• • • • • • • NanoHistory NanoTechnology NanoMaterial NanoBiology NanoElectronic “NanoComputational Science” “NanoFunding”

History of NANO
• • • • • Tools 2,000,000 B.C. Metallurgy 3600 B.C. Steam power 1764 Mass production 1908 Automation 1946
– Moving from micrometer scale to nanometer scale devices

• Sixth industrial revolution NOW

Feynman Delivers “ Plenty of Room at the First Molecular Electronic Device Patented Scanning Tunneling Microscopic (STM) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Invented First single-electron transistor created Carbon Nanotubes Discovered US Launches National Nanotechnology ITRI Nano Research Center Established .Milestone • 1959 Bottom” • 1974 • 1981 • 1986 • 1987 • 1991 • 2000 Initiative • 2002. 01 R.

• One billion nanometers equals one meter .What is Nanomaterial? • Nanomaterials are commonly defined as materials with an average grain size less than 100 nanometers.

.000 nanometers.000 nanometers A single particle of smoke is in the order of 1.Comparisons The average width of a human hair is on the order of 100.

Why Nanotech? A small science with a huge potential .

.Why Nanotech? • Nanotechnology exploits benefits of ultra small size. enabling the use of particles to deliver a range of important benefits… – Small particles are ‘invisible’ : • Transparent Coatings/Films are attainable – Small particles are very weight efficient: • Surfaces can be modified with minimal material.

Components .

Weight efficient and Uniform coverage • Large spherical particles do not cover much surface area • Nanoparticles Equal mass of small platelet particles provides thorough coverage (1 x 106 times more) .

By patterning matter on the nano scale. it is possible to vary fundamental properties of materials without changing the chemical composition . devices and systems through control of matter on the nanometer(1~100nm) length scale and the exploitation of novel properties and phenomena developed at that scale.Nanotechnology • Nanotechnology: The creation of functional materials. • Why nano length scale ? .

Approaches • Top-down – Breaking down matter into more basic building blocks. . • Bottoms-up – Building complex systems by combining simple atomic-level components. Frequently uses chemical or thermal methods.

• Nanotube – Carbon nanotubes are tiny strips of graphite sheet rolled into tubes a few nanometers in diameter and up to hundreds of micrometers (microns) long.Different types of Nanomaterial • Nanopowder – Building blocks (less than 100 nm in diameter) for more complex nanostructures. – The Strongest Material .

heat. • Such as increased stronger and less breakable ceramics. • Exhibit improved magnetic and catalytic properties. They may conduct electrons. . ions. or light more readily then conventional materials.Nanopowders • Advanced nanophase materials synthesized from nanopowders have improved properties.

Possibly resulting in more efficient conduction of light or electricity. • Made of tight clusters of very small particles. .Advantages of Nanopowders • Continuous connections between large numbers of grains make the material more stretchable and ductile so it doesn't easily crack. resulting in overlapping electron clouds that induce quantum effects.

• Could use smaller nanoparticles to prevent clumping by forcing spacing.Nanopowder Applications • Useful in manufacturing inhalable drugs. often leading to clumping problems. . • Particles in the micrometer scale are deposited in the alveoli of the lung.

Pictures .

Nanotube • Carbon Nanotube(CNT) . . discovered as by products of fullerenes and now are considered to be the building blocks of future nanoscale electronic and mechanical devices.Originally.

et al. May.Ijyma.1991) (2) Single-Walled carbon Nanotube(SWNT) .et al.Nanotube • Discovery of CNT (1) Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube(MWNT) .R.Sumio Ijyma(Nature.2001) . (1993) (3) Single Crystals of SWNT . (Science.R.Bethune.Schlittler.

Basically.The hexagonal two dimensional lattice of graphite is mapped on a cylinder of radius R with various helicities characterized by the rolling vectors (n.Structure of Nanotube • SWNT atom structures . .sheets of graphite rolled up into a tube as shown figure. .m).

Manufacturing .

Manufacturing .

and diodes Microelectronic heat-sinks and insulation due to high thermal conductivity Nanoscale gears and mechanical components Electron guns for flat-panel displays Nanotube-buckyball encapsulation coupling for molecular computing with high RAM capacity . towers. and cables Material for making lightweight vehicles for all terrains Heavy-duty shock absorbers Open-ended straws for chemical probing and cellular injection Nanoelectronics including batteries capacitors.Nanotube applications Structural elements in bridges. buildings.

• Carbon nanotube transistors transformed into logic-performing integrated circuits. They encoded the entire inverter logic function along the length of a single carbon nanotube.or single-molecule -.logic circuit.Research from IBM • The IBM scientists used nanotubes to make a "voltage inverter" circuit. major step toward molecular computers • Aug 28 2001-breakthrough development of transistor technology . also known as a "NOT" gate . forming the world's first intramolecular -.

. exhibits an electrical current that flows through it in one direction in 10 to 30 picoseconds — 100 times faster than in a silicon photodiode.Spinach Proteins and Carbon Nanotubes • Spinach contains a chlorophyll-containing protein called Photosystem I (PSI. Next generation opto-electronics might be spinach based rather than silicon. pronounced PS One) that upon receiving a photon of light. • Applications in photo battery or solar electric cell.

Nanodevices in the Treatment of Cancer .

2. To be large enough they don’t just pass through the body. .Nanostructures in Biological Systems • Two major concerns 1. Need to be small enough they don’t accumulate in vital organs and create toxicity problems.

• Nanodevices smaller than 100 nanometers would be able to enter the cells and organelles where they could interact with DNA and proteins. .Biological Nanodevices • Bottom-up approach frequently used when constructing nanomaterials for use in medicine • Most animal cells are 10 to 20 thousand nanometers in diameter.

• Could also allow less invasive examination of living cells within the body. .Biological Nanodevices (cont) • This could assist with the detection of disease in very small cell or tissue samples.

need very sensitive technology. .Cancer Detection and Diagnosis • Currently done by physical examination or imaging techniques • Early molecular changes not detected by these methods. • Need to detect changes in small percentage of cells. “enter” nanostructures.


Improvements in Diagnostics • Nanodevices could exam tissue or cell samples without physically altering them. and less sample consuming diagnostic tests. more efficient. . • Leading to faster. • Improving miniaturization will allow nanodevices to contain the tools to perform multiple tests simultaneously.

. which can be used to detect the presence of these molecules.Cantilevers • Tiny levers that bind to molecules associated with cancerous tissue. (such as altered DNA sequences or proteins) • Surface tension changes lead to bonded cantilevers bending. • May allow detection of earlier stages of cancer.


• Monitor shape and electrical properties of each base as they pass through the nanopore. which are unique to the bases. one strand at a time.Nanopores • Helps researchers detect errors in the genetic cause that may lead to cancer. allow the nanopore to help decipher information encoded in the DNA. • Funnels DNA through. resulting in more efficient DNA sequencing. • Properties. .

• Used to detect the presence. • Bulky molecules designed to “tag” specific DNA mutations. and exact location.Nanotubes • Carbon rods approximately half the diameter of a DNA molecule. of altered genes. .

• Important because location of mutations influence the effects they have on the cell.Nanotubes (cont) • Nanotubes trace the physical shape of the DNA. outlining the mutated regions. .

Quantum dots within the beads can be used to identify specific regions of DNA. • Color of glow dependent on size. • Useful because cancer often results from accumulation of many different changes in cells. .Quantum Dots • Tiny crystals that glow when they are stimulated by ultraviolet light. • Create latex beads designed to bind to specific DNA sequences. • Diversity allows creation of many unique “dot labels” for DNA sequences.

Cancer Treatment • Nanotechnology may allow treatments that target cancer cells without harming nearby healthy cells. . • May allow creation of therapeutic agents that have a controlled. time-release strategy for delivering toxins.


release a lethal dose of intense heat. (in a laboratory) .Nanoshells • Upon absorbing infrared light. • Linking nanoshells to antibodies that recognize cancer cells has successfully allowed researchers to kill cancer cells without harming neighboring noncancerous tissue.

• Has a branching shape. • May be used to detect and treat cancer while reporting on the results of its attempts. . allowing the attachment of therapeutic devices and biologically active molecules.Dendrimers • Man-made molecule comparable in size to average protein.


nanopores. • Integrated devices may be available clinically in about 15 to 20 years. . • Therapeutic agents have a similar timeframe.Timetables (according to the NCI) • Quantum dots. and other detection and diagnosis devices may be available for clinical use in 5 to 15 years.

Nanotechnology in Electronic Applications .

Moore’s Law • Gordon Moore (co-founder of Intel) predicted in 1965 that the transistor density of semiconductor chips would double roughly every 18 months. • It's not a law! It's a prediction about what device physicists and process engineers can achieve .

Moore's Law Holding! .

By that time. • For example.Ambitious Predictions • Moore's Law will have run its course around 2019. . transistor features will be just a few atoms in width. But new computer architectures will continue the exponential growth of computing. computing cubes are already being designed that will provide thousands of layers of circuits.

which led to even-morepowerful products and a strong motive for customers to upgrade.Facts • Nanotechnology’s ability to continually increase the amount of data that fits on a microchip provided the industry with escalating computing speed and power. • However. . that miniaturization process collides with the physical limits of silicon. at some point.

Back In the Days

• The transistor, invented by three scientists at the Bell Laboratories in 1947, rapidly replaced the vacuum tube as an electronic signal regulator.

• A transistor regulates current or voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate for electronic signals. • Transistors are the basic elements in integrated circuits (ICs), which consist of very large numbers of transistors interconnected with circuitry and baked into a single silicon microchip or "chip."


It is one of the best known semiconductor material in electronic components.Silicon • Silicon is a chemical element present in sand (source is readily available). • Silicon conducts electricity to an extent that depends on the extent to which impurities are added .

• Major Benefits – The major benefits of molecular electronics are a dramatic reduction in size and power consumption.Molecular Devices • Molecular Scale Electronic Devices – Molecular Computers are constructed from Molecular Scale Electronic Devices which are electronic devices that consist of only a few atoms and are constructed and interconnected by chemical means. .



is the goal of the Nanomaterials researchers . easily used and widely available to industry. • The development of a range of computational tools. integrated with each other.Computational Science in NM • Computational Science comes in to develop tools for modeling and designing nanoscale systems.

Why Computational? Modeling and simulation provides an opportunity to be smarter. modeling ensures that more value is obtained from experiments . quicker! Whilst experimental programs are vital.

wetting properties). the density functional methods and the Monte Carlo modeling are employed in Molecular dynamics to make predictions concerning nanoparticles (e.Examples • In electronics -dealing with electrons.g defect electronic properties. . or macromolecules.

Tools / software • NanoCad in Java A freeware nanotech design system • NanoDesign: Concepts and software for nanotechnology based on functionalized fullerenes • AccuModel Accurate 3-D models using the MM3 force field • Amoeba A simulator for nanotechnology • etc .

S.For fiscal year 2001 the U. government. government will allocate $485M -On March 9th 2003.Funding – in the US As a measure of the interest and commitment by the U. . government allocated $422M .S.For fiscal year 2002 the U. Congress approved $849 million for nanotechnology R&D for the fiscal year 2003 .S.

California has invested $100M to prime the creation of a $300M California Nanosystems Institute. .Funding – Individual States Individual States are also investing to ensure that they can share in the prosperity and employment that this will bring.

and Competitive and Sustainable Growth (GROWTH) . the most important programs are: Improving the Quality of Life (QoL).elsewhere Similarly. in Japan the importance of nanoscience to their economy is exemplified by the spending of $410M in the last fiscal year and the setting up of 30 university centers with expertise in nanoscale science and technology.Funding . Information Society Technologies (IST). In the EU In terms of research funding.

riken.html .Reference anomaterials.htm http://www.html http://press2.htm http://arxiv.pdf http://www.nanotechfoundation.go.aist.ornl.html http://www.uiuc.nih.pdf http://www.

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