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You are on page 1of 57

Metric for Multiple Set Points in

Validation Exercises of

RANS solvers

R. Lopes (IST-Lisbon)

H.Abreu (IST-Lisbon)

F.Pereira (MARIN Academy, IST-Lisbon)

G.Vaz (MARIN)

May 16 - 20, 2016

Contents

1. Introduction

2. ASME V&V 20 Validation Metrics

3. Multivariate Metric

4. Examples

5. Conclusions

May 16 - 20, 2016

1. Introduction

• Validation exercises of mathematical models

solved by CFD are often performed for

functional quantitions as for example force

coefficients or local quantities

• For such cases, ASME V&V 20 proposed a

Validation procedure that estimates an interval

that contains the modelling error 95 out of 100

times

May 16 - 20, 2016

1. Introduction

• There are several cases where modelling errors

are evaluated at multiple set points, as for

example lift coefficient of an airfoil for a range of

angles of attack, airfoil surface pressure

distribution or velocity field in the wake of a ship

• For such cases, ASME V&V 20 is proposing

a “Multivariate Metric” using results from

Multiple Validation Set Points

May 16 - 20, 2016

1. Introduction

• This presentation includes several examples of

application of the Multivariate Metric

- Flow over a flat plate

- Flow around the NACA 0012 airfoil

- Flow around the Eppler 387 airfoil

- Flow around a circular cylinder

- Flow around the KVLCC2 tanker

(www.refresco.org)

May 16 - 20, 2016

• ASME V&V 20-2009 Validation procedure is

based on the comparison of two quantities

- Comparison error E =S−D

- Validation uncertainty U val = U D2 + U input

2 2

+ U num

UD Experimental uncertainty

U num Numerical uncertainty

U input Parameter uncertainty

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Estimated interval that contains the modelling

errorδ model is given by

E − U val ≤ δ model ≤ E + U val

• It is not a pass/fail method! For example,

E = 2%

⇒ 1% ≤ δ model ≤ 3%

U val = 1%

E = 4%

⇒ −6% ≤ δ model ≤ 14%

U val = 10%

May 16 - 20, 2016

3. Multivariate Metric

T −1

• Vector of weighted differences r = r Vval r

based on the vector of differences at

n set points

S1 − D1

r=

Sn − Dn

and covariance matrix

Vval = VD + Vinput + Vnum

May 16 - 20, 2016

3. Multivariate Metric

• Covariance matrix depends on numerical

uncertainties U num

2

0 ... 0

1

Vnum = 0 ...U numi ...0

2

0 ...

2

U numn U D21 0 ... 0

experimental uncertainties VD = 0 ...U Di ...0

2

2

0 ... U Dn

to be zero in the present exercises Vinput ≅ 0

May 16 - 20, 2016

3. Multivariate Metric

• If the uncertainties in the n estimated δ model are

represented by normal distributions, the

2

expected value of r is obtained from a χ

distribution that leads to a reference value

given by rref = n + 2n

• If r / rref > 1 , the modelling errors are in general

larger than the validation uncertainty

• Otherwise, modelling errors are globally within

the Validation uncertainty

May 16 - 20, 2016

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)

equations (time-averaging)

• Three versions of k-ω eddy-viscosity model with

and without transition modelling (SST, W98,

W06)

• Quantity of interest is the skin friction coefficient

Cf τw

Cf =

1 2 ρV∞2

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Experimental data from the ERCOFTAC Classic

Database (T3A, T3AM, T3B) and the Stanford

Conference 1968

• 2% uncertainty assumed from variability in the

different techniques used to measure

• Experimental data for the inlet turbulence

intensity for the ERCOFTAC cases and forced

transition for the Stanford Conference data

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Reynolds number based on plate length L and

incoming velocity V∞ equal to Re=107

C p =0

y ∂φ

1.5L =0

∂x

U x =1

U y =0 0 .25L

k = ki

ε = εi x

0 . 25L L 0 .25L

May 16 - 20, 2016

• 9 geometrically similar grids ranging from

1537×193 to 385×49 (1≤hi/h1≤4)

0.2

y/L

L

0.1

0 0 0.5 1

x/L

• Calculations converged to maximum normalized

residual of all transport equations below 10-7

May 16 - 20, 2016

8 Wieghardt SST W98 W06T

T3AM, I=0.874%

7 T3A, I=3.3%

T3B, I= 6.5%

6

5

3

10

Cf×1

4

3

2

1

0 4 5 6 7

10 10 10 10

Rex

May 16 - 20, 2016

SST W06

150 Wieghardt

T3AM, I=0.874%

T3A, I=3.3%

T3B, I=6.5%

Cf)ref)%

W98

100

E(Cf / (C

50

4 5 6 7

10 10 10 10

Rex

May 16 - 20, 2016

100 SST

W98

W06

80

60

r/rreef

40

20

0

Wieghardt T3AM T3A T3B

May 16 - 20, 2016

20

SST

Wieghardt data W98

W06

10

Cf)ref)%

E(Cf / (C

-10

-20 5 6 7

10 10 10

Rex

May 16 - 20, 2016

8 8

T3AM, I=0.874% 8 T3AM, I=0.874% T3AM, I=0.874%

T3A, I=3.3% T3A, I=3.3% T3A, I=3.3%

7 T3B, I=6.5% 7 T3B, I=6.5% 7 T3B, I=6.5%

νti= 0.1ν νti= ν νti= 10ν νti= 100ν νti= 0.1ν νti= ν νti= 10ν νti= 100ν νti= 0.1ν νti= ν νti= 10ν νti= 100ν

6 6 6

5 5 5

3

3

3

xti1

Cf×10

Cf×10

Cf×10

4 4 4

3 3 3

2 2 2

LCTM W98T W06T

1 1 1

0 0 0

104 105 106 107 104 105 106 107 104 105 106 107

Rex Rex Rex

8 T3AM, I=0.874% 8 T3AM, I=0.874% 8 T3AM, I=0.874%

T3A, I=3.3% T3A, I=3.3% T3A, I=3.3%

7 T3B, I=6.5% 7 T3B, I=6.5% 7 T3B, I=6.5%

νti= 0.1ν νti= ν νti= 10ν νti= 100ν νti= 0.1ν νti= ν νti= 10ν νti= 100ν νti= 0.1ν νti= ν νti= 10ν νti= 100ν

6 6 6

5 5 5

3

3

xti 2

Cf×10

Cf×10

Cf×10

4 4 4

3 3 3

2 2 2

LCTM W98T W06T

1 1 1

0 0 0

104 105 106 107 104 105 106 107 104 105 106 107

Rex Rex Rex

T3A, I=3.3% T3A, I=3.3% T3A, I=3.3%

7 T3B, I=6.5% 7 T3B, I=6.5% 7 T3B, I=6.5%

νti= 0.1ν νti= ν νti= 10ν νti= 100ν νti= 0.1ν νti= ν νti= 10ν νti= 100ν νti= 0.1ν νti= ν νti= 10ν νti= 100ν

6 6 6

xti 3 5 5 5

3

3

Cf×10

Cf×10

Cf×10

4 4 4

3 3 3

2 2 2

LCTM W98T W06T

1 1 1

0 0 0

104 105 106 107 104 105 106 107 104 105 106 107

Rex Rex Rex

May 16 - 20, 2016

May 16 - 20, 2016

100

SST+LCTM

W98T

W06T

80

60

r/rreef

40

20

0

T3AM T3A T3B

May 16 - 20, 2016

8 T3AM, I=0.874%

T3A, I=3.3%

7 T3B, I= 6.5%

LCTM W98T W06T

6

5

3

10

Cf×1

4

3

2

1

0 4 5 6 7

10 10 10 10

Rex

May 16 - 20, 2016

SST W06

150 T3AM, I=0.874%

T3A, I=3.3%

T3B, I=6.5%

W98

Cf)ref)%

100

E(Cf / (C

50

4 5 6 7

10 10 10 10

Rex

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)

equations (time-averaging)

• Three versions of k-ω eddy-viscosity model with

transition modelling (SST+LCTM, W98T, W06T)

• Quantities of interest are lift C L and C D drag

coefficients and surface pressure distribution C p

at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 degrees of angle of attack α

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Experimental data from two different sources,

but only one used to determine E

• Estimated uncertainties from the information

available in the reports: 1% for C L; 3% for C D and

10% for surface pressure coefficient C p

• Inlet oturbulence conditions tuned to match C Dat

α =0

• Two variants of previous conditions tested

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Reynolds number based on chord c and

incoming velocity V∞ equal to Re=2.88×106

Pressure imposed at one point of the inlet boundary Free Slip

10

5 Streamwise

Everything derivatives

y/c

specified 0 equal to

except zero

pressure -5

-10

-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

x/c

Free Slip

May 16 - 20, 2016

• 5 geometrically similar grids ranging from

232320 to 929280 or 90750 to 363000 cells

(1≤hi/h1≤2)

• Calculations converged

to maximum normalized

residual of all transport

equations (including

transition model LCTM variables) below 5×10-6

May 16 - 20, 2016

14 Exp

13 SST+LCTM

W98T

12 W06T

3

11

CD×100

10

9

8

7

6

0 2 4o 6 8

α

May 16 - 20, 2016

1

Exp

SST+LCTM

0.8

W98T

W06T

0.6

CL

0.4

0.2

0

0 2 4o 6 8

α

May 16 - 20, 2016

0.8

α = 2o

0.6 Exp

SST+LCTM

W98T

0.4 W06T

-Cp

0.2

-0.2

x/c

May 16 - 20, 2016

4

α = 8o

Exp

3 SST+LCTM

W98T

W06T

2

-Cp

x/c

May 16 - 20, 2016

8

7 SST+LCTM

W98T

W06T

6

5

r/rreef

0

CD CL α = 0o α = 2o α = 4 o α = 6 o α = 8o

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)

equations (time-averaging)

• Three versions of k-ω eddy-viscosity model with

transition modelling (SST+LCTM, W98T, W06T)

• Quantities of interest are lift C L and C D drag

coefficients and surface pressure distribution C p

at -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 degrees of angle

of attack α

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Experimental data from two different sources,

but only one used to determine E

• Estimated uncertainties from the information

available in the 2 reports are very different:

2% for C L ; 0.12% for C D and 0.25% for C p

5.5% for C L and 5.73% for C p

• Two variants of inlet turbulence conditions

tested

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Reynolds number based on chord c and

incoming velocity V∞ equal to Re=3×105

Pressure imposed at one point of the inlet boundary

Free Slip

10

5 Streamwise

Everything derivatives

y/c

specified 0 equal to

except zero

pressure -5

-10

-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

x/c

Free Slip

May 16 - 20, 2016

• 5 geometrically similar grids ranging from

232320 to 929280 or 90750 to 363000 cells

(1≤hi/h1≤2)

• Calculations converged

to maximum normalized

residual of all transport

equations (including

transition model LCTM variables) below 5×10-6

May 16 - 20, 2016

16 Exp

SST+LCTM

14 W98T

W06T

3

CD×100

12

10

6

-2 0 2 o 4 6 8

α

May 16 - 20, 2016

1.2

0.8

CL

0.6 Exp

Exp

SST+LCTM

0.4

W98T

W06T

0.2

0

-2 0 2 o 4 6 8

α

May 16 - 20, 2016

1

α = 0o Exp

Exp

SST+LCTM

W98T

0.5 W06T

-Cp

-0.5

-1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

x/c

May 16 - 20, 2016

1

α = 3o Exp

Exp

SST+LCTM

W98T

0.5 W06T

-Cp

-0.5

-1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

x/c

May 16 - 20, 2016

SST+LCTM

W98T

40 α = 0o W06T

α = 2o

r/rreef

20 α = 4o

α = 7o

0

CD C L α = −1o α = 1o α = 3o α = 6o

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)

equations (ensemble-averaging)

• Three two-equation eddy-viscosity models

tested (SST, KSKL, W98T)

• Quantities of interest are the average drag

coefficient(C D )avg and the average pressure C p and

skin friction C f coefficients on the cylinder surface

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Experimental data taken from Achenback E.,

“Distribution of Local Pressure and Skin Friction

around a Circular Cylinder in Cross-flow up to

Re = 5×106”, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol.

34,No 64,1968, pp. 625-639”

• Estimated uncertainties from symbols size and

asymmetry of the solution

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Reynolds numbers based on the diameter D

and incoming velocity V∞ equal to 105, 2.6×105,

8.5×105 and 3.6×106

Pressure imposed at one point of the inlet boundary Free Slip

Everything Streamwise

specified derivatives

except equal to

pressure zero

Free Slip

May 16 - 20, 2016

• 4 geometrically similar grids ranging from

8.5×104 to 2.5×105 cells

(1≤hi/h1≤1.71)

• Calculations converged

to maximum normalized

residual of all transport

equations at each time

step below 10-6

May 16 - 20, 2016

May 16 - 20, 2016

May 16 - 20, 2016

May 16 - 20, 2016

8

SST

3.6 ×106

7 KSKL

W98 2×105

6

105

r/rreef

3

2× 1058.5 × 105

2

1 3.6 ×10 6

0

(CD )avg C p Cp Cp Cp Cf Cf Cf Cf

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)

equations (time-averaging)

• 14 turbulence models tested including one and

two-equation eddy-viscosity models and Explicit

Algebraic Reynolds-Stress models

• Quantities of interest are the resistance

coefficient C T and the flow field at the propeller

plane

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Experimental data from towing tank and wind

tunnel tests (different boundary conditions at

free surface and different blockage)

• Estimated uncertainties reported in the papers

May 16 - 20, 2016

• Reynolds number based on ship length LPP and

incoming velocity V∞ equal to Re=4.6×106

Symmetry

Pressure imposed

Everything

specified

except

pressure

Everything

specified

except

pressure

Free Slip

May 16 - 20, 2016

• 5 nearly geometrically similar grids ranging from

5×106 to 2×107 cells (1≤hi/h1≤2)

• Calculations converged

to maximum normalized

residual of all transport

equations below 10-8

for all turbulence models

tested

May 16 - 20, 2016

plane

May 16 - 20, 2016

May 16 - 20, 2016

May 16 - 20, 2016

May 16 - 20, 2016

May 16 - 20, 2016

4. Conclusions

• The multivariate metric proposed by the ASME

V&V 20 is a useful tool to assess the modelling

accuracy of multiple set points

• It has a direct application in the comparison of

the modelling accuracy of different turbulence

models

• It should be “handled with care”, i.e. as for the

V&V 20 2009 procedure, it must be analysed

taking into account the level of Validation

uncertainty

May 16 - 20, 2016

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