CHAPTER 1: Consumer Behavior

Nature Scope and Importance of Consumer behavior. :
Consumer behavior is defined as “The dynamic interaction of affect and cognition, behavior and the environment b which human beings conduct the exchange aspects of lives”. IT means that the buying habits of the consumer are greatly affected by their thought process and their feelings experienced. Human beings are greatly influenced in their buying actions by various factors like opinion of others, marketing stimuli like product, advertising, packaging and product appearance. Importance of Consumer behavior: • Ever increasing intensifying competition. • More aggressive competitors emerging with greater frequency. • Changes basis of competition. • Geographic sources of competition are becoming wider. • Niche attacks are becoming frequent. • Pace of innovation is rapid. • Price competition becoming more aggressive • Product differentiation is declining. As a principal, the marketing concept involves understanding the needs of the consumers and translating these needs into products or services to satisfy these needs. The basic objective in marketing is to achieve the goal of profit making through customer satisfaction. To do this, an organization should understand the consumer and be as close to them as possible. 1 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd Consumer behavior is Dynamic: The feelings, thinking, perceptions and actions of the customer and the society at large keep changing frequently. For example number of working women is on rise and this has changed the concept of shopping. The dynamic nature of the consumer behaviour offers challenges to marketers and the task of creating marketing strategies becomes complex, and exciting. Strategies that work today may not work tomorrow. Strategies adopted in one market ma not work in another. The product life cycle are becoming

and actions and the environment. feelings. Much of consumer behaviour involves people giving up money to obtain product and services. product potential. purchase. new product launch. each element like product mix. distribution mix. and consumption. it is extremely critical for and organization to monitor the customer relationship on a regular basis. price. consumer acceptance of a product. The role of marketing in society is to help create exchange by formulating and implementing marketing strategies. helps in consumer measurement. Consumer Research: Consumer research is the systematic collection and analysis of consumer information for the purpose of important decision making for marketing. People give up something of value to others and receive something in return. This forces marketer to understand three things: • What products and services mean to customers. sales forecasting. Mahindra and mahindra had to come out with ‘Scorpio’ within launch of ‘Bolero’. • Non-routing problem analysis .i. that is. Needs for Consumer Research: • How do consumers interpret information about marketing stimuli such as .i. • What consumers need to do to purchase and consumer products and services? Consumer behaviour involves exchange: Consumer behaviour involves exchanges between human beings. Consumer behaviour involves interactions: Consumer behaviour involves interactions among peoples thinking.e. market potential.shorter and create additional pressures on marketers to bring innovative products and concepts. success of promotional schemes. The concept ‘value’ changes from time to time. 2 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd 2. exchanges consumers and sellers. In fiercely competitive situation.e. • What influences shopping. effectiveness of an advertisement campaign. Consumer research plays an important role in marketing process. sales forecast. Consumer research is used for two purposes: • Routine problem analysis .

marketers often find information compiled by the U.g.. There is no one perfect primary research method. and that the respondent is not being influenced by seeing .S.. "In which city and state were you born? ____________") or closed-ended. However. Surveys can contain open-ended questions (e. and thus the appropriate method must be selected based on research needs. For example.") Open ended questions have the advantage that the respondent is not limited to the options listed.g. information specific enough to satisfy a firm’s needs is not publicly available.products. stores. and brands? • How do consumers form evaluation of products and brands? • How does consumer interpret the benefits of market offerings? • How do behaviour and environment affect consumer beliefs and attitudes? • Why consumers are more interested or involved in some products or brands than others? • How d marketing strategies influence consumer’s beliefs and attitudes? Answers to such questions can only be obtained through consumer feedback and for this it is imperative to study Consumer Research and integrate it into the overall marketing function. "__Male ___ Female. Each has strengths and weaknesses. where the respondent is asked to select answers from a brief list (e. products. Census very useful. Secondary research uses research that has already been done by someone else. in some cases. For example. a firm will have to run its own research to find out whether consumers would prefer that more vanilla taste be added to its soft drink brand. and advertising? • How do consumers choose from among alternative product classes. 3 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd Approaches to Consumer Research: There are two main categories of research methods. Original research that a firm does for itself is known as primary research. Surveys are useful for getting a great deal of specific information.

The wording of a question can influence the outcome a great deal. if a market share of twenty percent would result in a loss while thirty percent would be profitable. and coding them can be quite a challenge. Finally. Mail surveys are relatively inexpensive. interviewer bias is a danger. The respondent may catch on and say something more positive than his or her real opinion. Mall intercepts are a convenient way to reach consumers. For example. too. but not many questions can be asked because many answer options have to be repeated and few people are willing to stay on the phone for more than five minutes. 4 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd A survey. the respondents’ answers may not be representative of the population. For example. is vulnerable to bias. as any kind of research. In general. open-ended questions are often skipped by respondents. but respondents may be reluctant to discuss anything sensitive face-to-face with an interviewer. for surveys to yield meaningful responses. a response bias may occur—if only part of the sample responds to a survey. Phonesurveys get somewhat higher response rates. a confidence interval of 20-35% is too wide to be useful. but response rates are typically quite low—typically from 5-20%. unconsciously an interviewer that works for the firm manufacturing the product in question may smile a little when something good is being said about the product and frown a little when something negative is being said. For example. more people answered no to the question "Should speeches against democracy be allowed?" than answered yes to "Should speeches against democracy be forbidden?" For face-to-face interviews. Surveys come in several different forms. sample sizes of over 100 are usually required because precision is essential. .a list of responses. However. Interviewer bias occurs when the interviewer influences the way the respondent answers.

that we observe that sales of our brand increase when we send out coupons. we carefully control what varies. have a serious drawback in that the consumer is removed from his or her natural surroundings. and only gradually move toward the . without question of the validity of the research. figuring that they are being paid. the others do not. thus. may give more attention to the advertisements than they would at home. In an experiment. Suppose. however.8% of listeners to the Armed Forces Network wanted to listen to Rush Limbaugh. Half of the respondents are randomly selected and get a coupon. Experiments do. Focus groups are especially useful if we do not have specific questions to ask yet. It turned out. In this case. if we pay some consumers to come into a lab and watch TV "as you normally would. that only 3. Experiments are used when the researcher wants to rule out all but one explanation for a particular observation. we can be more confident that differences in brand choice were due to the coupon. that this inference was based on the question "What single thing can we do to improve programming?" Only if a respondent wrote in an answer mentioning Rush Limbaugh were he or she counted as wanting to listen to Rush." these consumers. However. we invite in one hundred people and ask them to shop in a simulated store. We start out talking broadly about the need that a product might serve. 5 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd Focus groups involve getting a group of 6-12 consumers together to discuss product usage. however. It was reported in the national media. since we don’t know what consumers’ concerns might be. For example. retailers may also give us better shelf space when the coupon is out. for example. we can’t tell if it was the coupon or the shelf-placement that caused sales to increase—the two variables are confounded. Since the only difference here was whether the subjects got a coupon or not.The case of "The Pentagon Declares War on Rush Limbaugh" illustrated that biased surveys are often taken at face value.

Personal interviews involve in-depth questioning of an individual about his or her interest in or experiences with a product. Gradually. For example. or preferences. and it can be repositioned). Drawbacks of focus groups include high costs and the fact that generalization toward the entire population is difficult for such small sample sizes. we address sugar content and concerns that consumers have about that. people will tend to respond more openly about "someone else. or to tell a story about a person in a picture who is or is not using a product. we may ask them to explain reasons why a friend has not yet bought a computer. we then move toward concerns people have about snacks. Eventually. The main problem with this . Projective techniques are used when a consumer may feel embarrassed to admit to certain opinions. It has been found that in such cases. For example.product itself. many older executives may not be comfortable admitting to being intimidated by computers. The benefit here is that we can get really into depth (when the respondent says something interesting." Thus. we can ask him or her to elaborate). feelings. We postpone our consideration of the actual product toward the end because we want to be sure that we find out about the consumer’s needs and desires rather than what he or she thinks about the specific product we have on the drawing board right now (that product can be changed. Only toward the end of the session do we show consumers the actual product we are considering and ask for feedback. The fact that focus groups involve social interaction also means that participants may say what they think will make themselves look good rather than what they really believe (the social desirability bias). but this method of research is costly and can be extremely vulnerable to interviewer bias. a firm considering the marketing of sugar free cookies might start out its group talking about snacks—why people consume them and the benefits they expect.

it was found that many of these Japanese consumers scrutinized packages looking for a name of a major manufacturer— the product specific-brands that are common in the U. Types of Data: Primary Data: Data collected at first hand either by the researcher or by someone especially for the purpose of the study are known as primary data. The characteristic features of learning are as under: • Learning involves a change in behaviour.. For example.S. For example. This change may or may not be an important over previous behaviour. which continuously evolves and changes as a result of newly acquired knowledge. who wanted a name of a major firm like Mitsubishi or Proctor & Gamble.(e. some American manufacturers were concerned about low sales of their products in Japan. advertisers may want to measure a consumer’s level of arousal during various parts of an advertisement. • Learning is a process. Physiological measures are occasionally used to examine consumer response. .method is that it is difficult to analyze responses. or whether nutritional labels are being consulted. Looking at how consumers select products may yield insights into how they make decisions and what they look for. • Learning can occur by increase in knowledge through reading books. Consumer Learning: Learning is defined as a permanent change in the behaviour of a consumer as a result of past experience. Secondary Data: Data which have been collected earlier for some other purpose are secondary data in hands of marketing researcher. Observation may help us determine how much time consumers spend comparing prices.g. Tide) were not impressive to the Japanese. 7 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd 3. 6 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd Observation of consumers is often a powerful tool. Observing Japanese consumers.

Intentional learning occurs when the individual is deliberately searching for the information on the feature. organizes it and draws significance or meaning from it. 8 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd 4. sensual and not intimidating. Pepsi attempt to cash on the blue colour of the Indian cricket team during the recent World Cup cricket matches . observation. Evidence suggests that red is regarded as warm. Incidental learning occurs when the information comes to him on its own either through the print or electronic media. benefits etc of the product before a purchase. Thus we see that learning is based on two vital aspects that are behaviour and experience.articles. and interpretation of marketing and environmental stimuli into a cohesive picture. whereby an individual selects data or information from the environment. Characteristics Affecting Perception: Characteristic effecting perception can be divided into sensory elements and structural elements. • Perception being an intellectual and cognitive process will be subjective in nature. • The behaviour change is based on some form of practice or exception. Colour: Colour has important sensory connotations. Consumer Perception: It is selection. thinking. Blue is seen as conforming and is regarded to be colour that attempts to convey friendlier image. organization. Following are the some feature of perception. which are as under: • Perception is a mental process. Learning can be either intentional or incidental. emotions. and through discussions. are based on his perception of his perception of his surroundings or environment. • Perception is a basically a cognitive or thinking process and an individual’s activities. feelings etc. exhibitions etc. This means that different people may perceive the same environment differently based on the effect of the environment.

s Feel: The feel of certain products will also influence consumer’s perceptions. clothing. The ‘Binaca geetmala’ was characterised by the voice of Amin Sayani. This is because Indians are more used to identify blue with kerosene and their long term association with blue colour of kerosene led to call blue Pepsi as Ghaslet Pepsi. The chips were packed in an easy-to-stack cylindrical can to avoid breakage of chips. two fragrances were added to the same facial tissue. Consumers perceived one facial issue as elegant and expensive and the other as a product to use in the kitchen.has received a similar response. more it is able to attract the attention of potential consumers. Advertisers have traditionally used accent to convey status and authority. Consumer often use of a textile fabric. Such large . Sound: Sound is another important sensory stimulus. Further consumers felt that the chips tasted like tennis ball. a smooth. Structural Elements: Intensity and Size: The brighter and advertisement and larger the size. Many retailers in Mumbai call it ‘Ghaslet Pepsi’. The consumers responded by saying that the packaging resembles a tennis ball can. Feel is also a means of determining quality. 9 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd Taste: Taste is another sensory factor that will condition consumers brand perceptions. velvety feel in textile fabrics is considered an indication of quality. carpeting. Even in case of serials. The importance of taste is illustrated by P&G blunder when it first introduced Pringles potato chips. voice is being used to create an impact on the masses. In one study. Softness is considered a desirable attribute in many paper products. For example. or furniture to evaluate quality. Smell: Smell is important for food products and cosmetics products.

Contrast: A black and white advertisement with a small spot used by Jet Airways is likely to attract attention. ‘Frooti’ was the first to introduce the soft drink in tetra pack or when Pepsi and Coke were launched in small cans. 10 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd Position: Attraction towards and advertisement depends largely on the place where it is positioned. frequent users of a product are better able to notice small difference in product characteristic between brands. A quite commercial after a loud program can attract attention like the advertisement of ‘De Beers’ diamond after listening to a frantic rock show. Repetition is particularly important in case of low involvement convenience goods like soaps. the placement of product for display on shelves at the retail outlet plays an important role in attracting the attention of the consumers. Generally. Consumer Characteristics Affecting Perception: Stimulus Discrimination: One of the basic questions regarding the effect of marketing stimuli. Similarly. toothpastes. 11 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd Threshold levels: .advertisements can be in the form of full page advertisements in newspapers or in the form of large hoardings on the road. The ability to discriminate among stimuli is learned. Repetition: Advertisements are repeated often to enable consumers to brand recall as well as stimulate them and create a strong desire for interest in the purchase of the product. For e. Novelty: It is observed that anything which is different from what is normally expected tends to attract attention like an unusual bottle shape or different packaging material.g. Positioning includes the page of a newspaper.

Just Noticeable difference: It is based on the differential threshold of a consumer. kitchen full of . if the same unbranded product costs less than 30 percent less than he is definitely going to notice the difference. If price of a Mercedes Benz S class is reduced by 25000/-. It is also referred to as subliminal perception .e. An individual walking into an air-conditioned room.g. 12 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd Adaptation law: It is the level at which consumer’s no longer notice a frequently repeated stimulus. Weber’s Law: It states that the stronger the stimulus. This will be quite clear from the fact tea and coffee companies employ persons called tea or coffee ‘tasters’. Absolute Threshold: It is stimulus below which consumers cannot detect the stimulus at all. One critical implication is that the higher the original price of an item.may not be noticeable for consumers. it will not have any impact on sales because the basic price is in several Lakhs that a difference of Rs25000/.for a maruti 800 is seen to push sales substantially because of its low original price. perception of stimulus below the conscious level.The ability of consumer to detect the various in sensory elements is determined by their threshold level. If an unbranded detergent cost 5 percent less that consumer is regular brand. However. The most important application of this law is in price. the greater the markdown required to increase sales. the greater the change required for the stimulus to be seen as different. One of the major controversies regarding consumer perceptions is whether consumers can actually perceive marketing stimuli below their absolute level. On the other hand a price reduction of even Rs5000/. Some consumers are more sensitive to these stimuli than others. the consumer ma not notice the difference.g. For e.i. A consumer will not be able to detect any change in stimulus below his threshold. For e.

it moved back to its strength. when he considers the product be important and strongly identifies with it. In the late eighties. cricket gear for a .g.g. Conditions for involvement: A consumer is likely to be more involved with a product when: • The consumer’s self image is tied to the product e. Price and Quality Perceptions: Price perceptions directly influence consumer’s perceptions of brand quality and determine their purchasing behaviour. This shift made the company profitable again. high priced fountain pens. • Product is expensive .g. Parker pens were positioned as expensive.g.g. contrast. with an ad campaign featuring style and luxury.fragrance. Rolex watches have s symbolic value of the affluent class. Similarly. In order to achieve large volume of growth and to share a pie of the explosive growing ballpoints. • Product has a symbolic meaning tied to consumer values e. Some tune out more quickly then others. The results were disastrous because company’s image was not consistent with its price. hand finished pens. Jewellery. ownership of a BMW car. aggressive youth craving for power identify themselves with the Enfield Bullet. 13 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd 5. a cross pen. real estate etc.e. fuel efficiency of a vehicle. Khadi is preferred by politicians and budding politicians. Consumer differs in their level of adaptation. we find politician preferring a multi-utility vehicle like Scorpio or Tata Safari. Parker entered this market for cheap pens moving away from its traditional positioning. Novelty. Consumer Involvement: Involvement: A consumer is said to have a high involvement in purchase. • It has some important functional value e. For e. and movement are all stimulus effects that may gain consumer’s attention and reduce their attention and reduce their adaptation. or a noisy party will notice these stimuli after a period of time. humour.

For e. A consumer may hold both positive beliefs toward an object (e. buying a house. (3) and behavioral intentions toward some object--within the context of marketing. For example..g. Beliefs . but not good on a hot summer evening when one .cricketer. • Product is continually of interest to the consumer . coffee is easily spilled and stains papers). and some may be differ in valance depending on the person or the situation (e.g.g..g. • Product has an emotional appeal e.. some beliefs may be neutral (coffee is black). These components are viewed together since they are highly interdependent and together represent forces that influence how the consumer will react to the object. usually a brand or retail store. • Product is identified with the norms of the group.g. School children buying ‘Pokemans’ articles. • Product entails significant risk e. The first component is beliefs. buying of articles for religious purpose. a person buying suit for marriage. buying a technology complex product. E. Formal dressing for the marriage is a necessary and hence a person not very fashion-conscious about clothes gets involved temporary for his marriage in a piece of suit. Attitudes: Consumer attitudes are a composite of a consumer’s (1) beliefs about. 14 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd Type of Involvement: Situational Involvement: It is one that occurs only in specific situations and is temporary.g. In addition. coffee tastes good) as well as negative beliefs (e. buying of a gift article. coffee is hot and stimulates--good on a cold morning.g. (2) feelings about. Enduring Involvement: It indicates an ongoing interest in the product category. fashion-conscious customer has continuous appeal in clothing and apparel.g.e.

she may lack a driver’s license.. o Social influence. although a consumer does not really like a restaurant... that pork contains little fat). Attitude-Behavior Consistency . Consumers often do not behave consistently with their attitudes for several reasons: o Ability. this is sometimes a logical consequence of beliefs (or affect).. He or she may be unable to do so. Affect . 15 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd Behavioral intention. an extreme environmentalist may believe that cutting down trees is morally wrong. o Measurement problems.. A student thinks that smoking is really cool. but may sometimes reflect other circumstances--e. but may have positive affect toward Christmas trees because he or she unconsciously associates these trees with the experience that he or she had at Christmas as a child. he or she will go there because it is a hangout for his or her friends.g. upon closer examination. be contradictory (e.g. that a historical figure was a good person but also owned slaves).g. but there may also be feelings which are relatively independent of beliefs. Although junior high school student likes pickup trucks and would like to buy one.g. a person feels nauseated when thinking about a hamburger because of the tremendous amount of fat it contains). As with affect. Although the above student would like to buy a pickup truck on her sixteenth birthday. he does not smoke. buy or not buy the brand). For example. and some beliefs may. Sometimes these feelings are based on the beliefs (e.g. Note also that the beliefs that consumers hold need not be accurate (e. The behavioral intention is what the consumer plans to do with respect to the object (e. but since his friends think it’s disgusting. Consumers also hold certain feelings toward brands or other objects. . she would rather have a computer.wants to sleep). o Competing demands for resources. and has money for only one of the two.

the more a product is advertised and seen in stores. it attempts to create a warm. we can try to get people to like the advertisement and hope that this liking will "spill over" into the purchase of a product. consumers often do not give very reliable answers. o Changing behavior. chances are that they will continue unless someone is able to get . which were never uncovered because an erroneous measurement was made. products which are better known. In many situations. which may or may not involve getting consumers to change their beliefs. Alternatively. fuzzy image. consumers do not consciously set out to enumerate how positively or negatively they feel about mopeds.. how important these beliefs are. o Attitude Change Strategies. to get the consumer to buy more or to switch brands). we "pair" a car with a beautiful woman. even if consumers to do not develop any specific beliefs about the product. One strategy uses the approach of classical conditioning try to "pair" the product with a liked stimulus. People like to believe that their behavior is rational. For example. tend to be better liked--that is. particularly when consumers suspect that the marketer has a self-serving agenda in bringing about this change (e. One approach is to try to change affect. For example.Measuring attitudes is difficult. Changing attitudes is generally very difficult. the more it will generally be liked. through the mere exposure effect.g. Thus. the main emphasis is on the likeable bunny. Although Energizer Bunny ads try to get people to believe that their batteries last longer. once they use our products. the consumers may act consistently with their true attitudes. instead. and when a market researcher asks them about their beliefs about mopeds. the Pillsbury Doughboy does not really emphasize the conveyance of much information to the consumer. and their evaluation of the performance of mopeds with respect to these beliefs. Finally. thus. 16 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd o Changing affect.

a vitamin supplement manufacturer may advertise that it is extremely important for women to replace iron lost through menstruation.them to switch. and provided extensive factual evidence in its advertising to support this reality. A better way to get people to switch to our brand is to at least temporarily obtain better shelf space so that the product is more convenient.. this is often difficult to achieve because consumers tend to resist.e. they may justify the purchase based on that deal (i. when consumers buy a product on deal. For example. it is usually not feasible to make beliefs less important-consumers are likely to reason. Most consumers already agree with . by the way. Although the sugar manufacturers would undoubtedly like to decrease the importance of healthy teeth. would you bother bringing them up in the first place? However. It is generally very difficult to attempt to change beliefs that people hold. it may be possible to strengthen beliefs that favour us--e. Consumers are less likely to use this availability as a rationale for their purchase and may continue to buy the product even when the product is less conveniently located. particularly those that are strongly held.g. Although attempting to change beliefs is the obvious way to attempt attitude change. particularly when consumers hold unfavorable or inaccurate ones. (Notice. o Change the importance of beliefs. the petroleum industry advertised for a long time that its profits were lower than were commonly believed. o Changing beliefs. that this represents a case of shaping). why. then. Consumers were suspicious and rejected this information. Several approaches to belief change exist: 17 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd o Change currently held beliefs.. however. even if they are inaccurate. however. the low price) and may then switch to other brands on deal later. One way to get people to switch to our brand is to use temporary price discounts and coupons.

but very safe) or (2) admits something positive about a competing brand (e. o Change ideal. in the above examples.this.g. two-sided appeals.. o Add beliefs. It usually difficult. Attitude research has shown that consumers often tend to react more favorably to advertisements which either (1) admit something negative about the sponsoring brand (e. but enough to scare people into action and (2) a way to avoid the feared stimulus is explicitly indicated--e. which sounds quite plausible to most people.. Hard Candy may have attempted to change the ideal away from traditional beauty toward more unique self expression. but offers less service and selection). the Volvo is a clumsy car.. contain overriding arguments why the sponsoring brand is ultimately superior--that is. to attempt to change ideals. gingivitis and tooth loss can be avoided by using this mouth . Thus. Fear appeals appear to work only if (1) an optimal level of fear is evoked--not so much that people tune it out. the beef industry has added beliefs that beef (1) is convenient and (2) can be used to make a number of creative dishes. a competing supermarket has slightly lower prices. The use of affect to induce empathy with advertising characters may increase attraction to a product. Vitamin manufacturers attempt to add the belief that stress causes vitamin depletion. Two-sided appeals must. but may backfire if consumers believe that people’s feelings are being exploited.g. o One-sided vs. and very risky. Consumers are less likely to resist the addition of beliefs so long as they do not conflict with existing beliefs. 18 Usage & Attitude study Raymond Apparel Ltd o Appeal approaches. and only few firms succeed. For example. the "but" part must be emphasized. Several approaches to appeal may be used. but the belief can be made stronger.g.

but does not appear to increase persuasion in practice. we know and believe that a person who is skilled and works hard will get ahead. custom. In the U. as a "complex whole. In addition. In other countries." The belief among ancient Chinese that they were in the centre of the universe greatly influenced their thinking. Comparative advertising. Humor appears to be effective in gaining attention." is a system of interdependent components. which may in turn result in increased sales. culture represents influences that are imposed on the consumer by other individuals. . we make the following observations: • Culture. "Chunking. o Culture: Culture is part of the external influences that impact the consumer. it may be believed that differences in outcome result more from luck. art. That is. • Knowledge and beliefs are important parts. morals.. belief.S." From this definition. but may backfire in certain cultures.wash. often increases sales for the sponsoring brand. The definition of culture offered in the text is "That complex whole which includes knowledge." the name for China in Chinese literally means "The Middle Kingdom. a more favorable attitude toward the advertisement may be created by humorous advertising. and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man person as a member of society. which is illegal in many countries.