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United Nations Development Programme

throughout the

A G o o d Pra c t i ce G u i d e

E n h a n c i n g Yo u t h
P o l i t i c a l Pa r t i c i pat i o n
throughout the
E l e c to r a l Cyc l e

A G ood Prac tice Guide

Youth should be given a chance to take an active part in the
decision-making at local, national and global levels.
— United Nations Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon

ca) . Julie Ballington. Ravi Karkara. suggestions. Anita Vandenbeld and Jonathan Zigrand. A UNDP regional working meeting in Cairo in February 2012 offered valuable input. Design: Green Communication Design inc. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This publication would not have been possible without the core contribution of Anna Lührmann who served as the lead author of this guide. The Democratic Governance Group of the Bureau for Development Policy is particularly grateful to the insights and extensive comments from members of the Inter-Agency Coordination Mechanism in Electoral Assistance (ICMEA): Begoña Lasagabaster (UN WOMEN). In alphabetical order. Jamshed Kazi. Elizabeth Moorsmith (Electoral Assistance Division in the Department of Political Affairs) and Herbert Loret (Department of Peacekeeping Operations). Publications from several different organizations have been used in the development of this guide. This guide contains original ideas.greencom. Alissar Chaker. Kevin Deveaux. A special thanks to Gretchen Luchsinger who copyedited the guide. Aleida Ferreyra. Ruth Beekmans. hyperlinks have been provided to allow the user direct access to the original work. those individuals include Abla Amawi. Hassan Hussein. Noha El-Mikawy Mohamed Al Sharif. Nina Kolybashkina. Whenever possible. The UNDP/UN-HABITAT Youth 21 global stakeholder meeting in Nairobi in March 2012 helped identify additional good practice examples. Wolfgang Stuppert. Georgina de la Fuente. Kwabena Asante-Ntiamoah. (www. experiences and knowledge shared by numerous individuals. Jennifer Shaw. as did focus group discussions and interviews with Egyptian youth activ- ists and development practitioners. A special thanks to Aleida Ferreyra who managed and edited the guide and Manuela Matzinger who provided substan- tive research and production support. Linda Maguire.

Table of Contents 2 ACRONYMS 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 11 INTRODUCTION 19 PART A: REVIEW OF GOOD PRACTICES AND STRATEGIES 21 (1) Legal Framework 24 (2) Pre-Electoral Period 31 (3) Electoral Period 34 (4) Post.Electoral Period 36 Conclusion 37 PART B: RESOURCES 38 Annex 1: Collection of Good Practice Examples 61 Annex 2: I nternational Framework Documents and Resolutions 63 REFERENCES A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 1 .

ACRONYMS CSO Civil society organization EMB Electoral management body International IDEA International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance IFES International Foundation for Electoral Systems IPU Inter-Parliamentary Union MP Member of parliament NDI National Democratic Institute for International Affairs NGO Non-governmental organization UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UN DESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs UNDP United Nations Development Programme UN Habitat United Nations Human Settlement Programme USAID United States Agency for International Development 2 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le .

UNDP views youth as a positive force for transformative social change. Capacity development for young candidates. Executive Summary Young people between the ages of 15 and 25 constitute a fifth of the world’s population. Where youth-led protests have forced authoritarian regimes from power. other development practitioners and electoral stakeholders in working towards that goal. drawing on UNDP’s electoral cycle approach. fresh ideas and new leadership can help to overcome authoritarian practices. The inclusion of youth in formal politics is important. — Kofi Annan. going beyond token gestures. including through several international conventions and UN resolutions (see Annex 2). This can destabilize democratization and accelerate conflict dynamics. The international community has recognized the importance of youth participating in political systems. Young people must be youth included from birth. While they are often involved in informal. and aims to help enhance youth political participation. for example. Rather. Another core principle is that youth political participation needs to be meaningful and effective. as the 2011/2012 Arab States popular uprisings and various Occupy movements have demonstrated. politically relevant processes. it is condemned to bleed to death. A society that cuts itself off from its youth severs its lifeline. which emphasizes strategic interventions beyond the electoral event. This guide traces some entry points before. Young people who participate actively in their community from early on are more likely to become engaged citizens and voters. In countries in transition. they are not formally represented in national political institutions such as parliaments and many of them do not participate in elections. Capacity development is an integral measure. and while building No one is born a good citizen. Former Secretary-General of the United Nations A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 3 . such as activism or civic engagement. during and after elections. has proven to be more effective as a continuous effort than as a one-off event three months before an election. This guide summarizes some good practices to consider for UNDP. significant frustration is likely to arise if youth are not included in new formal decision-making. A basic principle is that support for the political participation of young people should extend across the electoral cycle. no nation is born a democracy. In line with these commitments. This can impact on the quality of democratic governance. both are processes that continue to evolve over a lifetime.

4 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . Example 1: In Turkey. including through new technology. following an introductory section.individual capacities is key. They can encourage youth to participate in project management. they can link to specific concerns of youth such as unemployment. and a review and analysis. and then considers entry points for support in cooperation with different electoral stakeholders in the pre-electoral. 2. and the age at which an individual can serve in elected office. respectful and accountable. partner with youth-led initiatives. Case studies appear in Part B of this guide. laws stipulate an eligibility age to run for parliament at 25 years or higher. such as to facilitate the registration of youth-led organizations. It has been found to be beneficial when interventions to assist youth are as youth-driven as possible. the environment or HIV and AIDS. several youth organizations and local youth councils have successfully campaigned for lowering the eligibility age for Parliament from 30 to 25 years.  Aligning the minimum voting age and the minimum age of eligibility to run for office. the capacities of organizations and the degree to which an environment enables individuals and institutions to participate in political processes can also be factored in. among others) need to be taken into consideration when designing inter- ventions. and 3. LEGAL FRAMEWORK A youth-friendly legal framework is crucial in enabling youth political participation. on the one hand. they can consider: 1. Creating this guide involved an intensive desk review of reports and analysis from around the world. Since national governments and parliaments can review the legal framework. and facilitate youth inclusion in national and local consultation processes. Civil society organizations (CSOs) and political parties could: 1. 2. initiatives should be transparent. Review and discuss the legal framework for youth participation. To be relevant. Further. ethnicity. young people are not a homogenous block and other social aspects (such as gender. Introducing youth and women’s quotas in electoral laws. The perspectives of development practitioners and youth were solicited through email interviews and focus group discussions at a meeting in Cairo. Campaign for changes. creating a gap between the legal age of majority and/or voting age. and 3. electoral and post-electoral periods (see also Table 1). To stress a message of youth inclusion. rural/urban dwelling. The review starts with a discussion of legal frameworks. In one-third of countries.  Identifying and addressing context-specific legal barriers to youth participation. language. Consider proposals for a youth-friendly legal framework. The research resulted in the identification of 21 possible entry points for UNDP and other organizations involved in assisting youth political partici- pation. Following a rights-based approach entails considering youth as potential agents of change—as part of the solution. not a problem to be resolved by others.

their role as citizens. students and public policy processes. educational institutions and media to: Encourage continuous youth participation and civic education in schools and universities. 2. Youth-led CSOs and their networks can be important means of participation for many young people across the globe. Youth can form ad hoc groups and experience the direct results of civic engagement. PRE-ELECTORAL PERIOD The pre-electoral period is crucial for encouraging and supporting youth to participate in elections. 1. 3. Providing technical advice to national governments. Example 3: Project Citizen. where they learn about democratic values. Design training programmes as incubators for new projects. uses resources available in every community.UNDP and other electoral assistance providers can support a legal review by: 1. and 3.  Supporting dialogue and consultation processes on youth-friendly legal frameworks. Support youth-led community development and volunteering organizations.  Conducting research on legal frameworks that have been beneficial in enabling youth political participation. children have far-reaching rights to directly participate in school affairs. but also try it out themselves. Example 8: The UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) in Kosovo provides youth with conceptual and financial support for any project considered an innovative idea for social good. Example 5: UNDP’s Asian Young Leaders in Governance workshop series has encouraged participants to roll out leadership skill trainings in their home countries. Example 6: The Young Volunteer Organization in Turkey provided support to youth in a disadvantaged neighbourhood of Istanbul. and how to advocate for change in their society. Depending on the contextual factors. given that education for active citizenship is most effective if students not only read about it in textbooks. teamwork. A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 5 . UNDP can seek partnerships with CSOs. 2. Provide flexible support with low access barriers to innovative. Example 7: The youth-founded Tribal Liaison Office in Afghanistan bridges gaps between tribal leaders and formal government authorities and development partners. leadership skills. small-scale youth projects. to teach lessons on civic participation and give young people opportunities to become change makers. The civic engagement of youth and youth-friendly political parties are important building blocks. a global initiative. such as teachers. Example 4: T he International Foundation for Electoral Systems’ (IFES) democracy camps in Kyrgyzstan invite high school students from rural areas to participate in interac- tive and fun camps. 4.  Example 2: At Barefoot College Night Schools in India. they can have a positive impact on their communities and create spaces for participation.

6 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . In many countries.  8. UNICEF supports the ‘Voices of Youth’ project. Every week. the National Youth Council has organized a successful multi-parti- san mentoring program called ‘From Woman to Woman’. Example 13: UNDP Cambodia’s ongoing Multimedia Civic Education Campaign is based on a large survey on youth civic participation. political parties could be encouraged to create space for them by removing barriers to youth involvement. Young women team up with women leaders and profit from their networks and experience. Address training and mentoring needs of young women separately. UNDP can partner with electoral management bodies (EMBs) and CSOs to: 1. by providing a powerbase for young members. Use online platforms for knowledge sharing and networking among politically engaged youth. 7. 10. Provide capacity-building for young members of political parties in a multi-partisan setting.  Example 10: S ocial media. Bringing more youth to ballot boxes requires specific measures and an overall environment empowering youth to participate in civic life. Example 9: In Nepal. Example 11: In Kenya.5. At the same time. 9. blogs and other online tools can give educated young citizens a voice for political activism. As part of an electoral cycle strategy. To break a cycle of scepticism and mistrust. youth wings of political parties have played a central role. it is important to engage youth in the immediate electoral process to participate actively in the democratic life of their countries. UNDP can work with political parties in the pre-electoral phase to: Encourage affirmative action measures such as youth and women quotas within political parties. Ensure youth involvement in all phases of voter education campaigns. Young members receive skills training and have created a joint advocacy coalition. 6. The Canada-based global initiative Taking IT Global has been active in this area. the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) supports the Inter-Party Youth Forum of youth wings. youth can develop the skills and motivation to successfully interact with political parties. a radio team frames a topic or a question and asks listeners to contribute to the discussion via free text messages. retaining and grooming them. In some contexts. Support the development of strong political party youth wings. youth tend to participate in elections less than older citizens. and open channels for direct feedback between government officials and youth. The discussion is also accessible online. Youth representatives are included in managing and implementing the campaign. and reaching out to young voters. Bridge the digital divide with mobile phones and radio. the relationship between youth and political parties is strained. ELECTORAL PERIOD Across the globe. Example 12: In Switzerland.

I nclude youth on electoral management body advisory boards. NDI has successfully supported the creation of Youth Councils that offer training on conflict mitigation and new avenues for youth participation in community decision-making. Example 21: I n Yemen. marking the first time such an exercise took place in the country. Implement entertaining methods and multimedia strategies to catch the attention of youth. Example 19: In Sri Lanka. The Fund’s public call for proposals clearly stated the topic of youth as one of the priority topics in the selection process. Example 17: In Europe. Make the voices of youth heard in parliament and government. Its 335 members shadow the work of the national Parliament and Government. Example 15: T he Australian Electoral Commission sponsors ‘Enrol to Vote Weeks’. It went viral and became the election anthem. including youth. Invite youth groups to visit national parliaments. A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 7 . Avenues for communication and advocacy should be open to all citizens. UNDP managed and operated a Fund that supported electoral observation projects. 4. but were also run by youth organizations. five of the selected projects were not only focused on youth. governments and advocacy-oriented CSOs to: 1. citizens need to be able to hold their elected representatives accountable. ‘Enti Essout’ (‘You Are the Voice’).000 youth club members elect the National Youth Parliament. UNDP supported students to witness the proceedings of Parliament and speak with legislators. 4. during the 2012 federal electoral process. Train and support young members of parliament. as poll station workers and election observers. They have access to ministries and Parliament. 5. UNDP supported an election song. POST-ELECTORAL PERIOD After polls close. 2. Example 20: I n Cambodia. Example 14: P  rior to Tunisia’s first democratic election in October 2011. and a ‘Famous People Vote Too’ campaign. the youth-led ‘Parliament Watch’ allows citizens to scrutinize their legislators by asking questions and accessing information about voting behaviour. Example 16: In Mexico. and influence national youth policies. Develop interactive online tools to reach out to computer-literate young voters. Online Voting Advice Applications inform citizens about political parties and help them identify which ones best match their own preferences. Initiate internship schemes for students in parliaments. Example 18: In Germany. ‘Rock Enrol’ concerts and radio programmes. 6. Facilitate youth-led national youth councils and/or parliaments. 3.2. 500. Initiate and support youth councils at the local level. UNDP can encourage parliaments. 3. In total.

mobile phones for knowl- civic educa.Table 1: POSSIBLE STRATEGIES TO CONSIDER Note: The numbers in brackets refer to examples of good practices featured in Part B of this guide.E L E C TO R A L P E R I O D U N D P and C S O s Encourage Design training Support Provide flexible Bridge the digital Use online continuous youth programmes as youth-led support to divide with platforms participation and incubators for community innovative. new projects development small-scale and radio edge sharing tion in schools and volunteering youth projects and networking and universities organizations (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) U N D P and P olitical Parties Encourage affirmative action Support the development Develop the capacities of Address training and measures such as youth and of strong political party young members in a mentoring needs of young women’s quotas youth wings multi-partisan setting women separately (11) (11) (11) (12) 8 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . 1 LEGAL FRAMEWORK N ational G o v ernments and Parliaments Align the minimum voting age with Consider the introduction of youth Identify and address context-specific the minimum age of eligibility to run and women’s quotas in electoral laws legal barriers to youth participation for office C S O s and P olitical Parties Review and discuss the legal framework Consider calling for a youth-friendly Campaign and lobby for for youth participation legal framework proposed changes (1) UNDP Conduct research on an enabling Provide technical advice Support dialogue and consultation legal framework to governments processes on youth-friendly legal frameworks 2 P R E .

3 E L E C TO R A L P E R I O D U N D P. G o v ernments and C S O s Help ensure that Facilitate Invite youth Initiate internship Train and support Initiate and voices of youth youth-led groups to schemes for young members support are heard in national youth visit national students in of parliament youth Parliament and councils/ parliaments parliaments councils at government parliaments local levels (18) (19) (20) (5) (21) A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 9 . Parliaments . E M B s and C S O s Ensure youth participation Use entertaining methods Include youth on EMB Develop interactive in all phases of voter and multimedia strategies to advisory boards.E L E C TO R A L P E R I O D U N D P. and as online tools to reach out education campaigns catch the attention of youth poll station workers and to young voters election observers (13) (14) (15) (13) (16) (17) 4 P O S T .

10 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le .

including lenges the representativeness of the the engagement of Youth in social. to vote and preventing youth groups and in response to the worldwide phenomenon of young people calling for more meaningful participa- from resorting to political violence. political inclusion. Expectations are high that the nance. Debates about youth Inter-Agency Network on Youth and Development to political participation have therefore develop a United Nations System Wide Action Plan to deepen the youth focus of existing United Nations centered mainly on motivating youth system programmes. the peaceful and powerful Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund (DGTTF) youth-led uprisings in the Arab world brought young issued a call for innovative and potentially cata- people back onto the world stage as serious politi. and destabilizing effect on democratization. It can the world has ever known by deepening the youth focus of existing programmes on employment. The Action Agenda processes. Introduction Even though people below age 25 there are no substantial activities targeting political participation. UNDP is currently drafting the Arab Region’ prominently acknowledges the its first-ever UNDP Corporate Youth Strategy.” Additionally. In the last quarter of 2011. through the Policy Committee. such as elections. which importance of youth political participation. USD 7. economic and political development. the Secretary-General. mandated the United Nations as troublemakers. the Secretary-General of the older citizens in most formal political United Nations outlined his Five-Year Action Agenda for his second and last term. more specifically to “Address political system and leads to the disen. citizenship. and young people as disinterested in politi. as objects of social policy or health. This chal. shortfalls in knowledge and practice related to lation in many developing countries. and education and reproductive cal issues. lytic project proposals from UNDP Country Offices cal actors with the right and capacities to be equally on youth empowerment and democratic gover- included in politics. of the Democratic Governance Group of the BDP. This omission reflects more general constitute more than half the popu. ership of the UNDP focal point on youth and Director social inclusion and youth volunteerism. protection of rights. local development. under the lead- proposes various measures aimed at job creation. the needs of the largest generation of young people franchisement of young citizens. the UNDP Bureau for Development Policy (BDP) In January 2011. tion. young people participate less than In January 2012. Significant frustration is likely projects that directly address youth participation to arise if this does not happen. A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 11 . however. laid out five generational imperatives. also reinforce stereotypes that treat entrepreneurship. with a potentially and leadership in governance. While it should be finalized at the end of 2012. The DGTTF facility subsequently invested inclusion of youth in formal processes such as elec. gender equality. fostering youth political participation.7 million to this unique group of 37 country tions will increase. UNDP’s current ‘Strategy of Response to As an active member of the Inter-Agency Network on Transformative Change Championed by Youth in Youth and Development.

including UNDP. ranking good practices or at being comprehensive. Interviews with resource persons helped to shed light Electoral cycle: UNDP’s electoral assistance on specific good practices. and websites on youth political participation from an array of countries. strategies and examples. this guide marks UNDP/UN-HABITAT Youth 21 global stakeholder UNDP’s first comprehensive review of programming meeting in Nairobi in March 2012 helped identify strategies for youth political empowerment. articles hand to enhance the political participation of youth. depending on potential to provide fresh inputs for UNDP programmes objectives and context. The attempt to remedy these gaps. as did sizes the importance of long-term activities aimed focus group discussions and interviews with Egyptian at developing capacities for inclusive political FIGURE 1: S tages of the Electoral Cycle P R E . Original calculations and activities are grounded in the electoral cycle approach.In line with the new UNDP mandate and as an youth activists and development practitioners. Documents from providers of electoral assistance. It attempts additional good practices. A UNDP regional working meeting in Cairo an election (see Figure 1). This approach empha- in February 2012 provided valuable input.E L E C T I O N period E L E C TO R A L period post . along with knowledge-sharing A few key concepts are elaborated here as a platforms such as iKNOW Politics.election period ELECTORAL CALENDAR pRE-election electoral period in-between elections pRE-election electoral period period 3. Agora and ACE. during and after ity age. The guide is based on an extensive desk review of It attempts instead to present some of the options at academic and practice-oriented reports. focusing on innovative instruments with the be addressed with a variety of tools. to identify examples of good practices and entry points The inclusion of youth in political processes is a to enhance youth political participation across the elec- complex. 12 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . multidimensional challenge that has to toral cycle. tabulations were made related to voting and eligibil- which includes the periods before. IFES and NDI. KEY CONCEPTS AND GUIDELINES were consulted. framework for the rest of the guide. This guide does not aim at and initiatives by other electoral stakeholders. 4 or 5 years period period Electoral Event Electoral Event Source: UNDP and NDI 2011.

eligibility for and young people should not be seen as a homog- the national parliament starts at 25 years or higher. This information may then inform the younger cohorts. social. People under the to identify globally relevant ‘youth’ attributes and age of 35 are rarely found in formal political leader. ran Africa and southern and western Asia. more than Many international non-governmental organizations 20 percent of young people are not even literate and (NGOs) and organizations active in the democratic urban-rural literacy gaps remain notable.participation. This demographic phenom- between 15 and 24 years of age—a definition enon is referred to as a ‘youth bulge’. In sub-Saha- often have an age limit of 35 years. Young people today constitute roughly one-fifth of the Youth: Most UN entities. For example. define youth as the population segment in developing countries. to studying practices across countries to tion of youth overall. — Worawut Ngampiboolwet from Thailand has been active in promoting child rights and environmental protection since he was 13. governance arena define youth as all individuals I was born in a poor and unhappy family. capacity development support for young candidates should not begin Table 2: World Youth Population 2010 three months before an election.16 Billion 13% Less developed regions 1. but should be a Youth Ratio continuous effort. More developed regions 0. Youth ship positions. Source: UN DESA 2011 and own tabulations. It enous entity. whether I know them or not. tended or even negative results in another. In political participation. training.21 Billion 18% matter. age-related exclusion Considering the sheer number of youth. political issues has to be treated with caution. ‘young’ and ‘young of this generation face challenges such as limited person’ are used interchangeably and refer to young access to resources. one place might fail to take root or produce unin. There is merit. gain inspiration and benefit from lessons targeting the 25-35 year-old age group as well as learned.2 Since this guide aims to identify and paste from one context to another. economic and cultural contexts Global 1. For example. to have what I did not have. so my goal is to enable other young people. it has become common is common practice to refer to politicians as ‘young’ to refer to young people born in the information age if they are below 35-40 years of age. Institutions and processes working well in Youth: Age group 15-24. development of new practices for specific contexts. employment women and men. so goal they can have a life different than mine.3 But many if not most youth in the of political parties and young leaders’ programmes global South are all but digital natives. education. any attempt typically reaches beyond 24 years. it includes those relevant for glean ideas. and broader economic development opportunities.4 A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 13 . Youth wings as ‘digital natives’. The vast majority lives Assembly.1 This guide does not aim to provide ‘best practices’ to copy between 18 and 35. including the General world’s population (see Table 2). ‘Youth’. good practices that enhance the political participa- however. In a third of countries.06 Billion 20% Good practices: It is now common knowledge that political. Many members adopted by this guide.

institutionalized political The strong commitment of UNDP and other UN processes is relatively low compared to older citizens entities to foster youth political participation is across the globe. is a clear declarations. 3. In the UNDP ‘Strategy of Response to Transformative Change Championed by Youth in the Arab Region’. provide new skills or offer connections for work (see also Box 1).“5 5. For the most driven by a particular issue or ideology. 4. Data on voter turnout from various countries 14 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . Voting. as such a perception negates our strength and creativity and promotes irrelevant policies. 2. economic growth and technological innovation” (UNICEF and United Nations Programme on Youth 2011). A youth activist from Colombia stated: “We refuse to be treated as a vulnerable sector. and build on the recognition that motivations for political engagement are different. A democratic environment can be more differ from one person to the other. Identify a target group for whom an intervention might be most suitable. These repeatedly emphasize young person’s capacity for political participation. geared towards achieving levels relative to those of times becomes an end in itself. promoting youth participation needs to be out of idealism or a sense of protest. They provide a strong frame of reference for a rights- gender. political opinions Opportunities for youth to participate in political and disabilities or special needs. These people’s right to participate in political processes. This is an established UN concept: “The UN has long recognized that young people are a major human resource for development and key agents for social change. They may act part. social activity. practices may Human Rights. Youth should not be considered as a homogenous block. Address youth as active agents of change.7 the value of political participation. Some may be favourable to participation in general. economic situation. Participation can be a the rest of the population. Make sure that interventions do not reinforce bias or discrimination against sub-groups of youth. Understand young people as part of the solution to the difficulties they face. one of the most important based on several international conventions and formal avenues for political participation. location. religion.”6 Even within one cultural context. Within one generation in the Youth and the Convention on the Rights of the Child same country. include age cohort. not merely a problem to be resolved by others. including the Universal Declaration of example. perceptions of based approach to related programmes of support. Definitions and concepts of youth specific to a given country should be respected. which some. the World Programme of Action for differ substantially. several factors can influence a young (see Annex 2). How is youth political participation different from political participation in general? YOUTH POLITICAL PARTICIPATION: There is strong evidence that the participation of SOME KEY POINTS young people in formal. BOX 1: F actors to keep in mind in providing electoral cycle assistance related to youth 1. processes depend largely on the political and cultural As with adults. social status. motivations for political participation context. youth are embraced as a “positive force for transformative change. literacy.

tend to get involved in civic. the inclusion of youth in formal politi- powerful youth-led protest movements. this Further evidence suggests that youth are more can shape their attitudes for a lifetime. Similar evidence is political participation? available for membership and leadership positions in Participation is a fundamental democratic right. than to join a political party led protests have forced authoritarian regimes from talking about planting trees in the future. should be an end in and of itself to remove existing nance mechanisms. such as tribal leadership. beneficial for a vivid and resilient democracy. Through their active contributions. From a typically based on seniority or lineage. significant frustration is likely to arise if youth are not included in new formal decision-making Both formal and informal engagement can be procedures. but we could not be the ‘it’ because we were too young…. In the current world and It has been found that in new and emerging throughout history. for example. protests and campaigns are common political culture. and tend not more purely pragmatic perspective. This means that we were allowed to play with pusa them. I remember my older siblings letting me and other younger kids join their game as (so-called) sating pusa. have the perception that formal political processes are not accessible and/or attractive for them. such as volunteering for a social cause. Both can be on democratization. Youth also cal processes is important from the start (see Box 2). The first Arab Human Development Report defined participation in governance as: “All men and women should have a voice in decision-making. This might have a destabilizing effect understood as political participation.8 suggest that young voters tend to participate less in Why is it important to foster youth polls compared to older citizens.9 Non-state gover. democratic values ties. Being a sating pusa is like being a player and yet not really being part of the game. it may be important to help bridge gaps between the two. avenues. In countries where youth- ing project. It political parties and parliaments. Many can come to life. either directly voice or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests. there are many examples of democracies. youth are often driving forces behind reform movements. Such broad participation is built on freedom of association and speech as well as on capacities to participate constructively. tially long-lasting negative impacts on a country’s Activism. with poten- inclined to participate in informal political processes.11 A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 15 .10 power. — Philippine youth activist Tayo. of authoritarian practices. service-oriented activi. In some cases. if young people to encourage youth involvement. paving the way for the overcoming young people are more inclined to join a tree-plant. are barriers to youth political participation.

influence in decision-making. it can involve youth have been given a voice. This provides a window of opportunity to enhance the political participation of youth. making processes. where young people choice about how they participate. as was the case in Egypt and Libya in 2011.13 First. Many participation. where young people have a direct activities claiming to foster youth participation impact on decision-making within their own youth do not effectively give young people a voice and communities. Second. but might not belong to a formal organization. Beforehand. Youth initiatives from across the world have found innovative ways to scrutinize legislators (see Example 17). Youth may be eager to participate. Third. • Helping to mitigate conflict between political party youth: Inter-party youth forums and training courses can promote peaceful dialogue. these types of initiatives require strong risk assessments and conflict mitigation strategies (see also Example 11). and access to technical and financial resources (see also Example 7). small-scale youth projects. it can entail youth-led and tokenistic. Youth-friendly voter education campaigns can raise awareness (see Example 13 and Example 14). as new legal frameworks are put in place. UNDP programmes can consider: • Supporting new partners without formal organizational prerequisites: If restrictions on civil society ease. • Establish innovative accountability mechanisms: Developing mechanisms of accountability is part of embedding democratic practices. youth parliaments with compe- notes: “Tokenism is when young people appear to tencies and budgets. Child rights expert Hart student councils. a mandate and information to Due attention should be paid to the differentiation fully perform their roles. but really have little or no collaborative participation. • Enhance the participation of youth in elections: The first free and fair elections after the fall of a regime are an important milestone. political institutions and established governance practices can change substantially. resource centers and incubators can provide youth with project space. Box 2: A Spotlight on Countries in Transition During periods of transition. or through a youth-led between meaningful youth political participation advocacy initiative. In this context. Innovation labs. where they political participation? have capacities. pseudo-participatory activities. and are rarely mandated by their peers. it can be consultative. appropriate advocacy can advance provisions for the participation of youth. such as through youth-led NGOs. What characterizes effective where young people’s voices are heard in an and meaningful youth adult-assigned consultation process. It is participation effectively take part in regular political decision- for participation’s sake or for a photo opportunity. However. or as members Young participants lack knowledge and capacities of parliament. it is particularly important to provide flexible support with low access barriers to innovative. 16 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . etc. a new dynamic can unfold. including as voters. political parties or advocacy groups. especially where officials have not previously answered to young citizens.” 12 Activities to foster meaningful and effective youth Effective and meaningful youth political participation participation should aim to be:14 has one of three attributes.

being issue-driven. frameworks) individual level (experience. methods and well as at the level of organizations and within the tactics. legislation. Capacity development can be an integral part of Youth friendly and relevant: Activities to 4. implementation of youth deci. as selves can decide on their priorities. such as young women. scope and procedures of the process options: informal. p.  any strategy for meaningful participation. The environment and working methods enabling environment. mechanisms need to be in place to youth with special needs. easy language. among other the purpose. viewpoint that capacity resides within individuals. Respectful and rights-based: Youth should be 2. technical skills) Source: UNDP 2008. rural dwellers and one-off event.16 as illustrated in Figure 2.  Inclusive: Appropriate methods can be applied to 5.  minorities. procedures. Transparent: Youth should be informed about 1. The UNDP enhance youth political participation should be approach to capacity development “reflects the as youth-driven as possible. A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 17 . Depending on the target age group and Figure 2: UNDP Systemic Approach to Capacity Development ENABLING environment (policies. ensure follow-up. 6.  sions and accountability to youth constituencies. activities might focus on. power relations. illiterate youth. arrangements. results-oriented projects. Young people them. the beginning what the potential impact of the being competitive with a game element.”15 These three levels form an can be adapted to participants’ capacities and integrated system.  approached as active agents who have the rights give marginalized groups of youth equal chances to participate and be heard. 6. Voluntary and safe. to participate. low they are participating in.  context. technology if educated youth are targeted. social norms) Organizational level (internal policies. ethnic Accountable: So that participation is not a 3. It should be clear from access barriers. needs. knowledge. or exercise is.

especially to participate in formal. and have limited organizational emphasize learning-by doing and practice-what- know-how. barriers comprise the lack of technical skills. 18 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . and awareness political participation. youth-led groups 2. and competent youth can be. such as parties and parliaments. They are not considered for accountable. 5. serious. you-preach approaches. Be grounded in a rights-based approach to youth led processes. Include capacity development on the individual and language that are off-putting to youth. youth-friendly and relevant. and foster enabling environments. motivation. 1. or use technologies 4. Among formal political organizations. visible results. leadership positions.18 youth all have to change in order to move closer together. Egyptian National Human Development Report The socio-political environment. elections as well as cultural or social norms that inhibit them from participating. engagement does not lead to inclusive. The good practices and strategies described in this guide can be applied to that end. and other resources. I still have problems being a young activist in Brazil. pseudo-participatory activities. organizations and is a good example of baseline information. economic resources. adult. Include direct components of consultative. inclusion of youth. because many older people believe still do not believe how important. and the organizational level.17 What prevents meaningful and effective youth political participation? in summary Significant barriers to youth political participation Strategies to enhance meaningful and effective occur at the three levels of capacity. voluntary and safe. frequently face hindrances to economic and youth-led and/or collaborative participation. — Rui Mesquita. structural constraints (such as by developing skills for a reformed may include a high eligibility age to contest for structural setting). These bodies may lack processes for which youth have an affinity. and avoid tokenistic and and knowledge. internal mecha- 3. On the individual youth political participation can: level. On the organizational level. rules and procedures do not favour the participation by being transparent. respectful. preferably in a reciprocal fashion On the environmental level. Be grounded in an accurate understanding of the current state of youth in a given context—the The solution to include youth in political processes Youth Well-Being Index developed for the 2010 cannot lie in the capacities of individual youth alone. Meet minimum standards for youth political nisms.

a part Rev i ew o f G o o d P r a c t i c es an d S t r at e g i es A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 19 .

and It offers practical inputs geared toward post-electoral periods that build strong programming by UNDP. po s t - FRAMEWORK e l e c tORAL e l e c tORAL pe r i o d pe r i o d 20 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . FIGURE 3: B uilding Strong Foundations for Electoral Participation 3 e l e c tO R AL pe r i o d 1 2 4 Le g a l PRE. participation in the electoral phase An initial discussion of legal frameworks (see Figure 3). other providers foundations for enhancing youth of assistance and electoral stakeholders. There is an emphasis on youth throughout the electoral cycle. strategic interventions in the pre.The following section maps good is followed by highlighted entry points practices that can be adapted to help in each of the three phases of the elec- boost the political participation of toral cycle.

19 years: Republic of Korea rules and conditions for engagement. 17 years: Indonesia. There is great regional variation. It reflects cultural norms Republic of Korea. Brazil. and determines structural 3. This section United Arab Emirates provides an overview of current age Regional averages in voting ages are displayed in limits around the world. Malaysia. 20 years: Bahrain. the voting age is 18 years at the national level. Cuba. from 20.5 years in Europe to 25. In one-third of countries. along with Table 3. Oman. young people are allowed to vote from the age reforms undertaken by countries to of 16 if they have a job. tories. 21 years: C  ôte d’Ivoire. and to run in elections.1 years. 16 years: Argentina.21 In several countries and terri- lower the voting age. Democratic People’s participation. Switzerland and the Isle of Man. Cameroon. Samoa. 4. including Germany. sub-national levels of government have lowered the voting age for state or municipal elections. Timor-Leste and values.5 years in the Middle East and North Africa. are stipulated minimum ages to vote Lebanon. In Bosnia and Herzegovina. Nauru Among the most important elements 5. A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 21 .19 The following countries have A youth-friendly legal framework is different age minimums:20 an important component of an envi. Montenegro and Serbia. Japan. Singapore. Globally. Kuwait. Pakistan. Nicaragua ronment that enables youth political 2. the average eligibility for single and lower chambers of the legislature is 22. Gabon. Ecuador. Austria. 1. Legal Framework for 1 Youth Political Participation KEY ISSUES In most countries. Tonga. eligibility to run for national parliament starts at 25 years or higher.

36. five seats in Parliament are reserved voting age with the minimum age of eligibility to run for youth representatives. With due attention to the electoral system and other • I n the Philippines.8 young people. The following good practices involve governments except for the Republic of Korea (Central Intelligence Agency and parliaments as the actors capable of reviewing 2011) and Egypt (Essam El-Din 2011).4 22. 29.5 The eligibility age has not received much political Middle East and North Africa 19. 12 seats are youth in parliaments. 22 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le .24 This affirmative action measure has been instrumental • I n Rwanda.6 Europe 18 20.9 (IPU) does track voting and eligibility ages. and workers.25 members of the Chamber of Deputies. Middle East and North Africa . there is a strong argument to Examples of youth quotas in electoral laws can be made that they should have the right to choose already be found in the following countries:26 their leaders and stand for elections. This becomes SINGLE/LOWER CHAMBER relevant not only for youth political participation. The IPU has recommended that “parliaments align the minimum • I n Uganda. parliaments should ideally be able to integrate all the Table 3: Age requirements in Electoral Law groups of society. Recommendations for UNDP for many countries due to indirect franchise. Asia and Oceania 18.7 GLOBAL AVERAGE GOOD PRACTICES Single/Lower Chambers 18. or any comprehensive overview of Americas .”23 reserved for representatives to be nominated by political parties to represent special inter- Consider the introduction of youth quotas in ests. 30.22 A high eligibility age risks missing out on the development challenges and perspectives VOTING ELIGIBILITY AGE AGE of a significant part of the population.As the representative branch of government. 25. electoral or political party quotas for women.5 or scholarly attention. The Inter-Parliamentary Union Asia and Oceania . 27. start families and join youth and young women´s political representation.8 21.2 22. persons with disabilities electoral laws: 108 countries have constitutional.9 For governments and parliaments Source: C  alculations and tabulations based on data from IPU 2011. the workforce. A review of literature could UPPER CHAMBER/SENATE not identify any publication analysing this issue on Africa . 28. Africa 18.1 but also for the representative quality of Parlia- ment. the National Youth Council elects two in enhancing women’s political representation. including youth. with data Europe .1 Upper Chambers .1 25. can be one way to increase youth representation. The voting ages for upper houses are not displayed because data are not available the legal framework.2 22. for office in order to ensure greater participation by • I n Kenya’s National Assembly.7 a global scale.1 used for the calculations in Table 3. particularly in countries with large numbers of Americas 17. As such.5 eligibility regulations. there is a stipulation to include contextual factors. Consider aligning the minimum voting age with the Furthermore it can be considered to introduce minimum age of eligibility to run for office: Young gender clauses into youth quotas to further enhance people serve in the military. quotas for youth in Parliaments youth on party lists. and other stakeholders to support this process appear at the end of this section.

10 percent of local away conservative voters. political parties might be more willing include one candidate below 30 years of age.27 greater chance to win constituencies. the eligibility age fell from 21 to 18 in 1970 as a reaction to student protest movements.33 dates. The team could attract additional votes Youth quotas at the sub-national level can be found from different demographic groups without turning in several countries. government must comprise youth representatives.29 In Peru. In parties will be discussed in the following section.32 a variety of other barriers might be linked to the legal Several scholars and activists believe that lowering framework. providing technical advice to national youth face some of the same patriarchal norms as governments. discussing the current system in terms of youth participation. civil society campaigns for lowering between 18 and 35 of age. winner-takes-all system. proportional representation systems. Possible interventions include a strict cap on CSOs and political parties could contribute to campaign financing as well as requirements for state an enabling legal framework by reviewing and and/or political party contributions. a campaign better suited for political leadership than women or to lower the voting age from 20 to 18 has drawn in youth.• I n Morocco. Youth quotas in political voting and/or eligibility ages have been successful. might be more inclined to nominate men above A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 23 . since research. candidates have to the voting age to 16 years could help leverage Africa’s finance a large part of their campaigns. In Bahrain.28 to nominate a representative team including women and youth. the eligibility age to youth participation: Apart from age requirements. Follow- Identify and address context-specific legal barriers ing youth-led protests in Egypt. In Turkey. instead of with wealth a significant advantage. Germany. giving those youth bulge as more of an opportunity. For young candi- focusing on it only as a challenge. and supporting national dialogues women. each party list had to tional system. According to 25 and 30 years old won the following elections Ballington. after a coalition of greater chance of being placed on a party list as part youth organizations and local youth councils success- of a team of candidates under a proportional system fully campaigned to lower the eligibility age from than to be nominated as individual candidates in 30 to 25 years. In Sri Lanka. These consider experienced older men and consultation processes. In a majoritarian system. “It is now conventional wisdom that in (see Example 1 in Part B of this guide). or electoral systems with a strong party bias rather than a strong For UNDP and other electoral candidate bias. the new election law includes 30 seats 35 years old because they expect them to have a reserved for candidates under 40 years of age. it is often a challenge to mobilize sufficient funds. five members of Parliament between a majority.30 Women tend to have a be formally adopted. This information could feed into There is strong evidence that the type of electoral proposals for making the framework more youth system has an impact on the representation of friendly. including by conducting favourable for youth political participation. 40 percent of candidates on For CSOs and political parties party lists for local government elections had to be In many countries. if political parties part on a resolution by a mock youth parliament suspect a prevalence of these norms in society. In many countries. they sponsored by NDI.”31 UNDP and other electoral assistance providers can A proportional voting system may also be more support legal reviews. women tend to be elected in higher assistance providers numbers than majoritarian systems. until recently. advocacy could then push for proposals to women in parliament. In a propor- • I n Tunisia’s recent elections. for parliamentary elections dropped from 30 to 25.

Pre-Electoral Period 2 The pre-electoral period is crucial for encouraging This applies to politics as well. listening to different opinions. a person who uses every GOOD PRACTICES free minute to play football and knows The following examples of strategies everything about it will probably cher- may be useful for the collaboration of ish every minute in the stadium. Youth development expert Rakesh Rajani has noted that institutionalizing youth participation in settings and practices that young people experience on a regular basis is key to training youth to participate. Encourage continuous youth participation and civic education in schools and universities: Many experts and practitioners view civic education and participation in formal educational institutions as central to the political participation of youth. weighing options and conse- game for the first time and does not quences. A young person who and supporting youth to participate in the polls. Golombek makes a similar point: “Active citizenship cannot be expected to happen overnight when a person reaches voting age: it must be learned ‘by KEY ISSUES: CIVIC ENGAGEMENT doing’ through everyday experiences: opportunities Somebody who watches a football to participate in shared decision-making. Civic has experienced the merits of democratic processes engagement of youth and youth-friendly political may be more inclined to become an active citizen.“34 leave the stadium disappointed. These are individual skills that help build know the rules of the game is likely to civil society and young people’s commitment to the democratic process. On the other hand. educational institutions and media. UNDP and other development assis- tance providers with CSOs. 24 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . parties are important building blocks.

the most widely used strategies to advance youth national IDEA) and the University of Montreal have political participation.43 A UK-based website provides information on how to set up and run school councils. that fosters critical thinking and a more democratic Training programmes commonly aim to provide civic relationship between students and teachers. do many small things. as is focusing on issues relevant to youth. Interventions need to move is most effective if students not only read about civic beyond the individual level and include activities to engagement in textbooks. which enhances their in Germany and Sweden. such as Save the activists and leaders in student unions. it may not bring about lasting change if it strong evidence that education for active citizenship takes place in isolation. The International new projects: Training young individuals is one of Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (Inter. Some German states have relevance and sustainability. change Many small people.41 education to youth. changes in school curricula are lessons on civic participation and give young people important entry points to nurture a new culture of an opportunity to become change makers (see innovation and participation in governance. — African Proverb. The most far-reaching among youth in one or more organizations. school authorities consult student councils A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 25 . civic education is part of the school Design training programmes as incubators for curricula in some form or another.40 There is previously. parents and activities that bring young people together to teachers—all with the same voting rights.35 Many in their decision-making. A local social work centre and cant cause of and a solution for declining political UNICEF support this effort. can alter the face of the world. India. schools and communities (see Example 2). who in many small places. precisely. which has significantly knowledge and skills. civics or citizenship education—both in children have far-reaching rights to directly partici- content and pedagogy—as being both a signifi. Authors call for a pedagogy along with elements of direct participation. more At Barefoot College Night Schools in Rajasthan. but also have a chance develop organizations and the societal environment.44 A study on youth participation in Canada concluded: “The literature (…) identifies schools and. to try it out themselves. as obligatory subject within the formal education Project Citizen is a global initiative promoting the use system. In countries. pate in school affairs. or to develop leadership skills in educational institutions. This has value. In other increase their knowledge of political processes. experimented with high school steering committees There are several examples of civic education comprising student representatives.”38 Especially during processes of political of resources available in every community to teach transformation. for example.”37 Likewise. but as discussed compiled a research database on this issue.36 Children in Ecuador. In most countries. give students rights to participate in decision-making these programmes are designed as incubators for in their high schools and universities.42 Some development politically active citizens across the world have agencies and NGOs are involved in supporting the started their political and civic engagement as establishment of student councils. Ideally. as is the case new activities and projects.39 Example 3). especially those not engaged There are various approaches to student participation in political processes. the European Youth enhanced capacities for participation among chil- Forum calls for including “citizenship education dren.

volunteering in a youth-led CSO or other area. The youth-founded Tribal Liaison Office in Afghanistan bridges gaps between Support youth-led community development tribal leaders. Its success shows that youth can have a posi- them successful. many international organizations UNDP and other international actors frequently and donors have a common weakness in targeting support youth-led CSOs and their networks. The youth: Due to their accounting requirements and/or conceptual framework. Youth can have skills and engage youth in civic life around the world. One example relevant to UNDP tive impact on their community. sizes and structures. of youth organizations and national youth councils. answers to problems. But it has encouraged established free preparatory courses for high school participants to roll out training activities in their and university entrance exams for children and youth home countries. their role as citizens. and formal government authorities and volunteering organizations: These groups and donors (Example 7). Ninth and tenth-graders from rural areas largely depends on how closely they respond to participate in an interactive and fun camp.45 although these have not ing from external partners. Among other accomplishments. it does not have a component of direct it created a people’s assembly to discuss neighbour- participation. others have a office has used its unique capacities to support more general approach. for change in their society (see Example 4). It was able Many organizations have supported leadership to develop its organizational capacities with fund- programmes for youth. giving disenfranchised rural citizens access to community project is a first step in a career of civic development funding. First. who cannot afford to pay for private courses. education as well as respect in a local setting. Volunteer projects are particularly to provide the right kind of support to youth effective in enhancing youth political participation if initiatives and organizations. including the European been comprehensively evaluated for what makes Union. and that youth have is its Asian Young Leaders in Governance initiative the agency to create spaces and instruments for their (see Example 5). For many young ments in some of the most unstable districts in the people. The Some target youth-specific issues. leadership skills. programme. teamwork. They attributes relevant in both worlds. As a straightforward training own participation.Kyrgyzstan. Turkey (see Example 6) is a youth-founded and -led CSO in a disadvantaged neighbourhood. they are often biased towards 26 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . or of organizational and structural hood issues and take steps to work on them. ful capacity development for young leaders largely depends on working within a given cultural and Youth-led CSOs have the potential to find new organizational context. Young people may join to innovative. it is often a challenge and responsibility. a long-standing tribal land conflict in Paktia-Khost. the IFES democracy camps offer a good success and sustainability of these programmes example. where context. Youth volunteers make tremendous contributions They also facilitated participatory rural assess- to their communities every day. and capacity development. and can define their level of effort and other international actors. Volunteer projects typi. and how to advocate The Young Volunteer Organization from Istanbul. how can they young people influence decision-making for a project address capacity gaps without being paternalistic or or organization. Provide flexible support with low access barriers cally have low access barriers. and political engagement. This tactic recognizes that success. Most youth-led CSOs are provincial governments and the UN system to settle supported through peer volunteers. dominant? Second. small-scale youth projects: For UNDP for a limited time. such as formal come in many different shapes. The same applies to support for networks they learn about democratic values.

many young networking of politically engaged youth: Computer people are not likely to form formal organizations and mobile phones have high relevance for literate because they prefer short-term projects. In KEY ISSUES: POLITICAL PARTIES Nepal. UNDP has given youth the opportunity to share their views on development through SMS As the main gatekeepers for candidates to participate messages.50 Many opportu- Union’s Salto-Youth resource centres. they link the state and civil the discussion via free text messages. The discussion is society. into political action. With the youth across the world. Every week. only 2. do not have access to the Internet are left out of new developments. with contributions projects. In Madagascar. Recently. UNICEF has found a way give young citizens a voice.49 Call-to-tweet services might also be helpful. but do not dominate the youth-led a study online covering this issue. as well as open channels out of these dilemmas. get involved. Those who on global citizenship (see Example 10). In Nepal. Adults give advice edge Programme (The Netherlands) jointly published upon request.46 nities are related to knowledge sharing across borders. Most are middle-aged men. This allows youth to create ad hoc revolutions’ and how social media can help young groups and experience the direct results of civic people become politically active. a radio team frames a influence political agendas and decision-making. Similar initiatives include the European from ‘digital natives’ across the world. Young Kosovars can receive technical and financial support for any project that is an ‘innovative idea Much has been written about the ‘Facebook for social good’. UNICEF supports the local Voices in elections in many countries.supporting well-established youth CSOs instead of Use online platforms for knowledge sharing and new and more informal initiatives. They also have a space to meet and for Internet and Society (India) and the Hivos Knowl- exchange ideas (see Example 8). The Canada-based global initiative Taking IT Global has Bridge the digital divide with mobile phones and reached over 30 million young people with messages radio: The digital divide is deepening. Many youth do not trust polit- tools and case studies using mobile technology for ical parties. for direct feedback between government officials and youth. A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 27 . at least partially.47 between youth and political parties is The MobileActive website48 features several innovative strained. Individuals with political ambi- tion are likely to seek out leadership positions within political parties. etc. Mobile phone technology is one option to bridge these gaps. Some NGOs are involved in training community mobile phone reporters and featuring their complain that youth are unwilling to content. while party leaders often social impact. Third. for example. blogs. translating the policy preferences of citizens also accessible on the Internet (see Example 9). and asks listeners to contribute to intermediary institutions. the relationship access to mobile phones and 75 percent to radio.2 percent of the popula- tion has access to the Internet. can Innovations Lab in Kosovo. parties significantly of Youth project. but one-third has In many countries. the Center engagement. As topic or a question. Social media.

they lack the internal powerbase to win youth club had 4 delegates. and parties should policy development and executive positions. making them a strong force to develop the skills and motivation to be success. Affirma. doing so can be certain age—such as 30 or 35. This gives lish themselves in the labour market. national executive. For other youth wings. and limited self-confidence a representative of the party’s youth wing to have and motivation. and/or be lesbian/ quota for women and youth. youth face more than one kind of discrimina- quotas to increase participation in leadership posi- tion because of their gender or because they can also tions and as candidates. As a result. Both issues should be 26) made up over 40 percent of voting delegates at addressed to break the cycle: Youth should be able any party convention. Some UNDP groups within the party. the Partido belong to other marginalized groups (i. or on local associations.51 In Nicaragua. First Working with Political Parties. In turn. Engagement in political parties often an advisory seat on the party’s board. Others are branches or working in the pre-electoral period. including: “old-boy” networks.e. any party member below a engage with parties. political parties have used youth cases. Other parties requires long-term commitments. After the elections resulted in a major defeat quotas and party youth wings can help move these for the Liberal Party. Support the development of strong political party GOOD PRACTICES youth wings: Depending on the context of the country and the political party. because they for youth candidates and issues. some members attributed the loss processes forward. partially to the abolishment of the youth quota. each campus and accredited not join. 28 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . or even 40 years—auto- matically becomes a member. fully engaged in political parties. comprise a large percentage of members. people with disabilities. within the party when it came to leadership selection.The persistent exclusion of youth stems from a variety Encourage affirmative action measures such of factors. General advice Youth wings generally serve four main functions. it is customary for of individual capacities. a lack parties: In some political parties. youth wings can The following good practice strategies have different organizational configurations. The quota be encouraged to create space for youth. sensitive and has to be handled with membership has to be requested independently. and in addition. Canada’s Liberal These obstacles fuel a cycle where youth are put off Party had a high youth quota for party convention by the exclusionary nature of political parties and delegates—Four out of every 12 delegates had to be decide not to join them. tive action measures such as youth and women’s however. because they do youth. which is difficult grant youth leaders ex officio voting rights on the for youth trying to obtain an education and to estab. indigenous Liberal Constitucionalista has a combined 40 percent people. knowledge and care. In some youth wings. can be found in UNDP’s Handbook on all of which could provide entry points to enhance youth political participation (see also Box 3). Some focus on activities with political parties are independent organizations. Party has a 20 percent quota for youth. In some In some contexts. Middle-aged youth a voice and an opportunity to mobilize support men tend to have a greater powerbase. recruitment as youth and women’s quotas within political and promotion mechanisms based on seniority. youth (under elections and nominations. system was eliminated prior to the 2011 elections. loosely attached to their ‘mother’ party. The system of membership also country offices do not commonly differs. the Hungarian Socialist gay/bisexual/transgender).

collaborate and W problem solve with political. mainly focused on youth in political parties. In a Having a powerful youth section over a period of youth structure with its own membership assem. this may be the first time that they have come in contact with public officials or community leaders. viewpoints. •  ncourage action-oriented activities. ethnic and tribal rivals. Source: Bryan 2010. They facilitate networking and the forma. For many young F people. Youth wings can be instrumental in A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 29 . •  acilitate the connection between youth and political and community leaders. but also to identify the solutions. tion of personal and/or issue-based alliances. Representing over 50 percent of the youth bulge. •  nsure that 50 percent of participants are women. Young people do not respond as well to lectures as they do to E activities. make decisions and learn by doing. and inclusion of youth issues in party programmes. Based on this experience. there are plenty of opportunities influential members of the senior party who are for young people to experience decision-making youth wing alumni. They need to learn negotiation and mediation skills. several generations also ensures that there are blies and boards. •  rovide facilitation and training. they may act as champions and processes and develop their political skills and mentors for the newer generation. It’s important for them to not only articulate their problems. •  stablish buy-in and the consensus of political and community leaders. and helps raise the profile of youth and their projects. •  ork in a multi-party setting. Women are disenfranchised in almost every E country and face tremendous challenges in breaking into the political arena. and foremost. Taking time at the outset to address any concerns or objections of leaders will ensure effective programming. Allowing youth to set D the agenda builds trust and creates buy-in and ownership. Laying the groundwork for an introduction is essential. Constructive youth E engagement in the political process cannot happen without the support and tacit agreement of political and civic elites. Bryan has formulated the following recommendations: •  esign a programme that reflects the priorities of youth participating in it. Design projects or community activities that allow them to take responsibility. Young people have limited substantive exposure to issues and P policies. Box 3: S even Key Principles for Effectively Engaging Youth in the Political Process NDI has carried out over 120 youth participation programmes around the globe. youth wings are powerbases for their the increased nomination of young candidates members. women need to have a seat at the table. NDI Vice President Shari K. and drop their natural defenses so they begin to see one another as young people who share many of the same ambitions and interests. Multi-partisan activities require young people to work.

and require a specific focus on their needs. to advocate policies. This has a and the broader societal environment. Develop capacities of young party members in a multi-partisan setting: Youth wings sometimes In the United States. Youth wings need their own financial basis and rebuild a constructive relationship. mentoring programme for young women (see Example 12). youth wings have been involved in severe clashes and/or civil war. Young participants from different party policy development and leadership selection. Youth wings can function as incubators for new a coalition. to youth. In some countries. governments provide funds One of the most common entry points to support for civic education activities of youth wings. on certain issues. The efforts of older party leaders to appeal Young women are teamed up with women or men in to youth often fall short.53 UNDP in in order to sustain these and other activities. EMILYs list has been a useful form multi-partisan umbrella networks that facilitate tool for mobilizing financial support for pro-choice knowledge sharing and the promotion of demo. such as unemployment. to youth wings in Kenya is a reference point (see A third function of youth wings can be to influence Example 11). In Canada. the Inter-Party Youth Forum. and profit from their networks ered to dedicate a specific portion of the budget for and experience. ment.54 high. are separate election and recruiting campaigns. and as a powerbase to organize the neces. Nicaragua supported the creation of a Political Youth lem since income from membership fees may not be Forum with members from eight political parties. Similar instruments can be used for having a Address training and mentoring needs of young say in leadership nomination procedures. voters and make parties more credible to them. Addition- youth in political parties is to offer capacity develop- ally. a prob. many political parties fund their youth wings.52 30 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . such as on Young members and youth wings can provide fresh negotiation and advocacy. they prioritized resolutions that youth would push for provision of technical advice and/or study tours. NDI’s support cumulative effect over several decades.56 Similar cratic values across party lines. They organize skill-building workshops. They also develop proj- and innovative inputs and challenge outdated poli. the ity development at the organizational level can be Young Liberals held a policy camp each winter where facilitated through knowledge-sharing workshops. leadership positions. Instead. and address issues of organizations likely to attract more young members. These activities are most effective if they are knowing that parties with a vibrant youth wing are multi-partisan. it could be consid. For One option to consider for example. youth wings of the four political parties members. ects to implement in their parties. In Switzerland. political parties receive skills training. youth wings can extend outreach to young gender. women candidates in the Democratic Party. This can also help activities could focus on young women across to decrease political violence—in some conflict. the National Youth reaching out to young voters and potential members Council has organized a successful multi-partisan through the youth wing. Capac- sary majorities at party conventions. at party conventions and organized youth to vote as a block.55 Mentor- their peers and what kinds of activities are attractive ing programmes are another effective strategy. women separately: Young women in political parties face double discrimination based on age and Finally. party lines. youth wings will skill-training workshops that will help young women likely know what language is most effective with learn to overcome barriers in a safe space. and have created cies. affected/post-conflict countries.A second important function of youth wings is to train In Ghana. issued a joint statement in 2006 calling on the Presi- mentoring programmes and policy development dent and ex-President to resolve their differences activities.

Voter education lations. According to their calcu. In some countries. about 40 percent of mentary and presidential elections potential voters are between the ages of 18 and 25. implemented before most elections. merchandise. the date. “voter turnout across the globe campaigns address questions such as procedures for voter registration. electoral management bodies.”60 This lack of consolidated knowledge might be attributed A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 31 . These campaigns are typically conducted attributes this fall to a decline in youth by CSOs.400 parlia.”57 It leaflets.59 between 1945 and 1997 in over Activities to increase youth voter turnout are 170 countries. Most campaigns either specifically target young and first-time voters. and how to cast a ballot. polls. 2009 elections. the overall numbers of young people have International IDEA has analysed risen. time and venue of the rose steadily between 1945 and 1990. Andrew Ellis notes that there “does not yet appear to be any basis to understand what may be effective and what not effective. and/or electoral participation. 3 Electoral Period KEY ISSUES Even as the number of young voters may have declined. umbrella organizations of political party youth wings carry out joint young voter campaigns. They often strive to increasing from 61% in the 1940s to convince voters that their vote is vital for a healthy democracy. Despite this significant level of activity. average has decreased to 64%. In India’s statistics from more than 1.58 In Jordan. with a consequent danger of the spend- ing of vast amounts of money to no purpose. 200 million youth (18-35 years old) were eligible to vote. other government entities. But since 1990 the campaigns include media advertisements. especially in youth bulge societies. billboards. or at least have some youth-specific elements. websites and grass-roots CSO activities. at times with the support of UNDP and other electoral assistance providers. Instruments used in voter education 68% in the 1980s.

Societies 2011. youth participation could be increased. concerts (Rock the political participation activities. has youth. the effectiveness of the vote. on advisory boards for the design and implementa- tion of the campaign. This can be done through advisory boards. informa- tion about how and why to vote can be provided The positive example of role models. need to respect and accept youth as full-fledged political subjects. can have a could be included during the design and validation significant impact on political socialization. and not mainly as objects of such as an election song ‘Enti Essout’ (‘You Are the mobilization campaigns. colleagues identify factors such as perceptions of such as through small grants for youth-led CSOs. includ. a multi-partisan organization particularly—but not only—for campaigns targeting that promotes the election of women in Canada. of young people out to vote may not achieve its ultimate goal.61 They also ongoing Multimedia Civic Education Campaign (see point to important determinants on the individual Example 13) is based on a large survey of youth and social level. contextual and systemic factors as well. Activities include ‘Enrol to vote Week’. they include individual attitudes and knowledge. UNDP successfully facilitated various activities. The called on citizens to ‘bring a girl to vote’ to the ballot approach. for example) and art exhibitions. teachers or pop culture idols. Youth representatives are included engagement. voter registration proce. an enabling environment should Prior to Tunisia’s first democratic election in October empower them to participate in civic life. messages if peers convey them. the DemocraTweet voter’s educational game helped to mobilize young voters GOOD PRACTICES in cooperation with a popular radio station (see Example 14). voting part to the fact that voter turnout is shaped by During implementation of civic and voter education complex and context-specific factors. such as attitudes. Campaign messages are not Advertising and information campaigns only target limited to motivating youth to vote. civic civic participation. ment details current. social networks and socialization. The song went viral and became the ‘election anthem’. Voice’). The following good practice strategies The Australian Electoral Commission conducts are relevant for joint activities with elec- various online and offline activities to register toral management bodies and CSOs in young and first-time voters and keep their enrol- the electoral period. Ensure youth participation in all phases of voter and the ‘Famous People Vote Too’ campaign (see education campaigns: As part of a larger strategy Example 15). Ellis and his campaigns. including in a youth-friendly manner. Even the best inspiring examples of youth civic engagement campaign aimed at bringing a significant number in Cambodia. dian NGO Equal Voice. starting with the project design phase. strategies to catch attention of youth: Examples ing through general civic engagement and youth include drama performances.62 to ballot boxes. A successful strategy should address Use entertaining methods and multimedia social. to enhance youth political participation. 32 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . knowledge. UNDP Cambodia’s dures and physical access to the polls.63 Additionally.64 included. ‘Rock Enrol’ concerts and radio programmes. The Cana- process of voter education campaigns and materials. Youth representatives parents. For youth to come Vote. electoral and party Young people may be more open to campaign systems. methods and language are more likely to in the 2011 elections in order to familiarize girls of be appropriate for reaching youth if young voices are pre-voting age with the voting process.

Include youth as poll station workers, on electoral useful in countries where first-time voters have
management body advisory boards and as election to register in order to vote. Examples include the
observers: Youth representatives can be involved United Kingdom Electoral Commission’s educational
in all aspects of the electoral process. Each electoral website targeting students66 and Canada’s young
stakeholder can include youth in designing and voters section on elections.67 The South African
implementing activities, including those related Electoral Commission offers online information on
to election observation (see Example 16) and registration procedures.68
management. Electoral management bodies need
Where a combination of mobile phones and the
to have sophisticated knowledge about their youth
Internet is used to support election observation,
electorate, and identify the special electoral needs of
effective safeguards should be put in place to ensure
young voters.
the objectivity of the reporting, prevent misuse
Some electoral management bodies enhance their by political parties and ensure collected informa-
knowledge about youth through research, espe- tion reaches its target audience.
cially where they are charged with civic and voter provides a good overview of the practice and debate
education. For example, in the Republic of Korea, on this issue.69
the National Election Commission operates the
Online tools to educate young, computer-literate
Civic Education Institute for Democracy, which has
voters can be part of broader civic and voter educa-
conducted specific research about the education
tion initiatives. Web-based voting advice applications
of young voters.65 Another option to consider is the
are a good practice (see Example 17). In Germany
inclusion of youth representatives on EMB advi-
and other European countries, they inform citi-
sory boards to access their specific knowledge and
zens about the values and programmes of political
increase ownership. Youth can also be trained as poll
parties. An independent institution helps citizens
station workers.
identify which political party best matches their
Develop interactive online tools to reach out to own preferences.
young voters: Web-based tools can reach educated
and urban youth, keeping in mind that these
may exclude significant numbers of youth where
computer literacy and access to the Internet are still
not widespread. Promising practices often involve a
combination of Internet, mobile phone, radio and/or
TV outreach.

There are a number of potential applications for
Information and Communications Technologies (ICT).
Electoral management bodies could consider using
websites and social media to interact with youth,
for instance. Several countries have good websites
with information about the electoral process
and voter registration. This can prove particularly

A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 33

Post-Electoral Period
The ability of citizens to hold their The following good practice
elected representatives accountable recommendations are relevant for joint
is a fundamental characteristic of a activities with parliaments, govern-
democratic society. Accountability ments and advocacy-oriented CSOs in
cannot be limited solely to election day. the post-electoral period.
Before and after, elected representa- Make voices of youth heard in parliament and
tives need to be responsive to citizens’ government: Apart from youth directly being repre-
sented in parliament, there are several other entry
demands. Avenues for communica- points for increasing their access to the legislature.
tion and advocacy have to be open to Parliaments often engage with civil society through
committee hearings. Specific parliamentary commit-
all—including youth. In some countries, tees and multi-party groups either focused on youth
members of Parliament and govern- or deliberating issues impacting youth could conduct
public consultations and invite youth CSOs to share
ment officials may not be used to
their views. UNDP’s Parliamentary Development
answering questions from citizens and Strategy Note70 highlights support for these kinds
media, but could develop capacities of activities. Helping youth have a focused impact
can entail capacity development for youth CSOs,
to do so. This helps embed the values including on advocacy and public speaking.
of transparency, accountability and
In Jamaica, youth organizations founded a National
responsiveness in the political culture, Youth Parliamentary Watch Committee in 2009,
and foster inclusive participation. endorsed by the Ministry of Youth. This Commit-
tee is charged with reviewing “all bills and policies
before Parliament, and critically [evaluating] them
for youth mainstreaming objectives.”71 The Turkish
National Assembly has recently established a Child

34 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le

Rights Monitoring Committee including a website functions and procedures of parliament. In some
supported by UNICEF.72 countries, youth parliaments and councils effectively
represent youth and give them a voice in national
The Internet provides numerous opportunities for
decision-making. As participatory institutions, youth
direct engagement between legislators and online parliaments should have certain competencies,
citizens. Many parliaments have consequently scaled such as a consultative function for youth-relevant
up their online presence, another entry point for UNDP issues. The IPU stresses the importance of operating
support. In Jordan, UNDP helped the Ministry of Politi- budgets for strong youth parliaments.76
cal Development develop its social media capacities in
order to communicate better with young citizens. It can sometimes be unclear whether the opinions
expressed in youth parliaments are taken into
In Germany, the youth-led initiative ‘Parliament Watch’ account. Frustration can arise when young people
enables ordinary citizens to scrutinize their members work hard with no traceable impact. From the
of parliament by asking questions and accessing infor- beginning, it should be decided which minister or
mation about voting behaviour (see Example 18). parliamentary committee is tasked with responding
In Egypt, after the fall of the Mubarak government, to resolutions. Youth parliaments should not be one-
individual youth put up projectors in public places and time events, but allow for continuous engagement
displayed videos of human rights violations. This initia-
and follow-up. They can be an important contribu-
tive proved an effective way of sharing information
tion to overall accountability, if they succeed in
that might otherwise be available only on the Web.
‘shadowing’ the national parliament’s work.
Youth have a particular role in developing and imple-
The Sri Lankan National Youth Parliament involves
menting national youth strategies and policies, which
500,000 members of youth CSOs electing members
directly concern them. The Australian Government
in district-wide elections (see Example 19). Twice a
consults youth through several regular channels, such
month, members meet in the capital and debate issues
as a National Youth Week as well as a Youth Forum
also being discussed in the national Parliament. Thirty
Steering Committee. On the forum website, youth can
youth ministers follow the work of national ministries
contribute perspectives (the ‘We hear you’ campaign)
and have working space in them. Members in general
and receive feedback on their comments.73 The UN
are allowed to enter the committees of the national
Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) Parliament and consult national members. The national
has published a useful toolkit to support young people Parliament has included the Youth Parliament’s
in evaluating national youth policies.74 recommendations in the national youth policy.
In Hong Kong, NDI has worked with the Government, During the last two years, a million youth 
the International Studies Department of Baptist elected representatives in the United Kingdom’s
University and the Hong Kong America Centre to youth parliament.77
encourage youth participation in public policy
areas. The institute launched a youth programme Invite youth groups to visit national parliaments:
in September 2007 with the first university student Politicians are banned from educational institu-
summit. Participants reviewed and responded to tions in some countries. In others, they are invited
the government’s Green Paper Consultation on to schools and universities to share information
Constitutional Development.75 with students on their political programmes and
the workings of parliament. Many parliaments invite
Facilitate youth-led national youth councils and/ students to follow their proceedings. In Cambodia,
or parliaments: Youth parliaments are a useful civic UNDP facilitated such an exercise. For the first time in
education exercise for raising awareness about the

A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 35

In summary. assistance providers and electoral Initiate and support youth councils at local level: stakeholders in developing sustainable. schemes for students. In youth voices in the legislature and government. phases of the electoral cycle.  T he electoral phase: mobilizing youth as Train and support young parliamentarians: Young voters. Working groups and committees can be tasked with solving local issues that concern young people. far-reaching Youth delegates to councils can be selected in programmes to achieve the greater inclusion of schools and/or universities. In Yemen. and enables youth to participate effectively in their community’s decision-making processes. The post-electoral phase: supporting leadership capacities are more widely recognized. along with practical examples offered a number of leadership training options to and experiences by an array of election stakeholders. candidates.  T he pre-electoral phase: recognition and bility to profit from their interns’ knowledge and ideas. the IPU passed a resolution by consensus calling on all parliamentarians to support young members. and and contribute to shifts in cultural norms so that youth 4. skills and understanding of parliamentary procedures legislators and parliamentary staff will have the possi. It will hopefully serve as a useful resource for UNDP country offices.  T he legal framework: a review of electoral will have the possibility to develop their professional law and its effects on youth political participation. 36 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . When designed properly. observers and active partici- parliamentarians need help to increase their leverage pants in all aspects of the electoral process. school children and youth came to the legislature and spoke with Conclusion members (see Example 20).the history of the National Assembly.78 3. and report back to their youth in political processes. As this guide illustrates. Including the world’s largest-ever youth population Initiate internship schemes for students in in political processes is a vital part of strengthening Parliaments: Some parliaments have internship democratic governance. This innovative activity combines training on conflict mitigation with new avenues for youth participation. NDI has successfully supported the creation of youth councils in a tribal setting (see Example 21). this entails ing on the country.79 This guide has aimed to provide a menu of potential UNDP and other governance assistance providers have strategies for support. While students 1. Clear agreements can be made with municipal councils regarding procedures for consultation. young parliamentarians (see Example 5). The chil- dren’s councils at the Barefoot Night Schools in India (Example 2) can provide further inspiration. internship schemes include those of NDI. students strategically addressing: and parliamentarians both benefit. support for youth as community and political Parliamentary development programmes that support party leaders. such as attendance in municipal youth committees and/ or a specific budget for youth parliaments. 2. mainly at the university level. strategies to support this participation ideally span all The structure of these programmes can vary depend. 2010.8 peers.

B part Res o u r c es A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 37 .

organizations and/or an enabling environment. suggestions for adaptation are made. rural dwellers or youth with special needs. These practices are also needed to foster illiterate youth (including a lack of computing capacity development on the level of individuals. are issue-driven. Readers may find these 1. A 3. the practices are as with a ‘game’ element. practices aim to provide inspiration Four review criteria were used to better and information to UNDP practitioners understand the strengths and weaknesses of each and other supporters of youth political of the good practice examples. such as in made effective and meaningful youth participation good practice reports or through awards? an immediate project output. stress easy rized in a standardized checklist for language. Basic information is summa. Relevance for UNDP: How relevant is the youth participation in the project’s governing bodies. Recognition: Has the approach been strong preference was given to those examples that recognized by other organizations. such each good practice. socioeco- demonstrated contribution to youth political partici. Nonetheless electoral systems and other typical UNDP programming setting? If these contextual factors should be taken into consideration conditions are not fully met. have low access barriers. or are based on current technology (if educated youth are targeted). skills). and/or facilitat- cycle support? Is it appropriate for developing ing youth inclusion in national and local consultation country contexts? Can it be implemented in a processes. ethnic minorities. pation. are competitive. including by ensuring 4. 38 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . listed in the order in which they appear 2. a wide array of youth? Different groups to include These examples were selected based on a might encompass young women. These include: participation. Innovation: Does the activity follow a ‘business as unusual approach’ and provide new useful in developing and implement- answers to a changing reality? Are the methods ing their own strategies in different applied likely to attract today’s youth? Innovation contexts. project in terms of UNDP’s approach to electoral partnering with youth-led initiatives. Inclusion: Does the activity foster inclusion of in this guidebook. nomically marginalized youth. Annex 1 Selected Good Practice Examples The following examples of good in order to determine if these strategies may be relevant for the specific context. can involve projects that: are informal and results- oriented.

NGOs Successful local youth participation project 60 A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 39 . Youth-led project that opens youth-friendly 57 media. schools Decision-making competencies for school children 41 3 Project Citizen Global CSOs.Table 4: GOOD PRACTICE EXAMPLES # Name Area Partners Description Pg. others Young voters’ education with fun activities 54 Enrolment Campaign 16 Fund to Support Mexico EMB. politicians Mentoring programme for young women in 51 To Woman political parties ELECTORAL PERIOD 13 Multimedia Civic Cambodia UNDP. Government Representation and inclusion of youth 58 Youth Parliament on the national level 20 Youth Cambodia UNDP. members avenues for scrutinizing members of Parliament of Parliament and provides transparency 19 National Sri Lanka Youth clubs. radio station Radio. citizens. various Youth as successful mediators between tribal elders 46 donors. CSOs. LEGAl FRAMEWORK 1 Young MPs Turkey Youth-led CSOs Successful campaign lowering 40 Now Campaign eligibility age for Parliament PRE-ELECTORAL PERIOD 2 Children’s Council India UNICEF. Youth-friendly voter education 53 Democratic Elections European Union. government bodies and international community 8 Innovations Lab Kosovo UNICEF. IFES. Youth groups invited to visit Parliament 59 Visiting Parliament National Assembly 21 Youth Councils Yemen NDI. SMS and Internet to include youth 48 from all areas 10 TakingITGlobal Global 22. Ministry of the Interior. 8 UN entities Global youth networking and knowledge sharing 49 11 Inter-Party Kenya Youth wings. donors Highly effective and popular civic education project 42 4 Democracy Camps Central Asia IFES. NDI Multi-partisan project reduces potential for violence 50 Youth Forum and develops capacities of youth in political parties 12 From Woman Switzerland Youth Council. NGOs. USAID Lessons in civic engagement 43 for rural school children 5 Asian Young Leaders Asia UNDP. youth groups Small-scale youth projects get low-barrier access to 47 technical and financial support 9 Voices of Youth Nepal UNICEF. tribal leaders. BBC World Service Multimedia civic and voter education campaign 52 Education Campaign including youth voices 14 Supporting Tunisia UNDP. Avenues for participation in 45 Organization local authority marginalized neighbourhood 7 Tribal Liaison Office Afghanistan Tribal leaders. regional leadership training 44 6 Young Volunteer Turkey European Union. EMB (elections song/Twitter game) 15 Youth Australia EMB.000 NGOs. Support electoral observation projects focused on 55 Electoral Observation UNDP. Electoral Tribunal youth and/or run by youth organizations 17 Online Voting Mainly CSOs Helps to identify the political party that 56 Advice Applications in Europe best matches the own opinion POST-ELECTORAL PERIOD 18 Parliament Watch Germany Parliament Watch. LEAD International Governance focused.

info@youthforhab. Inclusion High inclusion of youth in general. but no special attention to marginalized groups. 8 June. Relevance Knowledge transfer about successful campaigns like this might be highly inspirational for for UNDP youth groups in other countries. In 2006. Innovation Helped unite various youth groups to successfully lobby for their rights with high impact. In the 2011 election—for the first time in Turkey’s history— candidates between the ages of 25 and 30 years were elected to Parliament. It consisted of local activities such as the collection of signatures in 23 Prior to the 2011 elections. Youth for a national media campaign and meetings with political leaders.2011 Funding Mainly voluntary Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 X 30-35 Capacity Individual X Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful None X Consultation/ X Youth-led X Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description In 2006. During the election. several youth organizations in Turkey launched a campaign to lower the eligibility age for running for a seat in the national Parliament. Recognition Parliament responded to the campaign within one month. the part- ners endorsed young candidates and questioned all candidates about their youth policy. in The New York Times. Interview with Elif Kalan at Youth for Habitat. Sources Visit of the author to the youth convention in Ankara in www. campaign partners lobbied for the nomination of young candidates. while political parties were called on to lower the registration fee for young politicians. national Parliament lowered the eligibility age from 30 to 25 years in a swift reaction to the campaign. 2011.EXAMPLE 1: YOUNG MPs NOW CAMPAIGN Area TURKEY Partners National Youth Parliament. community volunteer organization Duration 2006. Susanne Güsten. local youth councils.html?pagewanted=all 40 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . Citizens could express their support on a website.nytimes. ‘Youth Play New Roles in Turkish Elections’.

indiatimes. following an investigation based on the formal lodging of a complaint. The parliament is also involved in community an 11-year-old boy. For example. By 2004.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=228. local social work centre. complaints about teachers etc. Relevance Activity is suitable for support through international organizations and targets civic for UNDP education as well as direct participation. Inclusion 38 percent of seats in the parliament are reserved for girls. maintenance. in The International Journal of Children’s Rights. 193-212. Participating children are more likely to make a positive contribu- tion to the development of their communities. http://infochangeindia. He was the speaker of the first children’s parlia- ment. 2004. ‘Govt to set up Bal Sansads in schools`. childhood and political participation: Case studies of young people’s councils’.timesofindia. ‘Change India’. Members and ministers run many school affairs such as supplies. One result has been better understanding of governance processes and the functions of democratic institutions. members reach out and register out-of-school youth.childfriendlycities. Sources Michael Wyness. who became prime minister. The child government has far-reaching competencies. ‘Children.000 children have elected 56 members and a prime minister. Innovation Courageous approach of granting children far-reaching competencies. pp. Recognition Highlighted in journals and the media.pdf. Members have the power to fire teachers who fail in their duties. Dev Karan. adults func- tion as civil servants and are answerable to the persuaded community members to get a solar pump to fill up a 100. the fifth children´s parliament was in session and 4.000-litre water tank from the community well. 2007. settled a village dispute and collected money from his village community to establish a community-managed piped water system. Kaushalya. Members select cabinet ministers with specific portfolios. Members attend village education committee meetings and take up matters with local officials. children expressed their desire to know more about governance and came up with the idea for a children’s parliament. 9. http://articles. www. Times of India. schools Duration Since 1993 Funding N/A Ages X 15-18 18-25 25-30 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful None X Consultation/ X Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description In 1993. during a children’s fair at Barefoot College night schools in Tilona. The minimum age to participate is 11 years. A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 41 .EXAMPLE 2: CHILDREN’S COUNCIL Area INDIA (RAJASTHAN) Partners UNICEF. 2001. children have a high impact on their school and

Center for Civic Education. develop their own solution in the form of a public a trailer can be viewed at www. They work coop- eratively to identify a public policy problem in their community. students with different social backgrounds may be present. http://ukinpakistan.8 million students and 45.civiced. They then research the problem. results-oriented projects. Recognition An award-winning film. www. involving external for UNDP donors. http://new.g. Email interview with the Associate Director at the Center for Civil Education. between 1996 and 2011. informal. Project evaluation reports. the UK Embassy in Pakistan) Duration Since 1995 Funding N/A Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 25-30 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful None X Consultation/ X Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description Project Citizen is a programme mainly for middle. An award-winning documentary film (‘The World We Want’) has been produced featuring Project Citizen. the US Government.g. 42 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le evaluate alternative solutions. www.php?page=project_citizen_documentary_wins_audience_award_at_ afi_film_festival.. low access barriers.php?page=project_citizen_research. John H. In addition. positive evaluations. Hall. secondary and post-secondary students and youth organizations.” As of 2012. issue-driven. Sources The World We Want’.learninglinksindia. 6 October Learning Links India. (…) Project Citizen is used in classrooms around the world and has been translated into more than 40 languages. www.) to teach lessons on civic participation and give young people oppor- tunities to become change teachers participated in the project in the United States.EXAMPLE 3: PROJECT CITIZEN Area GLOBAL (US-BASED) Partners Center for Civic students. various national partners (e. Relevance Uses an implementation mode similar to those for UNDP projects. and local and international implementation partners. and create a political action plan to enlist local or state authorities to adopt their proposed policy. Innovation The project uses instruments available in every community (teachers. including approxi- mately 500.. Inclusion In etc.000 teachers have taught the Civitas International Programmes to over 12 million students in more than 81 countries. public policy processes. approximately 2. UK Embassy in Pakistan. it “promotes competent and responsible participation in local and state government. Learning Links Foundation India). According to the Center for Civic Education website. approximately 400. international donors (e.000 students in China.fco. instrument does not apply to out-of-school

and to instill in them a belief in their capacity as individuals to improve their country and communities. which increases openness to new ideas.000 for about 60 participants Ages X 15-18 18-25 25-30 30-35 Capacity X Individual Organizational Enabling environment Development Meaningful X None Consultation/ Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description Since 2000. europe. IFES has conducted over 20 democracy camps across Kyrgyzstan and several other Central Asian A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 43 . According to IFES. BUT ALSO KAZAKHSTAN AND Brief/2011/July/US-Ambassador-to-Kyrgyzstan-Visits-IFES-Democracy-Camps.EXAMPLE 4: DEMOCRACY CAMPS Area MAINLY IFES also monitors and hosts a Democracy Camp National Alumni Network where any participant is free to join. Ninth. 25 October 2011.” Innovation Takes students out of their regular environments. www. more than 60 percent of students successfully plan and implement projects such as: student government bodies.and 10th-grade participants learn about democratic values. civic education and the region. debates. assertive. empowers students to conduct their own projects. extra-curricular educational classes for primary and secondary schools and orphanages. USAID (donor) Duration Since 2000 Funding Each camp session costs approximately US $15. and actively engaged in community and country development. Report about US Ambassador’s visit to IFES’ democracy camp. Regional camps were held in 2005 and 2006 for students from the Central Asian republics. Training is based on IFES’ in-house (both international and local) expertise in interactive teaching methodologies. Participants return to their communities after the summer camp program with a project plan to implement in their own schools and communities. The Network has been successful in develop- ing smaller camp-like programs and implementing them at schools over shorter holiday breaks. Recognition Mentioned in a US Ambassador’s report. The Network reaches out to around 100 active participants.aspx. Partners IFES. leadership skills. teamwork. on aver- age. and other related activities that motivate and educate their peers and adults. www. Relevance Implementation modality similar to those used by UNDP. it notes: “Over the long term. we have received anecdotal feedback that the camp program has made many participants more School-Students-in-Kyrgyzstan. issues and approach are highly for UNDP relevant to the electoral cycle approach. Email interview with IFES Europe and Asia Programs Desk. the programme reached an estimated 4. Inclusion Reaches students in rural communities.724 participants from 2000 to 2011.programs@ifes. Monitoring of these projects has shown that.ifes. their role as citizens and how to advocate for change in their society. The goal of the 10-day-camps is to build civic mindedness and engagement among young people. Sources IFES website. interactive and fun camp environment.aspx. nationwide.On its website.

‘Leadership for Change—Reflections from Asia’.th/practices/capacitydevelopment/projects-AYLG.undp. The national roll-out pilots reached 230 additional youth. participants were 50 percent women and 10 percent from indigenous groups. the impact and outcome of the programme are difficult to measure. evaluation report.or. and produced five custom- ized leadership course packages.624 Ages 15-18 18-25 X 25-30 X 30-35 Capacity X Individual Organizational Enabling environment Development Meaningful X None Consultation/ Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description This regional project aimed at enhancing the leadership skills of young Asian leaders with a proven track record and active participation in leadership and/or governance issues in their countries. Relevance It was a UNDP project. There is convincing evidence that leadership fellows have increased their leadership capacities on a personal level. Beyond the personal level. UN Democracy Fund and UNDP. http://regionalcentrebangkok. ‘Young Leaders—Inspiring Change’. leadership fellows encouraged to implement national roll-out workshops. UNDP Regional Centre Bangkok and UN Democracy Fund.or. Inclusion In three countries. finallowres110309. LEAD International (training curriculum) Duration 2007-2009 Funding UN Democracy Fund grant of US $314.EXAMPLE 5: ASIAN YOUNG LEADERS Area ASIA Partners UNDP Regional Centre in Bangkok in partnership with country offices. anti-corruption. The training was designed around five leadership skills (leadership styles. 2009. conflict resolution and negotiation. targets only young people already recognized as leaders. Some significantly moved forward with their careers after the training. http://regionalcentrebangkok. and team-building and networking) and leadership values (linked to gender equality. Participants were selected through UNDP country offices.pdf. the project trained 131 leadership fellows from 20 countries in several workshops on leadership skills. 44 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . According to an independent evaluation report.un.htm. The evaluation report recommends developing a project strategy for UNDP that assures sustainability through long-term resource mobilization and application of networking techniques. cross-cultural communica- tions for leadership. Recognition Project has published several reports. www.html. The project featured several regional and sub-regional workshops. Innovation Combination of national and regional workshops. and five pilot national roll-out projects. D. indigenous peoples’ rights and capacity development). systems thinking for transformational change.undp. Sources UN Democracy Fund website.

Delegation of the European Union to Turkey.EXAMPLE 6: YOUNG VOLUNTEER ORGANIZATION Area TURKEY Partners Youth CSO. First. Recognition Featured in several publications. and other place-based initiatives meaningful to the residents.fairplayforchildren. A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 45 . eds. and formed a dozen committees to work on them. it was initiated and is governed by youth.html. pp.pdf. where trained youth experts captured the views of elementary school students on a child-friendly city and communicated the results to urban 277-286. it represents disadvantaged youth from low-income families. www. “Young Volunteers Association is unique in several aspects (…).” The project established the People’s Assembly of Ayazaga. ‘In search of agency—Participation in a youth organization in Turkey’.pdf. it is based in a low-income gecekondu (squatter) neighbourhood. attended by 550 people from the neighbourhood. which was able to develop its for UNDP organizational capacities with the help of funding from an external partner. According to Sancar and Severcan. In 2010-2011. Global Focus case study. participating youth can see the direct impact of their engagement and their contribution to mobilizing external resources (from the European Union) for their community. Taylor and Francis Group. Fourth. The project also helped establish free preparatory courses for high school and university entrance exams for children and youth who cannot afford to pay for private courses. Relevance Good example of a youth-founded and -led CSO.Basari_Oykusu_Kasim_2010. with 200 registered students. the organization carried out a large participa- tory urban planning project. Second. its activities include provision of services for the neighbourhood Sources Fahriye Hazer Sancar and Yucel Can Severcan. They discussed neighbourhood issues and problems. ‘Child-friendly Istanbul’. local municipality and others Duration Since 2004 Funding N/A Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 X 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful None X Consultation/ X Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description The project shows what a positive impact youth can have on their community. www.globalfocus. Inclusion Organization was founded in a disadvantaged neighbourhood and has many projects aimed at social inclusion. It conducted seasonal environmental programmes. Routledge. 2010. A Handbook of Children and Young People’s Participation—Perspectives from Theory and 2010. European Union. Innovation Allows youth to implement activities according to their own sources and style. in Barry Percy-Smith and Nigel Thomas.

boell. Upon request from tribal elders in south-east Afghanistan. and helped USAID and the provincial governor identify and conduct development projects in some of the most unstable areas. informal_structures_Karokhail_2007. Recognition Written up in international publications. developed out of a Swisspeace (the office). In the process. however. Khost and Paktika. a youth- led CSO. it helped the traditional elite to gain access to the Government and understand how to integrate into a modern system.tlo-afghanistan. www. It facilitated participatory rural development assessments in the districts of Paktia. On the one hand.EXAMPLE 7: TRIBAL LIAISON OFFICE Area AFGHANISTAN Partners Tribal leaders. through being elected into the Parliament. and local governance structures and tribal leaders on the other are weak. to receive support and recognition from the governmental and tribal stakeholders alike. by trying to foster link- ages and cooperation between the two important structures. In the words of founder Masood Karockhail. and also the prospects of peace and security for the south-east.” Some examples of how the office has successfully used its mediating capacities include its support to provincial governments and the UN system to settle a long-standing tribal land conflict in Paktia-Khost. “(The Tribal Liaison Office) has essentially performed an important service in the state-building exercise. It now has a staff of 150 in 11 different offices throughout Afghanistan. links between the central Government and the international community on the one hand. on the other hand. it helped the Government to gain support from the local elite and. This facilitating role helped (the office). It bridges gaps between tribal leaders and formal government authorities through research. 46 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . Inclusion Helps tribal governance structures gain access to the central Government and international community. also had to convince elders that they would benefit by supporting the modern state-building exercise. Field visit of the author in August 2006 to the Tribal Liaison Office in Kabul and Gardez. which was mainly done through hopes for the big carrot— the benefit of international assistance and reconstruction efforts. Relevance The Tribal Liaison Office partners with various international agencies. various donors and government authorities Duration Since 2003 Funding N/A Ages 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 X 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful None X Consultation/ X Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description In Afghanistan. Heinrich-Boell Foundation publication. capacity development.pdf. coordination and facilitation. the Tribal Liaison Office. for UNDP Sources Tribal Liaison Office website. and local governance structures/tribal leaders on the other. for example. Innovation Uses a unique approach to bridge the gap between the central Government and the interna- tional community on the one hand.

Book Three—To act. and should benefit Kosovo society and youth. any Kosovo youth under 30 years of age can apply for a small grant Duration November 2010 until at least January 2013 Funding Approximately US $500. Recognition Has appeared in international publications. Relevance Programming setting similar to typical UNDP projects.educationandtransition. The individual or group applying does not need to be a registered organization in Kosovo. trainings. http://cis-india. UNICEF website: http://www. films. By September 2011. voter education). For selected projects. approach could be adopted to focus on for UNDP politically relevant issues (e. Several projects have involved Roma and Serbian minorities.” Innovation Informal. etc. Twice per week. Inclusion Anyone under age 30 can apply. Approximately 1. Centre for Internet and Society (India) and the Hivos Knowledge Programme (The Netherlands). low formal access barriers.. (see for instance workshops. easy language. 85 project proposals had been submitted.200 youngsters have been directly involved in projects by participat- ing in different campaigns. such as increased awareness of environmental issues. the project encourages members of minority groups.g. Each project has a specific outcome. a small amount of funding is provided (up to 5. 34 of which were approved. 2011. uses technology. women and persons with special needs to participate. of different ages and ethnicities gathered together with one goal: a clean environment in Kosovo. Mentors help manage and implement projects.wordpress. Through projects by youth and for youth. http://kosovoinnovations.. in Nishant Shah and Fieke Jansen. Email interview with project coordinator. Prabhas Pokharel. Digital Alternatives – with a cause?. according to UNICEF Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational Enabling environment Development Meaningful None X Consultation/ X Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description The guiding principle of the Innovations Lab is ‘innovative ideas for social good’. on 20 September 2011. Ron euros). Each project is led by a young Kosovar aged 16-29. pp.EXAMPLE 8: INNOVATIONS LAB Area KOSOVO Partners UNICEF (funding/main implementation). about-social-change-in-kosovo/ A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 47 .000 for or http://kumevotu. and disabled youth. results-oriented projects. ‘Towards 2 Way Participation’. According to the coordinator. issue-driven. informal ‘innovations cafes’ are organized. one positive output has been to see “how different people from different places. connections to Kosovo institutions and to a community of young change-makers are supported. Sources Kosovo Innovations Lab. events. in an environmental project. 64-71. necessary equipment and office space for co-working is provided. participation in community decision-making. the lab seeks to help youth transform ideas into actionable projects.

Recognition Featured online.EXAMPLE 9: VOICES OF YOUTH Area NEPAL Partners UNICEF.. Sources MobileActive. This has enhanced the capacity of the radio programme to include the voices of youth.000 text messages were received from 24. Innovation Combines strengths of radio and mobile phones. 2011. elections. both of which are highly popular among youth. The discussion is also accessible on a website. Inclusion Anyone with a radio and mobile phone can participate.mobileactive. www. software company (FOCUSONE) Duration Since November 2009 Funding Approximately US $ 175. UNICEF. national radio station (SSMK) www.slideshare. more than 200. could be modified to capture for UNDP political issues ( ‘SMS Campaign in Nepal. Relevance Uses an implementation mode similar to those at UNDP.000 Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 X 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational Enabling environment Development Meaningful X None Consultation/ Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description Every week. In 14 months.’ PowerPoint presentation. participation). and asks listeners to contribute to the discussion via free text messages. a radio team frames a topic or a question. telecom companies. 48 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le .500 mobile numbers on 59 topics related to social and health issues.

for a total of over 30 million since it was founded in 1999. The project has contributed to three levels of capacity development for youth through individual training courses. for UNDP Young participants in UNDP-sponsored activities could connect and share knowledge via TakingITGlobal. and facilitated learning experiences through workshops and e-courses.000 NGOs. networks. and sharing of best practices on youth engagement. research. technology. connections to organi- zations. interactive learn- ing experiences. Liam O’Doherty. A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 49 . business and youth conferences and events.000 non-profit organizations. Relevance Potential cooperation on online skills-building courses adapted to youth projects.) for online youth. Innovation Uses social media for knowledge campaigns and causes. UNDP staff could use TakingITGlobal to connect to youth initiatives and encourage local partners to be globally visible. etc. www. and the creation of an online environment for civically active youth. the project is a leading social network for global citizenship. Inclusion Low access barriers (no fees. offline youth are not reached. Interview with TakingITGlobal Partnerships Coordinator.000 members are involved. Recognition Thought leadership through presenting at over 500 education. 8 UN entities. It provides: tools for educators to facilitate rich.EXAMPLE 10: TAKINGITGLOBAL Area Global (based in Canada) Partners 22. Over 340. development.5 million young people in It reached 4. global recognition from the World Economic Forum and Tech Museum of Innovation. with low access barriers and mobilization across borders. Sources TakingITGlobal. development. knowledge sharing and networking. outreach and collaboration tools for events. from more than 22.tigweb. The project provides an online community and initiatives to enable actively engaged middle and high school students. several technology companies and foundations from North America Duration Since 1999 Funding N/A Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful None X Consultation/ X Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description According to TakingITGlobal. liam@takingitglobal.

org/files/Youth_Bulge_Africa_102710. The Inter-Party Youth Forum issued a joint statement renouncing electoral violence. even though some of them were previously engaged in violent conflict. 50 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le .EXAMPLE 11: INTER-PARTY YOUTH FORUM Area Kenya Partners NDI. Innovation Combines support for a coalition of youth wings with skills training. including unemployment. NDI subsequently supported the Inter-Party Youth Forum.ndi. Participants have developed capacities for non-violent resolution of conflict. www. Young participants from different political parties receive skills training. participants decided to create a coalition to advocate on certain 2010. Television and radio stations broadcast the conference across the country. 2007. ‘The Youth Bulge in Africa—Opportunities for Constructive Engagement in the Political Process’. such as on negotiation and advocacy. http://www. http://www.pdf. ‘Engaging Young People in Politics in Conflict and Post-Conflict Settings—A Guidebook’.com/pages/Inter-Party-Youth-Forum-IPYF/128885787127983. young participants decided to scale up the activity to a broader network. Kenyan political parties Duration Since 2001 Funding N/A Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 X 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful None X Consultation/ X Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description NDI has facilitated a Young Political Leadership Academy for several years in Kenya. Inter-Party Youth Forum Facebook page. In September 2010.facebook. the forum hosted a conference with over 500 youth from different ethnic. for UNDP Sources Shari Bryan. In 2008. NDI. Leaders from Kenya’s seven leading political parties attended. Relevance Implementation modality similar to those at UNDP. and develop projects to implement within their parties.ndi. Inclusion N/A Recognition NDI has frequently featured the activity in its publications. religious and political allegiances.

they met regularly. young women Duration 2000-2005 Funding N/A Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 X 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational Enabling environment Development Meaningful X None Consultation/ Youth-led X Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description This mentoring programme addressed the crucial challenge of increasing the number of young women in political leadership positions by pairing young women active in youth organizations with more experienced women political leaders. Mentors appreciated the opportunity for inter-generational exchanges and insights. I am no longer afraid of trying to do so another time!” Innovation Combined a learning experience with an increase in power and networking resources. www.html?lang=de (in German).pdf. Sources Conclusions of the Swiss mentoring project From Woman to Woman. www. The organizations they work for reported that they perform more efficiently. A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 51 .redejovensigualdade. Over the course of one year. Relevance UNDP could support national youth councils in implementing a multi-partisan mentoring for UNDP programme. And having been on the top once. Recognition Won the Young Active Citizens Award of the Council of Europe in 2003. and the young women assisted to form networks. mentors.admin. 250 participants showed a high degree of satisfaction with the initiative. From the top of these peaks I have gained a new Evaluation report. and the mentors learning about the political issues and aims of the young women. political parties could be encouraged to implement mentoring programmes for young candidates or youth wing leaders. There was greater awareness in political organizations of the need to support young women in reaching leadership and noted they had a better networking position and clearer ideas about future careers. Inclusion Empowered young women to get access to power networks and gain confidence. Swiss Federal Committee on Women’s Empowerment. One young woman said: “My mentoring year was like a hiking tour with an experienced 12: FROM WOMAN TO WOMAN Area Switzerland Partners National Youth Council of Switzerland. Skills training sessions were offered.ekf. I could reach summits I would have never reached without her. With her. They indicated increased self-confidence and interest in political orga- nizations and issues. According to a project evaluation. with the young women gaining insights from the career paths of their mentors.

www. ‘Multimedia Youth Civic Education Campaign 2011-2013—Concept Note’. It focuses on increasing civic knowledge and skills. frames youth as active political subjects. and the actual practice of. resulting in a more competent. The initiative aims at increasing youth access to information about civic life and opportunities for participa- tion. and Media’. Relevance A UNDP project.EXAMPLE 13: MULTIMEDIA CIVIC EDUCATION CAMPAIGN Area Cambodia Partners UNDP.un. and support to youth CSOs. innovative combination of media Video teaser. 2011. BBC World Service Trust. Attitudes. and changing attitudes. www.php?option=com_jdownloads&Itemid=65&task=viewcategory&catid=4 52 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . including by presenting positive examples of youth participation in governance. UNDP Cambodia is implementing a national youth civic education campaign. Awareness of the value of youth participation among older people should also increase. call-in radio broadcasts. baseline study conducted with support from UNDP. Much of the media production will occur in rural areas. and an increase in positive attitudes towards. Recognition Featured online. which provides technical advice. BBC World Service Trust Duration 2011-2013 (campaign started in January 2012) Funding US $2. www. Specific outcomes include greater access to information about civic life and opportunities for participation. Innovation Creates links between day-to-day youth civic engagement and electoral participation. Youth participate in a Campaign Working Group. empowered and enfranchised constituency of youth. cambodia-tv-production-to-boost-youth-civic-participation. Inclusion Provides positive role models for young women’s civic participation and highlights opportunities for their civic involvement as one of the main focuses of the campaign. 4 and 5 October million (UNDP core funds and a grant from the Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund) Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 25-30 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful None X Consultation/ Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description After an important election in 2012 and ahead of an important election in 2013. Components include a weekly TV programme. ‘Youth Civic Participation in Cambodia—Knowledge.undp. public service announcements on voter education. and to explore ways to appeal to both urban and rural youth.html. Gregory Lavender. Email interview with UNDP Cambodia Youth Advocacy Officer. youth civic engagement. The project seeks to reach 5 million young people. for UNDP Sources UNDP. Plans to provide some content for translation into indigenous minority languages for online and mobile phone communications.beta. Featured article on UNDP global website.

The awareness of young people about the electoral process increased. IFES.1 million registered Tunisians. These included an election song. with more than 100. The song became the ‘election anthem’. ‘DemocraTweet’ was a voter education game aimed at mobilizing youth in partnership with Tunisia’s leading radio station. ‘Enti Essout’ (‘You Are the Voice’).000 free downloads (www. including through media messages and watch?v=4DYhHrSTsVQ&feature=plcp) democratic-elections-tunisia/ A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 53 . Inclusion Reached out to illiterate and rural youth.EXAMPLE 14: SUPPORTING DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS Area Tunisia Partners UNDP. http://www. Relevance A UNDP project. Voter turnout was large—76 percent of 4. EMB Duration Summer/fall 2011 Funding N/A Ages 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 X 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful X None Consultation/ Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description UNDP applied a variety of innovative tools to reach out to youth prior to elections in 2011. Recognition Featured widely in newspapers and on websites. Innovation Used creative strategies to build positive impressions of the elections. Radio Mosaique FM.000 people over three weeks. for UNDP Sources UNDP. late-voter registration and voter mobilization. It was played by 10. Three voter education campaigns focused on registration.undp. European Union.

www. Recognition Some web coverage. a youth radio station. playful and youth-friendly channels. During ‘O’ Week. Australian Electoral Commission media release 2004 on ‘Rock Enrol’. university students are provided the opportunity to enrol and ask questions about voting during their first week on campus.pdf. Activities include: Enrol to Vote ‘Famous People Vote Too’ enlists celebrities as ambassadors for enrolment. in universities or in front of the TV. Relevance Elements of this campaign could provide inspiration for work with electoral management for UNDP bodies and CSOs in developing countries.htm 54 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . various media.EXAMPLE 15: YOUTH ENROLMENT CAMPAIGN Area Australia Partners Australian Electoral where participating schools encourage senior students to vote through peer-led activities. ’Rock Enrol’ video. other partners Duration Ongoing Funding N/A Ages X 15-18 18-25 25-30 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful X None Consultation/ Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description The Australian Electoral Commission conducts various activities to ensure that young and first-time voters are enrolled to vote and keep their enrolment details current.aec. and to campaign for voting in mainstream and social media. Through ‘Rock Enrol’.net. www. www. Sources Australian Electoral Commission youth enrolment Voting and enrolling are compulsory for every Australian citizen over 18 years of age. these activities have led to higher enrolment of first-time voters and greater participation of youth in elections. ‘Count Me In!’ supports youth associations in their endeavour to register as many youth as possible over one weekend. Innovation Uses various the commission and youth music celebrities encourage youth to register and vote during concerts and other entertaining activities. In combination. Inclusion Likely to reach different segments of youth at different places—at school.

and the media. Recognition Featured online and in newspapers nationwide. According to UNDP Mexico. A. A. The Fund’s public call for proposals clearly stated the topic of youth as one of the priority topics in the selection A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 55 .C.observacionelectoral2012. Innovation Beyond the traditional observation during election day.C.100 election observers for the 2012 federal election Consolidando Ciudadanía. UNDP Mexico provided technical assistance and strengthened capacities in administration and accountability.nuevademocracia.throughout the electoral process. The political campaigns in social networks were also observed by another youth-led NGO. The projects observed a wide array of aspects and actors in the electoral process.C website http://www. Elige Red de Jóvenes por los Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos. website http://www.fuerzaciudadana. http://fnosotroslosjovenes. political parties. the youth-led projects that were supported by the Fund observed a variety of actors. In total.C. five of the selected projects were not only focused on youth.including the EMB. UNDP Mexico managed and operated a Fund that supported electoral observation projects. youth-led projects that participated in the Fund registered and trained an estimated 1. for UNDP Sources UNDP Mexico electoral observation website http://www. but were also run by youth organiza- tions. website http://www. A. Ministry of the Interior Duration Spring-Fall 2012 Funding US $5 million (Grant from the EMB and the Ministry of the Interior) Ages 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 30-35 Capacity Individual X Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful None Consultation/ X Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description During the 2012 federal election process.elige. Inclusion Reached out to the youth in universities.EXAMPLE 16: E LECTORAL OBSERVATION WITH A YOUTH LENS Area Mexico Partners UNDP Mexico. website Organización Fuerza Ciudadana. one of them monitored the EMB’s youth participation campaigns and policies. Electoral Tribunal (TEPJF). EMB (IFE).org Nueva Democracia Mexicana. Another one monitored youth candidacies for Congress and observed the conditions in which the Mexican youth has access to these candidacies. One of them will monitor the legislative activity of newly elected youth members of Congress in order to follow up on campaign promises and to advocate for a youth oriented Fundación Nosotros los Jóvenes. For instance. focusing on practices within the various political Relevance A UNDP project. A.consolidandociudadania.

online voting advice applications are popular to inform citizens about the values and programmes of political parties.EXAMPLE 17: ONLINE VOTING ADVICE APPLICATIONS Area Mainly in Europe Partners CSOs. excludes offline voters.0.7 million times. provides voter education in a playful. Garzia. Sources German voting advice application (‘Wahl-o-Mat’). Cedroni and D. ‘Voting Advice Applications in Europe: The State of the Art’. Relevance Only relevant for developing countries with a significant number of Internet users. youth-friendly form. L.html. More than one-third of users were below 30 years old.gips. for UNDP Difficulties might arise from weak political party programmes and identities. 2010. eds. An online application gives voters the opportunity to answer the same questions as political Likely to be more relevant in proportional voting systems. A standardized questionnaire is sent to all parties.Fakten_zum_WahlOMat. At the 2009 German national election. documented by various studies and articles. An independent institution helps citizens identify which political party best matches their own preferences. the appli- cation calculates which political party is closest to the voter’s preferences and provides additional information. government bodies charged with voter education Duration Since 2002 Funding N/A Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 X 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational Enabling environment Development Meaningful None Consultation/ X Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description In Germany and other European Recognition Activity has been implemented in several countries. Subsequently. Inclusion Increases access to information for all online voters. www.bpb. where parties have greater roles. http://blogs. the voting advice application ‘Wahl-o-mat’ was used 6. 56 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le .unisi. Innovation Builds on the potential of the internet for voter education.

Around two thousand questions were asked each month. Parliament Watch has become a highly effective tool for enhancing the accountability of parliamentarians. Klaus Bardenhagen. www.html (in German). for UNDP The German Konrad-Adenauer Foundation has helped Malaysian journalists start an ‘MP watch’. according to its own statistics. Two leading German print and online media outlets (Spiegel online and Süddeutsche Zeitung) regularly feature activities on Parliament Watch. in Deutsche Welle. has created a strong incentive for members to answer quickly.00. Luxemburg and Malaysia. The popularity of the website. members of Parliament Duration Since 2004 Funding Approximately 133. To bridge the digital Sources Summary of Parliament Watch. G. it uses an approach that appeals to youth. This type of project could be highly attractive for youth groups already using the Internet to mobilize for social change. Austria. created by two university graduates. Ordinary citizens have a voice without having to go through an intermediary organization. Additionally. 2010.EXAMPLE 18: PARLIAMENT WATCH Area Germany Partners Parliament Watch.5313717. ‘Dem Volk Rede und Antwort Stehen’.de/layer-248-0. more than 90 percent of members from the federal parliament respond to questions. excludes citizens without computer skills/access. As of April 2010. enables German citizens to publicly scrutinize their parliamentarians at the federal.dw-world. changing the way members and citizens communicate. www. www. state and European levels. Ashoka Fellow.000 euros in 2010 Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 X 30-35 Capacity X Individual Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful None X Consultation/ X Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description The politically neutral website Parliament Watch. A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 57 . Parliament Watch publishes voting records and the auxiliary income of MPs. Citizens send questions on any issues to members of Parliament. the website is used to scrutinize candidates.abgeordnetenwatch. Recognition Widely covered in the mainstream media. results could be publicly displayed. Relevance UNDP could support youth-led CSOs and media institutions to implement similar activities. their answers are published online. the website had 10. Innovation Uses the Internet to enhance communication between citizens and parliamentarians. who have displayed YouTube videos of human rights violations on projectors in public places. media partners. as do 40 regional newspapers. While this youth-led initiative does not target youth only. Inclusion Amplifies the voices of individuals..000 visitors a day on average and about three million page impressions per month. following the lead of Egyptian Hackmack. According to the founders of the site.abgeordnetenwatch. citizens. Similar projects have been started in Ireland. During election campaign periods.

Muditha Gamage. about a quarter of members are young women. for UNDP Sources Interview with Sri Lanka’s Youth Parliament Prime Minister.EXAMPLE 19: NATIONAL YOUTH PARLIAMENT Area Sri Lanka Partners National Youth Forum. 500.asiantribune. in Asian Tribune. Youth parliamentarians can enter the committees of the national Parliament and consult national members. Milinda Rajapaksha.000 members of youth organizations and clubs across Sri Lanka elect them in district-wide polls. Relevance Participatory process suitable for replication in other developing countries. 58 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . Youth are included in national decision-making and learn about electoral processes. shadowing the work of the national Parliament. local youth organizations and clubs Duration Since 2010 Funding N/A (source: Government) Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful None X Consultation/ X Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description The Sri Lankan Youth Parliament has 335 members. Inclusion Some top elected and appointed members are from minorities. ‘The Inaugural Session of the National Youth Parliament commences promising a new era for the youth of Sri Lanka’.com/news/2011/07/18/inaugural-session-national- youth-parliament-commences-promising-new-era-youth-sri-la. Thirty youth ministers follow national ministries and have working space there. www. Innovation Includes youth in national decision-making in a fairly representative way. Recognition Highly recognized in Sri Lanka. youth parliamentarians meet in the capital and debate relevant issues. Twice a month. The national Parliament has included the youth parliament’s recommendations in the national youth policy. 2011.

contributing to a more positive image of young citizens. Additionally. Innovation Took place in a context where it is not common to invite youth to Parliament.EXAMPLE 20: YOUTH VISITING PARLIAMENT Area Cambodia Partners UNDP. The activity also facilitated dialogue between youth and parliamentarians. Recognition Project was not well recognized. Additionally. A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 59 . Inclusion Enabled young people from rural areas to gain access to Parliament. as well as three youth and democracy forums. As a result. 411 youth from 12 provinces attended workshops in Parliament. Students formulated their own questions about community issues. National Assembly Duration 2009 Funding N/A Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational Enabling environment Development Meaningful None X Consultation/ Youth-led Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description As part of a broader legislative assistance project. UNDP facilitated the visits of Cambodian youth to the National Assembly for the first time in the institution’s history. Kampuchean Action for Primary Education. participants have a better understanding of parliamentary processes and issues. Youth Council of Cambodia. Relevance A UNDP project. Youth received training before facing members of Parliament with their questions and issues. for UNDP Sources Final report of the UNDP Cambodia Legislative Assistance Project. Legislators learned that youth can ask informed questions and are interested in civic life. such as domestic violence and deforestation. the project organized a dialogue workshop for youth in the Parliament on International Human Rights Day. Some 320 school children and 30 teachers from 13 provinces visited both Houses of Parliament.

enables youth to participate in community decision-making. Middle East and North Africa. and mediate among youth in their communities. Recognition Has appeared in NDI publications. This breaks with the previous tradition of employing sabotage and violence to pressure government. learn and teach conflict prevention and problem-solving skills. Council members have used their newly acquired conflict mitigation techniques to resolve tribal disputes. representatives of ministries and local councilors to secure their support for engaging youth. and on developing achievable projects and plans. NDI supports the councils with training on conflict mitigation. marginalized communities. governors. 60 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . ‘The Youth Bulge in Africa—Opportunities for Constructive Engagement in the Political Process’. Innovation Works with youth in tribal youth have successfully influenced community leaders and processes. Youth have used peaceful advocacy and protest tools learned during the NDI training to success- fully convey their demands to the government. Relevance Implementation mode and aims similar to those at UNDP.pdf. USAID. current chair of elected council board in Juba is a woman.ndi. Prior to establishing the councils. www. which conduct peer-to-peer conflict mediation in their schools. NDI website. The Marib Youth Council for Development and Social Peace in Juba. The councils advocate for youth with municipal and tribal leaders.EXAMPLE 21: YOUTH COUNCILS Area Yemen Partners NDI. the implementation of an awareness-raising programme for young women. http://www. for example. Email interview with NDI Senior Program Manager.ndi. for UNDP Sources Shari Bryan. 2010. 18 October 2011. Indicators of success include a decrease in the presence of weapons in schools. tribal and the agreement of 10 imams to preach on peace and conflict prevention during Friday prayers. combines training with results-oriented practice and participation. Leigh Catherine Miles. NGOs Duration Since 2010 Funding N/A Ages X 15-18 X 18-25 X 25-30 30-35 Capacity X Individual X Organizational X Enabling environment Development Meaningful None X Consultation/ X Youth-led X Collaborative Participation as advocacy participation Immediate Output Description NDI has established two 46-member cross-tribal youth councils in Yemen. Local governance institutions and stakeholders support the council. Inclusion Parity between men and women. advocacy and fundraising. targets conflict-affected. giving it office space and inviting representatives to serve as honorary members of the local council. the organiza- tion spent nearly two months meeting with tribal sheikhs. has trained and established 14 student mediation teams.

”81 all matters affecting the child. educational and the government of his country.  Strengthen the involvement of young people in rights for all individuals up to 18 years of age. the views of the child In 2003. regional and international cooperation and exchange between The United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of the youth organizations. On participation. the UN General Assembly adopted the World full and effective participation of youth and youth Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 organizations at the local.  Promote the social. such international forums. has affirmed various civil and political 5. for example by consider- as the right to participate: “States Parties shall assure ing the inclusion of youth representatives in to the child who is capable of forming his or her their national delegations to the United Nations own views the right to express those views freely in General Assembly. and remove obstacles that affect their society and decision-making.80 A/RES/58/133. directly or through technical support. 27 UN organizations concerned with 1. Annex 2 International Framework Documents and Resolutions The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 3.  “Develop and strengthen opportunities for youth (among them UNDP) signed an inter-agency youth to learn their rights and responsibilities. in both rural and urban full contribution to society.  Encourage youth associations and their (1948) has codified everyone’s “right to take part in activities through financial. 4. striving to include young people with A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 61 . national. the UN General Assembly re-affirmed its being given due weight in accordance with the age commitment to youth participation with resolution and maturity of the child“ (Article 12). Priority 10 is the World Programme of Action and in evaluating the concerned with the “full and effective participation progress achieved and the obstacles encountered in of youth in the life of society and in decision-making” its implementation. settings. It stresses the “importance of the In 1996.”82 and proposes to: In July 2011. freely chosen representatives” (Article 21). political. developmental Meeting on Youth. Child (1989). international levels in promoting and implementing mark document concerning youth. which is still an international bench. the most widely ratified international agreement.  Foster national. regional and and Beyond. the statement and environmental participation of young calls for: “Full and effective youth participation in people. statement on the occasion of the UN High-Level 2.

youth 2010-2011 for the Middle East and North Africa.  Requests parliaments to provide political and women to participate in decision-making and in financial support. while respecting the parliament and other decision-making bodies values of human dignity. national. implementation and evaluation of of youth in decision-making bodies.  Ensure equal access to young men and young 4. young women and young men are all entitled to the same rights (…). and equality (…). to form strong youth parliaments. indigenous 5. such as out. boys.  Calls on parliaments to develop practical that every young person has the right to participate measures (such as the possible introduction of in all spheres of society. it calls for the “full ers to strengthen efforts aimed at achieving and meaningful participation of young people in appropriate representation and participation the development. young people living with HIV. greater participation by youth in parliaments (…). In organizations and other relevant stakehold- its updated version (April 2011). Article 11 on youth participation specifies 2. freedom. ties for more young people to become active in of-school and out-of-work youth.” 85 displaced. democracy in accordance with the prescribed laws. notably adequate operating fulfilling civic duties. parliaments. regional.”84 mind that girls. budgets. the United Nations Development Group ambitious resolution on youth by consensus.” 86 the opportunity and motivation to re-integrate into mainstream society (…). 62 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le . States parties agree to: quotas for young people) to increase the partici- pation of young people in parliament and other 1.  Recommends that parliaments align the platforms for youth participation in deci- minimum voting age with the minimum age sion-making at local.  Facilitate the creation or strengthening of 3. In 2006. 2. “ Calls on the IPU.  Give priority to policies and programmes councils or equivalent bodies and to strengthen including youth advocacy and peer-to-peer existing ones. thus providing further opportuni- programmes for marginalised youth. young people who are stateless. young to build the institutional capacity of youth migrants. internally organisations (…). and of eligibility to run for office in order to ensure continental levels of governance.disabilities. young people from minorities. the 122nd Assembly of the humanitarian situations or armed conflict. the African Union passed the African Youth Charter.”83 Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) adopted an In 2010. youth 4. to offer them decision-making and in shaping their societies. young refugees or those affected by In 2010. bearing in relevant national policies.  Provide technical and financial support young people. legislation and programs. 3.  “Guarantee the participation of youth in representative bodies. It: published a Strategic Action Plan on Young People 1.

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13 March. United Kingdom. youth committed to bringing about positive change in org. Marcin. 2011.way. • White. 68 E nha nc i ng Yo u th Po l i ti ca l Pa r ti ci p ati o n t hro ugho ut t he Elec to ral Cyc le • youthmovements. Education Association. StrongerPoliticalParties. with Parliament%20Project%20-%20English%20-%20PI. www.pdf. 193-212. Twitter • ———. direct links to sources on participatory methods. ( is an initiative for and • United Nations Volunteers (UNV).org/participation/) sites/default/files/EC-IDEA%20-%20The%20Youth%20 has a site on participation and civic information • Williamson.parliament. childhood and political regional and global levels. ‘MPs Online—Connecting with on volunteer opportunities.voicesofyouth.worldbank. ‘Youth’.org) is a network of child rights organizations that work to improve the lives of children. • ZALESKI. It works to develop a global network of conscious-minded and self-reliant • WAY . • Y outh Action for Change ( on electoral fraud or corruption). « The Youth Parliament Children and adolescents explore.php? Youth’. ‘Empowering Women for Stronger Political Parties—A Good Practices Guide to Promote • R ising Voices summarizes the potential of online Women’s Political Participation’. by youth. with the main aim being to inspire and help www. 9.html. • S alto-Youth involves EU-supported resource centres on • United Nations General Assembly. • Wyness. 2009. 2003.undp.html their community and the world at large.globalvoicesonline. participation: Case studies of young people’s councils’ gender/gender and governance/EmpoweringWomenFor introductory-guide-to-global-citizen-media/). It offers resources. 2011. Standard Note SN/ • Y outhActionNet16 (www. support and ideas to become involved in social change. nurtures and inspires youth leadership around the world. 2011. Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond’. 2009. and a discussion forum Constituents—A study into how MPs use digital media to for young people to connect with each other and find communicate with their constituents’.org/ • T he World Bank (www.aspx.youthactionnet.ilo. citizen media and how to use them http://www. ‘Voting age’.pdf. http://www.pdf. • UNDP and NDI. Library House of Recommendations • UNDP Sudan. inspirational stories. ‘About Us’. http://www. http://www.childfriendlycities. • U shahidi provides free tools to create online maps for http://www.pdf. initiative for young people (http://www. ‘Policies and Programmes Involving or the Web.World Assembly of Youth. http://arabstates. for Further Surfing is a mapping website aimed download. 2011b. People can send information via that uses a combination of social and traditional media. ‘Children.. 2001.pdf. crowd-sourced information (e.CRIN. in • V oices of Youth is a UNICEF-run global online The International Journal of Children’s Rights. 2011. ‘Handbook for Women Candidates’. www. pp. at connecting youth-led NGOs organizations at PC/1747. Michael. Isobel. ‘World youth participation (www.crowdmap. A/RES/50/ ( • C hild Rights Information Network employment/yen/downloads/resolutions/58_133. young people empower themselves. (www. European Council and International Debate on issues related to social change and human rights.• ———. 2009. discuss and take action Project » A/RES/58/133. Hansard Society.

salto-youth. 60 Ellis 2007. p. 49  For example. 4 Ngampiboolwet 2002. p.youth. 72 www. 57 IDEA 1999. 56 http://emilyslist. ENDNOTES 1 See Institute for Development Studies 31 Ballington 2003. 2006. 2006.iknowpolitics. 13. training future political leaders at 74 UN-DESA 46 www. Constitutional Change). 16 3 Shah and Jansen 2011. Serbia and Turkey.equalvoice. p. 41 Golombek 2002.aspx. 213-218. 20 cal Leaders Seminar in FYROM (former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia). 75 www. 9 See Ellis 2007. 33 Juma 2011. see 23 IPU 2010. With the party-youth-wings-express-worry. p. 81 UN General Assembly 1996. 85 African Union 2006.ndi. the 73  www.schoolcouncils. 15 UNDP 2008. pp. p. 66  www. www. International Republican 71 WAY 21 Juma 2011. p. among others. 4DYhHrSTsVQ& 30 Ballington 2008. and Agenda and 4Cs—Citizen’s Coalition for monitor. not possible to discuss the quality and impact of these quotas. index. and UNDP Cambodia 2011. p. 52 Carter Center programmes: Friedrich Ebert Founda. 83  Inter-Agency Network on the IPU’s Quotaproject website (2011). 25  Ballington 2003.cfm?id=459. p. p. 36 For example. p. natives/blog/dnbook. 47 UNICEF Nepal 80 United Nations 1989. 7 UNICEF and Save the Children 2006. 21. p. it is 54 UNDP 2006a. 14 44 www. 77 p. 21 61 Ellis et Karkara 2011. are different. 20 IPU 29  This list is not comprehensive. 67. 5. 35 Ibid.cocukhaklari. Landsdown 2010 tion Kenya. A G o o d Prac t i ce Guide 69 . 39 See Handoussa 14  Based on NDI 65 Kang 2002. p. sub-regional research facility ‘Project for Youth Leaders’. Youth Development 2011. African Union 2006. 62 Ellis et al. 10 See Golombek p. 14. MacKinnon et al. 26  Unless stated otherwise.elections. limited data and resources available. and UNDP and NDI 2011. see Part A of this guide on legal frameworks. and Karkara 2011. UNICEF and Save the Children 2006. 8. 12 Hart 1992. 84  United Nations Development 28  Project on Middle East Democracy 8 UNDP 2002. 55 www. Civic Participation 2008. 12. 38 European Youth Forum 2010.voicesofafricamediafoundation. vot&dir=yth&document=index&lang=e.modernghana. 2010. Kang 2002 42 Hammarberg 1997. 24 IDEA and IPU 2012. 27 iKNOW Politics 2011. In some cases. 32 Essam El-Din 2011a. 43  UNICEF and Innovations in vote/students. 79 IPU 2010. 37 MacKinnon et al. NDI 2007a and Civic Participation 2009. 53  Ghanaian Times. the following data 51  For a discussion of quotas in electoral 82 UN General Assembly 2002. Mesquita 2002. training of interested young MenuId=95&BreadCrumbId=214. requirements the Young Women Leaders Academy and to vote for the upper chamber/senate study tours for Iraqi and Russian Youth. aspx?id=569&name=For%20Voters&Left 13  Based on Hart 1992. 50  http://cis-india. 67  www. among others. 34 Golombek 2002.aboutmyvote. 64  www. 5 Benjumea 2002. 19  This applies for single/lower houses of NDI. 86 IPU 45  Some examples for leadership 68  www.aspx. Institute. Pages/wehearyou. 76 IPU 2010. 8. 3. p.aspx?section= 11 Tayo 2002. 17 Mesquita 2002.mobileactive. UNDP Caribbean 70 UNDP 2009b. 106 40 IDEA 18 UNDP Egypt 2010. 78 NDI 2007b. 6 UNDP Regional Bureau for the Arab States 63 6. 2007. 2007. Republic of Moldova. 50. 22 IPU 2006. Group 2010. leaders with local partner NGOs (Youth 69 48 www. on youth quotas are drawn from IDEA and laws. Golombeck 2002. 59 NDI 2011b. article.ukyouthparliament. 23 and Rule 1994. Europe and Eurasia Young Politi. p. p.html. 58  Pravah and Innovations in 2 For example.

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org . NY 10017 www.undp. January 2013 United Nations Development Programme One United Nations Plaza New York.