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Fan Application

FA/102-99

product
application guide
A technical bulletin for engineers, contractors and students in the air movement and control industry.

Understanding Temperature and Altitude Corrections


The most common influences on air density are the 1. Using the chart, the correction factor is 2.00.
effects of temperature other than 70˚F and 2. Multiply the specified operating static
barometric pressures other than 29.92 caused by pressure by the correction factor to determine
elevations above sea level. the standard air density equivalent static
pressure. (Corrected static pressure = 3.0 in.
Ratings found in fan performance tables and curves
wg x 2.00 = 6 in. wg. The fan must be selected
are based on standard air. Standard air is defined as
for 6 in. of static pressure.)
clean, dry air with a density of .075 pounds per
3. Based upon our performance table for a
cubic foot, with the barometric pressure at sea level
20-BISW fan at 5,000 cfm at 6 in. wg
of 29.92 inches of mercury and a temperature of
2,018 frpm is needed to produce the required
70˚F. Selecting a fan to operate at conditions other
performance. (This now requires a Class II
than standard air requires adjustment to both static
fan. Before the correction was made it would
pressure and brake horsepower. The volume of air
have appeared to be a Class I selection.)
will not be effected in a given system because a fan
4. The bhp from the performance chart is 6.76.
will move the same amount of air regardless of the
5. What is the operating bhp at 600˚F?
air density. In other words, if a fan will move 3,000
cfm at 70˚F it will also move 3,000 cfm at 250ºF. Since the horsepower shown in the performance
Since 250˚F air weighs only 34% of 70˚F air, the fan chart refers to standard air density, this should be
will require less bhp but also create less pressure corrected to reflect actual bhp at the lighter
than specified. operating air. Operating bhp = standard bhp ÷ 2.00
or 6.76 ÷ 2.00 = 3.38 bhp.
When a fan is specified for given cfm and static
pressure (Ps) at conditions other than standard, the Important: We now know the operating bhp.
correction factors (shown in table) must be applied However, what motor horsepower should be
in order to select the proper size fan, fan speed and specified for this fan?
bhp to meet the new condition.
The best way to understand how the
correction factors are used is to work
out several examples. Let’s look at an
example using a specification for a fan
to operate at 600˚F at sea level. This
example will clearly show that the fan
must be selected to handle a much
greater static pressure than specified.
Example #1: A 20 inch centrifugal fan
(20-BISW) is required to deliver
5,000 cfm at 3.0 inches static pressure.
Elevation is 0 (sea level). Temperature
is 600˚F.
Note: It’s acceptable to interpolate when exact temperatures or elevations are not shown in chart.

®
P.O. Box 410 • Schofield, WI 54476 • 715.359.6171 • Fax 715.355.2399
Copyright © 2005 Greenheck Fan Corp.
Greenheck Product Application Guide

If a fan is selected to operate at high temperatures, reaches 100˚F. The result is a 2 hp motor can be
the motor must be of sufficient horsepower to specified in lieu of a 3 hp.
handle the increased load at any lower operating
temperature where the air is denser. Assume the air Communicate your corrections.
entering the fan at start up is 70˚F, therefore no
When a specified fan appears on the fan schedule,
correction should be made. The starting bhp
it’s important to determine if the specifier has
remains at 6.76 7.0 14 already made the required corrections for
and a 7 1⁄2 hp
temperature and altitude. Avoid confusion by
motor is 6.0 12
Corrected Design Point specifying at what temperature or altitude (or both)
required.
5.0 10 the static pressure was calculated.
Note: bhp Corrected Fan Curve
4.0 8 For example: 5,000 cfm at 600˚F and 6 in. static
corrections are
Ps
6.76 bhp at 70º
BHP pressure at 600˚F (or 3 in. Ps. at 70˚F).
most com-
3.0 6
monly used Design Point at Standard Air Electronic fan selection programs, such as
for altitude 2.0 4 Greenheck CAPS are excellent tools to solve both
corrections the selection and specifying problems.
3.38 bhp @ 600ºF
(see next 1.0 2
example) or CAPS prompts the user to enter the airstream
0.0 0 temperature, the start up temperature, and the
when the 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
starting and altitude. The fan with the corrected conditions is
CFM x 1000
operating then automatically selected.
Example 1: The fan curve represents the fans operation
temperatures at both the corrected and specified conditions. Curves Using CAPS will also guard against making
are plotted at standard air.
are the same. selections for fan types or models that are not
Example #2: A fan used at 6,000-ft. elevation to appropriate for the condition. This is especially
exhaust 100˚F air from an attic space. A 30 inch roof important for selections at extreme temperatures
fan (GB-300) is required to move 10,400 cfm at that require special considerations for materials,
.25 inch static pressure. motors, bearings, drives and speed derate factors.
2
Volume (CFM): 10,400 Air Density (lb./ft. ): 0.057
Performance Chart for GB-300-20
1. Using the chart the correction factor is 1.32. Operating Conditions
SP (in. WC):
Power (hp.):
FRPM:
0.25
1.82
698
Elevation:
Air Stream Temp (ºF):
6,000
100

The curve below from CAPS represents


2. Multiply the specified operating static the fan density correction for example #2
pressure by the correction factor to determine 2.0 2.0

the standard air density equivalent static 1.8 1.8

pressure (Corrected static pressure = .25 in. 1.6 1.6

wg x 1.32 = 0.33 in. wg. The fan must be 1.4 1.4

selected for .33 in. static pressure.) 1.2 1.2


Static Pressure (in. WC)

3. Based upon our performance table for a 1.0


698 RPM
1.0

Power (hp.)
30 inch roof fan (GB-300), 698 frpm is needed
e.
urv
tc

0.8 0.8
to produce the required performance.
oin
ep
rg

4. The bhp from the performance chart is 2.40. 0.6 0.6


su
is
th

5. What is the operating bhp at 6,000-ft.


w

0.4 0.4
lo
be

e
tb
elevation and 100˚F air? 0.2
oin
tm
us 0.2
p
ng
Operati
0.0 0.0
Since the horsepower selected refers to standard air 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

density, this should be corrected to reflect actual Volume (CFM) x 1,000

bhp at the lighter operating air. Operating bhp =


standard bhp ÷ 1.32 or 2.40 ÷ 1.32 = 1.82 bhp. As demonstrated in the above examples, for
optimum system design and performance, it’s
In this example we can use the corrected bhp
important to understand and make the proper
because the fan is located at a given elevation and
temperature and altitude corrections.
will not be turned on until the attic temperature

2 Fan Application No. FA/102-99