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6th Semester

Batch 2015-2019

Submitted to: Submitted by: Group#8

Miss Sehrish Noreen Muhammad Faizan 2015-PE- 14
Muhammad Sohail 2015-PE-15
Adnan Akram 2015-PE-19
Hafiz Tanveer Ashraf 2015-PE-20
Muhammad Afzaal 2015-PE-48

University of Engineering and Technology Lahore

Instrumentation and Control Lab


Experiment Title 3
Objectives 3
Introduction 3
Instrumentation overview 4
Control Loops 7
References 9
Instrumentation and Control Lab


➢ To study and demonstration of the temperature process rig.
➢ To apply control loops on temperature process rig.

Figure 1: Temperature Process Rig

The basic of this experiment is to control the temperature of the process with the use of heat
exchanger. This process contains temperature process rig. The temperature rig has two isolated
water circuits. The primary circuit which is used normally as heat source comprises:
• A heater
• A centrifugal pump
• A servo valve for flow control
• A pulse flow meter
• A header tank
• A heat exchanger
The secondary circuit contains a heat exchanger and a cooling radiator.
Instrumentation and Control Lab

The primary circuit is self-contained and has to be filled before the system is used. The secondary
circuit is normally supplied via flexible hoses, from the Basic Control Rig which is set up to
provide a controlled flow. The temperature sensors called as thermistors are used at the inlet and
outlet streams of both the primary and secondary sides of the heat exchanger and the outlet of the
Instrumentation overview:
Heat Exchanger:
A major element in the topic of process control is the heat exchanger. A Heat Exchanger may be
defined as a Mechanical device which transfer the heat from hot fluid to cold fluid, with maximum
rate, with minimum investment and with running cost. Shell and tube heat exchanger is used in
this rig. The shell-and-tube is the most common type of heat exchanger used in petrochemical
industries because it is suitable for low and high pressure. It consists of an outer shell with a bundle
of tubes inside. The tubes are oriented in a straight or in a "U" shape. One fluid runs through the
tubes, and another fluid flows through the shell surrounding the tubes to transfer heat between the
two fluids. The set of tubes is known as a "tube bundle."

Figure 2: Schematic of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Working Principle:
One fluid runs through the tubes, and another fluid flows over the tubes (through the shell) to
transfer heat between the two fluids.

The Thermistor Temperature Transmitter is a device which takes temperature information from
the thermistors (T1 - T5) and transmits it to the Process Interface (PI). A thermistor is a device,
the electrical characteristics of which alter in a predictable way with a change of temperature. The
resistance of a thermistor is a function of the temperature around it, or 'ambient' temperature. The
Thermistor Temperature Transmitter reads the resistance value and converts it to a 4-20 mA signal
with respect to actual temperature. When using the thermistor and transmitter combination,
temperature measurements are carried out to monitor a process parameter. This parameter is
Instrumentation and Control Lab

monitored and used to determine the control effort that should be applied to control the process
correctly. In this experiment Thermistor Temperature Transmitter (TTT) is used.
There are five such devices included with the Temperature Process Rig. They are positioned to
measure the temperature at five points around the secondary and primary flows. In the primary
flow they are positioned before (T1) and after (T2) the heat exchanger. This is obviously crucial in
observing the cooling effect of the heat transfer. In the secondary flow they are also positioned
before (T3) and after (T4) the heat exchanger. The fifth device is placed at the output (T5) of the
radiator in order to show the temperature of the flow before and after cooling has taken place.

Centrifugal pump
Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the
hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an engine or
electric motor.

Figure 3: Schematic of Centrifugal Pump

Working Principle
The most common is the volute pump - where fluid enters the pump through the eye of the impeller
which rotates at high speed. The fluid accelerates radially outward from the pump chasing and a
vacuum is created at the impellers eye that continuously draws more fluid into the pump.

Cooler (Radiator):
Radiator is one of the type of the heat exchanger that is designed to transfer the heat which the
coolant has absorbed from the system. Radiators are simple heat exchangers which usually
distribute the heat by natural air circulation (very little heat is transferred through radiation). The
main reason for the cooler on the Temperature Process Rig (TPR) is to drop the temperature of the
heated return fluid (secondary flow). The overall effect of this process is to prevent the secondary
flow circuit (water in the tank of the BPR) from heating up too quickly. This is achieved using a
Instrumentation and Control Lab

cooler, which consists of a radiator and a fan unit, commonly known as an Air Blow Water Cooler.
The radiator itself comprises an aluminum structure of heat dissipating fins, whereby the fluid to
be cooled passes behind. To increase the cooling efficiency, a fan is attached to the rear of the
radiator to draw air through the radiator dissipating the heat from the fins.

Figure 4: Schematic of Radiator

Servo valve:
In electrohydraulic servo valve (EHSV) is an electrically operated valve that
controls how hydraulic fluid is sent to an actuator. Servo valves are often used to control
powerful hydraulic cylinders with a very small electrical signal. Servo valves can provide
precise control of position, velocity, pressure, and force with good post movement damping

Figure 5: Servo Valve

Instrumentation and Control Lab

Working Principle:
An electric command signal (flow rate set point) is applied to the
integrated position controller which drives the pilot stage. The thereby deflected nozzle
flapper system produces a pressure difference across the drive areas of the spool and
affects its movement. The position transducer (LVDT) which is excited via an oscillator
measures the position of the spool (actual value, position voltage). This signal is then
demodulated and fed back to the controller where it is compared with the command signal.
The controller drives the pilot stage until the error between command signal and feedback
signal will be zero. Thus, the position of the spool is proportional to the electric command

Control Loops:
Temperature Process Rig Feed Forward Control with Product Backward Compensation:

Manipulated variable = Flow rate of feed

Final control element = Heat Exchanger
Control variable = Temperature of fluid
Sensor = Pulse flow sensor and Temperature sensor
Instrumentation and Control Lab

Feed Backward Loop for Temperature Control:

Manipulated variable = Flow rate of feed

Final control element = Heat exchanger
Control variable = Temperature of Fluid
Sensor = Temperature sensor

Feed Backward Loop for Level Control:

Instrumentation and Control Lab

Manipulated variable = Flow rate of feed

Final control element = Heat exchanger
Control variable = Temperature of Fluid
Sensor = Temperature sensor