0 views

Uploaded by Mounesh Moni

- H atom Radial
- ANALYTICAL CROSS SECTIONS FOR MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF PHOTON TRANSPORT.pdf
- 1999_aipmt_pre_english_13660_13897
- GATE 2016 PHYSICS.pdf
- Material Science and Properties
- chap23xxb
- SEM EDX
- Chemistry Model Question Paper
- Radiation Physics
- Ch2Theory
- Dwight R Nicholson Introduction to Plasma Theory 1983
- cross_section_flux.pdf
- Subatomic Particles Lecture
- Analysis of the Eurocode for Fatigue on Railway Bridges
- Neutron1_4
- 02 Atoms
- Scholar Ship Entrance Exam 2016 Sample Paper 8th Std
- electronically-activated-radioisotopic-carbon-generator
- 01(T) - Electric Charge and Electric Field
- Nuclear Physics

You are on page 1of 37

interact with nuclei or with the electrons.

slice and the no. of potential target particles per unit volume.

It will also depends on the nature of interaction. This intrinsic part is

expressed in terms of ‘cross section’.

dw=dxN

dw: Probability of interaction

dx : thickness of very thin slice

N:No. of scattering centers per unit volume

: cross section, unit is barn. 1 barn= 10-24 cm2.

travelling a distance ‘x’.

P(0)=0

dx

P(x+x)= P(x) + [1- P(x)] N x

P ( x x ) P x

= [1 P ( x )]N

x

dP ( x )

[1 P ( x )]N

dx

dw=dxN

dw: Probability of interaction

dx : thickness of very thin slice

N:No. of scattering centers per unit volume

: cross section, unit is barn. 1 barn= 10-24 cm2.

travelling a distance ‘x’.

P(0)=0

P(x+x)= P(x) + [1- P(x)] N x

P ( x x ) P x

= [1 P ( x )]N

x

dP ( x )

[1 P ( x )]N

dx

The solution of the differential equation:

[1 P ( x )] e xN

With the boundary condition [1-P(0)] = 1

The probability density (per unit path length) function for the interaction of

a particle after travelling a distance x is:

W ( x ) [1 P ( x )]N e xN N

W ( x ) x dx e xN xN dx

0 0

1

N A N

N

A

N: no. of interacting centers/volume, : density

NA: Avogadro no. A: Atomic weight

If the material contains two different types of scattering centers X and Y

1 1 1 1

N X X NY Y X Y

d

tot d

d

When a collimated particle beam impinges on a target, some particles are

removed by the physical reactions, resulting in an attenuated beam. The

physical reactions occurring between the beam and the target particles

include for example elastic scattering and particle production. A net

difference between the incoming and outgoing particles can be measured

and the removal probability of beam particles can be determined.

point particles.

Target as a disk of radius ‘R’.

R is the geometrical radius of the target.

2

d d

Tot d sin d d

0 d 0 0 d

:

d

solid angle.

Passage of ionizing particle through matter

interaction of charged particles and photons with matter, where they deposit

energy via electromagnetic or nuclear process.

Light

Charged particles:

heavy

Photons

rest mass much larger than the electron mass)

Bohr (1913), Bethe (1930), Heitler (1954), Stenheimer (1961)

2 4 2

Energy loss: dE 2 nz e 2 m e wm

v 2

2

{ln[ 2 2

] 2 u} (A)

dx me v I (1 )

This is called the Bethe-Bloch equation.

Projectile: m, v = c, z (charge)

Mass of the electron: me,

I: mean excitation potential of the atoms of the material,

wm: maximum transferable energy from incident charged particle to atomic

electrons

: correction for the density-effect

u: term related to the non-participation of inner shells (K, L, …) for very low

incoming kinetic energies (i.e. the shell correction terms)

The process involves the excitation and ionization of the atoms of the

medium traversed.

excitation: The electron transitions from their initial states to higher discrete

bound states,

Ionization: electron transitions from their initial states to states in the

continuum, where electrons are no longer bound.

ZNA

n ; where

A

NA: Avogadro no.

: density in g/cm3

A, Z: atomic weight and atomic no.

The minus sign of dE/dx indicates that the energy is lost by the particle.

For a heavy particle, the collision energy loss dE/dx is also referred to as the

stopping power.

2 2 me 2 m e 1

wm 2me e [1 ( ) 2 ]

m m

For low incoming velocity, i.e. p<<m2c/me and m>>me p 2

w m 2 me c 2 ( )

mc

substituting p=mc, we get [refer to appendix A]

2

w m 2 me c 2 2

2 m c 2 2 2

e

1

The stopping power (-dE/dx):

dE 4 nz 2e 4 2me v 2 2

ln[ ] (B)

dx 2

me v I

1

Here, 2c2=v2, 2

1 2

This is called the Bethe-Bloch equation for low energy heavy incoming charge

particle.

We discuss now the approximate derivation, without entering into complex

calculations.

We understand the physical meaning of each term in equation (B) and their

behavior as a function of incoming velocity.

particle and the target by which it is scattered.

We restrict ourselves to cases where only a small fraction of the incoming

kinetic energy is transferred to atomic electrons, so that the incoming particle

trajectory is not deviated.

Small values of b corresponds to close collisions,

Both are important to find the average energy loss, energy staggering (i.e.

the energy loss distribution) and the most probable energy loss.

the particle trajectory.

2

Coulomb force (F ) ze

F 2

b

Interaction time between two particles is inversely proportional to v and

directly proportional b. b

Interaction time

v

Therefore, transferred momentum

ze 2 b ze 2

I F dt 2

b v bv

This estimate differs by a factor 2 from a more refined calculation [Fernow

(1986)] incorporating relativistic corrections. We can finally write

2 ze 2

I

bv

The recoil momentum of electron is I.

I 2 2 z 2e 4

w

2 me me b 2 v 2

into account.

Close collision: Very large transfer of energy along with the emission of fast

outgoing electrons (called -rays).

As the kinetic energy of the -ray increases, the emission angle decreases.

Fast -rays are emitted close to the particle trajectory.

2mec4 p2 cos2

Ek

[(mec2 p2c2 m2c4 ) p2c2 cos2 ]

Energy transferred to recoiling nuclei can be neglected with respect to the

energy of recoiling electrons.

If the interaction occurs with a nucleus of charge Ze and mass mA,

2Zze2 2Z2z2e4

I A wA

bv mAb2v2

same for the electron and the nucleus.

W mA

For hydrogen (Z=1) the ratio is 5.4410-4

Pb (Z=82): The ratio is 2.17 10-4

The no. of electrons encountered by the particle along a path dx at impact

parameter between b and b+db is n(2b)dbdx

2 z 2e 4 bi

wb 2 2

n(2 b )dbdx

me b v Incoming particle

db

b

dE dEb max 4 nz 2e 4 db

dx dx b me v 2 b

min

4 nz 2e 4 bmax

2

ln( ) (C)

me v bmin

bmax can be estimated.

Collision time cannot exceed the typical time period associated with the

bound electrons, namely, 1

( )

by the Lorentz factor ,

collision time, ( bmax ) 1

I h

v

v Here, I: Mean excitation energy,

bmax

I

bmin can be estimated by the extent to which the classical treatment can be

employed.

h

2bmin

Pecm

Impact parameter should be roughly half of de Broglie wavelength of the

electron in the C. M. frame of the interaction.

Pecm: electron momentum in the C.M.

h

Pecm me v me c bmin

(2me c )

Since me<<m, the electron velocity in C.M is opposite and equal in absolute

value to that of the incoming particle v

dE 4 nz 2e 4 v h 2me c

2

ln[( )( )]

dx me v I h

2 nz 2e 4 2me 2v 2 2

2

ln( )

me v I

Finally, using the value of the maximum energy transfer wm, we get:

dE 2 nz 2e 4 2 me v 2 w m 2

2

ln[ 2 2

) ]

dx me v I (1 )

increases quadratically with = (v/c).

The term 2 2:

spin 0 incident particle.

•Spin plays an important role when the transferred energy is almost equal to

the incoming energy (occurs with limited statistical probability).

Therefore, as the incoming particle energy increases, -rays are emitted

more energetically along the particle trajactory.

I 9.1Z (1+1.9 10-2/3)10-6 [MeV]

Discussion:

For low value, (-dE/dx) decreases as increases (see the coefficient term)

in the energy loss formula.

logarithmic term.

Elastic collisions:(incident particles is a heavy charged particle)

Let us assume for the sake of definiteness that the charged particle is a

proton.

If the proton collides with a nucleus, it will transfer some of its energy to the

nucleus and its direction will be changed.

Proton is much lighter than nucleus, the collision will cause little energy loss.

1 4mM

Emax mv 2 ( 2

)

2 (m M )

m:mass of a proton, M:mass of the nucleus.

For m<<M, 1 2 4m

Emax mv ( );

2 M

The proton will lose little energy but its direction can be changed

completely, it can even bounce backwards.

As a result, most of the energy loss of the proton is due to collisions with the

electrons, and most of the change of direction is due to the collisions with

nuclei.

sufficient energy to travel macroscopic distances in matter.

or ionize atoms and produce further electrons.

Plot is created using Bethe-Bloch equation

2 nz 2e4 2 2 2 Z 1

2

2 N Amee re ( z 2

)

mev A

z2Z

0.1535 2

( MeV / cm)

A

e2

re

me c 2

(Below the minimum energy loss

point)

dE z2

2

dx

logarithmic term gives the slow rise

almost energy independent value.

This value is approximately same for

all the particles with unit charge.

For electrons with energy of more than 100 keV, the velocity is close to the

velocity of light (1), and the energy loss is about 2 MeV/cm multiplied by

the density of the medium.

For -particles the velocity is much less than velocity of light, energy loss is

much larger.

much larger than the velocity of electrons in the atoms. For -particles, this

condition is usually not satisfied.

Velocity of electron in atoms 1%

velocity of light. For charged

particle of velocity much less than

this, the energy loss increases,

reaches a maximum value and then

decreases following Bethe-Bloch

equation.

Range:

Since particles lose energy when travelling in

a medium, they will eventually have lost all its

kinetic energy and came to rest. Bragg peak

The distance travelled by the particle is called

range.

As the particle penetrates the medium the

energy loss per unit length will change. The

energy loss of a particle as a function of its

distance of penetration is shown in the figure.

The energy loss increases towards the end of

range.

Close to end it reaches a maximum and then

abruptly drops to zero. The peak is called

‘Bragg peak’.

All the particles with a given kinetic energy do

not have exactly the same range. This is due to

the statistical nature of the energy loss

process. These are fluctuations in the range

called ‘’range straggling.

Questions

The reason for Bragg peak ?

For the given particle energy, (comparison of

proton and -particle), why proton range is

higher than that of -particle range ?

In the range-energy plot, the slope of the

curve for -particle becomes less and less as

compared to that for proton with increase in

energy.

and -particle

Appendix A

Relativistic Mechanics: Special theory of relativity

Postulates:

Lorentz transformation

x ' ( x vt )

y´

y y' y

z' z

c c vx

t ' (t 2 )

c

O´ x´

O x where ,

1 / (1 2 )

z´

z

Linear momentum p of a point mass mr.

v

p mr v; 1

m r m0 c

m0 : rest mass

1

1

2

Total energy E 2 m02c 4 p 2c 2 1 v

c2

m02c 4 ( m0 )2 2c 4

=mrc2

The kinetic energy is given by Ek= E-m0c2

E ' E E '

p p ' 0 ( 0 . p ' ) ; ( 0 . p ')

1 c c c

t=

E ', p ': energy and momentum in the original frame.

Unprimed frame moves with velocity: 0c.

t: time measured in a frame which moves with velocity c w.r. to the

particle.

Two-body scattering

Incident particle: m, p

p

(Masses are the rest mass)

Scattered Incoming particle

electron P’

2 ( Ek me c 2 )2 me2c 4 (2)

p'

c2

Energy conservation

(3)

p2c2 m2c4 mec2 p''2 c2 m2c4 Ek mec2

Momentum conservation

p '' p p'

p''2 p2 p'2 2 pp'cos

2me c 4 p 2 cos 2

Ek

( me c 2 p 2c 2 m 2c 4 )2 4 p 2c 2 cos 2

Ek2 2 Ek me c 2

pc cos me c 2 p 2c 2 m 2 c 4

Ek2 (5)

p 2c 2 (6)

wm 2

1 1 m

[ me c 2 ( )c 2 p 2c 2 m 2c 4 ]

2 2 me

The incoming particle energy Ei is:

Ei m c 2 p 2 c 2 m 2c 4

Equation (6) can be rewritten as

2 2 2 me 2 me 1 (7)

wm 2me c [1 ( ) 2 ]

m m

wm pc Ei

(In the extreme relativistic case, a massive particle can transfer all its energy

to the target electron)

- H atom RadialUploaded byUday Nakade
- ANALYTICAL CROSS SECTIONS FOR MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF PHOTON TRANSPORT.pdfUploaded byNanda Machado
- 1999_aipmt_pre_english_13660_13897Uploaded byDheeraj Pradeep
- GATE 2016 PHYSICS.pdfUploaded byShyam Kumar
- Material Science and PropertiesUploaded byAshish Mishra
- chap23xxbUploaded byccny07
- SEM EDXUploaded byrmsscruz
- Chemistry Model Question PaperUploaded byKevin Alexander
- Radiation PhysicsUploaded byKristina Robles
- Ch2TheoryUploaded byUdoy Paul
- Dwight R Nicholson Introduction to Plasma Theory 1983Uploaded byNorberto Catarino
- cross_section_flux.pdfUploaded byИРадојичић
- Subatomic Particles LectureUploaded byRaz De Leon
- Analysis of the Eurocode for Fatigue on Railway BridgesUploaded byPedro Henriques
- Neutron1_4Uploaded byMohammad Ramzy
- 02 AtomsUploaded byZigmund Bryan Corteza
- Scholar Ship Entrance Exam 2016 Sample Paper 8th StdUploaded byBala Murugan
- electronically-activated-radioisotopic-carbon-generatorUploaded byAbd Asyraf Ibrahim
- 01(T) - Electric Charge and Electric FieldUploaded byshabbir_ghadiali
- Nuclear PhysicsUploaded byshahidchemist
- NanoTech.pdfUploaded bymohammed shahid
- GEAS COACHINGUploaded bycloud
- Single Crystal Diffraction Gsas Tutorial10617Uploaded byMaykel Manawan
- The Theory of Spectra and Atomic ConstitutionUploaded bymaese_obsesivo
- Braithwaite 2000Uploaded byAlonso
- 8th grade science reviewUploaded byapi-327567606
- problem23_52Uploaded byIENCS
- News Natphysresearchhighlight Feb2011Uploaded byStudioAbba
- stiinta & spirit.docxUploaded bypopescu maria
- ELEC module 20.pdfUploaded byRichard Regidor

- Lecture 10 Lasers IUploaded byMounesh Moni
- Nuclear_interactions_Electron_Gamma_Neutron_Moodle_7Feb2018.pdfUploaded byMounesh Moni
- Nuclear physics basicsUploaded byMounesh Moni
- EP-408_Tut1_Jan2018.pdfUploaded byMounesh Moni
- EP-408_Tut1_Jan2018.docxUploaded byMounesh Moni
- EP-408_Tut2_29Jan2018.pdfUploaded byMounesh Moni
- Development of Traditional MacroeconomicsUploaded byMounesh Moni

- Frameworks Plus TutorialUploaded bymsager
- NQ38220Uploaded byhussein_150666
- WX Acronymns Abbreviations NotationsUploaded bywobblyduckie
- Absorption and Transmission of LightUploaded byMilovan Medojevic
- A New Formulation of Electromagnetic Wave Scattering Using an on-surface Radiation Boundary Condition ApproachUploaded bySudantha Jayalal Perera
- Fiber MaterialUploaded byamar9247
- Nuclear Physics HandoutUploaded bysvsreerama
- Laser Tissue InteractionsUploaded byDuchung Tran
- SeminarUploaded byable_ramin
- Understanding Size Selectivity Redfish-hermannUploaded bykukuhkande
- Chap5Uploaded byMuhammad Tariq
- The World as a Hologram - Leonard SusskindUploaded byjottavhe
- Fresco DescriptionUploaded bythiagoca3
- Crd ReviewUploaded byjleonardocosa
- Nuclear Reactor TheoryUploaded byclhs8860
- Asphaltene Aggregation from Crude oil.pdfUploaded byOguamahIfeanyi
- Effect of Dual Swirling Plasma Arc Cutting ParametersUploaded byNil Prajapati
- csm_ch05jUploaded byDavid Kaaya
- Handout_1_2011Uploaded byKevin Gabriel Martinez
- IABMAS-MADEOUploaded bysea_jazz
- Collisional QuenchingUploaded byNilambu Banik
- Design of Jet-grouting for Tunnel WaterproofingUploaded bythauwui86
- mackowski-josa-94Uploaded byMartín Figueroa
- Lichtenegger, H., Reiterer, A., Stanzl-Tschegg, S., & Fratzl, P. (1999).Uploaded byur1eltrespuntos
- Manual Hollow Core SlabUploaded bypopaciprian27
- Scia Engineer Tutorial Parametric InputUploaded byqfacu
- 10.1.1.19.4827.pdfUploaded byPge Tsegaye Sh
- Helium 3filledNeutronDetectorsUploaded byBagus Nurafidin
- EP-408_Tut2_29Jan2018.pdfUploaded byMounesh Moni
- Archicad Modeling Historical BuildingsUploaded byluc.himpe7466