• • • • • • • NanoHistory NanoTechnology NanoMaterial NanoBiology NanoElectronic “NanoComputational Science” “NanoFunding”

History of NANO
• • • • • Tools 2,000,000 B.C. Metallurgy 3600 B.C. Steam power 1764 Mass production 1908 Automation 1946
– Moving from micrometer scale to nanometer scale devices

• Sixth industrial revolution NOW

01 R. Feynman Delivers “ Plenty of Room at the First Molecular Electronic Device Patented Scanning Tunneling Microscopic (STM) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Invented First single-electron transistor created Carbon Nanotubes Discovered US Launches National Nanotechnology ITRI Nano Research Center Established .Milestone • 1959 Bottom” • 1974 • 1981 • 1986 • 1987 • 1991 • 2000 Initiative • 2002.

What is Nanomaterial? • Nanomaterials are commonly defined as materials with an average grain size less than 100 nanometers. • One billion nanometers equals one meter .

.000 nanometers A single particle of smoke is in the order of 1.000 nanometers.Comparisons The average width of a human hair is on the order of 100.

Why Nanotech? A small science with a huge potential .

Why Nanotech? • Nanotechnology exploits benefits of ultra small size. . enabling the use of particles to deliver a range of important benefits… – Small particles are ‘invisible’ : • Transparent Coatings/Films are attainable – Small particles are very weight efficient: • Surfaces can be modified with minimal material.

Components .

Weight efficient and Uniform coverage • Large spherical particles do not cover much surface area • Nanoparticles Equal mass of small platelet particles provides thorough coverage (1 x 106 times more) .

it is possible to vary fundamental properties of materials without changing the chemical composition .Nanotechnology • Nanotechnology: The creation of functional materials. devices and systems through control of matter on the nanometer(1~100nm) length scale and the exploitation of novel properties and phenomena developed at that scale. • Why nano length scale ? .By patterning matter on the nano scale.

. • Bottoms-up – Building complex systems by combining simple atomic-level components.Approaches • Top-down – Breaking down matter into more basic building blocks. Frequently uses chemical or thermal methods.

Different types of Nanomaterial • Nanopowder – Building blocks (less than 100 nm in diameter) for more complex nanostructures. – The Strongest Material . • Nanotube – Carbon nanotubes are tiny strips of graphite sheet rolled into tubes a few nanometers in diameter and up to hundreds of micrometers (microns) long.

. • Such as increased stronger and less breakable ceramics. or light more readily then conventional materials. ions. They may conduct electrons.Nanopowders • Advanced nanophase materials synthesized from nanopowders have improved properties. heat. • Exhibit improved magnetic and catalytic properties.

Advantages of Nanopowders • Continuous connections between large numbers of grains make the material more stretchable and ductile so it doesn't easily crack. Possibly resulting in more efficient conduction of light or electricity. • Made of tight clusters of very small particles. . resulting in overlapping electron clouds that induce quantum effects.

often leading to clumping problems. • Could use smaller nanoparticles to prevent clumping by forcing spacing. .Nanopowder Applications • Useful in manufacturing inhalable drugs. • Particles in the micrometer scale are deposited in the alveoli of the lung.

Pictures .

Nanotube • Carbon Nanotube(CNT) . discovered as by products of fullerenes and now are considered to be the building blocks of future nanoscale electronic and mechanical devices. .Originally.

Ijyma.1991) (2) Single-Walled carbon Nanotube(SWNT) . al.R.R.Schlittler.Nanotube • Discovery of CNT (1) Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube(MWNT) .2001) .Sumio Ijyma(Nature. (1993) (3) Single Crystals of SWNT .Bethune. ( al.

. .sheets of graphite rolled up into a tube as shown figure.The hexagonal two dimensional lattice of graphite is mapped on a cylinder of radius R with various helicities characterized by the rolling vectors (n.m).Basically.Structure of Nanotube • SWNT atom structures .

Manufacturing .

Manufacturing .

buildings. and diodes Microelectronic heat-sinks and insulation due to high thermal conductivity Nanoscale gears and mechanical components Electron guns for flat-panel displays Nanotube-buckyball encapsulation coupling for molecular computing with high RAM capacity . and cables Material for making lightweight vehicles for all terrains Heavy-duty shock absorbers Open-ended straws for chemical probing and cellular injection Nanoelectronics including batteries capacitors.Nanotube applications Structural elements in bridges. towers.

logic circuit.or single-molecule -. • Carbon nanotube transistors transformed into logic-performing integrated circuits. major step toward molecular computers • Aug 28 2001-breakthrough development of transistor technology .Research from IBM • The IBM scientists used nanotubes to make a "voltage inverter" circuit. also known as a "NOT" gate . They encoded the entire inverter logic function along the length of a single carbon nanotube. forming the world's first intramolecular -.

exhibits an electrical current that flows through it in one direction in 10 to 30 picoseconds — 100 times faster than in a silicon photodiode. .Spinach Proteins and Carbon Nanotubes • Spinach contains a chlorophyll-containing protein called Photosystem I (PSI. • Applications in photo battery or solar electric cell. Next generation opto-electronics might be spinach based rather than silicon. pronounced PS One) that upon receiving a photon of light.

Nanodevices in the Treatment of Cancer .

. To be large enough they don’t just pass through the body.Nanostructures in Biological Systems • Two major concerns 1. 2. Need to be small enough they don’t accumulate in vital organs and create toxicity problems.

Biological Nanodevices • Bottom-up approach frequently used when constructing nanomaterials for use in medicine • Most animal cells are 10 to 20 thousand nanometers in diameter. • Nanodevices smaller than 100 nanometers would be able to enter the cells and organelles where they could interact with DNA and proteins. .

• Could also allow less invasive examination of living cells within the body. .Biological Nanodevices (cont) • This could assist with the detection of disease in very small cell or tissue samples.

Cancer Detection and Diagnosis • Currently done by physical examination or imaging techniques • Early molecular changes not detected by these methods. “enter” nanostructures. . need very sensitive technology. • Need to detect changes in small percentage of cells.


more efficient. and less sample consuming diagnostic tests. . • Leading to faster. • Improving miniaturization will allow nanodevices to contain the tools to perform multiple tests simultaneously.Improvements in Diagnostics • Nanodevices could exam tissue or cell samples without physically altering them.

Cantilevers • Tiny levers that bind to molecules associated with cancerous tissue. which can be used to detect the presence of these molecules. (such as altered DNA sequences or proteins) • Surface tension changes lead to bonded cantilevers bending. • May allow detection of earlier stages of cancer. .


allow the nanopore to help decipher information encoded in the DNA. • Funnels DNA through. . which are unique to the bases. resulting in more efficient DNA sequencing. • Properties.Nanopores • Helps researchers detect errors in the genetic cause that may lead to cancer. • Monitor shape and electrical properties of each base as they pass through the nanopore. one strand at a time.

and exact location. • Bulky molecules designed to “tag” specific DNA mutations.Nanotubes • Carbon rods approximately half the diameter of a DNA molecule. . of altered genes. • Used to detect the presence.

outlining the mutated regions. • Important because location of mutations influence the effects they have on the cell. .Nanotubes (cont) • Nanotubes trace the physical shape of the DNA.

• Create latex beads designed to bind to specific DNA sequences. . • Diversity allows creation of many unique “dot labels” for DNA sequences. • Useful because cancer often results from accumulation of many different changes in cells.Quantum Dots • Tiny crystals that glow when they are stimulated by ultraviolet light. • Color of glow dependent on size. Quantum dots within the beads can be used to identify specific regions of DNA.

time-release strategy for delivering toxins. • May allow creation of therapeutic agents that have a controlled.Cancer Treatment • Nanotechnology may allow treatments that target cancer cells without harming nearby healthy cells. .


• Linking nanoshells to antibodies that recognize cancer cells has successfully allowed researchers to kill cancer cells without harming neighboring noncancerous tissue. release a lethal dose of intense heat.Nanoshells • Upon absorbing infrared light. (in a laboratory) .

allowing the attachment of therapeutic devices and biologically active molecules.Dendrimers • Man-made molecule comparable in size to average protein. • Has a branching shape. • May be used to detect and treat cancer while reporting on the results of its attempts. .


• Therapeutic agents have a similar timeframe. nanopores. • Integrated devices may be available clinically in about 15 to 20 years.Timetables (according to the NCI) • Quantum dots. and other detection and diagnosis devices may be available for clinical use in 5 to 15 years. .

Nanotechnology in Electronic Applications .

Moore’s Law • Gordon Moore (co-founder of Intel) predicted in 1965 that the transistor density of semiconductor chips would double roughly every 18 months. • It's not a law! It's a prediction about what device physicists and process engineers can achieve .

Moore's Law Holding! .

By that time. But new computer architectures will continue the exponential growth of computing. transistor features will be just a few atoms in width. • For example.Ambitious Predictions • Moore's Law will have run its course around 2019. computing cubes are already being designed that will provide thousands of layers of circuits. .

which led to even-morepowerful products and a strong motive for customers to upgrade. • However. at some point. that miniaturization process collides with the physical limits of silicon.Facts • Nanotechnology’s ability to continually increase the amount of data that fits on a microchip provided the industry with escalating computing speed and power. .

Back In the Days

• The transistor, invented by three scientists at the Bell Laboratories in 1947, rapidly replaced the vacuum tube as an electronic signal regulator.

• A transistor regulates current or voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate for electronic signals. • Transistors are the basic elements in integrated circuits (ICs), which consist of very large numbers of transistors interconnected with circuitry and baked into a single silicon microchip or "chip."


• Silicon conducts electricity to an extent that depends on the extent to which impurities are added .Silicon • Silicon is a chemical element present in sand (source is readily available). It is one of the best known semiconductor material in electronic components.

• Major Benefits – The major benefits of molecular electronics are a dramatic reduction in size and power consumption.Molecular Devices • Molecular Scale Electronic Devices – Molecular Computers are constructed from Molecular Scale Electronic Devices which are electronic devices that consist of only a few atoms and are constructed and interconnected by chemical means. .



easily used and widely available to industry. integrated with each other.Computational Science in NM • Computational Science comes in to develop tools for modeling and designing nanoscale systems. • The development of a range of computational tools. is the goal of the Nanomaterials researchers .

Why Computational? Modeling and simulation provides an opportunity to be smarter. modeling ensures that more value is obtained from experiments . quicker! Whilst experimental programs are vital.

the density functional methods and the Monte Carlo modeling are employed in Molecular dynamics to make predictions concerning nanoparticles (e.Examples • In electronics -dealing with electrons. or macromolecules. wetting properties). .g defect electronic properties.

Tools / software • NanoCad in Java A freeware nanotech design system • NanoDesign: Concepts and software for nanotechnology based on functionalized fullerenes • AccuModel Accurate 3-D models using the MM3 force field • Amoeba A simulator for nanotechnology • etc .

government will allocate $485M -On March 9th 2003.Funding – in the US As a measure of the interest and commitment by the U.S.For fiscal year 2001 the U. . government.For fiscal year 2002 the U. government allocated $422M .S. Congress approved $849 million for nanotechnology R&D for the fiscal year 2003 .S.

California has invested $100M to prime the creation of a $300M California Nanosystems Institute.Funding – Individual States Individual States are also investing to ensure that they can share in the prosperity and employment that this will bring. .

and Competitive and Sustainable Growth (GROWTH) . In the EU In terms of research funding. in Japan the importance of nanoscience to their economy is exemplified by the spending of $410M in the last fiscal year and the setting up of 30 university centers with expertise in nanoscale science and technology.Funding . the most important programs are: Improving the Quality of Life (QoL).elsewhere Similarly. Information Society Technologies (IST).

pdf http://www.pdf http://www.aist.htm http://archive.pdf nanotech_main.ul.htm http://press2.htm http://arxiv.Reference http://www.html .nanotechfoundation.html http://www.html

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