You are on page 1of 40

# Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

2A_C0001
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n, 2  8  14    (6n  4)  n(3n  1) .
(5 marks)
Proof:
Let P(n) be ‘ 2  8  14    (6n  4)  n(3n  1) ’.
For n  1 , L.H.S.  2
R.H.S.  1  [3(1)  1]
2
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
1
i.e. 2  8  14    (6k  4)  k (3k  1)
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  2  8  14    (6k  4)  (6k  2)
 k (3k  1)  (6k  2) (By assumption) 1
 3k  5k  2
2

 (k  1)(3k  2)
 ( k  1)[3( k  1)  1] 1
 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

Chapter 2

positive integers n. 1
(5)

2A_C0002
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
1
(  4)  3  10    (7 n  11)  n(7 n  15) .
2
(5 marks)
Proof:
1
Let P(n) be ‘ ( 4)  3  10    (7n  11)  n(7n  15) ’.
2
For n  1 , L.H.S.   4
1
R.H.S.   1  [7(1)  15]
2
 4

 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
1 1
i.e. ( 4)  3  10    (7k  11)  k (7 k  15)
2
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  ( 4)  3  10    (7k  11)  (7k  4)
1
 k (7 k  15)  (7 k  4) (By assumption) 1
2

1
 [ k (7 k  15)  2(7 k  4)]
2
1
 (7 k 2  k  8)
2
1
 ( k  1)(7 k  8)
2

1
 (k  1)[7( k  1)  15] 1
2

 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

##  By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

positive integers n. 1
(5)

2A_C0003
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
2  22  3  23  4  24    (n  1)  2n  1  n  2n  2 .
(5 marks)
Proof:
Let P(n) be ‘ 2  22  3  23  4  24    (n  1)  2n  1  n  2n  2 ’.
For n  1 , L.H.S.  2  22
8

R.H.S.  1  21  2
8

 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
1
i.e. 2  22  3  23  4  24    (k  1)  2k  1  k  2k  2
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  2  22  3  23  4  24    (k  1)  2k  1  (k  2)  2k  2
 k  2k  2  (k  2)  2k  2 (By assumption) 1
 2 k  2 [ k  ( k  2)]
 ( 2k  2)  2 k  2
 2( k  1)  2 k  2
 ( k  1)  2 k  3

 (k  1)  2( k 1)  2 1

 R.H.S.
 P ( k  1) is true.

##  By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

positive integers n. 1
(5)

Chapter 2

2A_C0004
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
n(n  1)(16n  1)
1  5  2  13  3  21    n(8n  3)  .
6
(5 marks)
Proof:
n(n  1)(16n  1)
Let P(n) be ‘ 1  5  2  13  3  21    n(8n  3)  ’.
6
For n  1 , L.H.S.  1 5
5
1  (1  1)[16(1)  1]
R.H.S. 
6
5
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
k (k  1)(16k  1) 1
i.e. 1  5  2  13  3  21    k (8k  3) 
6
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  1  5  2  13  3  21    k (8k  3)  (k  1)(8k  5)
k ( k  1)(16k  1)
  (k  1)(8k  5) (By assumption) 1
6

## ( k  1)[ k (16k  1)  6(8k  5)]

6
( k  1)(16k  47k  30)
2

6
( k  1)( k  2)(16k  15)

6

(k  1)[(k  1)  1][16(k  1)  1]
 1
6
 R.H.S.

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(5)

2A_C0005
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
4  5  7  2  10  (1)    (3n  1)(8  3n)   n(3n 2  6n  17) .
(5 marks)
Proof:
Let P(n) be ‘ 4  5  7  2  10  (1)    (3n  1)(8  3n)  n(3n 2  6n  17) ’.
For n  1 , L.H.S.  45
 20

## R.H.S.  1 [3(12 )  6(1)  17]

 20

 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
1
i.e. 4  5  7  2  10  (1)    (3k  1)(8  3k )   k (3k 2  6k  17)
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  4  5  7  2  10  (1)    (3k  1)(8  3k )  (3k  4)(5  3k )
  k (3k 2  6k  17)  (3k  4)(5  3k ) (By assumption) 1
  3k 3  6k 2  17 k  15k  9k 2  20  12k
  3k 3  3k 2  20k  20
  3k 2 ( k  1)  20( k  1)
  (k  1)(3k 2  20)
  (k  1)[3( k 2  2k  1)  6k  23]

##   (k  1)[3(k  1) 2  6(k  1)  17] 1

 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.

Chapter 2

##  By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

positive integers n. 1
(5)

2A_C0006
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
1
2  2  1  4  3  3  6  4  5    2n(n  1)(2n  1)  n(n  1)(n  2)(3n  1) .
3
(5 marks)
Proof:
1
Let P(n) be ‘ 2  2  1  4  3  3  6  4  5    2n(n  1)(2n  1)  n(n  1)(n  2)(3n  1) ’.
3
For n  1 , L.H.S.  2  2 1
4
1
R.H.S.   1  (1  1)(1  2)(3  1  1)
3
4
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
1 1
i.e. 2  2  1  4  3  3  6  4  5    2k (k  1)(2k  1)  k (k  1)(k  2)(3k  1)
3
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  2  2  1  4  3  3  6  4  5    2k (k  1)(2k  1)  (2k  2)(k  2)(2k  1)
1
 k ( k  1)(k  2)(3k  1)  (2k  2)(k  2)(2k  1) (By assumption) 1
3

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

1
 k (k  1)(k  2)(3k  1)  2(k  1)(k  2)(2k  1)
3
1
 (k  1)(k  2)[k (3k  1)  6(2k  1)]
3
1
 (k  1)(k  2)(3k 2  11k  6)
3
1
 (k  1)(k  2)(3k  2)(k  3)
3

1
 (k  1)[(k  1)  1][(k  1)  2][3(k  1)  1] 1
3

 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(5)

2A_C0007
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
1
1  1  2  7  3  17    n(2n 2  1)  n(n  1)(n 2  n  1) .
2
(5 marks)
Proof:
1
Let P(n) be ‘ 1  1  2  7  3  17    n(2n 2  1)  n(n  1)(n 2  n  1) ’.
2
For n  1 , L.H.S.  1 1
1
1
R.H.S.   1  (1  1)  (12  1  1)
2
1

 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
1 1
i.e. 1  1  2  7  3  17    k (2k 2  1)  k ( k  1)(k 2  k  1)
2
For n  k  1 ,

Chapter 2

## L.H.S.  1  1  2  7  3  17    k (2k 2  1)  (k  1)[2(k  1) 2  1]

1
 k (k  1)(k 2  k  1)  (k  1)(2k 2  4k  1) (By assumption) 1
2

1
 ( k  1)[ k (k 2  k  1)  2( 2k 2  4k  1)]
2
1
 ( k  1)( k 3  5k 2  7 k  2)
2
1
 ( k  1)( k  2)(k 2  3k  1)
2

1
 (k  1)[(k  1)  1][(k  1) 2  (k  1)  1] 1
2

 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.

##  By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

positive integers n. 1
(5)
2A_C0008
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
1 1 1 1 n
    .
8  21 21  34 34  47 (13n  5)(13n  8) 8(13n  8)
(5 marks)
Proof:
1 1 1 1 n
Let P(n) be ‘     ’.
8  21 21  34 34  47 (13n  5)(13n  8) 8(13n  8)
1
For n  1 , L.H.S. 
8  21
1

168
1
R.H.S. 
8(13  1  8)

1

168
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

1 1 1 1 k 1
i.e.    
8  21 21  34 34  47 (13k  5)(13k  8) 8(13k  8)
For n  k  1 ,
1 1 1 1 1
L.H.S.     
8  21 21  34 34  47 (13k  5)(13k  8) (13k  8)(13k  21)
k 1
  (By assumption) 1
8(13k  8) (13k  8)(13k  21)
k (13k  21)  8

8(13k  8)(13k  21)
13k 2  21k  8

8(13k  8)(13k  21)
(13k  8)(k  1)

8(13k  8)(13k  21)
k 1

8(13k  21)
k 1
 1
8 [13(k  1)  8]

 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(5)

2A_C0009
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
1 1 1 1 n
    .
(  1) (  1)(   2) (   2)(  3) (  n  1)(   n) (   n)
(5 marks)
Proof:
1 1 1 1 n
Let P(n) be ‘     ’.
(  1) (  1)(  2) (  2)(  3) (  n  1)(  n) (  n)
1
For n  1 , L.H.S. 
(  1)
1
R.H.S. 
(  1)
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1

Chapter 2

## Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.

1 1 1 1 k 1
i.e.    
(  1) (  1)(   2) (  2)(  3) (  k  1)(  k ) (  k )
For n  k  1 ,
1 1 1 1 1
L.H.S.     
(  1) (  1)(  2) (  2)(  3) (  k  1)(  k ) (  k )(  k  1)
k 1
  (By assumption) 1
(  k ) (  k )(  k  1)
k (  k  1)  

(  k )(  k  1)
k  k 2  k  

(  k )(  k  1)
(k  1)  k (k  1)

(  k )(  k  1)
(  k )(k  1)

(  k )(  k  1)
k 1
 1
 [  (k  1)]

 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(5)

2A_C0010
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
2  ( 2) n 1
2  2 2  23    ( 1) n 1 2 n  .
3
(5 marks)
Proof:
2  (  2) n 1
Let P(n) be ‘ 2  2 2  23    (1) n  1 2n  ’.
3
For n  1 , L.H.S. 2
11
2  (  2)
R.H.S. 
3
2
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

## Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.

2  (  2) k  1 1
i.e. 2  22  23    (1) k 1 2 k 
3
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  2  22  23    (1) k  1 2 k  (1) k  2 2k 1
2  (  2) k 1
  (1) k  2 2 k  1 (By assumption) 1
3

2  (  2) k  1  ( 1) k  2 2 k  1  3

3
k 1
2  (  2) [ 1  ( 1)  3]

3
k2
2  (  2)

3

2  (  2) ( k  1)  1
 1
3
 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(5)
2A_C0011

## It is given that a1 , a2 , a3 ,  , an ,  is a sequence of numbers, where a1  2 and ak  1  3ak  1

3n  1
for k  1, 2, 3,  . Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n, an  .
2
(5 marks)
Proof:
3n  1
Let P(n) be ‘ an  ’.
2
For n  1 , L.H.S.  a1
2
31  1
R.H.S. 
2
2

 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1

Chapter 2

## Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.

3k  1 1
i.e. ak 
2
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  ak  1
 3ak  1

 3k  1 
 3    1 (By assumption) 1
 2 

3k 1  3
 1
2
3k 1  3  2

2

3k  1  1
 1
2

 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.

##  By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

positive integers n. 1
(5)
2A_C0012
5 3
It is given that a1 , a2 , a3 ,  , an ,  is a sequence of numbers, where a1  and ak 1  (ak  1)  1
2 2
3n  2 n
for k  1, 2, 3,  . Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n, an  .
2n
(5 marks)
Proof:
3n  2 n
Let P(n) be ‘ an  ’.
2n
For n  1 , L.H.S.  a1
5

2

31  21
R.H.S. 
21

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

5

2
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
3k  2 k 1
i.e. ak 
2k
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  ak  1
3
 (ak  1)  1
2
3  3k  2 k 
  k
 1  1 (By assumption) 1
2 2 
3  3k 
    1
2  2 k 
3k 1
 1
2k 1
3k  1  2 k  1
 1
2k 1
 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(5)
2A_C0013
n
Let Tn  n 1 for n  1 , 2, 3, . Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
2
n2
T1  T2  T3    Tn  1  .
2 n 1
(5 marks)
Proof:
n2
Let P(n) be ‘ T1  T2  T3    Tn  1  ’.
2n 1
For n  1 , L.H.S.  T1
1
 1 1
2

Chapter 2

1

4

1 2
R.H.S.  1 
21  1
1

4

 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
k2 1
i.e. T1  T2  T3    Tk  1  k  1
2
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  T1  T2  T3    Tk  Tk  1
k2
 1  Tk  1 (By assumption) 1
2k 1

k2 k 1
 1 k 1
 ( k  1)  1
2 2
2( k  2)  (k  1)
 1
2k  2
k 3
 1 k 2
2

(k  1)  2
1 1
2( k  1)  1
 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(5)

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

2A_C0014
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
1 1 1 1 5n  1  1
     .
1 6 6  11 11  16 5n  4  5n  1 5
(5 marks)
Proof:
1 1 1 1 5n  1  1
Let P(n) be ‘      ’.
1 6 6  11 11  16 5n  4  5n  1 5
1
For n  1 , L.H.S. 
1 6
1 1 6
 
1 6 1 6

1 6

1 6

6 1

5

5(1)  1  1
R.H.S. 
5

6 1

5

 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
1 1 1 1 5k  1  1
i.e.      1
1 6 6  11 11  16 5k  4  5k  1 5

For n  k  1 ,
1 1 1 1 1
L.H.S.     
1 6 6  11 11  16 5k  4  5k  1 5k  1  5k  6

5k  1  1 1
  (By assumption) 1
5 5k  1  5k  6

5k  1  1 1 5k  1  5k  6
  
5 5k  1  5k  6 5k  1  5k  6

Chapter 2

5k  1  1 5k  1  5k  6
 
5 (5k  1)  (5k  6)
5k  1  1 5k  6  5k  1
 
5 5
5k  6  1

5

5( k  1)  1  1
 1
5
 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(5)

2A_C0015
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
1 1 1
3 3 
3
49  28  16
3 3
100  70  49
3 3
169  130  3 100
3

1 3
3n  4  3 4
  .
3
(3n  4) 2  3 (3n  4)(3n  1)  3 (3n  1) 2 3

[ Hint: x  y  (3 x ) 3  (3 y ) 3  (3 x  3 y )(3 x 2  3 xy  3 y 2 ) ]
(5 marks)
Proof:
1 1 1
Let P(n) be ‘ 3 3 3 
49  28  16
33
100  70  49
3 3
169  130  3 100
3

1 3
3n  4  3 4
  ’.
3
(3n  4) 2  3 (3n  4)(3n  1)  3 (3n  1) 2 3

1
For n  1 , L.H.S.  3
49  28  3 16
3

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

1 3
7 3 4
 3
3
7 2  3 7  4  3 42 7 3 4

7 3 4
3

(3 7 ) 3  (3 4 ) 3
3
7 3 4

3

3 3(1)  4  3 4
R.H.S. 
3
3
7 3 4

3

 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
i.e.
1 1 1
3 3  1
3
49  28  16
3 3
100  70  49
3 3
169  130  3 100
3

1 3
3k  4  3 4
 
3
(3k  4) 2  3 (3k  4)(3k  1)  3 (3k  1) 2 3

For n  k  1 ,
1 1 1
L.H.S.  3 3 
3
49  28  16
3 3
100  70  49
3 3
169  130  3 100
3

1

3
(3k  4)  3 (3k  4)(3k  1)  3 (3k  1) 2
2

1

3
(3k  7)  (3k  7)(3k  4)  3 (3k  4) 2
2 3

3
3k  4  3 4 1
  (By assumption) 1
3 3
(3k  7)  3 (3k  7)(3k  4)  3 (3k  4) 2
2

3
3k  4  3 4 1 3
3k  7  3 3k  4
  3
3 3
(3k  7) 2  3 (3k  7)(3k  4)  3 (3k  4) 2 3k  7  3 3k  4

Chapter 2

3
3k  4  3 4 3
3k  7  3 3k  4
  3
3 ( 3k  7 ) 3  (3 3k  4 ) 3
3
3k  4  3 4 3 3k  7  3 3k  4
 
3 (3k  7)  (3k  4)
3
3k  7  3 4

3
3 3(k  1)  4  3 4
 1
3
 R.H.S.
 P ( k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(5)

2A_C0016
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
x 2  (n  1) x 2 n  2  nx 2 n  4
x 2  2 x 4  3x 6    nx 2 n  , where x  1 and x  1 .
(1  x) 2 (1  x) 2
(5 marks)
Proof:
x 2  (n  1) x 2 n  2  nx 2 n  4
Let P(n) be ‘ x 2  2 x 4  3x 6    nx 2 n  , where x  1 and x  1 ’.
(1  x) 2 (1  x) 2
For n  1 , L.H.S.  x2
x 2  (1  1) x 2 (1) 2  (1) x 2(1) 4
R.H.S. 
(1  x) 2 (1  x) 2
x2  2x4  x6

(1  x) 2 (1  x) 2
x 2 (1  2 x 2  x 4 )

(1  x 2 ) 2
x 2 (1  x 2 ) 2

(1  x 2 ) 2
 x2
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

x 2  (k  1) x 2 k  2  kx 2 k  4 1
i.e. x 2  2 x 4  3x 6    kx 2 k  , where x  1 and x  1
(1  x) 2 (1  x) 2
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  x 2  2 x 4  3x 6    kx 2 k  (k  1) x 2 k  2
x 2  (k  1) x 2 k  2  kx 2 k  4
  (k  1) x 2 k  2 (By assumption) 1
(1  x) 2 (1  x) 2
x 2  (k  1) x 2 k  2  kx 2 k  4  (k  1) x 2 k  2 (1  x) 2 (1  x) 2

(1  x ) 2 (1  x) 2
x 2  x 2 k  2 [(k  1)  kx 2  ( k  1)(1  x) 2 (1  x ) 2 ]

(1  x) 2 (1  x) 2
x 2  x 2 k  2 [k  1  kx 2  (k  1)(1  2 x 2  x 4 )]

(1  x) 2 (1  x) 2
x 2  x 2 k  2 [(k  2) x 2  (k  1) x 4 ]

(1  x) 2 (1  x) 2
x 2  (k  2) x 2 k  4  (k  1) x 2 k  6

(1  x) 2 (1  x) 2
x 2  [(k  1)  1]x 2( k  1)  2  (k  1) x 2( k  1)  4
 1
(1  x) 2 (1  x) 2
 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(5)

2A_C0017
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
1 2 3 4 2n 32 n  1  3  4n
 2  3  4    2n  .
3 3 3 3 3 4  9n
(5 marks)
Proof:
1 2 3 4 2n 32 n  1  3  4n
Let P(n) be ‘  2  3  4    2 n  ’.
3 3 3 3 3 4  9n
1 2
For n  1 , L.H.S.   2
3 3
5

9

Chapter 2

32 (1)  1  3  4(1)
R.H.S. 
4  91
5

9
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
1 2 3 4 2k 32 k  1  3  4k 1
i.e.       2k 
3 32 33 34 3 4  9k
For n  k  1 ,
1 2 3 4 2k 2 k  1 2 k  2
L.H.S.   2  3  4    2 k  2 k 1  2 k  2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
32 k 1  3  4k 2k  1 2k  2
  2 k 1  2 k  2 (By assumption) 1
4  9k 3 3

## 9(32 k  1  3  4k )  12( 2k  1)  4(2k  2)

4  9k 1
9  32 k  1  27  36k  24k  12  8k  8

4  9k 1
32 k  3  7  4 k

4  9k 1
32( k  1)  1  3  4(k  1)
 1
4  9k 1
 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(5)

2A_C0018
Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
 1  1  1  3n 1
(1  1)   3     32  2      3n 1  n 1     1.
 3  3   3  2 2  3n 1
(5 marks)
Proof:

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

 1  1  1  3n 1
Let P(n) be ‘ (1  1)   3     32  2      3n 1  n 1     1 ’.
 3  3   3  2 2  3n 1
For n  1 , L.H.S.  11
2
31 1
R.H.S.   1
2 2  31 1
2
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
 1  1  1  3k 1 1
i.e. (1  1)   3     32  2      3k 1  k 1    1
 3  3   3  2 2  3k  1
For n  k  1 ,
 1  2 1   k 1 1   k 1
L.H.S.  (1  1)   3     3  2      3  k 1    3  k 
 3  3   3   3 
 3k 1   1
   k 1
 1   3k  k  (By assumption) 1
 2 2  3   3 

1  1 1 1
 3 k   1  k  1    1
 2  3  2 3
3 1 1
 3 k    k 1   1
 
2 3 6

3k  1 1
  1
2 2  3k

3k  1 1
  1 1
2 2  3( k  1) 1

 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.

##  By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

positive integers n. 1
(5)

2A_C0019

Chapter 2

## Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,

1 1 1 1 n( n  4)
    .
3  5  7 5  7  9 7  9  11 (2n  1)( 2n  3)(2n  5) 15(2n  3)(2n  5)
(5 marks)
Proof:
1 1 1
Let P(n) be ‘   
3  5  7 5  7  9 7  9  11
1 n(n  4)
  ’.
( 2n  1)( 2n  3)(2n  5) 15(2n  3)(2n  5)
1
For n  1 , L.H.S. 
3 5 7
1

105
1  (1  4)
R.H.S. 
15 [ 2(1)  3][2(1)  5]

1

105
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
1 1 1 1 k ( k  4) 1
i.e.    
3  5  7 5  7  9 7  9  11 (2k  1)(2k  3)( 2k  5) 15(2k  3)(2k  5)
For n  k  1 ,
1 1 1 1
L.H.S.    
3  5  7 5  7  9 7  9  11 (2k  1)( 2k  3)(2k  5)
1

(2k  3)(2k  5)(2k  7)
k ( k  4) 1
  (By assumption) 1
15(2k  3)(2k  5) (2k  3)(2k  5)(2k  7)

k ( k  4)( 2k  7)  15

15( 2k  3)(2k  5)(2k  7)
2k 3  15k 2  28k  15

15( 2k  3)(2k  5)(2k  7)
( 2k  3)(k 2  6k  5)

15( 2k  3)(2k  5)(2k  7)

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

( 2k  3)(k  1)(k  5)

15( 2k  3)(2k  5)(2k  7)
( k  1)(k  5)

15( 2k  5)(2k  7)

(k  1)[(k  1)  4]
 1
15[2(k  1)  3][2(k  1)  5]

 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(5)
2A_C0020

Let Tn  n( n  1) 2 for n  1, 2, 3,  .
(a) Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
1
T1  T2  T3    Tn  n(n  1)(n  2)(3n  5) .
12
(b) Hence find the value of T21  T22  T23    T40 .
(8 marks)
Solution:
1
(a) Let P(n) be ‘ T1  T2  T3    Tn  n(n  1)(n  2)(3n  5) ’.
12
For n  1 , L.H.S.  T1
 1  (1  1) 2
4

1
R.H.S.   1  (1  1)(1  2)[3(1)  5]
12
4
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
1 1
i.e. T1  T2  T3    Tk  k (k  1)(k  2)(3k  5)
12
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  T1  T2  T3    Tk  Tk 1

Chapter 2

1
 k (k  1)(k  2)(3k  5)  Tk  1 (By assumption) 1
12

1
 k ( k  1)( k  2)(3k  5)  (k  1)( k  2) 2
12
1
 ( k  1)(k  2)[ k (3k  5)  12( k  2)]
12
1
 ( k  1)(k  2)(3k 2  17 k  24)
12
1
 ( k  1)(k  2)( k  3)(3k  8)
12

1
 (k  1)[(k  1)  1][(k  1)  2][3(k  1)  5] 1
12

 R.H.S.
 P ( k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all positive
integers n. 1
(5)
(b) T21  T22  T23    T40
 (T1  T2  T3    T40 )  (T1  T2  T3    T20 ) 1M
1 1
  40  (40  1)(40  2)[3(40)  5]   20  (20  1)(20  2)[3(20)  5] 1M
12 12
 717 500  50 050
 667 450 1A
(3)

2A_C0021
(a) Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
12 22 32 n2 n( n  1)
    .
1 3 3  5 5  7 ( 2n  1)(2n  1) 2( 2n  1)
10 2 112 122 212
(b) Hence find the value of    .
19  21 21  23 23  25 41  43
(8 marks)
Solution:
12 22 32 n2 n( n  1)
(a) Let P(n) be ‘     ’.
1 3 3  5 5  7 ( 2n  1)(2n  1) 2( 2n  1)
12
For n  1 , L.H.S. 
1 3

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

1

3
1  (1  1)
R.H.S. 
2 [2(1)  1]

1

3
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
12 22 32 k2 k (k  1) 1
i.e.    
1 3 3  5 5  7 (2k  1)(2k  1) 2(2k  1)

For n  k  1 ,
12 22 32 k2 (k  1) 2
L.H.S.     
1 3 3  5 5  7 (2k  1)(2k  1) (2k  1)(2k  3)
k (k  1) ( k  1) 2
  (By assumption) 1
2(2k  1) (2k  1)(2k  3)

k (k  1)( 2k  3)  2(k  1) 2

2(2k  1)(2k  3)
( k  1)[k ( 2k  3)  2(k  1)]

2(2k  1)( 2k  3)
( k  1)(2k 2  5k  2)

2(2k  1)( 2k  3)
( k  1)(k  2)( 2k  1)

2(2k  1)( 2k  3)
( k  1)(k  2)

2(2k  3)

(k  1)[(k  1)  1]
 1
2[2(k  1)  1]

 R.H.S.
 P ( k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all positive
integers n. 1

Chapter 2

(5)
10 2 112 122 212
(b)   
19  21 21  23 23  25 41  43
 12 22 32 212   12 22 32 92 
            1M
 1 3 3  5 5  7 41  43   1  3 3  5 5  7 17  19 

21(21  1) 9(9  1)
  1M
2(2  21  1) 2(2  9  1)
2 454
 1A
817
(3)

2A_C0022
(a) Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
1  2  3  2  3  7  3  4  11    n(n  1)( 4n  1)  n 2 (n  1)(n  2) .

## (b) Hence simplify

( n  1)(n  2)(4n  3)  (n  2)(n  3)(4n  7)  (n  3)(n  4)(4n  11)    2n(2n  1)(8n  1) .
(8 marks)
Solution:
(a) Let P(n) be ‘ 1  2  3  2  3  7  3  4  11    n(n  1)(4n  1)  n 2 (n  1)(n  2) ’.
For n  1 , L.H.S.  1 2  3
6

R.H.S.  12  (1  1)(1  2)
6

 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
1
i.e. 1  2  3  2  3  7  3  4  11    k (k  1)(4k  1)  k 2 (k  1)(k  2)
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  1  2  3  2  3  7  3  4  11    k (k  1)(4k  1)  (k  1)(k  2)(4k  3)
 k 2 (k  1)(k  2)  (k  1)(k  2)(4k  3) (By assumption) 1

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

 ( k  1)(k  2)(k 2  4k  3)
 ( k  1)(k  2)(k  1)(k  3)

 (k  1) 2 [(k  1)  1][(k  1)  2] 1
 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all positive
integers n. 1
(5)

## (b) (n  1)(n  2)(4n  3)  (n  2)(n  3)(4n  7)  (n  3)(n  4)(4n  11)  

 2n(2n  1)(8n  1)
 1  2  3  2  3  7  3  4  11    2n(2n  1)(8n  1)
 [1  2  3  2  3  7  3  4  11    n(n  1)(4n  1)] 1M
 (2n) (2n  1)(2n  2)  n (n  1)(n  2)
2 2
1M
 8n 2 (n  1)(2n  1)  n 2 (n  1)(n  2)
 n 2 (n  1)[8(2n  1)  (n  2)]
 n 2 ( n  1)(15n  6)
 3n 2 (n  1)(5n  2) 1A
(3)

2A_C0023
n
 1  n
(a) Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,  1  r  1   2  1 .
r 1
n
[ Hint:  ar  a1  a2  a3    an ]
r 1

 1  1  1  1 
(b) Hence find the value of 1   1   1     1  .
 11   12   13   40 
(9 marks)
Solution:

Chapter 2

 1  n
n
(a) Let P(n) be ‘  1     1 ’.
r 1  r 1 2
1
 1 
For n  1 , L.H.S.   1  
r 1  r  1
1
 1
11
3

2

1
R.H.S.  1
2

3

2

 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1

## Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.

k
 1  k 1
i.e.  1  r  1   2  1
r 1

For n  k  1 ,
k 1
 1 
L.H.S.   1  
r 1  r  1
 1  1 1  1  1 
 1   1   1    1   1 
 2  3 4  k  1   (k  1)  1

k  1 
   1  1   (By assumption) 1
 2  k  2
k k 1
  1
2 2(k  2) k2
k k2
 1
2 2(k  2)
k 1
 1
2 2
k 1
 1 1
2

 R.H.S.

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all positive
integers n. 1
(5)
 1  1  1  1  (1  )(1  )(1  )  (1  )
1 1 1 1

 
2 3 4 40
(b) 1   1   1    1  1M
 11   12   13   40  (1  12 )(1  13 )(1  14 )  (1  101 )

## (1  1 1 1 )(1  2 1 1 )(1  3 1 1 )  (1  391 1 )

(1  1 1 1 )(1  2 1 1 )(1  3 1 1 ) (1  9 1 1 )
39

 (1 
r1
1
r 1 )
 9
1M
 (1 
r 1
1
r 1 )

39
1
 2
1M
9
2 1

41
 1A
11

(4)
2A_C0024
1
(a) Let Tn  1  for n  1, 2, 3,  . Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive
( n  1) 2
n2
integers n, T1  T2  T3    Tn  .
2(n  1)
6
(b) Find the smallest integer m such that T1  T2  T3    Tm  .
11
(8 marks)
Solution:
n2
(a) Let P(n) be ‘ T1  T2  T3    Tn  ’.
2(n  1)
For n  1 , L.H.S.  T1
1
 1
(1  1) 2

Chapter 2

3

4

1 2
R.H.S. 
2(1  1)

3

4

 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
k 2 1
i.e. T1  T2  T3    Tk 
2(k  1)
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  T1  T2  T3    Tk  Tk  1
k2
  Tk  1 (By assumption) 1
2( k  1)

k 2  1 
  1  2 
2(k  1)  ( k  2) 
k 2 ( k  2) 2  1
 
2(k  1) ( k  2) 2
( k  2) 2  1

2(k  1)(k  2)

k 2  4k  3

2(k  1)( k  2)
(k  1)(k  3)

2(k  1)( k  2)
k 3

2(k  2)

(k  1)  2
 1
2 [(k  1)  1]

 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

##  By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all positive

integers n. 1
(5)
6
(b) T1  T2  T3    Tm 
11
m2 6
 1M
2(m  1) 11

11( m  2)  12(m  1)
11m  22  12m  12

m  10 1A
 The smallest integer is 11. 1A

(3)

2A_C0025
(a) Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
n(n  1)(5n  2)
1  2  2  7  3  12    n(5n  3)  .
3
n(n  1)
(b) It is given that 1  2  3    n  . Using the result of (a),
2
simplify 1  3  2  8  3  13    n(5n  2) .
(8 marks)
Solution:
n(n  1)(5n  2)
(a) Let P(n) be ‘ 1  2  2  7  3  12    n(5n  3)  ’.
3
For n  1 , L.H.S.  1 2
2
1  (1  1)[5(1)  2]
R.H.S. 
3
2
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.

Chapter 2

k (k  1)(5k  2) 1
i.e. 1  2  2  7  3  12    k (5k  3) 
3
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  1  2  2  7  3  12    k (5k  3)  (k  1)(5k  2)
k ( k  1)(5k  2)
  (k  1)(5k  2) (By assumption) 1
3

## (k  1)[k (5k  2)  3(5k  2)]

3
(k  1)(5k  13k  6)
2

3
(k  1)(k  2)(5k  3)

3

(k  1)[(k  1)  1][5(k  1)  2]
 1
3
 R.H.S.
 P ( k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all positive
integers n. 1
(5)
(b) 1  3  2  8  3  13    n(5n  2)
 1  (2  1)  2  (7  1)  3  (12  1)    n [(5n  3)  1]
 [1  2  2  7  3  12    n(5n  3)]  (1  2  3    n) 1M
n(n  1)(5n  2) n(n  1)
  1M
3 2
n(n  1)[2(5n  2)  3]

6
n(n  1)(10n  1)
 1A
6
(3)
2A_C0026
(a) Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
1
1  2  3  4  5  6    ( 2n  1)(2n)  n( n  1)(4n  1) .
3
1
(b) It is given that 1  2  3    n  n(n  1) . Using the result of (a), simplify 12  22  32    n 2 .
2
(8 marks)
Solution:

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

1
(a) Let P(n) be ‘ 1  2  3  4  5  6    ( 2n  1)(2n)  n(n  1)( 4n  1) ’.
3
For n  1 , L.H.S.  1 2
2
1
R.H.S.   1  (1  1)[4(1)  1]
3
2
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
1 1
i.e. 1  2  3  4  5  6    ( 2k  1)(2k )  k ( k  1)( 4k  1)
3
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  1  2  3  4  5  6    (2k  1)(2k )  (2k  1)(2k  2)
1
 k (k  1)(4k  1)  2(k  1)(2k  1) (By assumption) 1
3
1
 ( k  1)[k ( 4k  1)  6( 2k  1)]
3
1
 ( k  1)(4k 2  11k  6)
3
1
 ( k  1)(k  2)(4k  3)
3
1
 (k  1)[(k  1)  1][4(k  1)  1] 1
3

 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all positive
integers n. 1
(5)

1
(b) 1  2  3  4  5  6    (2n  1)(2n)  n(n  1)(4n  1)
3
(2  1  1)  (2  1)  (2  2  1)  (2  2)
1
 ( 2  3  1)  ( 2  3)    ( 2n  1)(2n)  n(n  1)(4n  1)
3

(2  1) 2  (2  2) 2  (2  3) 2    (2n) 2

Chapter 2

1
 ( 2  1  2  2  2  3    2n)  n(n  1)(4n  1)
3
1
4(12  2 2  32    n 2 )  2(1  2  3    n)  n(n  1)(4n  1) 1M
3
1 1
4(12  2 2  32    n 2 )  2  n( n  1)  n(n  1)( 4n  1) 1M
2 3

1
4(12  2 2  3 2    n 2 )  n(n  1)(4n  1)  n(n  1)
3
1
4(12  2 2  3 2    n 2 )  n(n  1)[(4n  1)  3]
3
1
4(12  2 2  3 2    n 2 )  n(n  1)(4n  2)
3
2
4(12  2 2  3 2    n 2 )  n(n  1)(2n  1)
3

1
12  2 2  32    n 2  n(n  1)(2n  1) 1A
6

(3)

2A_C0027

## It is given that n!  n  (n  1)  (n  2)    3  2  1 for all positive integers n. Prove, by

1 2 3 n 1
mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,  2  2    .
2 2
3 4 (n  1) 2
(n  1)  ( n  1)!
(5 marks)
Proof:
1 2 3 n 1
Let P(n) be ‘  2  2   ’.
2 2
3 4 (n  1) 2
(n  1)  (n  1)!

1
For n  1 , L.H.S. 
22
1

4

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

1
R.H.S. 
(1  1)  (1  1)!

1

2  ( 2  1)

1

4

 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
1 2 3 k 1 1
i.e.  2  2  
2 2
3 4 ( k  1) 2
( k  1)  (k  1)!
For n  k  1 ,
1 2 3 k k 1
L.H.S.   2  2  
2
2 3 4 (k  1) 2
( k  2) 2

1 k 1
  (By assumption) 1
(k  1)  (k  1)! (k  2) 2

1

( k  1)!( k  2) 2
1

( k  2)  [( k  2)  ( k  1)!]
1

( k  2)  (k  2)!

1
 1
[(k  1)  1]  [(k  1)  1]!

 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.

##  By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

positive integers n. 1
(5)

2A_C0028

Chapter 2

1
It is given that sin A sin B   [cos( A  B)  cos( A  B )] . Prove, by mathematical induction, that for
2
sin(n  1) x sin nx
all positive integers n, sin 2 x  sin 4 x  sin 6 x    sin 2nx  , where sin x  0 .
sin x
(5 marks)
Proof:
sin(n  1) x sin nx
Let P(n) be ‘ sin 2 x  sin 4 x  sin 6 x    sin 2nx  , where sin x  0 ’.
sin x
For n  1 , L.H.S.  sin 2 x
sin 2 x sin x
R.H.S. 
sin x
 sin 2 x

 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
sin(k  1) x sin kx 1
i.e. sin 2 x  sin 4 x  sin 6 x    sin 2kx  , where sin x  0
sin x
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  sin 2 x  sin 4 x  sin 6 x    sin 2kx  sin 2(k  1) x
sin(k  1) x sin kx
  sin(2k  2) x (By assumption) 1
sin x

## sin(k  1) x sin kx  sin(2k  2) x sin x

sin x
 12 [cos(2k  1) x  cos x]  ( 12 )[cos(2k  3) x  cos(2k  1) x]

sin x
 [cos(2k  3) x  cos x]
1
 2
sin x
sin(k  2) x sin(k  1) x

sin x

sin[(k  1)  1] x sin(k  1) x
 1
sin x
 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

positive integers n. 1
(5)
2A_C0029
It is given that a1 , a2 , a3 ,  , an ,  is a sequence of numbers, where a1  1, a2  2 and
ak  2  ak  1  ak for k  1, 2, 3,  . Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n,
(an  1 ) 2  an  2 an  (1) n  1 .
(5 marks)
Proof:
Let P(n) be ‘ (an  1 ) 2  an  2 an  (1) n  1 ’.
For n  1 , a3  a2  a1
 2 1
3

L.H.S.  (a1  1 ) 2  a1  2 a1
 ( a2 ) 2  a3 a1
 22  3  1
1
R.H.S.  (1)1  1
1
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
i.e. (ak  1 ) 2  ak  2 ak  (1) k  1 1
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  (ak  2 ) 2  ak  3ak  1

 ( ak  2 ) 2  ( a k  2  ak  1 ) ak  1
 ( ak  2 ) 2  a k  2 a k  1  ( ak  1 ) 2
 ak  2 ( ak  2  ak  1 )  ( ak  1 ) 2
 ak  2 ak  ( ak  1 ) 2
 [(ak  1 ) 2  ak  2 ak ]

##   (1) k  1 (By assumption) 1

 (1) k  2
 (1) ( k  1)  1 1
 R.H.S.

Chapter 2

 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(5)
2A_C0030
3 5 7 2n  1
Let S n   2 2 2   2 , where n is a positive integer.
1 222
2 3 3 4 2
n ( n  1) 2
(a) Find the values of S1 , S 2 and S3 .
(b) (i) Make a guess at the formula for S n .
(ii) Prove, by mathematical induction, that for all positive integers n, the formula in (b)(i) is true.
(9 marks)
Solution:
3
(a) S1 
1  22
2

3
 1A
4

3 5
S2   2 2
1 2
2 2
2 3
3 5
 
4 36
8
 1A
9

3 5 7
S3   2 2 2 2
1 2
2 2
2 3 3 4
8 7
 
9 144
15
 1A
16

(3)
(n  1)  1
2

(b) (i) Sn  1A
(n  1) 2

( n  1) 2  1
(ii) Let P(n) be ‘ S n  ’.
( n  1) 2
3
For n  1 , L.H.S.  S1 
4

Effective Learning Mathematics Module 2: Algebra and Calculus Question Bank | Volume 1

(1  1) 2  1
R.H.S. 
(1  1) 2
3

4
 L.H.S.  R.H.S.
 P(1) is true. 1
Assume that P(k) is true, where k is a positive integer.
( k  1) 2  1 1
i.e. S k 
(k  1) 2
For n  k  1 ,
L.H.S.  S k  1
3 5 7 2k  1 2k  3
  2 2 2  2 
1 2
2 2
2 3 3 4 2
k (k  1) 2
(k  1) 2 (k  2) 2
2k  3
 Sk 
(k  1) 2 (k  2) 2

(k  1) 2  1 2k  3
  (By assumption) 1
(k  1) 2
(k  1) 2 (k  2) 2

(k  1) 2 (k  2) 2  (k  2) 2  2k  3

(k  1) 2 (k  2) 2
(k  1) 2 (k  2) 2  k 2  2k  1

(k  1) 2 (k  2) 2
(k  1) 2 (k  2) 2  (k  1) 2

(k  1) 2 (k  2) 2
(k  2) 2  1

( k  2) 2

[(k  1)  1]2  1
 1
[(k  1)  1]2

 R.H.S.
 P (k  1) is true.
 By the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all
positive integers n. 1
(6)