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Bengt H. Fellenius, Dr.Tech., P.Eng.

Bengt Fellenius Consultants Inc.,

Calgary, Alberta, T2G 4J3

<Bengt@Fellenius.net>

Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 409 - 430.

409

drag load and downdrag

Bengt H. Fellenius, Dr.Tech., P.Eng.

the 1960s through the 1990s are presented. The results of the tests show that large

drag load will develop in piles installed in soft and loose soils. The test cases are from

Norway, Sweden, Japan, Canada, Australia, Hawaii (USA), and Singapore and

involve driven steel pile piles and precast concrete piles. The test results show that

the transfer of load from the soil to the pile through negative skin friction, as well as

from the pile back to the soil through positive shaft resistance, is governed by

effective stress and that already very small movement will result in mobilization of

ultimate values of shaft shear. The pile toe resistance, on the other hand, is

determined by downdrag of the pile and the resulting pile toe penetration.

Reconsolidation after the pile installation with associated dissipation of pore pressures

will result in significant drag load. An equilibrium of force in the pile will develop,

where the sustained loads on the pile head and the drag load are equal to the positive

shaft resistance plus the pile toe resistance. The location of the force equilibrium —

the neutral plane — is also where the pile and the soil move equally. The drag load is

of importance mostly for very long piles, piles longer than 100 pile diameters, for

which the pile structural strength could be exceed. However, downdrag, i.e.,

settlement of the piled foundation, is a very important issue and particularly for low-

capacity short piles. Soil settlement at the neutral plane will result in a downdrag of

the pile. The magnitude of the downdrag will determine the magnitude of the pile toe

penetration into the soil, which will determine the pile toe resistance and affect the

location of the neutral plane. Nature's iteration of force and soil settlement will decide

the final location of the neutral plane.

The text and figures in the following are reformatted from the original journal presentation, but no other

changes have been made.

Published on the NRC Research press web site [http://cgj.nrc.ca] on March 22, 2006

Bengt H. Fellenius, Bengt Fellenius Consultants Inc., 1905 Alexander Street SE, Calgary, Alberta, T2G 4J3.

<Bengt@Fellenius.net>

410 CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL Vol. 43, 2006

INTRODUCTION

SETTLEMENT (mm)

The 1960s saw an upsurge of interest in performing full-scale 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000

instrumented piles to study the magnitude and development of 0

negative skin friction due to soil settling around the piles. Water

Surfac e FILL

Tests were performed in Norway, Sweden, Japan, and Canada.

The author has revisited the pioneering papers publishing the

results and presents here a summary of a reanalysis of the 10

records. One of these tests was started in June 1968 by the

Swedish Geotechnical Institute and consisted of recording load

distribution in two instrumented, 300 mm diameter, single, 20

precast concrete piles driven through a 40 m thick clay deposit Marine

and 15 m into an underlying sand deposit. The results obtained

DEPTH (m)

Clay

during the first 160 days and 1,300 days were published by

Fellenius and Broms (1969) and Fellenius (1971; 1972), 30

respectively. The study continued beyond 1972 with the

placing in September 1973 of an earth fill over a 41 m diameter

circular area around the piles followed by frequent monitoring 40

of forces in the piles and settlement until the site was closed-up

in 1983. The measurements taken until mid-1975 were written

up by the Swedish Geotechnical Institute in Swedish (Bjerin

1977). This paper reports the results until the end of the field 50

test in August 1983, 5,500 days after the start. Bedrock

'May 1963

April 1964

REVISITING PUBLISHED FULL-SCALE TESTS 60

In April 1962, the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute started a Fig. 1 Sörenga site. Site profile and measured distribu-

full-scale test on a telltale instrumented steel pile at Sörenga tion of settlement. Data from Bjerrum

near Oslo (Bjerrum and Johannessen 1965). The test consisted and Johannessen (1965).

of measurements on a 55 m long, 470 mm diameter pipe pile

driven in an area to be reclaimed from the sea by means of

a 10 thick fill. The natural soil at the site consisted of a 43 m PILE SHORTENING (mm)

thick deposit of marine clay on bedrock, a calcareous schist. 0 5 10 15 20

The natural water content of the clay was about 40 % at the sea 0

bed reducing to about 30 % at the bedrock. The liquid limit

was about 10 % larger than the water content. The undrained

shear strength ranged from about 20 KPa at the sea bed

increasing to about 70 KPa at the bedrock. 10

clay deposit. Fig. 1 presents the measured distribution of 20

settlement, and Fig. 2 the distribution of excess pore pressures

measured in April 1964, two years after the pile driving and

DEPTH (m)

effective stress after full dissipation of the excess pore 30

pressures. The difference, as indicated, is the effective stress

existing in April 1964. The settlement resulted in negative skin

friction along the test pile, accumulating to drag load in the 40

pile. The drag load caused the pile to shorten, and Fig. 3 shows

the pile shortenings measured one year (May 1963) and two

years (April 1964) after the pile driving. Bjerrum and

Johannessen used the pile shortenings to calculate the 50

distribution of stress in the pile. The stress data have been May 1963

converted to load in the pile and are presented in Fig. 4. (The

'April 1964

load values are plotted, not at mid-point of each measuring 60

length, L, but at 0.58L down from the upper end of the

measuring length, L, as recommended by Fellenius (2002) for

plotting of loads evaluated from telltale measurements).

Fig. 3 Sörenga site. Measured pile shortening Data from

Bjerrum and Johannessen (1965).

FELLENIUS 411

EFFECTIVE STRESS

AND PORE PRESSURE (KPa)

constant beta-coefficient of 0.25 matches reasonably the

0 200 400 600 measured drag load distribution of April 1964. Also included

0 is the drag load distribution after full dissipation of pore

pressures calculated using same beta-coefficient. A calculation

σ'z after full using the undrained shear strength resulted in a calculated drag

dissipation of load distribution very similar to that calculated for a beta-

10

excess pore coefficient of 0.25. However, in contrast to the effective stress

pressure calculations, the calculations using the undrained shear strength

cannot be used to reproduce the measured changes in drag load

20 for the actual distributions of excess pore pressure.

DEPTH (m)

30

three years of measurements, the maximum load in the pile and

the settlement of the clay had increased to 4,000 KN and

2,000 mm, respectively, and that the movement of the pile toe

Δu into the calcareous schist, i.e., the downdrag, amounted to

40 100 mm. The observations mean that the neutral plane was

σ'z located close to the pile toe and the maximum load in the pile is

also the toe resistance of the pile in the calcareous schist. As

50 the maximum load of 4,000 KN also corresponds to a stress of

April about 250 MPa, the structural strength of the steel, it is possible

1964 that instead of the pile toe being forced into the bedrock, the

mentioned 100-mm toe movement is due to that the steel pile

60

yielded structurally at the pile toe.

Fig. 3 Sörenga site. Distribution of excess pore pressure

In 1969, the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute published results

in April 1964 and calculated effective stress.

of additional full-scale investigations (Bjerrum et al. 1969) now

Data from Bjerrum and Johannessen (1965)

performed at three sites in 1962 through 1963. One of the

additional test sites was located at Heröya in the Oslo Harbor,

LOAD (KN) where, to construct a dock, land was reclaimed from the sea by

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 placing a 6.5 m fill over the sea bed. The soil consists of an

0 approximately 25 m thick layer of marine clay, having a water

'May 1963 content of about 30 % very close to the liquid limit —

somewhat different to the clay at the Sörenga site. A gravel

'April 1964 layer deposited on bedrock existed below the clay at depths

10 ranging from 30 m to 35 m. Before the placing of the fill, the

ß=0.25 and σ' at undrained shear strength ranged from about 20 KPa at the top

April 1964 of the clay layer to about 40 KPa immediately above the gravel

20 ß=0.25 and σ' at layer. After two years of consolidation, the undrained shear

Full Dissipation strength had increased to about 40 KPa at the sea bed, but no

change in undrained shear strength was found to have occurred

DEPTH (m)

From Undrained

Shear Strength. at the lower boundary of the clay layer.

30

In 1966, four 300 mm diameter, telltale-instrumented pipe piles

were driven at the Heröya site. The piles were driven closed-

40 toe with an enlarged size, 400 mm rock shoe, "Oslo-point".

The results from of two of the test piles are quoted in the

following. The surface of one of the two test piles was treated

with a 1 mm thick bitumen coat and the other was untreated.

50 The settlement of the sea bed amounted to 160 mm during the

first year after the driving of the test piles. Similar to that

shown in Fig. 2, Fig. 5 shows the measured excess pore

60 pressures remaining in May 1967 and the calculated effective

stress after full dissipation of the pore pressures. The

difference is the effective stress existing in May 1967. Fig. 6

Fig. 4 Sörenga site. Measured and calculated distribu-

shows the distribution of shortening measured in May 1967 for

tion of load. Data from Bjerrum and Johannessen

the bitumen-coated and the uncoated piles. That the bitumen is

(1965).

412 CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL Vol. 43, 2006

EFFECTIVE STRESS

PILE SHORTENING (mm)

AND PORE PRESSURE (KPa)

0 100 200 300 400 0 5 10 15

0 0

FILL

5 5

dissipation of

10 10

excess pore

Bitumen

pressure

coated uncoated

DEPTH (m)

15

DEPTH (m)

15

Marine

Clay

20 20

Δu σ'z

25 25

30 30

Start of Gravel

Bedrock

35 35

Fig. 5 Heröya site. Distribution of excess pore pressure Fig. 6 Heröya site. Distribution of pile shortening in

measured in May 1967 and calculated effective May 1967. Data from Bjerrum et al. (1969).

stress. Data from Bjerrum et al. (1969).

effective in reducing the shaft shear is due to its viscous The pile shortenings measured in May 1967 were converted

properties and inability to sustain shear forces and resist load in the pile, and the load distributions for the two test piles

movement. A small strain shear rate will mobilize small shear are shown in Fig. 8 (plotted at the 0.58L-point of each

resistance in the bitumen coat, sandwiched between the pile measuring length, L, indicated by the stepped curve). The load

and the soil, that is smaller than the soil shear resistance distribution of the uncoated pile shows how the negative skin

(Fellenius 1975; 1979). friction accumulates to a maximum drag load value of

about 1,100 KN at about 25 m depth. Below this depth, the

Figure 7 shows pile shortenings measured during a 400 day shaft shear turned to positive shaft resistance and the load in

period after the pile driving. The results demonstrate that the the pile reduced with depth to a mobilized toe resistance of

thin bitumen coat was highly effective in reducing — about 550 KN. The negative and positive direction loads are in

practically eliminating —the drag load causing the shortening. equilibrium. The location of the maximum value — the

In March 1967, about 300 days into the monitoring of the site, location of the force equilibrium — is called the neutral plane.

several piles, widely spaced, for the construction of the dock The paper by Bjerrum et al. (1969) is the first to show that the

were driven within a distance of about 10 m from the test piles. development of a force equilibrium is indeed the manifestation

The pile driving caused an increase of pore pressures in the soil of load transfer for piles in settling soil. For comparison to the

and a corresponding decrease of effective stress. Coinciding effective stress analysis, Fig. 8 also shows a distribution of drag

with the decrease of effective stress, the piles lengthened, as load calculated for a beta-coefficient of 0.3 applied to the

indicated in Fig. 7. Settlement or heave were not measured at effective stress of May 1967. The agreement is not as good as

near the test piles, and can be argued that soil heave due to the that shown for the Sörenga pile, but still remarkably good

driving would have contributed to the lengthening (unloading) considering the crude telltale instrumentation system employed

of the piles. However, in the author's opinion, this is not likely. in the test.

The reduced negative skin friction resulted in a reduction of the

drag load and, consequently, a lengthening of the piles. As the Bjerrum et al. (1969) reports that the ground surface settled

pore pressures introduced by the pile driving dissipated, the 200 mm and the pile head settled 33 mm. Combined with the

effective stress returned to its previous level, as did the load in about 4 mm pile shortening at the neutral plane, this means that

the pile — and the piles shortened to the length they had before the settlement at the neutral plane and, therefore, also the

the construction piles were driven. The observation confirms downdrag of the pile was 29 mm, and the pile toe penetration

the finding in the Sörenga test (Bjerrum and Johannessen 1965) into the gravel deposit above the bedrock was about 25 mm, or

that pile shaft shear in clay soil is a function of effective stress. about 6 % of the pile toe diameter (resulting in the 540 KN pile

toe resistance).

FELLENIUS 413

DAYS AFTER START (Bjerrum et al. 1969) show similarly large drag loads, ranging

from 1,200 KN through 4,000 KN and that the negative skin

0 100 200 300 400 friction correlates well to an effective stress analysis applying a

0 beta-coefficient of 0.2 through 0.3. For five of the test cases,

the measured ground settlements ranged from 70 mm through

Bitumen 2,000 mm. For the sixth case, where the test piles were driven

Coated at a site where no new fill was placed, only very small

2

Pile

Reduced shortening settlement occurred, which was caused by reconsolidation after

TOTLA PILE SHORTENING (mm)

due to pore pressure the driving and ongoing secondary compression. Yet, the

4 increase from driving measured drag load, 3,000 KN, on the piles driven at this site

of construction piles was as large as for where large settlement was measured.

near the test piles.

6 In summary, the tests in Norway showed that drag loads can be

very large, negative skin friction is a function of effective

stress, and a force equilibrium will develop somewhere down

8 the pile. It is notable that, although the observations were

Un- included in the 1969 paper, somehow the geotechnical practice

coated missed to draw the conclusion that the relative movement

Pile between the pile and the soil needed to fully develop the shaft

10

shear is insignificantly small. That is, ostensibly settling soils

are not a necessary requirement for large drag loads to develop

12 on long piles.

14 The proceedings of the Mexico ISSMFE conference also

contained a paper by Endo et al (1969) reporting on a full-scale

test on three, strain-gage instrumented, 43 m embedment,

Fig. 7 Heröya site. Measured total pile shortening During single, 609 mm (24 inches) diameter steel pipe piles with a wall

May 1966 through June 1967. Data from Bjerrum et thickness of 9.5 mm (0.375 inch). Below a 2 m thick surface

al. (1969). fill, the soil profile consisted of silty sand followed by 37 m of

compressible sandy silt, clay, and silt, 4 m of silt, and loose

sand to large depth. The groundwater table was located at a

PILE LOAD (KN)

depth of 2 m. An ongoing pumping of water from the sand

0 300 600 900 1,200 1,500 below 43 m depth had created a steep downward gradient at the

0 site and a consolidation of the compressible soil layers. The

piles were instrumented with strain-gages placed at every 6 m

length of the piles, starting at a depth of 8 m, and seven

5 settlement gages and seven piezometers were installed at 6 m

intervals in the soil near the piles. Fig. 9 shows the soil profile

Distribution with basic soil parameters and Fig. 10 shows the pore pressure

10 calculated from distribution at the start of the monitoring in June 1964 and

ß=0.3 times σ'z for about two years later in April 1966 (672 days).

actual excess u

The pore pressures underwent only small changes during the

DEPTH (m)

15

Measured monitoring period, reducing a further about 10 KPa to 20 KPa

distribution below 10 m depth.

20

A diesel hammer with a nominal energy of 115 KJ was used to

uncoated

the drive the piles into the surface of the sand at 43 m depth

25 terminating the driving at a very light resistance of

25 mm/blow. One pile was driven open-toe and two closed-

Bitumen toe. One of the latter two was driven inclined by 8° to the

coated

30 vertical (1H:7V).

The consolidation settlement caused the soil to hang on the

piles. For the vertical, closed-toe pile, Fig. 11 shows the loads

35

(converted from the strain-gage values) versus time over the

two years long monitoring period. Fig. 12 shows the load

Fig. 8 Heröya site. Measured and calculated distributions distributions in the same pile at five different times.

of load. Data from Bjerrum et al. (1969).

414 CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL Vol. 43, 2006

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 50 100 150 200

0 0

Fill

Sandy

Silt

10 10

Clay April

1966

20 20

DEPTH (m)

DEPTH (m)

June

1964

30 30

wP wL Silt

wn

40 40

Silt

Hydrostatic

Sand Distribution

50 50

Fig. 9 Fukagawa site. Soil profile with water content and Fig. 10 Fukagawa site. Measured distribution of pore

plastic and liquid limits. Data from Endo et al. (1969) pressure at start of monitoring and two years later.

Data from Endo et al. (1969).

#2

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

#3

#5 0

3000 #4 29 DAYS

#5

#6 5 124 DAYS

2500 #6

275 DAYS

#7 10

#2 400 DAYS

LOAD (KN)

#4 #3

DEPTH (m)

20

1500

#7 25 #4

1000 30

#5

#3

35

500 #6

#2 40

#7

0

45

0 200 400 600 800 1000

Fig. 11 Fukagawa site. Load measured at different times and Fig. 12 Fukagawa site. Fukagawa site. Vertical distribution

depths in the vertical closed-toe test pile. Data from Of load in the vertical closed-toe pile. Data from

Endo et al. (1969). Endo et al. (1969).

FELLENIUS 415

As shown in Fig. 13A, while the open-toe pile mobilized about understanding that the neutral plane is determined by both

half as much toe resistance as the other two, the development these two aspects is important. While the location of the force

of drag load in the three piles was about the same. The closed- equilibrium can be determined by analysis of resistance

toe piles (one vertical and one inclined) show about the same distribution or directly by testing an instrumented pile, in

load distribution. Near the ground surface and to a depth of contrast, the location of no relative movement between the soil

about 25 m, the distribution of drag load in the open-toe pile and pile, is much more prone to be in error when determined

was about equal to that of the closed-toe piles, but the drag from settlement analysis. Determining the location of the

loads differed below this depth. However, over the about ten neutral plane from the location of the force equilibrium is a key

metre length above the pile toe, the slope of the distribution to the settlement analysis of a pile group, as indicated by

curve of the open-toe pile is similarly to that of the closed-toe Fellenius (1984; 1989; 2004).The location of the neutral plane

piles, indicating that the unit shaft shear, here in the positive is influenced by the pile toe resistance, which is determined by

direction, is the about the same for the three piles along this the magnitude of the toe penetration. Endo et al. (1969)

length. In contrast, in the in-between about ten metre long provides data on movement of the pile toe and the mobilized

zone, from depths of 25 m through 35 m, where the transition pile toe resistance for the start of the monitoring and at three

occurs from negative direction shear to positive direction, the times during the monitoring. Fig. 14 is prepared from

open-toe pile exhibits a longer transition zone, starting slightly combining these data and shows the mobilized toe resistance as

above the 25 m record, resulting in an appearance of a smaller a function of the net toe penetration. The four data points show

magnitude shaft shear immediately below 25 m. a surprisingly linear trend. A more gradual shape similar to the

dashed curve in the figure would perhaps have been expected.

The neutral plane is the term for the location of the force However, the 22 mm penetration after the start of the

equilibrium in the pile. It is also the term for the location of monitoring (the zero point is unknown) corresponds to only

where there is no relative movement between the pile and the about 4 % of the pile diameter and it is not unrealistic for the

soil, i.e., where the pile and the soil settle equally, as toe resistance measurements to show a linear trend with

demonstrated in Fig. 13B. The paper by Endo et al. is the first increasing penetration at such small penetration.

to present observations revealing and confirming this fact. The

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0 50 100 150 200

0 0

Sandy

Silt

5 5

Pile

10 10

C 15 15

l

a Soil

20 20

DEPTH (m)

y

25 25

30 30

S NEUTRAL PLANE

i

35 35

l Open-toe

t

Pile

40 40

S Closed-toe

a Piles

45 45

n

d Toe Closed-toe Pile

50 50 Penetration

Fig. 13A Fukagawa site. Distribution of load in Fig. 13B Fukagawa site. Distribution of soil and pile

full-length. piles. settlement 672 days after start of monitoring.

Data from Endo et al. (1969). Data from Endo et al. (1969).

416 CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL Vol. 43, 2006

2,000

LOAD (KN)

0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000

1,500 0

TOE LOAD (KN)

5 ß = 0.40

1,000

10

Calculated

Curve

500 15

ß = 0.35

20

DEPTH (m)

Measured

0

0 10 20 30 load

25

TOE PENETRATION (mm)

30

Fig. 14 Fukagawa site. Pile toe penetration —Vertical ß = 0.30

closed-toe pile. Data from Endo et al. (1969). 35

distribution data points of the two-year measurements of ß = 0.25

April 1966 (Day 672) for the vertical closed-toe pile, applying 45

the then measured pore pressure distribution. The data points,

the calculated curve fitted to the data, and the so-determined 50

beta-coefficients are presented in Fig. 15. The beta-coefficients

are about 0.3, which is similar to the values back-calculated for Fig. 15 Fukagawa site. Load distribution measured

the Sörenga and Heröya cases. The measured toe resistance and calculated for actual pore pressures and

corresponds to a toe bearing coefficient, Nt, equal to 8, which is matched to measured loads for the beta-

a low value and signifies that the pile toe is in a very loose soil coefficients shown and the pore pressure

or that the net toe penetration into the sand is too small to distribution of April 1966.

generate a significant toe resistance. The thin dashed line

shows the load distribution when assuming that all shear forces The embankment settled significantly. At the time of the

act in the positive direction, representing the distribution in a driving the test pile, 550 days after the start of the placing of

static loading test to the same mobilized toe resistance. the embankment, the ground surface had settled about 1.7 m.

The vertical alignment of the road bed where it connected to

Berthierville, Quebec, Canada the bridge was continually corrected by adding pavement

asphalt. Fig. 17 shows that during five years of observations

Bozozuk and Labrecque (1969) and Bozozuk (1970, 1972;

after the driving of the test pile, the original ground surface

1981) described a long-term measurement case history from

next to the test pile settled an additional 540 mm. Settlement

Berthierville, Quebec, Canada. In October 1964, a highway

gages placed at depths of 6 m, 12 m, 30 m, and 44 m showed

embankment with a final 11 m height, a 300 m base, and 27 m

that most of the settlement occurred above 30 m depth.

road width was placed on an 80 m thick deposit of clay. In

Fig. 18A shows the vertical distribution of settlement and the

April 1966, a tell-tale instrumented, 324 mm diameter closed-

downdrag (i.e., settlement) of the test pile. The pile head

toe pipe pile was driven through the embankment to a depth

settled 470 mm, 70 mm less than the ground surface. The drag

of 40 m below the original ground surface. Fig. 16A shows the

load distribution in the pile is shown in Fig. 18B. The two

soil profile with basic soil parameters indicating that the upper

figures show the same location of the point of equal movement

about 18 m consists of stratified fine soils deposited on a

(Fig, 18A) and the point of equal negative and positive

Champlain clay deposit. Fig. 16B shows the calculated

direction forces (Fig. 18B), i.e., the neutral plane — at a depth

distributions of initial and final effective stresses (after full

of about 12 m to 14 m.

dissipation of excess pore pressures) and the distribution of

excess pore pressures measured five years after the pile driving,

The distribution of load in the pile was calculated from pile

i.e., April 1971. The excess pore pressure measured in the

shortenings measured by means of eight telltales. Fig. 18B

lowest piezometer, if believed, would indicate that the placing

indicates that the slope of the load distribution curve below the

of the embankment induced an excess pore pressure that would

neutral plane over an about 10 m length is about half of that

be larger than the embankment stress and remain so even five

above the neutral plane and that, in contrast, the distribution

years after the placing of the fill. The author thinks that a more

curve is almost vertical over the following about 20 m length.

plausible five-year pore pressure distribution would be more

The slopes are indicative of shaft resistance. If the two slopes

like the dashed line shown continuing to 50 m depth, which

are true, they would indicate that the positive shaft resistance

line is drawn assuming the excess pore pressure below 18 m

between the neutral plane and the next 10 m below would be

depth would have the same relative portion of the imposed

more than about twice as large as the negative skin friction

embankment stress as the one at 18m depth.

FELLENIUS 417

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 200 400 600 800

Original Ground Surface 0

0 SAND

GW Measured

Silty CLAY Excess Pore

10 SAND, SILT 10 Pressure

Clayey SILT

20 20

Test

τu ( )

Pile

30 30

DEPTH (m)

DEPTH (m)

wP wL Silty CLAY

40 40

wn ?

50 50

Final

Effective

60 60 Stress

70 70 Initial

Effective

80 BEDROCK

80 Stress

Fig. 16A Berthierville site. Soil profile with water contents, Fig. 16B Berthierville site. Distribution of initial and final

plastic and liquid limits, and vane shear strengths. Data from effective stress, and measured excess pore pressures. The

Bozozuk and Labrecque (1969). question mark indicates an envisaged pore pressure

distribution. The pressure data are from Bozozuk (1972).

DAYS AFTER DRIVING TEST PILE

0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000

0 1 2 3 4 5 Years very small over the 20 m length further below. The author

S-10 44 m

S- 1 30 m believes the three lower telltales are affected by friction in their

100

guide pipes, which has resulted in inaccurate load data below

SETTLEMENT (mm)

300

Bozozuk (1981) reported the results of a static loading test

400

carried out ten years after the pile driving. Fig. 19 presents the

S-3 12 m

500 S-4 6 m measured load-movement curve. At the applied loads of

600

S-5 0 m 510 KN, 1,020 KN, 1.520 KN, 2,030 KN, and 2,820 KN, the

load levels were maintained for one day before continuing the

test. No significant movement developed during these load-

Fig. 17 Berthierville site. Settlement measured at gages placed holding occasions. At the applied load of 3,060 KN,

at ground surface, and at depths of 6 m, 12 m, 30 m, and 44 m movements became progressively large as the ultimate

during the first five years of monitoring after the driving (April resistance of the pile was reached. During the following two

1966 through April 1971). The notes "S-1 30 m identify the days, the load that the soil could sustain gradually reduced. In

gage number and installation depths. Data from Bozozuk the reloading cycle after unloading, the previous maximum

(1972). load could not again be reached.

immediately above the neutral plane. Moreover, they would The vertical distribution of load in the pile evaluated at the five

indicate that a next to zero positive shaft resistance would have levels of sustained load is shown Fig. 20. The figure also

been mobilized along the lowest 20 m length of the pile. shows the 10-year distribution determined immediately before

However, the soil above neutral plane is not that different from the static loading test and, for comparison, the distributions at

the soil below, and, definitely, the soil below the neutral plane 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. The latter curves indicate how the

is quite homogeneous throughout the length of the pile and increasing values of applied load progressively made the shaft

beyond. Therefore, the positive shaft resistance mobilized shear to change from negative to positive direction and that the

cannot differ much along this length of the pile. Were the applied load did not add to the existing maximum drag load at

values true, the effective stress within the 10 m length below the neutral plane, demonstrating that live load does not add to

the neutral plane must be large, while at the same time being the drag load in a pile but replaces it.

418 CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL Vol. 43, 2006

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 1000 2000

EMBANKMENT SURFACE

-10 0

-5

ORIGINAL GROUND SURFACE

DEPTH BELOW GROUND SURFACE (m)

(m

0 10

5

10 20

NEUTRAL PLANE

15 Settlement

Gage

20 30

25

30 40

35 Test

40 Pile 50

1 Year

45 3 Years

5 Years

50 60

Fig. 18A Berthierville site. Distribution of settlement of the Fig. 18B Berthierville site. Distribution of load in the test pile

soil and test pile with depth measured over 5 years after the at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years after the driving of the test

driving of the test pile. Data from Bozozuk (1972). pile. Data from Bozozuk (1972).

3,500

2 days

3,000 forces slowly built up over a ten-year period and the forces

mobilized in a relatively rapidly performed loading test were

2,500

APPLIED LOAD (KN)

2,000

Fig. 21 shows a compilation of the data and analyses results.

1,500 Curves marked A and B show the load distributions at the 10-

1,000

year measurements (before the static loading test) and at the

maximum sustained load in the static loading test (2,820 KN),

500 respectively. Curves C and D show load distributions

calculated using effective stress in fitting the calculated

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

distribution to the 10-year measured load curve. Curve C

MOVEMENT (mm)

indicates the distribution for the shaft shear acting in the

negative direction along the full length of the pile, and Curve D

Fig. 19 Berthierville site. Load-movement curves from static similarly for the shaft shear acting in the positive direction.

loading test at ten years after the pile driving. Data from The intersection of Curves C and D is the location of the

Bozozuk (1981). neutral plane. Point E indicates ultimate resistance (plunging

load) in the static loading test. Finally, Curve F shows the load

distribution calculated from the assumption that the shaft shear

No measurements of load distribution could be obtained for the was equal to the undrained shear strength determined in the

3,060 KN plunging load. The drag load of about 1,500 KN vane shear test shown in Fig. 16A. There is little or no relation

was supported by an equal magnitude shaft resistance present between the evaluated shaft shear (negative skin friction) and

in the portion of the pile below the neutral plane—the point of the undrained in-situ shear strength values. However, the vane

force equilibrium. This means that half of the about 3,000 KN tests were performed before the placing of the fill. New vane

applied load served to eliminate the drag load and the soundings after the more than ten years of consolidation would

remaining half served to keep mobilizing the positive resistance have shown larger strength values. It is outside the scope of

below. In other words, the test results proved that the negative this text to discuss whether or not the new vane soundings

skin friction and the positive shaft resistance are fully would have produced a load distribution more in agreement

mobilized shear forces. Moreover, the results show that the with the measured load distribution, Curve C.

FELLENIUS 419

corresponds to beta-coefficients of 3.0 in the upper 4 m and 0.6

0 1000 2000 3000

in the lower about 6 m. A beta-coefficient of 3 is a very high

0 value. As Bozozuk (1972) points out, the values reflect a

combination of the large horizontal stress created by the

compaction of the engineered fill and the effect of that the

GROUND SURFACE

10 embankment settled more in the center, as opposed toward the

sides. The latter caused the embankment to bow, which

Static increased the horizontal stress (the earth pressure) in the upper

loading

test

portion of the embankment. The beta-coefficient value of 0.2

20 in the clay is low but within the range of values found in

DEPTH (m)

1 3 5 10

normally consolidated marine clays. However, because

approximations associated with the use of telltale

30 instrumentation and necessary approximations in the author's

evaluation, such as the assumption made with regard to the

distribution of pore pressures over the lower half of the pile, the

indicated beta-coefficients are only approximate values. A

40 repeat of the test using modern methods of instrumentation

would probably have resulted in coefficients slightly different

to those shown.

50

That the data below the neutral plane and the lowest piezometer

value appear to be suspect should not be taken as rejection of

Fig. 20 Berthierville site. Berthierville site. Load the test results. The case history confirms the results of the

distributions at passive monitoring of the test pile at 1 year, tests in Norway and Japan with regard to that the load transfer

3 years, 5 years, and 10 years after the pile driving, and for five is governed by effective stress, that the shaft shear in negative

sustained loads from the static test. Data from Bozozuk (1972; and positive direction are equal, that shaft resistance acting

1981). over long term is equal to that mobilized in a short term static

loading test, and that the beta-coefficient is a function of not

just the overburden effective stress, but also of the horizontal

LOAD (KN) stress in the soil. These are first time findings and the papers

0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 are enlightening major contributions to the advancement of the

0 state-of-the-art.

A B E

DEPTH BELOW EMBANKMENT SURFACE (m)

Melbourne, Australia

Walker et al. (1973) installed a 760 mm diameter, closed-toe,

10

strain-gage instrumented, pipe pile to an embedment depth of

F 27 m by driving the piles through 6 m silty sand deposited

on 15.5 m stiff silty clay, followed by 3 m of sandy silt on

ß = 3.0 0 m - 4 m

20 ß = 0.6 4 m - 10 m

dense sand and gravel. The pile reached 2.5 m into the sand

ß = 0.2 10 m - 50 m and gravel. An identical pile was coated with 1.5 mm of

bitumen though its entire length and driven to an embedment

of 24.5 m. The silty sand layer was compact with SPT N-

30

indices smaller than 20 bl/0.3m. The water content of the stiff

silty clay layer ranged from 60 % through 100 % and the liquid

and plastic limits ranged from 90 through 120 and 30 through

D C 50, respectively. After completion of the pile driving and site

40

instrumentation (piezometers and settlement gages), a 3.0 m

thick fill was placed over an area of 200 m by 100 m around

the piles. The silty clay is overconsolidated having a

50

preconsolidation margin of about 80 KPa, much larger than the

stress imposed by the 3 m fill.

Fig. 21 Berthierville site. Load distributions.

A. at the 10-year measurements (before the static test) The surcharge resulted in an increase of pore pressures of about

B. at the maximum sustained load in the test, 2,820 KN 20 KPa that did not change during the reported monitoring

C. calculated using effective stress, matching to the drag period. Settlement measured at ground surface was small.

loads measured above the neutral plane Over a monitoring period of 238 days after the placing of the

D. calculated using the same parameters as in "C". surcharge, only about 25 mm of settlement was recorded.

E. ultimate resistance in the static loading test. Walker et al. (1973) indicated that the measured settlement was

F. calculated from the vane shear strength due to creep rather than to consolidation. The strain gages in

Test data A, B, and E from Bozozuk (1981). the test pile registered increase of load. Fig. 22 shows also the

420 CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL Vol. 43, 2006

loads evaluated from the strain gages at 20 m embedment depth Keehi Interchange, Hawaii, USA

in the uncoated pile. The 238-day load distribution in the piles

Clemente (1981) reports a full-scale test involving three

is shown in Fig. 23. As seen, the bitumen all but eliminated the

instrumented, 419 mm diameter, octagonal, precast prestressed

shear forces along the pile. Over the 238 days, the loads in the

concrete piles in the island of Oahu, Hawaii. As indicated in

uncoated pile had built up to a maximum of about 1,800 KN at

Fig. 24, the soils at the site consisted of a 4 m thick sand fill

the neutral plane (the 20 m gage). Because of the small relative

placed a long time earlier over a 36 m thick deposit of soft clay

movements between the pile and the soil, the transition zone is

followed by 16 m of stiff silty clay. Hereunder, starting at the

long and covers essentially the full thickness of silty clay layer.

depth of 56 m, the soil consisted of a mixture of medium dense

No pile toe load was mobilized, which means that the

to dense coral sand alternating with firm to stiff silty coral clay.

settlement at the neutral plane was so small that no toe

The groundwater table was located at the interface between the

penetration was created. The dashed lines in Fig. 23 indicate

fill and the soft clay. In July 1977, three test piles,

the load distribution calculated in an effective stress analysis

numbered 6, 7, and 8, were driven and instrumented with

matched to the data. The beta-coefficient fitted to the load

multi-rod extensometers measuring pile shortening. Piles 6

from the fill layer is large, about 2.0. In the fine sand, the fitted

was driven to 40.0 m depth and Piles 7 and 8 were driven to

beta-coefficient reduces from 1.0 at the upper boundary to 0.8

49.7 m depth. Before the driving, Pile 7 was painted with a

at the lower boundary, still large for a silty sand. In the silty

thin asphalt primer and then coated with A85 bitumen over an

clay and sandy silt, it is 0.40 and 0.45, respectively. In the sand

upper 35 m length, leaving the rest of the pile, 15 m, uncoated.

and gravel, calculations using a beta-coefficient of 0.6 produces

Piles 6 and 8 were not coated. The thickness of the coat was

a load distribution that matches the measured load distribution.

aimed to be 1.5 mm, but because of the warm climate, much of

the bitumen flowed off the upper surface and sides of the pile.

Fill completed DAYS AFTER START

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

After the coating, the pile was driven to an embedment depth of

0 2000 50 m. Piles 6 and 8 were driven to 40 m and 50 m depth,

5 respectively. In August 1977, a 6 m high embankment with a

SETTLEMENT (mm)

10 Load in pile 1500 crest area of 18 m by 27 m was placed around the piles and soil

at 20m depth settlements and pile shortenings were monitored for 180 days.

LOAD (KN)

15

20 1000 The shortenings were converted to strain and loads in the piles.

25

30 500

Settlement

35 27 m

40 0

PILE #7

development in load at 20 m depth in the pile. Data VIEW

from Walker et al. (1973). PILE #6 PILE #8

SLEEVE

LOAD (KN)

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 6m EMBANKMENT

0

0 OLD FILL

FILL

10

Fine

5

Sand

SOFT CLAY

20

w = 70 %

10 LL = 80

30 PL = 45

DEPTH (m)

Transition Zone

DEPTH (m)

15 Stiff

Bitumen Silty 40

coated Clay

pile STIFF SILTY

20 CLAY

50

25 Sandy 60

Silt

MIXED STRATA

30 Sand 70 CORAL SAND

and CORAL CLAY

Gravel

80

35

uncoated and coated piles, and calculated Fig. 24 Keehi Interchange site. Plan view and profile of fill,

distribution. Data from Walker et al. (1973). soil, and piles. Data from Clemente (1981)

FELLENIUS 421

Figure 25 shows the load distributions in the clay below the fill Bangkok, Thailand

and the settlement distribution after the 180 days. The symbols

Indraratna et al. (1992) presented a full-scale study of two

connected with dashed line show the evaluated loads. The

400 mm diameter, instrumented precast concrete piles driven

solid lines show the load distributions calculated by effective

into soft Bangkok clay. One of the two piles was coated with a

stress method. The author derived a beta-coefficient equal

layer bitumen along its upper 20 m length. The bitumen

to 0.25 by matching the calculated loads to the evaluated loads

amount was 200 cm3/m2, that is, the coat was theoretically

for all three piles. The paper does not report any piezometer

0.2 mm thick. The soil profile consisted of an upper 2 m thick

observations and the author has assumed that no excess pore

layer of weathered clay followed by 13 m of soft clay with a

pressures remained in the clay at the end of the observation

water content of about 80 %, deposited on 14 m of firm clay

period. The 0.25 value is a lower bound value, because any

with a water content of about 60 % above sand found at 29 m

remaining pore pressures, if known and considered in the

depth.

calculations, would result in higher beta-coefficients. All three

piles developed a force-equilibrium neutral plane. Because of

The piles were driven in five stages with the pile driving

the different conditions of lengths and coating, the neutral

interrupted at 8 m, 12 m, 16 m, and 20 m depths for a period of

planes are at different depths, but the evaluated effective stress

nine days and an uplift, quick method, static loading test

parameters are the same for all three piles.

performed before the driving was resumed. The final pile

depth was 25 m. After the driving, a 2 m high embankment

was placed around the piles over an area of 14 m x 24 m, as

indicated in Fig. 26. Pile loads and settlement were recorded

LOAD (KN) over a period of 265 days after the placing of the embankment.

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Fig. 27 shows the load-movements for the pull tests. The

450 mm figure for the uncoated pile is supplemented with the plot of the

0 distribution of the ultimate load for each pull test versus depth.

Despite the quick static loading test and the very thin bitumen

SETTLEMENT coat, the bitumen reduced the maximum shaft resistance to

10 50 % of the shaft resistance of the uncoated pile.

Distance (m)

20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15

DEPTH (m)

-10

ß = 0.25

10 mm

30 END OF

-5

Distance (m)

Coated Uncoated

COAT

0

40

5

ß = 0.25

0 mm

50 10 embankment Fill

2 m high

ß = 0.25 -5-15

0

Weathered

60 5

DEPTH (m)

Coated

Length

10 Soft

15 Clay

20 Load Cells

Piezometers Firm

Fig. 25 Keehi Interchange site. Load and settlement 25 Clay

Sand

Clemente (1981).

Fig. 26 Bangkok site. Plan view and section of site.

The embankment fill caused the ground to settle. At the

ground surface, the settlement was 450 mm. Most of the

Figure 28A shows the distribution of load measured 3 days,

settlement developed in the upper ten metre depth. The

25 days, 92 days, 156 days, and 265 days after the placing of

measurements show that further down in the soil, the relative

the embankment. The figure includes also the ultimate

movement between the pile surface and the soil was no more

resistances from the four uplift static loading tests. The drag

than a few millimetre. Yet both negative skin friction and

load distribution measured at 265 days and the uplift resistance

positive shaft resistance appear to have been fully mobilized.

distribution are quite similar to each other. The figure is

The drag load along the bitumen coated length of Pile 7

supplemented with a curve showing the fitted load distribution

amounted to 375 KN, while the drag load along Pile 8 to the

for a beta-coefficient of 0.25 above the neutral plane and 0.30

same length was 1,770 KN. This means that the less than about

below. The measured toe resistance corresponds to a toe

1 mm thick coat of bitumen reduced the negative skin friction

bearing coefficient of 3, which is a small value even in marine

to 20 % of that found for the uncoated pile.

clay. The paper reports vane shear undrained shear strength

422 CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL Vol. 43, 2006

500 500

Uncoated Pile 8 m Length Bitumen Coated Pile 8 m Length

12 m Length 12 m Length

400 400

16 m Length 16 m Length

20 m Length 20 m Length

LOAD (KN)

300

LOAD (KN)

300

0 200 400 600 800

0

5

200 200

10

15

20 100

100

25

30

0

0

0 10 20 30 40 50

0 10 20 30 40 50

MOVEMENT (mm)

MOVEMENT (mm)

Fig. 27 Bangkok site. Pull test results. Inserted graph shows maximum load versus depth.

Data from Indraratna et al. (1992).

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

Ground Surface 0 100 200 300

0 PILE

0

5

5

Loads from

pull tests 0 5 10 15 20

10

10 10

DEPTH (m)

DEPTH (m)

3 days

15

15 15

β = 0.25 3 Days

25 days NEUTRAL PLANE 25 Days

20 20 20 53 Days

92 days 156 days

81 Days

265 days

25 25 25 141 Days

β = 0.30 β = 0.30 ENLARGEMENT 209 Days

265 Days

30 30

Fig. 28A Bangkok site. Load distributions. Data from Indraratna et al. (1992).

Indraratna et al. (1992).

Singapore Port

Leung et at. (1991) presented measurements in a strain-gage

values down to a depth of 16 m. A distribution calculated instrumented, square 280 mm precast concrete pile driven to

using the vane shear strength values as unit shaft resistance 24 m embedment through a 9.5 m silt and clay fill, 8.5 m of

results in a distribution of load that is close to the distribution marine clay, and 3 m of sandy clay on a shale bedrock. The

determined in the static uplifts tests and the drag-load piles were installed to support a container deck and the

distribution to 16m depth. (The distribution is not shown in allowable load on the piles was 800 KN. Fig. 29 shows the

Fig, 26A). Despite the thin bitumen coat, the maximum drag measured load distribution once the deck was built (57 days

load for the coated pile was reduced to 40% of the maximum after the driving) and two years later (745 days). The amount

drag load in the uncoated pile. of soil settlement (due probably to the fill) is not reported by

Leung et al. (1991), nor do they report settlement of the piled

foundation.

The container loads constituted a variable, or live load on the

piles, which amounted to only about 200 KN/pile during the

FELLENIUS 423

two-year measurement period. The container loads affected the The Bäckebol site lies at an open area along the Göta River

load distribution in the upper 9 m of the pile. Below this depth, outside the city of Göteborg, in Southwestern Sweden. The

the load distribution was governed by the soil settlement that area is virgin, untouched by construction since it rose from the

was large enough to generate negative skin friction along the sea after the end of the Ice Age. As shown in Fig. 30A, the

pile. A neutral plane developed at the lower boundary of the main soil body consists of a 40 m thick layer of sensitive,

marine clay. The measured load distribution corresponds to a marine post-glacial clay, followed by silty sand to large depth.

beta-coefficient of 0.5 in the marine clay. Note the similarity To a depth of about 17 m, the natural water content is

between the distribution of load above the neutral plane to that about 90 % and larger than the liquid limit. Hereunder, the

shown in Fig. 20 for the second and third load levels of the water content reduces with depth, but stays close to the liquid

Berthierville test. Fig. 28B shows the measured distribution of limit. The percentage of clay size particles is about 80 % to

settlement and the settlement of the pile with an enlargement is 20 m depth. From here to 30 m depth, the percentage is about

small as it is governed by the soil settlement at the location of 55 %. Details about the site are available in Fellenius and

the neutral plane, which is smaller than 10 mm. The relative Broms (1969) and Fellenius (1972).

movement between the pile and the soil that mobilized the

positive shaft resistance below the neutral plane, the last about

As indicated by the vane shear strength distribution, shown in

7 m length of the pile, was about 2 mm and the toe penetration

Fig. 30B, the clay is soft to a depth of about 10 m and firm

was about 2 mm, which is commensurate with the very small

below this depth. Eleven consolidometer tests performed on

measured toe resistance.

samples from depths of 4 m through 32.5 m show that the

preconsolidation margin of the clay is about 20 KPa in the

Variable load

LOAD (KN) upper portion of the clay and increases to about 30 KPa in the

0 200 400 600

lower portion. Fig. 30C presents the compressibility of the clay

expressed in Janbu modulus numbers (CFEM 1992 and Janbu

0

Two Two years

Old

1963; 1998) obtained from the tests. An example of the stress-

months later strain curves representative for the consolidation tests is

Silt

after start (745 days )

(57 days )

& presented in Fig. 31. The virgin Janbu modulus number, m,

5 Clay ranged from about 4 through 7 with an average of about 5,

ß = 0.5 Fill which indicates a very compressible clay. The reloading

modulus number, mr, ranged from 60 through 80 with an

10 average of 75. (The void ratios, e0, for the tested samples

ranged from 1.3 through 2.4, the virgin consolidation

DEPTH (m)

Marine coefficients, Cc, ranged from 0.06 through 0.16, and the

15 Clay reloading consolidation coefficients, Cr, ranged from 0.07

through 0.11). The depth to the groundwater table varies

slightly seasonally from close to the ground surface and at

Sandy

20 Clay

about 1.0 m depth. The pore water pressure is hydrostatically

distributed.

Weak

Shale Before the pile driving, three pneumatic piezometers

25 Bedrock

(Kallstenius and Wallgren 1956) were installed at depths of

and

Residual 9 m, 23 m, and 30 m at a distance of about 0.7 m outside the

Soil intended location of each pile. In addition, an axially-flexible-

30 hose multipoint-settlement gage was placed 0.1 m outside each

pile location and one 5 m away from the piles, enabling

measurements of vertical movement at every two metre to

Fig. 29 Singapore Port site. Load distribution. Data from

depths to about 33 m. Instrumentation details are described by

Leung et al. (1991).

Fellenius (1972). The distances to the points in the gages was

measured with a tape inside the hose and related to elevation by

means of surveyor's leveling of the uppermost point. The

BÄCKEBOL, GÖTEBORG, SWEDEN

accuracy of a single tape measurements is about 1 mm and in

Background information

comparing two or more measurements the accuracy is at

In June 1968, a full-scale test was started in Bäckebol, Sweden, best 2 mm.

consisting of driving two single, 55 m embedment, 300 mm

diameter, hexagonal cross section, load-cell instrumented, A load cell was specially developed for the two test piles

spliced, precast concrete piles. The observations continued into designed to measure the load in the pile directly, eliminating

August 1983, i.e., for 5,500 days. The objective was to the need for using the pile modulus to determine the load in the

measure the forces developing in a pile due to reconsolidation pile. Details about the load cell are available in Fellenius and

of the soil after the pile driving, and as caused by soil Haagen (1969). The piles were made up of five 11.0 m long

settlement due to the placing of a fill around the piles. segments spliced in the field as each pile was driven. The load

cells were manufactured as 0.6 m long pile segments and

placed in between the first and second, the second and third,

424 CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL Vol. 43, 2006

PL, LL, and w n (%) STRENGTH and STRESS (KPa) MODULUS NUMBERS, m r and m

0 0 0

5 5 5

PRECONSOLIDATION

STRESS, σ'c

10 10 10

15 15 15

DEPTH (m)

DEPTH (m)

DEPTH (m)

m mr

20 20 20

Δσ'c

25 25 25

CLAY

wn

30 30 30

wP wL FIELD

VANE

35 35 35

σ'Z

40 40 40

SAND

A. Distribution of Atterberg limits B. Distribution of vane shear strength, effective C. Distribution of modulus numbers.

and water content. stress and preconsolidation stress.

and the third and fourth pile segments in both test piles. Pile The testing activities consisted of the following steps:

PII was also supplied with a load cell at the pile toe. Pile PI

was driven to a depth of 53.1 m and Pile PII to 55.0 m. After 1. Taking last "zero" (initial) readings of site

the driving, a toe telltale was inserted into each pile to measure gages on June 24, 1968, before driving the

pile shortening. Details about the piles are available in piles and recording all gages at frequent

Fellenius (1972). intervals following the driving until

November 2, 1969 (Day 0 through Day 496)

30

2. Forming and casting a concrete slab on the

piles to provide a load of 440 KN (started

Sample Depth = 27.5 m

on Day 495 and the formwork was removed

25 on Day 517)

3. Recording all gages at frequent intervals until

20 October 31, 1970 (Day 518 through Day 859)

4. Placing a 360 KN of concrete blocks on to

Strain (%)

m=5

to 800 KN (Day 860)

10 5. Recording all gages at frequent intervals until

September 29, 1973 (Day 860 through

Day 1,923)

5

mr = 80 6. Placing a 2 m high fill in a circle with 42 m

σ'0 = 147 KPa σ' c = 170 KPa diameter around the piles (Day 1,924

0 through Day 1,988)

10 100 1,000

Stress (KPa)

7. Recording all gages until end of test on

September 27, 1982 (Day 1,988 through

Day 5,206)

Fig. 31 Bäckebol site. Example of stress-strain curve from

consolidometer test; sample from 27.5 m depth 8. Last survey of multipoint settlement gage on

August 8, 1983 (Day 5,523)

FELLENIUS 425

Results

VERTICAL MOVEMENT (mm)

The driving of the two piles created large excess pore pressures

-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

in the clay. Fig. 32 shows pore pressures measured at a depth 0

of 23 m adjacent to the piles. At 23 m depth, the vertical

effective overburden stress before the pile driving was about

5

120 KPa. Obviously, for the first few days after the pile DAY 150

driving, the piles are standing in a highly remolded soil with EOD

zero effective stress—essentially a liquid. The pore pressures 10

required about five months to return to the before-pile-driving

level. 15

DEPTH (m)

Fellenius and Broms (1969) present observations of soil

20

movements during and immediately following the driving. The

driving of the piles into the sand caused the sand to compact.

Precision leveling immediately after the end of the driving 25

and 7 mm at Pile II during the driving. The simultaneous 30

measurements showed that the clay layer expanded due to the

driving of the displacement piles. As shown in Fig. 33, the 35

upper 5 m portion of the ground next to the pile heaved

about 20 mm relative to the bottom of the clay layer, resulting

40

in a net heave of the ground surface. Below 2.5 m depth, the

upward movement of the clay was smaller than the settlement

of the boundary between the clay and the sand. Thus, but for

Fig. 33A Bäckebol site. Heave (negative numbers) near Pile

the uppermost about 2.5 m, the net effect during the driving of

PII during the first 150 days after driving.

the two single piles is a downward movement of the soil in

relation to the piles. During the first few days following the

driving, the concrete piles lengthened (swelled) about 1 mm SETTLEMENT OVER FIRST 150 DAYS (m m )

from absorbing water from the soil. During the first 150 days 0 2 4 6 8 10

following the driving, the clay compressed (settled) due to the 0

reconsolidation.

P ILES 5

200

180

EXCESS PORE WATER PRESSURE (KN)

10

160

Clay Two piezometers

140 40 m at 23 m depth

15

120

DEPTH (m)

100

20

Sand

80 15 m

60 25

40

20 30

0

0 30 60 90 120 150 180

35

DAYS AFTER END OF DRIVING

40

Fig. 32 Bäckebol site. Pore pressure measured at 23 m

Fig. 33B Bäckebol site. Settlement measured near Pile PII

accurate enough to record the settlement until the

during the first 150 days after driving.

measurements had continued for a few years. However, as the

monitoring proceed, it was realized that a small continued

The load-cell measurements showed no change during the very

settlement was occurring in the area that was equal in

first days when the measured pore pressures exceeded the

magnitude to the isostatic land rise, i.e., about a millimetre a

calculated effective overburden stress. That is, the small heave

year at the ground surface. The settlement of the ground

and lengthening of the pile due to absorption of water did not

surface away from the piles was measured to be about 10 mm

coincide with any change of load in the pile. Thereafter, the

to 15 mm over the first 500 days. Next to the piles it was

loads measured in the piles started to increase coinciding with

somewhat smaller (Fellenius 1971; 1972).

426 CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL Vol. 43, 2006

placed on piles placed over site from Pile PII

1,800

FORCE AT LOAD CELL (KN)

First load M1 & M5

placed on piles

1,600

1,400

M2 & M6

1,200

M3 & M7

1,000 M3 M7

800

M2 M6

600

400

M4 M1 M5

200

M4

0

0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000

DAYS AFTER END OF DRIVING

Fig. 34 Bäckebol site. Loads measured in the piles from end of driving.

from accumulation of negative skin friction due to the relative FORCE AT LOAD CELL (KN)

movement between the pile and the clay. Fig. 34 shows the 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000

development of pile forces with time after the pile driving. 0

The shortening of the piles due to the measured forces during 496 859

the first 500 days before any load was placed on the pile head 10

amounted to about 5 mm, and the pile toe movement 518 860

(penetration) into the silty sand was about the same magnitude.

Load-cell M4 shows that the pile toe force increased from

20

80 KN to 200 KN.

DEPTH (m)

At the end of driving, EOD, the forces in the pile were about

equal to the buoyant weight of the pile. As the drag load from 30

the clay increased, positive resistance was mobilized in the

lower portion of the pile. The development is best discerned in 0

2,650 &

3,128

Fig. 35 showing the vertical distributions of force in the piles. 40

When placing the first 440 KN on the pile head (Test Activity 1,923 1,988

No. 2), the drag load was essentially eliminated. The small soil

movements continued and, therefore, the drag load continued to

50

develop, as shown in Figs. 34 and 35. The rapid placement of

Calculated

the additional 360 KN on the piles (Test Activity No. 4),

eliminated the drag load, temporarily, and actually created a

small positive shaft resistance along the piles. Each of the two 60

applications of load to the pile heads resulted in a total pile

shortening of about 2 mm to 3 mm over the length in the clay.

The shortening at the 20 m mid-depth is about 1 mm to 2 mm. Fig. 35 Bäckebol site. Distribution of load in the piles at

After the two loads had been placed on the pile heads, the total end of driving: Immediately before and after:

pile shortening since the pile driving was 9 mm, about equal or

adding the first load (Day 496 and Day 518),

marginally smaller than the settlement of the ground surface

close to the piles at that time. That is, the forces and force adding the second load (Day 859 and Day 860),

changes in the pile are associated with relative movements placing the fill (Day 1,923 and Day 1,988),

between the pile and the soil smaller than about 2 mm. and at final stabilized loads (Pile PI at Day 2,650 and

Pile PII at Day 3,128).

FELLENIUS 427

After adding the load to the pile heads and about a year of The starting point is the net toe load immediately after the end

continued monitoring, a 2 m high fill was placed around the of the pile driving. As shown, the load-movement curve is

piles in a circular area with a 41 m diameter (during approximately linear and does not show any sign of

Days 1,923 through 1,988). The fill accelerated the settlement approaching an ultimate value. The maximum toe penetration

and the development of drag load. Within about 3 months, the corresponds to about 5 % of the pile diameter.

forces in the piles reached their maximum values, which level

stayed constant for the duration of the following about 3,000 The measurements and analysis indicate that the total ultimate

days of monitoring the site. Pile PII was damaged above shaft resistance in the clay and underlying sand was about

ground breaking the cable connections to the load cells some 3,000 KN. The mobilized toe resistance was 300 KN

time after Day 2,650 and no further records from the load cells (including the pile weight) for a total toe penetration of

in PII were obtained. Monitoring of the site and of Pile I about 13 mm. The total pile shortening for the 800 KN applied

continued until Day 5,206, almost fifteen years after the end of load plus drag load was about 18 mm.

pile driving.

Measurements of settlement showed that most settlement

The maximum load measured in load cell M5 was 1,670 KN. occurred in the upper layers. Fig. 39 shows the settlement

Subtracting the load applied to the pile head, the maximum measured next to Pile PII at different days after the start. The

drag load recorded by load cell M5 is 870 KN. A calculation data show clearly that most settlement occurred above the ten

applying the vane shear strength as negative skin friction metre depth where the stress from the fill exceeded or was abut

results in a calculated drag load of 3,500 KN, about four times equal to the preconsolidation margin. The settlement data are

larger than the measured drag load. According to Swedish inconsistent if the survey information would be taken as

practice, described by Holtz and Wennerstrand (1972), a liquid deciding for the long-term settlement of the ground surface. If

limit of 85 necessitates reduction to 75 % of the measured so, all the three multipoint settlement hoses would indicate that

value, i.e., the calculated drag load would become about the settlement below the 32 m depth would be three times as

2,600 KN, still much larger than measured. large as the settlement of about 9 mm measured to have

occurred between the depths of 10 m and 32 m. Obviously, the

An effective stress analysis has been matched to the casing supporting the upper portion of the multipoint settlement

distribution of pile load measured on Day 2,650 in Pile PII and hose appears to have moved due, probably, to seasonal

Day 3,128 in Pile PI. The beta-coefficients in the clay for influences. The individual measurements presented in Fig. 39

fitting the calculations to the measured loads between the are plotted as if no settlement occurred below 32 m depth from

ground surface and first load cell level, between first and the time that the fill was placed. Clearly, a few millimetre of

second load cell levels, and between second and third load cell settlement must have occurred also below the lowest point.

levels, are 0.18, 0.15, and 0.14, which are low values. The

dashed line shown in Fig. 35 indicates the calculated In Fig. 40, the measured settlements below 10 m depth are

distribution. The measured forces suggest that the force shown as measured on Day 2,044, the day all of the fill had

equilibrium lies below load cells M1 and M5. The dashed line been placed and on Day 4,362 almost seven years later, when

is drawn, somewhat arbitrarily, to reflect this. The slope of the the last reading was taken. Below about 30 m depth, the

dashed line in the sand upward from the toe load cell is difference between the curves is only 2 mm. Probably,

calculated using a beta-coefficient of 0.6. assigning the settlements to be equal at 32 m depth has cut a

few millimetre off the true settlement. Still, it is clear that the

The averages of unit shear force along the pile are obtained settlement at depth was very small. Yet, it fully mobilized

from differentiating the loads between the load cells and negative skin friction between the load-cells M1 and M2 and

presented in Fig. 36. For clarity, the values are only plotted up M5 and M6 within a year after placing the fill, as shown in

to Day 3,000. The values are about constant beyond that date. Fig. 36.

The average shaft shear, showing a maximum value

corresponding to a beta-coefficient of 0.33 recorded in Pile PII A comparison between the measured settlement and that

between load cells M4 and M5 in the sand, includes a short calculated from the soil data is shown in Fig. 41. Fig. 41A

distance of negative skin friction above the neutral plane and shows the effective stress, the stress from the fill per

the positive shaft resistance below. Calculations using the Boussinesq distribution, and the distribution of

mentioned 0.6 beta-coefficient in the sand places the location preconsolidation stress. Fig. 41B shows the distribution of

of the neutral plane about 4 m below load cell M 5, at 46.5 m settlement calculated from the values plotted in A and the

depth. settlement distribution measured at Day 4,362 next to Pile PII.

Note the stress from the fill is so close to the preconsolidation

To measure the pile shortening, new telltales were installed in margin that a change of a 1 KPa or so, one way or the other,

Pile PI at the start of the placing of the fill. Together with the would significantly alter the calculated settlement distribution.

survey of the pile head, the telltales determined the pile toe However, the two curves show agreement and support the

movement, as shown in Fig. 37. Fig. 38 shows the pile toe conclusion that most of the settlement at the site from the

load-movement from the start of the test. The toe movement is placed fill occurred in the upper ten metre of soil and that only

accurately known only in Pile PI and the toe load only in Pile very small relative settlement occurred between the pile and the

PII (load cell M4). Fig. 38 shows a combination of the two clay below ten metre depth.

measurements: toe load versus toe movement. The buoyant

weight of the pile has been subtracted from all load values.

428 CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL Vol. 43, 2006

30

on pile heads over site

25

20

15

Beta = 0.18

10

5

0 Ground to M3

-5 Ground to M7

-10

0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000

DAYS AFTER END OF DRIVING

30

AVE. UNIT SHAFT RESISTANCE (KPa)

25

20 Beta = 0.15

15

M3-M2

10

M7-M6

5

0

-5

-10

0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000

DAYS AFTER END OF DRIVING

30

AVE. UNIT SHAFT RESISTANCE (KPa)

25 Beta = 0.14

20

15

M2-M1

10

M6-M5

5

0

-5

-10

0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000

DAYS AFTER END OF DRIVING

0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000

0

AVE. UNIT SHAFT RESISTANCE (KPa)

20

40

60 M5-M4

80

Beta > 0.33

100

in the sand

120

Fig. 36 Bäckebol site. Measured average shear forces between the load cells

FELLENIUS 429

20

HEAD SETTLEMENT (mm)

Shortening and movement (mm) PIle PI

0 5 10 15 20

15

HEAD

0

PIle PII

10 5

TOE

Days 2,044 & 122

PIle P I

5 10

0 15

DEPTH (m)

1,900 2,400 2,900 3,400 3,900 4,400 4,900 5,400

Days after driving

Days 4,362 & 2,440

20

Fig. 37 Bäckebol site. Movement of pile heads and pile toe

of Pile PII since start of placing fill 25

300 30

35

TOE LOAD, PII (KN)

Day 2,651

200

Start of 40

placing fill

Day 1,922

in multipoint hose below 10 m depth. Days after start (first

number) and days after placing of fill (second number) are

indicated. The dashed lines indicate the trend of the

0

0 5 10 15

curves.

TOE PENETRATION, PI (mm)

Fig. 38 Bäckebol site. Toe load of Pile PII versus toe CONCLUSIONS

penetration of Pile PI

Several generally applicable conclusions of importance for the

SETTLEMENT (mm) design of piled foundations can be drawn from the reported

0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 full-scale tests, as summarized below. However, presenting

0

design recommendations is outside the scope of the this paper.

5 For such, see Fellenius (2004).

10

• Piles are usually installed to transfer loads through soft or

loose soil layers to more competent soil. Under such

DEPTH (m)

placing fill

20

conditions, negative skin friction will always develop

2,044 & 122

25

2,569 & 647

along the piles and accumulate to drag load.

2,953 & 1,031

30

• The case histories have shown that effective stress

Multipoint hose 3,641 & 1,719

35 4,362 & 2,440 governs the load transfer from soil to pile and from pile to

next to the piles surveyor based soil.

40

• Load distribution calculated from undrained shear

SETTLEMENT (mm) strength values may occasionally agree with actual load

0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350

0 distribution when no excess pore pressures exist, but this

appears more to be a coincidence as opposed to a general

5

rule.

10

• At all times, an equilibrium will exist between loads

sustained on the pile head and the drag load acting

DEPTH (m)

placing fill

20

downward and the positive shaft resistance and toe

2,044 & 122

25 resistance acting upward. That is, a force equilibrium

2,652 &730

30

point, called neutral plane, will always develop. The

3,143 & 1,221

Multipoint hose 5m 5,523 & 3,601

location of the equilibrium will adjust to a change of

35

away from the piles Surveyor based

sustained load or change of pore pressure.

40

• If the soil settlement is large and the pile toe response is

Fig. 39 Bäckebol site. Distribution of settlement measured stiff, the neutral plane will be located very close to the pile

in multipoint hoses next to Pile II and 5 m away from the piles toe.

430 CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL Vol. 43, 2006

0 50 100 150 200 250 0 100 200 300

0 0

Calculated

(σ'Z)f

5 5

Measured

10 10

(σ'Z)i

15 15

DEPTH (m)

DEPTH (m)

PRECON-

20 SOLIDATION 20

STRESS, σ'c

25 25

30 30

35 35

40 40

Fig. 41 A. Bäckebol site. Distribution of effective stress, preconsolidation stress, and stress from fill.

B. Distribution calculated settlement measured at Day 4,362 next to Pile PII.

• A few millimetre of movement between the pile surface • Two single piles of different length, or of same length but

and the soil can be sufficient to fully mobilize the shaft having different pile toe response, with the same dead load

shear in negative as well as positive directions. applied to the pile head, can have a different depths to the

neutral plane. They will therefore experience different

• The length of the zone of transition from negative downdrag (settlement), because settlement at the two

direction shear force to positive direction is a function of neutral plane locations is different. It follows that two

the magnitude of the movement between the pile surface such piles connected to a common pile cap will have the

and the soil, or more precisely, the relative settlement same depth to the neutral plane, if the cap is sufficiently

gradient. Small relative movement will result in a long rigid to enforce that the pile head movements are the same

transition zone and large relative movement will result in a for both piles. Therefore, the two piles cannot have the

short transition zone. same dead load, but must attract different magnitude dead

• The neutral plane location is the location of the force loads, as determined by the magnitudes necessary for the

equilibrium, which is where the transition from negative to piles to develop that same location of the neutral plane. It

positive shear direction is completed. It is also the location also follows that the pile toe penetration must be of similar

where there is no relative movement between the pile and magnitude, and, inasmuch the pile toe stiffnesses are

the soil. That is, at the neutral plane, the settlement of the different, the pile toe resistances will be different in

soil and the settlement of the pile are equal, from which magnitude.

follows that the settlement of the pile head is the soil • A very thin — about a millimetre or two — coat of

settlement at the neutral plane plus the pile shortening for bitumen of wide range of viscosity will significantly

the load. reduce the shear forces along a pile surface.

• The load in a pile at the neutral plane is the maximum • The effect of the bitumen is, of course, to reduce the

load in the pile and it is the sum of the sustained load (dead negative skin friction and the drag load. It will also move

load) and the drag load. A temporary load, such as a live the neutral plane deeper and, possibly to a depth where the

load, will not add to the load at the neutral plane. The settlement is smaller and, therefore, the downdrag will be

load at the neutral plane will not change (unless the live smaller. The drag load will have changed to a lesser

load is so large as to totally eliminate the drag load, that is, degree. Note that the bitumen coat will also reduce the

the live load has to be twice the drag load at the neutral pile capacity and the factor of safety of the pile in carrying

plane, a rather unlikely design case). the applied load.

FELLENIUS 431

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Fellenius, B.H. and Haagen, T., 1969. A new pile-force gage for

The Bäckebol test was planned and started when the author was accurate measurements of pile behavior. Canadian

with the Swedish Geotechnical Institute headed by Bengt B. Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 356 - 362.

Broms. The test was performed on the initiative of Sölve Fellenius, B.H., 1971. Negative skin friction on long piles

Severinsson, Göteborg, and J. Clemont Brodeur, Canada. driven in clay. Results of full scale investigation on

Financial support was provided by the Swedish Council for instrumented piles. Swedish Geotechnical Institute,

Building Research and the Axel Johnson Institute for Industrial Proc. 25, 38 p.

Research. The author is grateful to the Swedish Geotechnical Fellenius, B.H., 1972. Downdrag on piles in clay due to

Institute for the permission to publish the Bäckebol negative skin friction. Canadian Geotechnical Journal,

measurements of 1972 through 1982. Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 323 - 337.

Fellenius, B.H., 1975. Reduction of negative skin friction with

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