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# Aircraft Flight

Chapter
Chapter 5: 5: Airfoils,
Airfoils, Wings
Wings and
and Other
Other Aerodynamic
Aerodynamic Shapes
Shapes
AOE
AOE 3014
3014 Fall
Fall Junior
Junior Year
Year
•• Lift,
Lift, Drag,
Drag, and
and Moment
Moment (§5.1-5.3)
(§5.1-5.3)
•• Lift,
Lift, Drag,
Drag, and
and Moment
Moment Coefficients
Coefficients (§5.3)
(§5.3)
•• Drag
Drag Polar
Polar (§5.14)
(§5.14)
Chapter
Chapter 6: 6: Elements
Elements ofof Airplane
Airplane Performance
Performance
AOE
AOE 3104
3104 Spring
Spring Sophomore
Sophomore YearYear
•• Equations
Equations of of Motion
Motion (§6.2)
(§6.2)
•• Static
Static Performance
Performance (§6.1-6.6)
(§6.1-6.6)
Chapter
Chapter 7: 7: Principles
Principles of
of Stability
Stability and
and Control
Control
AOE
AOE 3134
3134 Spring
Spring Junior
Junior Year
Year (or
(or Spacecraft)
Spacecraft)
•• Introduction
Introduction andand Definitions
Definitions (§7.1-7.4)
(§7.1-7.4)
Airfoil Nomenclature
•• Airfoil
Airfoil isis aa two-dimensional
two-dimensional cross-section
cross-section of
of aa wing
wing
•• Camber
Camber isis the the maximum
maximum distance
distance between
between thethe mean
mean
camber
camber line line and
and the
the chord
chord line
line
•• Camber,
Camber, shape shape of of mean
mean camber
camber line,
line, and
and thickness
thickness
determine
determine the the lift
lift and
and moment
moment characteristics
characteristics of
of the
the
airfoil
airfoil

## Mean camber line

Camber Thickness

Chord, c
Lift and Drag
•• Drag
Drag isis inin freestream
freestream
L
direction
direction
•• Lift
Lift isis perpendicular
perpendicular
to
to drag
drag
Mc/4 •• Moment
Moment isis usually
usually
D taken
taken aboutabout the
the
c/4 quarter-chord
quarter-chord point point

V∞
Normal and Axial Forces
•• Axial
Axial force
force isis in
in
L chord
chord line
line direction
direction
N
•• Normal
Normal force
force isis
perpendicular
perpendicular to to
chord
chord line
line
LL == N cos αα –– AA sin
N cos sin αα
D
c/4 DD == N sin αα ++ AA cos
N sin cos αα

α A

V∞
Lift, Drag, and Moment Coefficients
•• Applying
Applying dimensional
dimensional analysis
analysis to
to the
the forces
forces
and
and moments
moments leads
leads to
to the
the definitions
definitions of
of these
these
coefficients
coefficients
LL == qq∞∞ SS ccll
DD == qq∞∞ SS ccdd
MM == qq∞∞ SS cc ccmm
•• Here
Here qq∞∞ isis the
the dynamic
dynamic pressure,
pressure, S S isis the
the wing
wing
area,
area, and
and cc isis the
the chord
chord length
length
•• The
The three
three coefficients
coefficients ccll,, ccdd,, and
and ccmm are
are
dimensionless
dimensionless numbers
numbers that that depend
depend on on angle
angle
of
of attack,
attack, Mach
Mach number,
number, and and Reynolds
Reynolds
number
number (also
(also dimensionless
dimensionless numbers) numbers)
Lift, Drag, and Moment Coefficients
•• These
These dimensionless
dimensionless coefficients
coefficients depend
depend on
on
angle
angle of
of attack,
attack, Mach
Mach number,
number, andand Reynolds
Reynolds
number:
number:
ccll == ff11((αα ,, M
M∞∞,, Re)
Re)
ccdd== ff22((αα ,, MM∞∞,, Re)
Re)
ccmm== ff33((αα ,, MM∞∞,, Re)
Re)
•• These
These three
three numbers
numbers are
are also
also dimensionless:
dimensionless:
αα =
= angle
angle of
of attack
attack (units
(units =
= radians,
radians, dimensionless)
dimensionless)
M∞∞=
M = Mach
Mach number
number = /a∞∞ (a
= VV∞∞/a (a∞∞= = speed
speed ofof sound)
sound)
Re =
Re = Reynolds
Reynolds number = ρρ∞∞VV∞∞c/
number = c/µµ∞∞((µµ=viscosity)
=viscosity)
•• For
For subsonic
subsonic incompressible
incompressible flow,
flow, M M∞∞ isis
“small”
“small” and Re isis “large”
and Re ⇒ ccll == ff11((αα),), etc
“large” ⇒ etc..
Flow Separation
•• Low
Low angle
angle of of
attack ⇒
attack ⇒ minimal
minimal
flow
flow separation,
separation, at at
trailing
trailing edge
edge
•• As
As angle
angle ofof attack
attack
increases
increases point
point of of
flow
flow separation
separation
moves
moves slightly
slightly
forward
forward
•• At
At stall
stall angle,
angle,
separation
separation point
point
moves
moves forward
forward
dramatically
dramatically
•• Separated
Separated flowflow
increases
increases pressure
pressure
on
on upper
upper surface
surface
⇒⇒ reduced
reduced lift lift
Lift Coefficient
cl (α)
•• Nearly
Nearly constant
constant
slope,
slope, dc /dα
dcll /d α,,
between
between the the
stall
stall angles
angles
•• Positive
Positive lift
lift at
at
αα == 00
•• Stall
Stall
corresponds
corresponds to
to
“flow
“flow
separation”
separation”
Drag Coefficient
Drag Polar
•• For
For finite
finite wings
wings at
at subsonic
subsonic speeds,
speeds, the
the drag
drag
coefficient
coefficient can
can be
be written
written as
as
C CLL22/(/(ππ ee AR)
CDD == ccdd ++ C AR)
•• The
The “little”
“little” ccdd denotes the profile
denotes the profile drag
drag or
or the
the
airfoil
airfoil section
section drag
drag
•• The
The “big”
“big” C CDD denotes the total
denotes the total drag
drag onon the
the finite
finite
wing
wing
•• The
The “big”
“big” C CLL denotes
denotes the
the total
total lift
lift on
on the
the finite
finite
wing
wing (as(as compared
compared withwith ccll))
•• The
The term denotes aa planform
term 00 << ee << 11 denotes planform efficiency
efficiency
factor
factor.. Elliptical wing ⇒
Elliptical wing ⇒ ee == 11
•• The
The term
term isis called the induced
called the induced drag
drag
Drag Polar
•• The
The profile
profile drag
drag
includes
includes drag
drag due due
to
to skin
skin friction
friction and and
pressure
pressure drag
drag due due
to
to separation
separation
•• This
This plot
plot isis an
an
essential
essential tool
tool in in the
the
design
design of
of airplanes,
airplanes,
and
and we
we will
will see
see one
one
application
application aa bit bit
later
later
Example 5.14
Consider
Consider thethe Northrop
Northrop F-5 F-5 fighter
fighter airplane,
airplane,
which
which has
has aa wing
wing area
area of 170 ftft22.. The
of 170 The wing
wing isis
generating
generating 18,000
18,000 lblb of
of lift.
lift. For
For aa flight
flight velocity
velocity
of
of 250 mi/h at
250 mi/h at standard
standard seasea level,
level, calculate
calculate the
the
lift
lift coefficient.
coefficient.
Example 5.15
The
The wingspan
wingspan ofof the
the F-5
F-5 isis 25.25 ft. Calculate
25.25 ft. Calculate
the
the induced
induced drag
drag coefficient
coefficient and
and the
the induced
induced
drag
drag for
for the
the conditions
conditions ofof Ex.
Ex. 5.14.
5.14. Use
Use e=0.8.
e=0.8.
Example 5.16
Consider
Consider aa “flying
“flying wing”
wing” withwith aa wing
wing area
area of
of
206
206 m m22,, an
an aspect
aspect ratio
ratio of 10, aa span
of 10, span
effectiveness
effectiveness factor
factor of 0.95, and
of 0.95, and aa NACA
NACA 4412 4412
airfoil.
airfoil. The The weight
weight ofof the
the airplane
airplane isis 7.5×10
7.5×1055 N.
N.
IfIf the
the density
density altitude
altitude isis 33 km
km and
and the
the flight
flight
velocity
velocity isis 100 m/s, calculate
100 m/s, calculate thethe total
total drag
drag on
on
the
the aircraft.
aircraft.
We’ve
We’ve
seen
seen this
this
before,
before,
but
but this
this isis
aa nice
nice
picture
picture
Airplane Performance
Equations
Equations of
of Motion
Motion
Static
Static Performance
Performance Dynamic
Dynamic Performance
Performance
(zero
(zero acceleration)
acceleration) (finite
(finite acceleration)
acceleration)

Thrust
Thrust required
required
Thrust
Thrust available
available Takeoff
Takeoff
Power
Power required
required Landing
Landing
Power
Power available
available Turning
Turning flight
flight
Maximum
Maximum velocity
velocity
V-n diagram
V-n diagram
Rate
Rate of
of climb
climb Accelerated
Accelerated rate
rate of
of
Time
Time to
to climb
climb climb
climb
Maximum
Maximum altitude
altitude Reading:
Reading: Chapter
Chapter 66
Range
Range and
and
endurance
endurance Preview
Preview of
of AOE
AOE 3104
3104
Equations of Motion

•• Newton’s
Newton’s Second
Second Law,
Law, FF == ma
ma
•• The
The four
four forces:
forces:
Lift L, perpendicular
Lift L, perpendicular to to flight
flight path
path
Drag
Drag D, D, parallel
parallel to
to flight
flight path
path
Weight
Weight W, W, toward
toward center
center of of Earth
Earth
Thrust
Thrust T,T, generally
generally inclined
inclined wrt
wrt flight
flight path
path
L
d l i ne
chor α
αΤ T θ
D

W
Equations of Motion
FF == ma
ma (this
(this equation
equation isis aa vector
vector equation)
equation)
•• Velocity
Velocity isis always
always along
along flight
flight path
path
ΣFí
ΣFí == m dV/dt (a
m dV/dt (a scalar
scalar equation)
equation)
•• Acceleration
Acceleration perpendicular
perpendicular to to flight
flight path
path isis
centripetal
centripetal acceleration,
acceleration, which
which depends
depends on
on
velocity
velocity and
and radius
radius of
of curvature,
curvature, rrcc
ΣF
ΣF^^ == m
mV V22/r/rcc (a (a scalar
scalar equation)
equation)

•• The
The preceding
preceding two
two equations
equations are the kinematics
are the kinematics
equations;
equations; next
next we
we must
must determine
determine the
the two
two
force
force summations
summations
Equations of Motion
•• Examination
Examination of
of the
the figure
figure below
below leads
leads to
to
ΣFí cos ααTT –– D
ΣFí == TT cos D –– W sin θθ
W sin == m
m dV/dt
dV/dt
ΣF sin ααTT –– W
ΣF^^ == LL ++ TT sin cos θθ
W cos == mm VV22/r/rcc
•• These
These are
are the
the equations
equations ofof motion
motion for
for an
an
airplane
airplane in
in 2-D
2-D translational
translational flight
flight
•• Rotational
Rotational motion
motion isis not
not included
included here
here
L
r d l i ne
ch o α
αΤ T θ
D

W
Level Unaccelerated Flight
•• Velocity
Velocity isis constant,
constant, radius
radius of
of curvature
curvature isis
infinite, θθ == 00
infinite,
•• Equations
Equations of of motion
motion reduce
reduce to
to
cos ααTT
TT cos == D
D
sin ααTT == W
LL ++ TT sin W
•• Assuming that ααTT == 00,, these
Assuming that these equations
equations further
further
reduce
reduce to
to
TT == DD (thrust
(thrust =
= drag)
drag)
LL == W
W (lift
(lift =
= weight)
weight)
•• Since
Since lift
lift and
and drag
drag are
are related
related by
by the
the drag
drag
polar,
polar, wewe can
can use
use the
the drag
drag polar
polar toto determine
determine
the
the required
required thrust
thrust for
for straight
straight level
level flight
flight
Thrust Required for
Straight, Level Flight
TT == D
D (thrust
(thrust =
= drag)
drag)
TT D == qq∞∞S
== D SCCDD

LL == W
W (lift
(lift =
= weight)
weight)
W == qq∞∞S
LL == W SCCLL

Thrust-to-weight
Thrust-to-weight ratio:
ratio:
TT // W
W == C
CDD/C
/CLL

Required
Required thrust:
thrust:
TTRR == W
WCCDD/C
/CLL == W/(C
W/(CLL/C
/CDD)) == W/(L/D)
W/(L/D)
Thrust-Required Curve
1.Choose
1.Choose value
value of of V
V∞∞
2.Calculate
2.Calculate lift
lift coefficient
coefficient C
CLL
W⇒
LL == W ⇒C
CLL == W/(q
W/(q∞∞S) 2W/(ρρ∞∞VV∞∞22S)
S) == 2W/( S)
3.Calculate
3.Calculate drag
drag coefficient CDD from
coefficient C from drag
drag polar
polar
22/(π e AR)
L /(π e AR)
C
CDD == C
CD,0
D,0
+
+ C
C L
4.Calculate
4.Calculate the
the lift-to-drag
lift-to-drag ratio,
ratio,
L/D CLL/C
L/D == C /CDD
5.Calculate
5.Calculate the
the thrust
thrust required
required
TTRR == W/(C
W/(CLL/C
/CDD))
This
This procedure
procedure cancan bebe used
used to
to compute
compute TTRR(V(V∞∞))
for
for aa specific V∞∞,, or
specific V or to
to compute
compute for
for aa range
range of
of
speeds
speeds
Example 6.1
Given
Given
span:
span: bb == 35.8
35.8 ftft
area:
area: S 174 ftft22
S == 174
weight:
weight: W W == 2950
2950 lb lb
parasite
parasite drag
drag coeff:
coeff: C CD,0 = 0.025
D,0 = 0.025
Oswald
Oswald efficiency
efficiency factor:
factor: ee == 0.8
0.8
Look
Look up density: ρρ == 0.002377
up density: slug/ft33
0.002377 slug/ft
Compute
Compute
aspect
aspect ratio:
ratio: ARAR == bb22/S/S
induced
induced drag
drag denominator:
denominator: “pear” “pear” == πeAR
πeAR

Follow
Follow procedure
procedure from
from previous
previous slide
slide .. .. ..
A Matlab Code to Compute TR
%% Treq.m
Treq.m
%% thrust
thrust required
required vs
vs V_\infty
V_\infty
%% using
using data
data from
from example
example 6.1
6.1
%% this
this section
section just
just does
does the
the initialization
initialization
clear
clear
close
close all
all

bb == 35.8;
35.8;
SS == 174;
174;
AR
AR == b^2/S;
b^2/S;
WW == 2950;
2950;
Cdo
Cdo == 0.025;
0.025;
ee == 0.8;
0.8;
pear
pear == pi*e*AR;
pi*e*AR;

rho=0.002377;
rho=0.002377;
%Treq.m
%Treq.m continued
continued

N=100;
N=100;
Vmin=80;
Vmin=80;
Vmax=350;
Vmax=350;
Vi=linspace(Vmin,Vmax,N);
Vi=linspace(Vmin,Vmax,N); %% NN points
points [Vmin,
[Vmin, Vmax]
Vmax]
CLv=zeros(size(Vi));
CLv=zeros(size(Vi)); %% save
save Lift
Lift Coefficients
Coefficients
CDv=CLv;
CDv=CLv; %% save
save Drag
Drag Coefficients
Coefficients
TRv=CLv;
TRv=CLv; %% save
save Thrust
Thrust Required
Required
for
for i=1:N
i=1:N
CL=2*W/(rho*Vi(i)^2*S);
CL=2*W/(rho*Vi(i)^2*S); %% Steps
Steps 1&1& 22
CD=Cdo+CL^2/pear;
CD=Cdo+CL^2/pear; %% Step
Step 33
LoD=CL/CD;
LoD=CL/CD; %% Step
Step 44
TR=W/LoD;
TR=W/LoD; %% Step
Step 55
CLv(i)
CLv(i) == CL;
CL; %% Save
Save everything
everything
CDv(i)
CDv(i) == CD;
CD;
TRv(i)
TRv(i) == TR;
TR;
end
end
%Treq.m
%Treq.m continued
continued Make
Make the
the TR
TR vs
vs Vinfty
Vinfty plot
plot
figure;
figure; hold
hold on
on
hndl=plot(Vi,TRv);
hndl=plot(Vi,TRv);
set(hndl,'linewidth',2);
set(hndl,'linewidth',2);
hndl=xlabel('V_\infty,
hndl=xlabel('V_\infty, ft/s');
ft/s');
set(hndl,'fontsize',18)
set(hndl,'fontsize',18)
hndl=ylabel('T_R,
hndl=ylabel('T_R, lb');
lb');
set(hndl,'fontsize',18)
set(hndl,'fontsize',18)
set(gca,'fontsize',18)
set(gca,'fontsize',18)

This
This code
code snippet
snippet opens
opens the
the figure
figure
window,
window, makes
makes the
the plot,
plot, changes
changes the
the
line
line thickness,
thickness, makes
makes x&y
x&y axis
axis labels,
labels, and
and
changes
changes the
the fontsizes
fontsizes
TR vs V∞

How
How doesdoes angle
angle of
of
attack αα vary
attack vary with
with
VV∞∞ for
for straight
straight and
and
level
level flight?
flight?
figure;
figure; hold
hold on
on
hndl=plot(Vi,CLv,’b’);
hndl=plot(Vi,CLv,’b’);
set(hndl,'linewidth',2);
set(hndl,'linewidth',2);
hndl=plot(Vi,CDv,’r’);
hndl=plot(Vi,CDv,’r’);
set(hndl,'linewidth',2);
set(hndl,'linewidth',2);
hndl=xlabel('V_\infty,
hndl=xlabel('V_\infty, ft/s');
ft/s');
set(hndl,'fontsize',18)
set(hndl,'fontsize',18)
hndl=ylabel('C_L,
hndl=ylabel('C_L, C_D');
C_D');
set(hndl,'fontsize',18)
set(hndl,'fontsize',18)
set(gca,'fontsize',18)
set(gca,'fontsize',18)

This
This code
code snippet
snippet opens
opens the
the figure
figure
window,
window, makes
makes two
two plots,
plots, changes
changes the
the
line
line thickness,
thickness, makes
makes x&y
x&y axis
axis labels,
labels, and
and
changes
changes the
the fontsizes
fontsizes
CL and CD vs V∞

Why
Why are are Lift
Lift and
and
Drag
Drag Coefficients
Coefficients
larger
larger for
for smaller
smaller
VV∞∞ for
for straight
straight and
and
level
level flight?
flight?
Some Questions
•• How
How does
does angle
angle of attack αα vary
of attack vary with V∞∞??
with V

•• What
What isis special
special about
about the
the minimum
minimum Thrust
Thrust
Required
Required point
point on
on the
the TTRR vs V∞∞ curve?
vs V curve?

•• Why
Why are
are lift
lift and
and drag
drag coefficients
coefficients larger
larger for
for
smaller V∞∞??
smaller V

•• Begin
Begin by
by recalling
recalling that
that thrust
thrust =
= drag,
drag, TTRR == D
D
Analysis of TR vs V∞
TR = D = q∞ SCD = q∞ S(CD,0 + CD,i )
µ 2

CL
TR = q∞ S CD,0 +
πeAR
q∞ SCL2
TR = q∞ SCD,0 +
πeAR
• First term is parasite thrust required (zero-lift)
• Second term is induced thrust required
• Recall that CL also depends on q∞ :

W
CL = so that
q∞ S
W2
TR = q∞ SCD,0 +
q∞ SπeAR
Continued Analysis of TR vs V∞
W2
TR = q∞ SCD,0 +
q∞ SπeAR

## dTR dTR dV∞

= (chain rule)
dq∞ dV∞ dq∞
dTR dTR
= 0⇒ =0
dV∞ dq∞
dTR W2
= 0 ⇒ SCD,0 − 2 =0
dq∞ q∞ SπeAR

## CD,0 = CD,i Parasite drag = Induced drag

Conclusions Regarding TR vs V∞
•• TTRR has
has two
two
components:
components: aa “zero-
“zero-
lift”
lift” term
term and
and aa “lift-
“lift-
induced”
induced” term
term
•• The
The minimum
minimum occcurs
occcurs
where
where thethe two
two terms
terms
are
are equal
equal
•• Available
Available thrust
thrust must
must bebe
≥≥ required
required thrust
thrust to
to
maintain
maintain straight
straight level
level
flight
flight
Further Topics
Equations
Equations of
of Motion
Motion
Static
Static Performance
Performance Dynamic
Dynamic Performance
Performance
(zero
(zero acceleration)
acceleration) (finite
(finite acceleration)
acceleration)

Thrust
Thrust required
required
Thrust
Thrust available
available Takeoff
Takeoff
Power
Power required
required Landing
Landing
Power
Power available
available Turning
Turning flight
flight
Maximum
Maximum velocity
velocity
V-n diagram
V-n diagram
Rate
Rate of
of climb
climb Accelerated
Accelerated rate
rate of
of
Time
Time to
to climb
climb climb
climb
Maximum
Maximum altitude
altitude Reading:
Reading: Chapter
Chapter 66
Range
Range and
and
endurance
endurance Preview
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of AOE
AOE 3104
3104
Stability
Stability &
& Control
Control
Stability
Stability Control
Control

••Static
Static ••Static
Static
–– Longitudinal
Longitudinal ––Longitudinal
Longitudinal
oo Criteria
Criteria ––Directional
Directional
oo Moments
Moments about
about c.g.
c.g. ––Lateral
Lateral
oo Equations
Equations for
for stability
stability ••Dynamic
Dynamic
oo Neutral
Neutral point
point
oo Static
Static margin Reading:
margin Reading: Chapter
Chapter 77
–– Directional
Directional
–– Lateral
Lateral Preview
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3134
••Dynamic
Dynamic
“Parking” Stability
•• IfIf mass
mass center (c.g. ⊕)
center (c.g. ⊕) isis between
between landing
landing gear,
gear,
then
then the the parked aircraft isis stable
parked aircraft stable
•• IfIf c.g.
c.g. isis aft
aft of
of aft
aft landing
landing gear,
gear, then
then the
the
parked aircraft isis unstable
parked aircraft unstable
•• IfIf c.g.
c.g. isis aligned
aligned with
with aft
aft landing
landing gear,
gear, then
then the
the
parked aircraft isis marginally
parked aircraft marginally stable
stable

⊕ ⊕ ⊕

W W W
marginally
stable unstable
stable
Roll, Pitch and Yaw
pitch

yaw

longitudinal

roll
Remember
Remember the
the
Right
Right Hand
Hand Rule
Rule vertical lateral

Stability
Stability &
& Control
Control •• Roll
Roll about
about longitudinal
longitudinal axis
axis
deals
deals with
with •• Pitch
Pitch about
about lateral
lateral axis
axis
rotational
rotational motion
motion •• Yaw
Yaw about
about vertical
vertical axis
axis
Roll, Pitch and Yaw
pitch

yaw

longitudinal

roll
Remember
Remember the
the
Right
Right Hand
Hand Rule
Rule vertical lateral
•• Roll
Roll angle
angle isis positive
positive when
when right
right wingtip
wingtip rotates
rotates down
down
•• Pitch
Pitch angle
angle isis positive
positive when
when nose
nose rotates
rotates up
up
•• Yaw
Yaw angle
angle isis positive
positive when
when right
right wingtip
wingtip rotates
rotates aft
aft
These
These are all conventions
are all conventions
Longitudinal Stability
•• Given
Given anan airplane’s
airplane’s aerodynamic
aerodynamic properties,
properties,
determine
determine whether
whether itit isis stable
stable in
in straight
straight and
and
level
level flight
flight

Flight
Flight conditions
conditions determine
determine lift
lift and
and drag
drag coefficients.
coefficients. Tail
Tail controls
controls
(typically)
(typically) are
are used
used to
to make
make the
the moment
moment coefficient
coefficient C = 0.
M,cg = 0.
CM,cg
Moment Coefficient Possibilities
•• Slope
Slope could
could bebe negative
negative or
or positive
positive
•• Generally,
Generally, the
the symbol
symbol used
used for
for the
the slope
slope of
of the
the moment
moment
coefficient
coefficient for
for small
small changes
changes ofof angle
angle attack
attack from
from the
the trim
trim
condition
condition isis
∂CM,cg
= C Mα
∂α
Positive Slope: CM >0
α
•• Disturbance
Disturbance (gust)
(gust) could cause α↑
could cause or α↓
α↑ or α↓
•• α↑
α↑ implies
implies that
that C becomes positive
M,cg becomes positive
CM,cg
•• α↓
α↓ imples
imples that
that C becomes negative
M,cg becomes negative
CM,cg

α > αe
αe
α < αe
Negative Slope: CM <0
α
•• Disturbance
Disturbance (gust)
(gust) could cause α↑
could cause or α↓
α↑ or α↓
•• α↑
α↑ implies
implies that
that C becomes negative
M,cg becomes negative
CM,cg
•• α↓
α↓ imples
imples that
that C becomes positive
M,cg becomes positive
CM,cg

α > αe
αe
α < αe
Static Longitudinal Stability
•• Disturbance
Disturbance (gust)
(gust) could cause α↑
could cause or α↓
α↑ or α↓
•• α↑
α↑ implies
implies that
that C becomes negative
M,cg becomes negative
CM,cg
–– Pitch
Pitch moment negative ⇒
moment negative ⇒ α↓
α↓ ⇒
⇒ stable
stable
•• α↓
α↓ imples
imples that
that C becomes positive
M,cg becomes positive
CM,cg
–– Pitch
Pitch moment positive ⇒
moment positive ⇒ α↑
α↑ ⇒
⇒ stable
stable

α > αe
αe
α < αe
Further topics in Stability & Control
•• Consideration
Consideration of of all
all contributions
contributions to to the
the pitch
pitch
moment:
moment: Wing,
Wing, Body,
Body, Tail
Tail
•• Neutral
Neutral point
point (location
(location of of c.g.
c.g. where
where C CMMαα=0)
=0)
•• Static
Static margin
margin (distance
(distance between
between c.g.
c.g. and
and n.p.)
n.p.)
•• Lateral
Lateral stability
stability (roll
(roll stability,
stability, dihedral
dihedral effect)
effect)
•• Control
Control (use
(use of
of actuators
actuators such
such as
as elevator,
elevator,
rudder
rudder and
and trim
trim tabs
tabs toto achieve
achieve stability)
stability)

AOE
AOE 3134:
3134: Stability
Stability && Control,
Control, Spring
Spring Junior
Junior
Year
Year covers
covers all
all these
these topics,
topics, and
and will
will likely
likely
include
include some
some sort
sort of
of demonstration
demonstration using
using the
the
aircraft
aircraft flight
flight simulator
simulator