nevertheless, political and public debate continues. The Kyoto Protocol is aimed at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration to prevent a "dangerous anthropogenic interference".[11] As of November 2009, 187 states had signed and ratified the protocol.[12]

[hide] • • 1Temperature changes 2External forcings

○ ○ ○ • • •

2.1Greenhouse gases 2.2Aerosols and soot 2.3Solar variation

3Feedback 4Climate models 5Attributed and expected effects ○ ○ ○ 5.1Natural systems 5.2Ecological systems 5.3Social systems 6.1Mitigation 6.2Adaptation 6.3UNFCCC 7.1Politics 7.2Public opinion 7.3Other views

6Responses to global warming ○ ○ ○

7Views on global warming ○ ○ ○

• • • • • •

8Etymology 9See also 10Notes 11References 12Further reading 13External links

Temperature changes
Main article: Temperature record

[22][23] Temperatures in 1998 were unusually warm because the strongest El Niño in the past century occurred during that year. widespread instrumental measurements became available in the late 1800s.[19] Estimates by NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the National Climatic Data Center show that 2005 was the warmest year since reliable. The relative stability in temperature from 2002 to 2009 is consistent with such an episode. Temperature is believed to have been relatively stable over the one or two thousand years before 1850.13 °C per decade). according to satellite temperature measurements. [13][14][15][16][17] The most common measure of global warming is the trend in globally averaged temperature near the Earth's surface. and rising global average sea level.25 °C per decade against 0. Although more greenhouse gases are emitted in the Northern than Southern Hemisphere this does not contribute to the difference in warming because the major greenhouse gases persist long enough to mix between hemispheres. with the actual recorded temperatures overlaid in black. with regionally varying fluctuations such as the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age.9 °F) would still occur. Evidence for warming of the climate system includes observed increases in global average air and ocean temperatures.[27] Ocean temperatures increase more slowly than land temperatures because of the larger effective heat capacity of the oceans and because the ocean loses more heat by evaporation.13 ± 0. Climate commitment studies indicate that even if greenhouse gases were stabilized at 2000 levels.5 °C (0.4 °F) per decade since 1979.07 °C ± 0. land temperatures have increased about twice as fast as ocean temperatures (0.[25][26] Temperature changes vary over the globe.18 °C over the period 1906–2005.[30] External forcings External forcing refers to processes external to the climate system (though not necessarily external to Earth) that influence climate. a further warming of about 0.Two millennia of mean surface temperatures according to different reconstructions.74 ± 0.002 °C of warming per decade since 1900.[18] Temperatures in the lower troposphere have increased between 0. versus 0. volcanic eruptions.[24] Global temperature is subject to short-term fluctuations that overlay long term trends and can temporarily mask them. changes in solar luminosity.22 °C (0. each smoothed on a decadal scale.22 and 0. Climate responds to several types of external forcing.02 °C per decade). behind 1998.[20][21] Estimates prepared by the World Meteorological Organization and the Climatic Research Unit show 2005 as the second warmest year. Expressed as a linear trend. The urban heat island effect is estimated to account for about 0.[31]Attribution of recent climate change focuses on the first three types of forcing. Orbital cycles vary slowly over tens of thousands of years and thus are too gradual to have caused the temperature changes observed in the past century. widespread melting of snow and ice. such as radiative forcing due to changes in atmospheric composition (mainly greenhouse gas concentrations).[28] The Northern Hemisphere warms faster than the Southern Hemisphere because it has more land and because it has extensive areas of seasonal snow and sea-ice cover subject to ice-albedo feedback.[29] The thermal inertia of the oceans and slow responses of other indirect effects mean that climate can take centuries or longer to adjust to changes in forcing. . and variations in Earth's orbit around the Sun. Since 1979. The rate of warming over the last half of that period was almost double that for the period as a whole (0. exceeding the previous record set in 1998 by a few hundredths of a degree.13 and 0. this temperature rose by 0.03 °C per decade.

which causes 3–7 percent.Greenhouse gases Main articles: Greenhouse effect.[37] These levels are much higher than at any time during the last . Human activity since the Industrial Revolution has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. but they are composed of liquid water or ice and so have different effects on radiation from water vapor. methane (CH4). and ozone (O3). which causes 9–26 percent. tropospheric ozone. leading to increased radiative forcing from CO2.[32] The question in terms of global warming is how the strength of the presumed greenhouse effect changes when human activity increases the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet's lower atmosphere and surface. each year's maximum occurs during the Northern Hemisphere's late spring. The concentrations of CO2 and methane have increased by 36% and 148% respectively since 1750. and Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse effect schematic showing energy flows between space. Recent atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) increases. and declines during its growing season as plants remove some atmospheric CO2. the atmosphere. Radiative forcing. and earth's surface.[34][35][36] Clouds also affect the radiation balance.[33][C] The major greenhouse gases are water vapor. which causes about 36–70 percent of the greenhouse effect. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases have a mean warming effect of about 33 °C (59 °F). carbon dioxide (CO2). which causes 4–9 percent. It was proposed by Joseph Fourier in 1824 and was first investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896. Monthly CO2 measurements display seasonal oscillations in overall yearly uptrend. methane. CFCs and nitrous oxide. Energy exchanges are expressed in watts per square meter (W/m2).

combined with carbon cycle modelling. Fossil fuel reserves are sufficient to reach these levels and continue emissions past 2100 if coal. have been used to produce estimates of how atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases will change in the future. Global dimming. have been projected that depend upon uncertain economic. These aerosols exert a cooling effect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight. GDPper capita and population growth were the main drivers of increases in greenhouse gas emissions. a gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface.[51] Substantial ozone depletion did not occur until the late 1970s. while in a few. Although there are a few areas of linkage. particularly deforestation.[46] In most scenarios. The effects of the products of fossil fuel .[49] This is an increase of 90-250% above the concentration in the year 1750. emissions continue to rise over the century.[42] Over the last three decades of the 20th century. sociological.[52]Ozone in the troposphere (the lowest part of the Earth's atmosphere) does contribute to surface warming.650.[41]Fossil fuel burning has produced about three-quarters of the increase in CO2 from human activity over the past 20 years.[50] The destruction of stratospheric ozone by chlorofluorocarbons is sometimes mentioned in relation to global warming.000 years. but a warming influence on the surface. Using the six IPCC SRES "marker" scenarios. has partially counteracted global warming from 1960 to the present.[38][39][40] Less direct geological evidence indicates that CO2 values higher than this were last seen about 20 million years ago. Reduction of stratospheric ozone has a cooling influence on the entire troposphere. tar sands or methane clathrates are extensively exploited. estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases. technological.[44][45]Emissions scenarios. emissions are reduced.[43] CO2 emissions are continuing to rise due to the burning of fossil fuels and land-use change. the period for which reliable data has been extracted from ice cores. The climatic impacts from aerosol forcing could have a large effect on climate through the indirect effect.[47][48] These emission scenarios.[53] Aerosols and soot Ship tracks over the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of the United States. models suggest that by the year 2100. the relationship between the two is not strong. and natural developments. Most of the rest is due to land-use change. the atmospheric concentration of CO2 could range between 541 and 970 ppm.[54] The main cause of this dimming is aerosols produced by volcanoes and pollutants.

[59] Indirect effects are most noticeable in marine stratiform clouds. These clouds reflect solar radiation more efficiently than clouds with fewer and larger droplets. Carbon dioxide has a lifetime of a century or more. Atmospheric soot aerosols directly absorb solar radiation. such as rural India. an increase . represent the largest uncertainty in radiative forcing.[58] This effect also causes droplets to be of more uniform size.[31][65][66][67] Greenhouse gases and solar forcing affect temperatures in different ways. with a few papers suggesting a warming effect. and have very little radiative effect on convective clouds.combustion—CO2 and aerosols—have largely offset one another in recent decades. while the effects of greenhouse gases are dominant in the extratropics and southern hemisphere.[60] Soot may cool or warm the surface. and as such. especially on glaciers or on ice in arctic regions. are most pronounced in the tropics and sub-tropics.[57] Sulfate aerosols act as cloud condensation nuclei and thus lead to clouds that have more and smaller cloud droplets. Aerosols.[56] In addition to their direct effect by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. Variations in solar output have been the cause of past climate changes. so that net warming has been due to the increase in non-CO2 greenhouse gases such as methane. as much as 50% of surface warming due to greenhouse gases may be masked by atmospheric brown clouds. the lower surface albedo can also directly heat the surface. In isolated areas with high soot production. particularly in Asia. While both increased solar activity and increased greenhouse gases are expected to warm the troposphere. changes in aerosol concentrations will only delay climate changes due to carbon dioxide. When deposited. depending on whether it is airborne or deposited. aerosols have indirect effects on the radiation budget. particularly indirect effects.[63] Solar variation Main article: Solar variation Solar variation over the last thirty years.[55] Radiative forcing due to aerosols is temporally limited due to wet deposition which causes aerosols to have an atmospheric lifetime of one week.[62] The influences of aerosols. which heats the atmosphere and cools the surface. which reduces growth of raindrops and makes the cloud more reflective to incoming sunlight. This result is less certain than some others.[64] The consensus among climate scientists is that changes in solar forcing probably had a slight cooling effect in recent decades.[61] Atmospheric soot always contributes additional warming to the climate system. including black carbon.

a significant greenhouse gas. though there is greater uncertainty in the early radiosonde record. All modern climate models are in fact combinations of models for different parts of the Earth.[31] Observations show that temperatures in the stratosphere have been cooling since 1979. The main negative feedback is radiative cooling. when satellite measurements became available. and other atmospheric properties. proposed by Henrik Svensmark.[69] Other research has found no relation between warming in recent decades and cosmic rays. These include an atmospheric model for air movement. salt content. Radiosonde (weather balloon) data from the pre-satellite era show cooling since 1958. and a model of heat and moisture transfer from soil and vegetation to the atmosphere. Feedback is important in the study of global warming because it may amplify or diminish the effect of a particular process. which increases as the fourth power of temperature.[70][71] The influence of cosmic rays on cloud cover is about a factor of 100 lower than needed to explain the observed changes in clouds or to be a significant contributor to present-day climate change. temperature. an ocean model that predicts temperature. the amount of heat radiated from the Earth into space increases with the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere. and circulation of ocean waters. Although they attempt to include as many processes as possible. and the change in the second quantity in turn changes the first.[72] Feedback Main article: Climate change feedback Feedback is a process in which changing one quantity changes a second quantity. Imperfect understanding of feedbacks is a major cause of uncertainty and concern about global warming. Climate models Main article: Global climate model The main tools for projecting future climate changes are mathematical models based on physical principles including fluid dynamics. Positive feedback amplifies the change in the first quantity while negative feedback reduces it. simplifications of the actual climate system are inevitable because of the constraints of available computer power and limitations in knowledge of the climate system. is that magnetic activity of the sun deflects cosmic rays that may influence the generation of cloud condensation nuclei and thereby affect the climate.[68] A related hypothesis. Some models also include . The main positive feedback in global warming is the tendency of warming to increase the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. models for ice cover on land and sea. solar activity should warm the stratosphere while an increase in greenhouse gases should cool the stratosphere. thermodynamics and radiative transfer.

some models also include a simulation of the carbon cycle. observed Arctic shrinkage has been faster than that predicted.[74] Although much of the variation in model outcomes depends on the greenhouse gas emissions used as inputs. it is an end result from the interaction of greenhouse gases with radiative transfer and other physical processes. this generally shows a positive feedback.[76][77][78] Including uncertainties in future greenhouse gas concentrations and climate sensitivity.0 °F to 11.[75] Global climate model projections of future climate most often have used estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES).. they do indicate that the warming since 1970 is dominated by man-made greenhouse gas emissions.treatments of chemical and biological processes.[82] Natural systems .[79] Current climate models produce a good match to observations of global temperature changes over the last century. In addition to human-caused emissions. relative to 1980–1999.5 °F) by the end of the 21st century. The representation of clouds is one of the main sources of uncertainty in present-generation models. is the next step following detection. ecological or social systems as a change having statistical significance. to natural or human activities.g.[80] Attributed and expected effects Main articles: Effects of global warming and Regional effects of global warming Global warming may be detected in natural.[42] Not all effects of global warming are accurately predicted by the climate models used by the IPCC. though this response is uncertain.4 °C (2. Although these models do not unambiguously attribute the warming that occurred from approximately 1910 to 1945 to either natural variation or human effects.1 °C to 6. but do not simulate all aspects of climate.[81] Attribution of these changes e. the temperature effect of a specific greenhouse gas concentration (climate sensitivity) varies depending on the model used. For example.[73] Warming due to increasing levels of greenhouse gases is not an assumption of the models. rather.[31] The physical realism of models is tested by examining their ability to simulate current or past climates. Some observational studies also show a positive feedback.[2] Models are also used to help investigate the causes of recent climate change by comparing the observed changes to those that the models project from various natural and human-derived causes. the IPCC anticipates a warming of 1.

59 m. have been described in the section on temperature changes. Some people..[83] Even with current policies to reduce emissions. even in high-income areas. [85] Changes in regional climate are expected to include greater warming over land. It is expected that some regions will be particularly affected by climate change. based on the instrumental temperature record. and Asian and African megadeltas.[84]Water resources may be stressed in some dry regions at midlatitudes. the dry tropics. are particularly at risk. and poleward and upward shifts in plant and animal ranges. These estimates. including the Arctic. young children. have been linked with high confidence to recent warming. such as the poor. small islands. with most warming at high northern latitudes. including tundra. In the 1950s measurements began that allow the monitoring of glacial mass balance. Rising sea levels and observed decreases in snow and ice extent are consistent with warming.[84] Over the course of the 21st century. Responses to global warming .[17] Future climate change is expected to particularly affect certain ecosystems. and the elderly.18 to 0. and coral reefs.[84] It is expected that most ecosystems will be affected by higher atmospheric CO2 levels. across a range of future emission scenarios. it is expected that climate change will result in the extinction of many species and reduced diversity of ecosystems.[17] Most of the increase in global average temperature since the mid-20th century is. and areas that depend on snow and ice melt. combined with higher global temperatures. were not given a likelihood due to a lack of scientific understanding.g. including agricultural and forestry management activities at higher latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. heat waves. the melting of ice sheets could result in sea level rise of 4–6 m or more. Ecological systems In terrestrial ecosystems. reported to the WGMS and the NSIDC. mangroves. e.[86] Overall. Global warming has been detected in a number of systems. global emissions are still expected to continue to grow over the coming decades.[D] atttributable to human-induced changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. nor was an upper bound given for sea level rise. the earlier timing of spring events. Human health in populations with limited capacity to adapt to climate change. model-based estimates of sea level rise for the end of the 21st century (the year 2090-2099.Sparse records indicate that glaciers have been retreating since the early 1800s. The frequency of hot extremes. Some of these changes. Africa. Over the course of centuries to millennia. Reduced water availability may affect agriculture in low latitudes.[84] Snow cover area and sea ice extent are expected to decrease. however. and least warming over the Southern Ocean and parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. with high probability. Low-lying coastal systems are vulnerable to sea level rise and storm surge. and heavy precipitation will very likely increase.[17] Future climate change is expected to particularly affect some sectors and systems related to human activities. increases in emissions at or above their current rate would very likely induce changes in the climate system larger than those observed in the 20th century. In the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. relative to 19801999) range from 0. [87] Social systems There is some evidence of regional climate change affecting systems related to human activities.

Mitigation Main article: Global warming mitigation Reducing the amount of future climate change is called mitigation of climate change.[94] UNFCCC . done privately without government intervention. and increased energy efficiency.[89] Use of these technologies aids mitigation and could result in substantial reductions in CO2 emissions. This policy response is sometimes grouped together with mitigation. it is known as bio-energy with carbon capture and storage. a process that traps CO2 produced by factories and gas or coalpower stations and then stores it. The barriers. limits.. usually underground. i.e. or removed during processing in hydrogen production. increased use of renewable energy. The IPCC defines mitigation as activities that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Another policy response is engineering of the climate (geoengineering). and reliable cost estimates for it have not yet been published. less polluting.[90] Even societies with high capacities to adapt are still vulnerable to climate change. are aiming to use cleaner. fossil fuels are going to be used for years to come. both developing and developed..[90] Since even in the most optimistic scenario. Adaptation to climate change may be planned.[91] Adaptation Main article: Adaptation to global warming Other policy responses include adaptation to climate change.g. technologies. Planned adaptation is already occurring on a limited basis.Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an approach to mitigation. When used on plants. e.[93] Geoengineering is largely unproven. by local or national government. and costs of future adaptation are not fully understood. or enhance the capacity of carbon sinks to absorb GHGs from the atmosphere. Policies include targets for emissions reductions.[92] The ability to adapt is closely linked to social and economic development. Studies indicate substantial potential for future reductions in emissions. or spontaneous. mitigation may also involve carbon capture and storage. Emissions may be sequestered from fossil fuel power plants.[88] Many countries.

and economic development can proceed in a sustainable fashion.[96] As is stated in the Convention.[95] The ultimate objective of the Convention is to prevent "dangerous" human interference of the climate system. The UNFCCC recognizes differences among countries in their responsibility to act on climate change.[99] For many developing (nonAnnex I) countries. most developed countries (listed in Annex I of the treaty) took on legally binding commitments to reduce their emissions. and Climate change controversy Per capita greenhouse gas emissions in 2000.[97] In the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC.[100] At the 15th UNFCCC Conference of the Parties. it seems likely that climate change will impose greater damages and risks in poorer regions. reducing poverty is their overriding aim.[101] Parties agreeing with the Accord aim to limit the future increase in global mean temperature to below 2 °C. this requires that GHGs are stabilized in the atmosphere at a level where ecosystems can adapt naturally to climate change. several UNFCCC Parties produced the Copenhagen Accord. food production is not threatened. held in 2009 at Copenhagen. In general. including land-use change. There are different views over what the appropriate policy response to climate change should be.[105] Politics .[102] Views on global warming Main articles: Global warming controversy and Politics of global warming See also: Scientific opinion on climate change.Most countries are Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).[98] Policy measures taken in response to these commitments have reduced emissions. Climate change consensus. [103][104] These competing views weigh the benefits of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases against the costs. including land-use change. Total greenhouse gas emissions in 2000.

[106] Per capita emissions in the industrialized countries are typically as much as ten times the average in developing countries. and provided their own projections of the economic cost of stricter controls. that is. commentators from developed countries more often point out that it is total emissions that matter.[125] Etymology The term global warming was probably first used in its modern sense on 8 August 1975 in a science paper by Wally Broecker in the journal Science called "Are we on the brink of a pronounced global warming?".[124] or called for policies to reduce global warming.Developing and developed countries have made different arguments over who should bear the burden of costs for cutting emissions.[123] Some fossil fuel companies have scaled back their efforts in recent years. Over a third of the world's population was unaware of global warming. Nick Pidgeon of Cardiff University finds that "results show the different stages of engagement[clarification needed] about global warming on each side of the Atlantic". This exemption led the U.[98] Developing countries are not subject to limitations.[109][110] At the time. and Australia to decide not to ratify the treaty.[111] Public opinion In 2007–2008 Gallup Polls surveyed 127 countries. sets legally binding emission limitations for most developed countries. and those in Africa the least aware. some scientists and non-scientists who question aspects of climate change science.[108] The Kyoto Protocol. which came into force in 2005.[106]In 2008. and a few countries from the Former Soviet Union lead in the opposite belief. while promoting adaptation to changes in infrastructural needs and emissions reductions.[117] [118] Organizations such as the libertarian Competitive Enterprise Institute." because while it was recognized humans could change .[113][114][vague][dubious– discuss] Other views Most scientists accept that humans are contributing to observed climate change. conservative commentators.[106] On the other hand.[119][120][121][122] Environmental organizations and public figures have emphasized changes in the current climate and the risks they entail.[126][127][128] Broecker's choice of words was new and represented a significant recognition that the climate was warming.[112] In the Western world.S. parts of Asia and the Middle East. the total emissions of a country divided by its population.[44][115] National science academies have called on world leaders for policies to cut global emissions. opinions over the concept and the appropriate responses are divided. however. Developing countries often concentrate on per capita emissions. almost all world leaders expressed their disappointment over President Bush's decision.[107]This is used to make the argument that the real problem of climate change is due to the profligate and unsustainable lifestyles of those living in rich countries. where Europe debates the appropriate responses while the United States debates whether climate change is happening. with people in developing countries less aware than those in developed. and companies such as ExxonMobil have challenged IPCC climate change scenarios. Latin America leads in belief that temperature changes are a result of human activities while Africa. developing countries made up around half of the world's total emissions of CO2 from cement production and fossil fuel use. Of those aware.[116]There are. funded scientists who disagree with the scientific consensus.[110] Australia has since ratified the Kyoto protocol. previously the phrasing used by scientists was "inadvertent climate modification.

"[130] The report made a distinction between referring to surface temperature changes as global warming. American Quaternary Association. Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences. InterAcademy Council. Indonesia. France. Hansen used the term in a testimony to Congress. the Caribbean.[129] The National Academy of Sciences first used global warming in a 1979 paper called the Charney Report.)[129] Global warming became more widely popular after 1988 when NASA scientist James E. etc. Geological Society of Australia. it said: "if carbon dioxide continues to increase. Sweden. and the UK. European Academy of Sciences and Arts.[129] He said: "global warming has reached a level such that we can ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause and effect relationship between the greenhouse effect and the observed warming. Geological Society of London-Stratigraphy Commission. Royal Meteorological Society. Malaysia. New Zealand. Italy. while referring to other changes caused by increased CO2 as climate change. the People's Republic of China.[129] See also Global warming portal • • • Glossary of climate change Index of climate change articles History of climate change science Notes A. Geological Society of America..S. European Science Foundation. Brazil. Russia. and World Meteorological Organization. Germany. India. International Union for Quaternary Research. Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society. and the Polish Academy of Sciences have issued separate statements. International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. Professional scientific societies include American Astronomical Society. American Institute of Physics."[131] His testimony was widely reported and afterward global warming was commonly used by the press and in public discourse. The 2005 statement added Japan. ^ Increase is for years 1905 to 2005. The Network of African Science Academies. Global surface temperature is defined in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report as the average of near-surface air temperature over land and sea surface temperature. Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society. [we find] no reason to doubt that climate changes will result and no reason to believe that these changes will be negligible. National Association of Geoscience Teachers. European Geosciences Union. B. Canada.the climate. American Meteorological Society. and climate change meaning other changes (increased storms. with global warming meaning surface temperatures. American Geophysical Union. National Research Council (US). no one was sure which direction it was going. and the U. American Physical Society. American Chemical Society. The 2007 statement added Mexico and South Africa.[129] This distinction is still often used in science reports. . Belgium. ^ The 2001 joint statement was signed by the national academies of science of Australia. Ireland. These error bounds are constructed with a 90% confidence interval.

[132] According to the US National Research Council Report – Understanding and Responding to Climate Change . January 22.published in 2008. (eds.ipcc. "BEYOND THE IVORY TOWER: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change".ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ "[most] scientists agree that the warming in recent decades has been caused primarily by human activities that have increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Reichler. Geneva. "Expansion of the Hadley cell under global warming" (PDF).berkeley.html. "Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). R. published in 2007. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 3.K and Reisinger. "Such statements . Retrieved 30 May 2010. 7. ^"What is Ocean Acidification?". D.pdf.noaa. ^Oreskes. United States National Academy of Sciences. this attribution is given a probability of greater than 90%. [Core Writing Team. Vecchi.ipcc. ^"Understanding and Responding to Climate Change".gov/climatechange/science/ adley06. ^ Note that the greenhouse effect produces an average worldwide temperature increase of about 33 °C (59 °F) compared to black body predictions without the greenhouse effect. ^ abcIPCC (2007-05-04).1126/science. not an average surface temperature of 33 °C (91 °F).sciencemag. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. The average worldwide surface temperature is about 14 °C (57 °F). Switzerland: IPCC. http://www.epa.1029/2006GL028443. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Jian. ^IPCC (2007) (Full free text).. PMID 15576594. Retrieved 2009-07-03. Thomas (2007). A.pdf.C. http://www. Science306 (5702): 1686. Pmel. Gabriel A. 5. ^Lu.noaa. 6. NASA Earth Observatory Image of the Day. http://www. 2008.html.htm.atmos.)].pmel. doi:10. 8. Contribution of Working Groups I. Pachauri. Geophysical Research Letters34: L06805."[44] References 1. http://www. Retrieved 2010-0826." 4. http://americasclimatechoices. doi:10. http://www. "Most scientists agree that the warming in recent decades has been caused primarily by human activities that have increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 2010. Naomi (December 2004). ^ In the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. US Epa. ^"Future Climate Change — Future Ocean Acidification". Climate Change 2007: Synthesis nt_report_synthesis_report. ^2009 Ends Warmest Decade on Record.1103618. 2. II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. based on expert judgement.pdf.

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University of Auckland Climate Change Indicators in the United States Report by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Weart from The American Institute of Physics Climate Change: Coral Reefs on the Edge — A video presentation by Prof. Ove Hoegh-Guldberg. Global Warming [hide] Educational v • d • e Global warming and climate change [show] Temperatures Instrumental record ·Satellite record ·Past 1. 80 pp.0 — from the United Nations University Pew Center on Global Climate Change — business and politics Best Effort Global Warming Trajectories – Wolfram Demonstrations Project — by Harvey Lam Koshland Science Museum – Global Warming Facts and Our Future — graphical introduction from National Academy of Sciences The Discovery of Global Warming – A History — by Spencer R.000 years ·Since 1880 ·Geologic .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Global Science and Technology Sources on the Internet — extensive commented list of internet resources Educational Global Climate Modelling (EdGCM) — research-quality climate change simulator DISCOVER — satellite-based ocean and climate data since 1979 from NASA Global Warming Art — collection of figures and images What Is Global Warming? — by National Geographic Global Warming Frequently Asked Questions — from NOAA Understanding Climate Change – Frequently Asked Questions — from UCAR Global Climate Change: NASA's Eyes on the Earth — from NASA's JPL and Caltech OurWorld 2.

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Email Subm it We respect your email privacy Bottom of Form Categories • High Finance You are here: Home › Finance › Sources of Finance (Finance Sourcing) Sources of Finance (Finance Sourcing) A company would choose from among various sources of finance depending on the amount of capital required and the term for which it is needed. factoring or invoice discounting. namely traditional sources. Finance sources can be divided into three categories. Traditional Sources of Finance Internal resources have traditionally been the chief source of finance for a company. ownership capital and non-ownership capital. payments for raw materials and electricity bills. personal savings and profits that have not been reinvested or distributed among shareholders. Internal resources could be a company’s assets. including salaries. Working capital is a short term source of finance and is the money used for a company’s day-to-day activities. rent. Sources of Finance: Ownership Capital .

expansion into a new market and setting up a new plant. but usually do not have the right to vote. They could also opt for deferred ordinary shares. Sources of Finance: Venture Capital . at a predetermined interest rate and with a fixed repayment schedule. The various types of shares are: • Ordinary shares: These are also known as equity shares and give the owner the right to share the company’s profits and vote at the firm’s general meetings. Companies typically borrow a fixed amount from a bank. Hire purchase allows a company to use an asset without immediately paying the complete purchasing price. Unquoted companies (those not listed on stock exchanges) can also issue and trade their shares in over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Companies that are already listed on a stock exchange can opt for a rights issue. which seeks additional investment from existing shareholders. These funds are usually used for large expenses. Certain bank accounts offer overdraft facilities. Sources of Finance: Non-Ownership Capital Non-ownership capital includes funds raised from lenders. wherein the issuing company is not required to pay dividends until a specified date or before the profits reach a certain level. This method is more appropriate for overcoming short-term cash-flow issues. Trade credit enables a company to obtain products and services from another firm and pay the bill later. as they usually come at a very high interest rate. • Preference shares: The owners of these shares may be entitled to a fixed dividend. such as new product development. This is used by companies to meet their short-term fund requirements. such as banks and creditors. Factoring enables a company to raise funds using its outstanding invoices.Ownership capital is the capital owned by the shareholders of a company. The company typically receives about 85% of the value of the invoice from the factor. A company can raise substantial funds through an IPO (initial public offering).

Firms in the early stages of development can opt for venture capital. Sources of Finance: Duration Depending on the date of maturity. sources of finance can be clubbed into the following: Long-term sources of finance: Long-term financing can be raised from the following sources: • • • • • • • • • • Share capital or equity share Preference shares Retained earnings Debentures/Bonds of different types Loans from financial institutions Loan from state financial corporation Loans from commercial banks Venture capital funding Asset securitisation International Medium-term sources of finance: Medium-term financing can be raised from the following sources: • • • • • • • • • Preference shares Debentures/bonds Public deposits/fixed deposits for duration of three years Commercial banks Financial institutions State financial corporations Lease financing / hire purchase financing External commercial borrowings Euro-issues . This option gives the financing company some ownership as well as influence over the direction of the enterprise.

• Foreign currency bonds Short term sources of finance: Short-term financing can be raised from the following sources: • • • • • Trade credit Commercial banks Fixed deposits for a period of 1 year or less Advances received from customers Various short-term provisions ShareThis > BrowseHome|Economic News|World Economy|Investing|Industries|Banks|Credit Cards|Insurance|Mortgage| Economic Statistics Learn moreAbout Us|Contact Us|Advertise with|Privacy Policy|Terms of Service|Articles|Site Map|Links|Sources Copyright © Stanley St Labs. All rights reserved .

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