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# Universidad Autónoma de Baja California

Valle de las palmas

Profesor Oscar Adrián Morales.

Alumno Efren Brigada Abarca.
Grupo 567

Materia Mecánica de fluidos II

Lectura IV y V

EFREN BRIGADA ABARCA GRUPO 567 MECANICA FLUIDOS II

changes in velocity and pressure are studied at fixed positions in space x. Reading # 4 Fundamentals of flow There are two methods for studying the movement of flow. When water runs out while the handle is stationary. z and at time t. Steady flow and unsteady flow A flow whose flow state expressed by velocity. at any position. the flow is steady. density. rather than following any particular fluid particle. EFREN BRIGADA ABARCA GRUPO 567 MECANICA FLUIDOS II . y. pressure. is called a steady flow. does not change with time. The other hand. leaving the opening constant.. The curve where the tangent at each point indicates the direction of fluid at that point is a streamline. a flow whose flow state does change with time is called an unsteady flow. One is a method which follows any arbitrary particle with its kaleidoscopic changes in velocity and acceleration. From the definition of a streamline. Streamline and stream tube A curve formed by the velocity vectors of each fluid particle at a certain time is called a streamline. since the velocity vector has no normal component. there is no flow which crosses the streamline. A streamline is obtained by drawing a curve following this flow trace. etc. The other is a method by which. This is called the Lagrangian method.

Three-dimensional.d/v is called the critical Reynolds number. He discovered that a laminar flow turns to a turbulent flow when the value of the non. He called the former flow the laminar flow. = v. y and z directions. two-dimensional and one-dimensional flow All general flows such as a ball flying in the air and a flow around a moving automobile have velocity components in x. Coloured liquid was led to the entrance of a glass tube. glass tube diameter d. 15 and 27 mm diameter and water temperatures from 4 to 44°C. water density p and water viscosity p. Expressing the velocity components in the x. The value of Re. and the flow velocity at the time when the laminar flow had turned to turbulent flow the critical velocity. is called the lower critical Reynolds number. As the valve was gradually opened by the handle. as shown. They are called three-dimensional flows. Whenever the velocity is the critical velocity v. but the Reynolds number at which the flow remains laminar. EFREN BRIGADA ABARCA GRUPO 567 MECANICA FLUIDOS II . like a piece of thread without mixing with peripheral water. 9.. however agitated the tank water.dimensional quantity pvd/p reaches a certain amount whatever the values of the average velocity v. is much affected by the turbulence existing in the fluid coming into the tube. y and z axial directions as u. the colored liquid flowed. Re. Reynolds used the device shown. u and w. Laminar flow and turbulent flow One man who systematically studied such states of flow was Osborne Reynolds. the latter flow the turbulent flow. Reynolds number Conducted many experiments using glass tubes of 7.

Although the liquid makes a rotary movement.Incompressible and compressible fluids Liquid is called an incompressible fluid. its microelements always face the same direction without performing rotation. A flow which changes as time elapses is called an unsteady flow. and most of the flows studied in hydrodynamics are steady flows. Put appropriate words in the blanks _______ below. density and pressure of flow in a steady flow are functions of position only. while undergoing deformation and rotation. 1. and gas a compressible fluid. Flows such as when a valve is laminar or the turbulent from a tank belong to this flow. The case of a liquid it becomes necessary to take compressibility into account whenever the liquid is highly pressurised. density and pressure of flow in an unsteady flow are functions of position and time. EFREN BRIGADA ABARCA GRUPO 567 MECANICA FLUIDOS II . velocity. Rotation and spinning of liquid Fluid particles running through a narrow channel flow. (a) A flow which does not change as time elapses is called a steady flow. velocity. the integrated u: (which is the velocity component in the tangential direction of the velocity us at a given point on this curve) along this same curve is called the circulation. This case is a kind of irrotational flow called free vortex flow. Circulation Assuming a given closed curve s.

is this flow laminar or turbulent? Assume that the kinematic viscosity of water is 1 x 10-6 m2/s.31416 m 𝑚 𝑉𝑐 = 1.3) 𝑅𝑒 = = = 60000 𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑜 µ 1 x 10−6 4.03 m V = 2 m/s2 µw = 1 x 10-6 m2/s Vc D 2 (0.493 𝑚2 /𝑠 𝑠 3. 31416 𝑚) = 0.05 m n𝜋𝐷 300𝜋. obtain the equation of the streamline for this flow: EFREN BRIGADA ABARCA GRUPO 567 MECANICA FLUIDOS II . If the flow velocity is given by the following equations for a twodimensional flow.1 𝑉𝑐 = 𝑉𝑃𝑒 𝑉= = = 1.57 𝑚/𝑠 60 60 𝑃𝑒 = 𝜋𝐷 = 𝜋. Re =2320 D = 0. When water is running in a round tube of diameter 3 cm at a flow velocity of 2 m/s. obtain the circulation of the fluid in contact with the column. 1 = 0. n = 300 rpm D = .2. When a cylindrical column of radius 5cm is turned counterclockwise in fluid at 300rpm.57 (.

98 𝑚/𝑠 ρD kg (1.x2 + y2 Irrotational flow 6.02 x 10−6 ) 𝑅𝑒 = 𝑉𝑐 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = = = 2.204 kg/m3 µw = 1. Assuming that the critical Reynolds number of the flow in a circular pipe is 2320.3 𝑚/𝑠 µ ρD kg (1000 3 ) (01 m) 𝑚 Re µ (2320) (1.y2 v = -2xy kY Irrotational flow (c) u = -.51 x 10-5 m2/s Vc ρ D Re µ (2320) (1. Rotational flow (b) u = X’ .51 x 10−5 ) 𝑉𝑐 𝑎𝑖𝑟 = = = 2. obtain the critical velocity when water or air at 20°C is flowing in a pipe of diameter 1 cm.02 x 10-6 m2/s µw = 1. 54 Fundamentals of flow Date: Re =2320 T = 20 C D = 1 cm ρw = 1000 kg/m3 ρair = 1.5.x2 + y2 kx v=. show respectively whether the flows are rotational or irrotational: (a) u = -ky v = kx (k is constant).204 3 ) (01 m) 𝑚 EFREN BRIGADA ABARCA GRUPO 567 MECANICA FLUIDOS II . If the flow velocities are given as follows.

A cylinder of diameter 1 m is turning counterclockwise at 500rpm.7.18 𝑚/𝑠 60 60 𝑃𝑒 = 𝜋𝐷 = 𝜋1 = 𝜋 m 𝑚 𝑉𝑐 = 26.18 (𝜋 𝑚) = 82 𝑠 EFREN BRIGADA ABARCA GRUPO 567 MECANICA FLUIDOS II . Assuming that the fluid around the cylinder turns in contact with the column. Date: n = 500 rpm D=1m n𝜋𝐷 500𝜋1 𝑉𝑐 = 𝑉𝑃𝑒 𝑉= = = 26. obtain the circulation around it.

Equations and state that the flow is continuous. EFREN BRIGADA ABARCA GRUPO 567 MECANICA FLUIDOS II . the sum of the two forms of energy is constant at any height. Conservation of momentum Therefore. This is the law of conservation of mass. Conservation of energy Consider a roller-coaster running with great excitement in an amusement park. General flows are three dimensional. the change per unit time in the momentum of a body is equal to the force acting on the body. and the opposite occurs at the bottom. but many of them may be studied as if they are one dimensional. the mass flow per unit time passing through each section does not change. with no loss or gain. The speed of the roller-coaster decreases. so these equations are called the continuity equations. However. This is because the potential energy increases and kinetic energy decreases at the top. They are an expression of the principle of conservation of mass when applied to fluid flow. Continuity equation In steady flow. ignoring frictional losses. This is called the linear momentum. the velocity is not sufficient to study the effects of bodily motion. but the product. Reading #5 One-dimensional flow: mechanism for conservation of flow properties. By Newton’s second law of motion. This is a manifestation of the principle of conservation of energy for a solid. of the mass M and the velocity u can be used as an indicator of the consequences of motion. even if the pipe diameter changes. Mu.

and expresses the law of conservation of angular momentum. 1.In other words. The equation of momentum is very effective when a fluid force acting on a body is studied. This is the law of conservation of momentum. presión y viscosidad por unidad de volumen que actúan sobre una partícula fluida elementa 𝑑𝑣 1 𝑑𝑝 𝑑𝑧 V𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑑 𝑑𝑠 − 𝑔 𝑑𝑠 𝑣2 𝑑𝑝 +∫ 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑑 + 𝑔𝑧 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡 2 𝑣2 𝑑𝑝 +𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑑 + 𝑔𝑧 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡 2 𝑣2 𝑝 + +𝑧=𝐻 2𝑔 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑑 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑑𝑎𝑑 𝑃𝑣 2 +P+𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑑 ∗ 𝑔 ∗ 𝑧 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡 2 𝑃𝑣 2 +𝑃𝑠 = 𝑃1 2 EFREN BRIGADA ABARCA GRUPO 567 MECANICA FLUIDOS II . masa. This is equivalent to Newton’s second law of motion. Conservation of angular momentum The angular momentum in the case where a body of mass M is rotating at radius r and rotational velocity v is given by Angular momentum = moment of inertia x angular velocity. the acting force is conserved as an increase in unit time in momentum.-Derive la ecuación de Bernoulli para el flujo constante mediante la integración de Euler ecuación de movimiento establece el equilibrio entre las fuerzas de inercia.

v2 y v3 en el conducto que se muestra en la figura 5..70 m/s 3. p2 = 36 kPa . en la sección 1 es 24.77m/s R=v 1 = 6..25. v3 = 1. v2 = 4.25. Por lo tanto esto es igual a Q=aV Q3=A3*V3 es lo mismo para v2 𝑚3 𝑚3 0. y p3. Si la presión p1.Encuentre las velocidades de flujo vI.1 kPa EFREN BRIGADA ABARCA GRUPO 567 MECANICA FLUIDOS II .5kpa[2.33-1. d2 yd.2.96𝑚2 )(𝑣1) para v2… 0.2 y 3 son 50.5 kPa.60 y 100 mm respectivamente.79 m/s . El caudal Q es de 800 l / min y los diámetros d .013 =2.77𝑚/𝑠))2 4..82(v2) 𝑠 𝑠 V1=6.013 = (1. cuáles son las presiones p2. en las secciones 2 y 3 respectivamente Aplicando la ecuación P1/𝛾+ (v1)^2/2*g= P2/𝛾+ (v2)^2/2*g (0.127]𝛾 2. en las secciones 1.02 m/s.703 𝑚/𝑠2 P2=245kpa+[ − ]* 𝛾 2𝑔) 2𝑔 P2=24. p3 = 46.El agua fluye en el conducto que se muestra en la figura 5.