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Chapter

Chapter 5: 5: Airfoils,

Airfoils, Wings

Wings and

and Other

Other Aerodynamic

Aerodynamic Shapes

Shapes

AOE

AOE 3014

3014 Fall

Fall Junior

Junior Year

Year

•• Lift,

Lift, Drag,

Drag, and

and Moment

Moment (§5.1-5.3)

(§5.1-5.3)

•• Lift,

Lift, Drag,

Drag, and

and Moment

Moment Coefficients

Coefficients (§5.3)

(§5.3)

•• Drag

Drag Polar

Polar (§5.14)

(§5.14)

Chapter

Chapter 6: 6: Elements

Elements ofof Airplane

Airplane Performance

Performance

AOE

AOE 3104

3104 Spring

Spring Sophomore

Sophomore YearYear

•• Equations

Equations of of Motion

Motion (§6.2)

(§6.2)

•• Static

Static Performance

Performance (§6.1-6.6)

(§6.1-6.6)

Chapter

Chapter 7: 7: Principles

Principles of

of Stability

Stability and

and Control

Control

AOE

AOE 3134

3134 Spring

Spring Junior

Junior Year

Year (or

(or Spacecraft)

Spacecraft)

•• Introduction

Introduction andand Definitions

Definitions (§7.1-7.4)

(§7.1-7.4)

Airfoil Nomenclature

•• Airfoil

Airfoil isis aa two-dimensional

two-dimensional cross-section

cross-section of

of aa wing

wing

•• Camber

Camber isis the the maximum

maximum distance

distance between

between thethe mean

mean

camber

camber line line and

and the

the chord

chord line

line

•• Camber,

Camber, shape shape of of mean

mean camber

camber line,

line, and

and thickness

thickness

determine

determine the the lift

lift and

and moment

moment characteristics

characteristics of

of the

the

airfoil

airfoil

Camber Thickness

Chord, c

Lift and Drag

•• Drag

Drag isis inin freestream

freestream

L

direction

direction

•• Lift

Lift isis perpendicular

perpendicular

to

to drag

drag

Mc/4 •• Moment

Moment isis usually

usually

D taken

taken aboutabout the

the

c/4 quarter-chord

quarter-chord point point

V∞

Normal and Axial Forces

•• Axial

Axial force

force isis in

in

L chord

chord line

line direction

direction

N

•• Normal

Normal force

force isis

perpendicular

perpendicular to to

chord

chord line

line

LL == N cos αα –– AA sin

N cos sin αα

D

c/4 DD == N sin αα ++ AA cos

N sin cos αα

α A

V∞

Lift, Drag, and Moment Coefficients

•• Applying

Applying dimensional

dimensional analysis

analysis to

to the

the forces

forces

and

and moments

moments leads

leads to

to the

the definitions

definitions of

of these

these

coefficients

coefficients

LL == qq∞∞ SS ccll

DD == qq∞∞ SS ccdd

MM == qq∞∞ SS cc ccmm

•• Here

Here qq∞∞ isis the

the dynamic

dynamic pressure,

pressure, S S isis the

the wing

wing

area,

area, and

and cc isis the

the chord

chord length

length

•• The

The three

three coefficients

coefficients ccll,, ccdd,, and

and ccmm are

are

dimensionless

dimensionless numbers

numbers that that depend

depend on on angle

angle

of

of attack,

attack, Mach

Mach number,

number, and and Reynolds

Reynolds

number

number (also

(also dimensionless

dimensionless numbers) numbers)

Lift, Drag, and Moment Coefficients

•• These

These dimensionless

dimensionless coefficients

coefficients depend

depend on

on

angle

angle of

of attack,

attack, Mach

Mach number,

number, andand Reynolds

Reynolds

number:

number:

ccll == ff11((αα ,, M

M∞∞,, Re)

Re)

ccdd== ff22((αα ,, MM∞∞,, Re)

Re)

ccmm== ff33((αα ,, MM∞∞,, Re)

Re)

•• These

These three

three numbers

numbers are

are also

also dimensionless:

dimensionless:

αα =

= angle

angle of

of attack

attack (units

(units =

= radians,

radians, dimensionless)

dimensionless)

M∞∞=

M = Mach

Mach number

number = /a∞∞ (a

= VV∞∞/a (a∞∞= = speed

speed ofof sound)

sound)

Re =

Re = Reynolds

Reynolds number = ρρ∞∞VV∞∞c/

number = c/µµ∞∞((µµ=viscosity)

=viscosity)

•• For

For subsonic

subsonic incompressible

incompressible flow,

flow, M M∞∞ isis

“small”

“small” and Re isis “large”

and Re ⇒ ccll == ff11((αα),), etc

“large” ⇒ etc..

Flow Separation

•• Low

Low angle

angle of of

attack ⇒

attack ⇒ minimal

minimal

flow

flow separation,

separation, at at

trailing

trailing edge

edge

•• As

As angle

angle ofof attack

attack

increases

increases point

point of of

flow

flow separation

separation

moves

moves slightly

slightly

forward

forward

•• At

At stall

stall angle,

angle,

separation

separation point

point

moves

moves forward

forward

dramatically

dramatically

•• Separated

Separated flowflow

increases

increases pressure

pressure

on

on upper

upper surface

surface

⇒⇒ reduced

reduced lift lift

Lift Coefficient

cl (α)

•• Nearly

Nearly constant

constant

slope,

slope, dc /dα

dcll /d α,,

between

between the the

stall

stall angles

angles

•• Positive

Positive lift

lift at

at

αα == 00

•• Stall

Stall

corresponds

corresponds to

to

“flow

“flow

separation”

separation”

Drag Coefficient

Drag Polar

•• For

For finite

finite wings

wings at

at subsonic

subsonic speeds,

speeds, the

the drag

drag

coefficient

coefficient can

can be

be written

written as

as

C CLL22/(/(ππ ee AR)

CDD == ccdd ++ C AR)

•• The

The “little”

“little” ccdd denotes the profile

denotes the profile drag

drag or

or the

the

airfoil

airfoil section

section drag

drag

•• The

The “big”

“big” C CDD denotes the total

denotes the total drag

drag onon the

the finite

finite

wing

wing

•• The

The “big”

“big” C CLL denotes

denotes the

the total

total lift

lift on

on the

the finite

finite

wing

wing (as(as compared

compared withwith ccll))

•• The

The term denotes aa planform

term 00 << ee << 11 denotes planform efficiency

efficiency

factor

factor.. Elliptical wing ⇒

Elliptical wing ⇒ ee == 11

•• The

The term

term isis called the induced

called the induced drag

drag

Drag Polar

•• The

The profile

profile drag

drag

includes

includes drag

drag due due

to

to skin

skin friction

friction and and

pressure

pressure drag

drag due due

to

to separation

separation

•• This

This plot

plot isis an

an

essential

essential tool

tool in in the

the

design

design of

of airplanes,

airplanes,

and

and we

we will

will see

see one

one

application

application aa bit bit

later

later

Example 5.14

Consider

Consider thethe Northrop

Northrop F-5 F-5 fighter

fighter airplane,

airplane,

which

which has

has aa wing

wing area

area of 170 ftft22.. The

of 170 The wing

wing isis

generating

generating 18,000

18,000 lblb of

of lift.

lift. For

For aa flight

flight velocity

velocity

of

of 250 mi/h at

250 mi/h at standard

standard seasea level,

level, calculate

calculate the

the

lift

lift coefficient.

coefficient.

Example 5.15

The

The wingspan

wingspan ofof the

the F-5

F-5 isis 25.25 ft. Calculate

25.25 ft. Calculate

the

the induced

induced drag

drag coefficient

coefficient and

and the

the induced

induced

drag

drag for

for the

the conditions

conditions ofof Ex.

Ex. 5.14.

5.14. Use

Use e=0.8.

e=0.8.

Example 5.16

Consider

Consider aa “flying

“flying wing”

wing” withwith aa wing

wing area

area of

of

206

206 m m22,, an

an aspect

aspect ratio

ratio of 10, aa span

of 10, span

effectiveness

effectiveness factor

factor of 0.95, and

of 0.95, and aa NACA

NACA 4412 4412

airfoil.

airfoil. The The weight

weight ofof the

the airplane

airplane isis 7.5×10

7.5×1055 N.

N.

IfIf the

the density

density altitude

altitude isis 33 km

km and

and the

the flight

flight

velocity

velocity isis 100 m/s, calculate

100 m/s, calculate thethe total

total drag

drag on

on

the

the aircraft.

aircraft.

We’ve

We’ve

seen

seen this

this

before,

before,

but

but this

this isis

aa nice

nice

picture

picture

Airplane Performance

Equations

Equations of

of Motion

Motion

Static

Static Performance

Performance Dynamic

Dynamic Performance

Performance

(zero

(zero acceleration)

acceleration) (finite

(finite acceleration)

acceleration)

Thrust

Thrust required

required

Thrust

Thrust available

available Takeoff

Takeoff

Power

Power required

required Landing

Landing

Power

Power available

available Turning

Turning flight

flight

Maximum

Maximum velocity

velocity

V-n diagram

V-n diagram

Rate

Rate of

of climb

climb Accelerated

Accelerated rate

rate of

of

Time

Time to

to climb

climb climb

climb

Maximum

Maximum altitude

altitude Reading:

Reading: Chapter

Chapter 66

Range

Range and

and

endurance

endurance Preview

Preview of

of AOE

AOE 3104

3104

Equations of Motion

•• Newton’s

Newton’s Second

Second Law,

Law, FF == ma

ma

•• The

The four

four forces:

forces:

Lift L, perpendicular

Lift L, perpendicular to to flight

flight path

path

Drag

Drag D, D, parallel

parallel to

to flight

flight path

path

Weight

Weight W, W, toward

toward center

center of of Earth

Earth

Thrust

Thrust T,T, generally

generally inclined

inclined wrt

wrt flight

flight path

path

L

d l i ne

chor α

αΤ T θ

D

W

Equations of Motion

FF == ma

ma (this

(this equation

equation isis aa vector

vector equation)

equation)

•• Velocity

Velocity isis always

always along

along flight

flight path

path

ΣFí

ΣFí == m dV/dt (a

m dV/dt (a scalar

scalar equation)

equation)

•• Acceleration

Acceleration perpendicular

perpendicular to to flight

flight path

path isis

centripetal

centripetal acceleration,

acceleration, which

which depends

depends on

on

velocity

velocity and

and radius

radius of

of curvature,

curvature, rrcc

ΣF

ΣF^^ == m

mV V22/r/rcc (a (a scalar

scalar equation)

equation)

•• The

The preceding

preceding two

two equations

equations are the kinematics

are the kinematics

equations;

equations; next

next we

we must

must determine

determine the

the two

two

force

force summations

summations

Equations of Motion

•• Examination

Examination of

of the

the figure

figure below

below leads

leads to

to

ΣFí cos ααTT –– D

ΣFí == TT cos D –– W sin θθ

W sin == m

m dV/dt

dV/dt

ΣF sin ααTT –– W

ΣF^^ == LL ++ TT sin cos θθ

W cos == mm VV22/r/rcc

•• These

These are

are the

the equations

equations ofof motion

motion for

for an

an

airplane

airplane in

in 2-D

2-D translational

translational flight

flight

•• Rotational

Rotational motion

motion isis not

not included

included here

here

L

r d l i ne

ch o α

αΤ T θ

D

W

Level Unaccelerated Flight

•• Velocity

Velocity isis constant,

constant, radius

radius of

of curvature

curvature isis

infinite, θθ == 00

infinite,

•• Equations

Equations of of motion

motion reduce

reduce to

to

cos ααTT

TT cos == D

D

sin ααTT == W

LL ++ TT sin W

•• Assuming that ααTT == 00,, these

Assuming that these equations

equations further

further

reduce

reduce to

to

TT == DD (thrust

(thrust =

= drag)

drag)

LL == W

W (lift

(lift =

= weight)

weight)

•• Since

Since lift

lift and

and drag

drag are

are related

related by

by the

the drag

drag

polar,

polar, wewe can

can use

use the

the drag

drag polar

polar toto determine

determine

the

the required

required thrust

thrust for

for straight

straight level

level flight

flight

Thrust Required for

Straight, Level Flight

TT == D

D (thrust

(thrust =

= drag)

drag)

TT D == qq∞∞S

== D SCCDD

LL == W

W (lift

(lift =

= weight)

weight)

W == qq∞∞S

LL == W SCCLL

Thrust-to-weight

Thrust-to-weight ratio:

ratio:

TT // W

W == C

CDD/C

/CLL

Required

Required thrust:

thrust:

TTRR == W

WCCDD/C

/CLL == W/(C

W/(CLL/C

/CDD)) == W/(L/D)

W/(L/D)

Thrust-Required Curve

1.Choose

1.Choose value

value of of V

V∞∞

2.Calculate

2.Calculate lift

lift coefficient

coefficient C

CLL

W⇒

LL == W ⇒C

CLL == W/(q

W/(q∞∞S) 2W/(ρρ∞∞VV∞∞22S)

S) == 2W/( S)

3.Calculate

3.Calculate drag

drag coefficient CDD from

coefficient C from drag

drag polar

polar

22/(π e AR)

L /(π e AR)

C

CDD == C

CD,0

D,0

+

+ C

C L

4.Calculate

4.Calculate the

the lift-to-drag

lift-to-drag ratio,

ratio,

L/D CLL/C

L/D == C /CDD

5.Calculate

5.Calculate the

the thrust

thrust required

required

TTRR == W/(C

W/(CLL/C

/CDD))

This

This procedure

procedure cancan bebe used

used to

to compute

compute TTRR(V(V∞∞))

for

for aa specific V∞∞,, or

specific V or to

to compute

compute for

for aa range

range of

of

speeds

speeds

Example 6.1

Given

Given

span:

span: bb == 35.8

35.8 ftft

area:

area: S 174 ftft22

S == 174

weight:

weight: W W == 2950

2950 lb lb

parasite

parasite drag

drag coeff:

coeff: C CD,0 = 0.025

D,0 = 0.025

Oswald

Oswald efficiency

efficiency factor:

factor: ee == 0.8

0.8

Look

Look up density: ρρ == 0.002377

up density: slug/ft33

0.002377 slug/ft

Compute

Compute

aspect

aspect ratio:

ratio: ARAR == bb22/S/S

induced

induced drag

drag denominator:

denominator: “pear” “pear” == πeAR

πeAR

Follow

Follow procedure

procedure from

from previous

previous slide

slide .. .. ..

A Matlab Code to Compute TR

%% Treq.m

Treq.m

%% thrust

thrust required

required vs

vs V_\infty

V_\infty

%% using

using data

data from

from example

example 6.1

6.1

%% this

this section

section just

just does

does the

the initialization

initialization

clear

clear

close

close all

all

bb == 35.8;

35.8;

SS == 174;

174;

AR

AR == b^2/S;

b^2/S;

WW == 2950;

2950;

Cdo

Cdo == 0.025;

0.025;

ee == 0.8;

0.8;

pear

pear == pi*e*AR;

pi*e*AR;

rho=0.002377;

rho=0.002377;

%Treq.m

%Treq.m continued

continued

N=100;

N=100;

Vmin=80;

Vmin=80;

Vmax=350;

Vmax=350;

Vi=linspace(Vmin,Vmax,N);

Vi=linspace(Vmin,Vmax,N); %% NN points

points [Vmin,

[Vmin, Vmax]

Vmax]

CLv=zeros(size(Vi));

CLv=zeros(size(Vi)); %% save

save Lift

Lift Coefficients

Coefficients

CDv=CLv;

CDv=CLv; %% save

save Drag

Drag Coefficients

Coefficients

TRv=CLv;

TRv=CLv; %% save

save Thrust

Thrust Required

Required

for

for i=1:N

i=1:N

CL=2*W/(rho*Vi(i)^2*S);

CL=2*W/(rho*Vi(i)^2*S); %% Steps

Steps 1&1& 22

CD=Cdo+CL^2/pear;

CD=Cdo+CL^2/pear; %% Step

Step 33

LoD=CL/CD;

LoD=CL/CD; %% Step

Step 44

TR=W/LoD;

TR=W/LoD; %% Step

Step 55

CLv(i)

CLv(i) == CL;

CL; %% Save

Save everything

everything

CDv(i)

CDv(i) == CD;

CD;

TRv(i)

TRv(i) == TR;

TR;

end

end

%Treq.m

%Treq.m continued

continued Make

Make the

the TR

TR vs

vs Vinfty

Vinfty plot

plot

figure;

figure; hold

hold on

on

hndl=plot(Vi,TRv);

hndl=plot(Vi,TRv);

set(hndl,'linewidth',2);

set(hndl,'linewidth',2);

hndl=xlabel('V_\infty,

hndl=xlabel('V_\infty, ft/s');

ft/s');

set(hndl,'fontsize',18)

set(hndl,'fontsize',18)

hndl=ylabel('T_R,

hndl=ylabel('T_R, lb');

lb');

set(hndl,'fontsize',18)

set(hndl,'fontsize',18)

set(gca,'fontsize',18)

set(gca,'fontsize',18)

This

This code

code snippet

snippet opens

opens the

the figure

figure

window,

window, makes

makes the

the plot,

plot, changes

changes the

the

line

line thickness,

thickness, makes

makes x&y

x&y axis

axis labels,

labels, and

and

changes

changes the

the fontsizes

fontsizes

TR vs V∞

How

How doesdoes angle

angle of

of

attack αα vary

attack vary with

with

VV∞∞ for

for straight

straight and

and

level

level flight?

flight?

figure;

figure; hold

hold on

on

hndl=plot(Vi,CLv,’b’);

hndl=plot(Vi,CLv,’b’);

set(hndl,'linewidth',2);

set(hndl,'linewidth',2);

hndl=plot(Vi,CDv,’r’);

hndl=plot(Vi,CDv,’r’);

set(hndl,'linewidth',2);

set(hndl,'linewidth',2);

hndl=xlabel('V_\infty,

hndl=xlabel('V_\infty, ft/s');

ft/s');

set(hndl,'fontsize',18)

set(hndl,'fontsize',18)

hndl=ylabel('C_L,

hndl=ylabel('C_L, C_D');

C_D');

set(hndl,'fontsize',18)

set(hndl,'fontsize',18)

set(gca,'fontsize',18)

set(gca,'fontsize',18)

This

This code

code snippet

snippet opens

opens the

the figure

figure

window,

window, makes

makes two

two plots,

plots, changes

changes the

the

line

line thickness,

thickness, makes

makes x&y

x&y axis

axis labels,

labels, and

and

changes

changes the

the fontsizes

fontsizes

CL and CD vs V∞

Why

Why are are Lift

Lift and

and

Drag

Drag Coefficients

Coefficients

larger

larger for

for smaller

smaller

VV∞∞ for

for straight

straight and

and

level

level flight?

flight?

Some Questions

•• How

How does

does angle

angle of attack αα vary

of attack vary with V∞∞??

with V

•• What

What isis special

special about

about the

the minimum

minimum Thrust

Thrust

Required

Required point

point on

on the

the TTRR vs V∞∞ curve?

vs V curve?

•• Why

Why are

are lift

lift and

and drag

drag coefficients

coefficients larger

larger for

for

smaller V∞∞??

smaller V

•• Begin

Begin by

by recalling

recalling that

that thrust

thrust =

= drag,

drag, TTRR == D

D

Analysis of TR vs V∞

TR = D = q∞ SCD = q∞ S(CD,0 + CD,i )

µ 2

¶

CL

TR = q∞ S CD,0 +

πeAR

q∞ SCL2

TR = q∞ SCD,0 +

πeAR

• First term is parasite thrust required (zero-lift)

• Second term is induced thrust required

• Recall that CL also depends on q∞ :

W

CL = so that

q∞ S

W2

TR = q∞ SCD,0 +

q∞ SπeAR

Continued Analysis of TR vs V∞

W2

TR = q∞ SCD,0 +

q∞ SπeAR

= (chain rule)

dq∞ dV∞ dq∞

dTR dTR

= 0⇒ =0

dV∞ dq∞

dTR W2

= 0 ⇒ SCD,0 − 2 =0

dq∞ q∞ SπeAR

Conclusions Regarding TR vs V∞

•• TTRR has

has two

two

components:

components: aa “zero-

“zero-

lift”

lift” term

term and

and aa “lift-

“lift-

induced”

induced” term

term

•• The

The minimum

minimum occcurs

occcurs

where

where thethe two

two terms

terms

are

are equal

equal

•• Available

Available thrust

thrust must

must bebe

≥≥ required

required thrust

thrust to

to

maintain

maintain straight

straight level

level

flight

flight

Further Topics

Equations

Equations of

of Motion

Motion

Static

Static Performance

Performance Dynamic

Dynamic Performance

Performance

(zero

(zero acceleration)

acceleration) (finite

(finite acceleration)

acceleration)

Thrust

Thrust required

required

Thrust

Thrust available

available Takeoff

Takeoff

Power

Power required

required Landing

Landing

Power

Power available

available Turning

Turning flight

flight

Maximum

Maximum velocity

velocity

V-n diagram

V-n diagram

Rate

Rate of

of climb

climb Accelerated

Accelerated rate

rate of

of

Time

Time to

to climb

climb climb

climb

Maximum

Maximum altitude

altitude Reading:

Reading: Chapter

Chapter 66

Range

Range and

and

endurance

endurance Preview

Preview of

of AOE

AOE 3104

3104

Stability

Stability &

& Control

Control

Stability

Stability Control

Control

••Static

Static ••Static

Static

–– Longitudinal

Longitudinal ––Longitudinal

Longitudinal

oo Criteria

Criteria ––Directional

Directional

oo Moments

Moments about

about c.g.

c.g. ––Lateral

Lateral

oo Equations

Equations for

for stability

stability ••Dynamic

Dynamic

oo Neutral

Neutral point

point

oo Static

Static margin Reading:

margin Reading: Chapter

Chapter 77

–– Directional

Directional

–– Lateral

Lateral Preview

Preview of

of AOE

AOE 3134

3134

••Dynamic

Dynamic

“Parking” Stability

•• IfIf mass

mass center (c.g. ⊕)

center (c.g. ⊕) isis between

between landing

landing gear,

gear,

then

then the the parked aircraft isis stable

parked aircraft stable

•• IfIf c.g.

c.g. isis aft

aft of

of aft

aft landing

landing gear,

gear, then

then the

the

parked aircraft isis unstable

parked aircraft unstable

•• IfIf c.g.

c.g. isis aligned

aligned with

with aft

aft landing

landing gear,

gear, then

then the

the

parked aircraft isis marginally

parked aircraft marginally stable

stable

⊕ ⊕ ⊕

W W W

marginally

stable unstable

stable

Roll, Pitch and Yaw

pitch

yaw

longitudinal

roll

Remember

Remember the

the

Right

Right Hand

Hand Rule

Rule vertical lateral

Stability

Stability &

& Control

Control •• Roll

Roll about

about longitudinal

longitudinal axis

axis

deals

deals with

with •• Pitch

Pitch about

about lateral

lateral axis

axis

rotational

rotational motion

motion •• Yaw

Yaw about

about vertical

vertical axis

axis

Roll, Pitch and Yaw

pitch

yaw

longitudinal

roll

Remember

Remember the

the

Right

Right Hand

Hand Rule

Rule vertical lateral

•• Roll

Roll angle

angle isis positive

positive when

when right

right wingtip

wingtip rotates

rotates down

down

•• Pitch

Pitch angle

angle isis positive

positive when

when nose

nose rotates

rotates up

up

•• Yaw

Yaw angle

angle isis positive

positive when

when right

right wingtip

wingtip rotates

rotates aft

aft

These

These are all conventions

are all conventions

Longitudinal Stability

•• Given

Given anan airplane’s

airplane’s aerodynamic

aerodynamic properties,

properties,

determine

determine whether

whether itit isis stable

stable in

in straight

straight and

and

level

level flight

flight

Flight

Flight conditions

conditions determine

determine lift

lift and

and drag

drag coefficients.

coefficients. Tail

Tail controls

controls

(typically)

(typically) are

are used

used to

to make

make the

the moment

moment coefficient

coefficient C = 0.

M,cg = 0.

CM,cg

Moment Coefficient Possibilities

•• Slope

Slope could

could bebe negative

negative or

or positive

positive

•• Generally,

Generally, the

the symbol

symbol used

used for

for the

the slope

slope of

of the

the moment

moment

coefficient

coefficient for

for small

small changes

changes ofof angle

angle attack

attack from

from the

the trim

trim

condition

condition isis

∂CM,cg

= C Mα

∂α

Positive Slope: CM >0

α

•• Disturbance

Disturbance (gust)

(gust) could cause α↑

could cause or α↓

α↑ or α↓

•• α↑

α↑ implies

implies that

that C becomes positive

M,cg becomes positive

CM,cg

•• α↓

α↓ imples

imples that

that C becomes negative

M,cg becomes negative

CM,cg

α > αe

αe

α < αe

Negative Slope: CM <0

α

•• Disturbance

Disturbance (gust)

(gust) could cause α↑

could cause or α↓

α↑ or α↓

•• α↑

α↑ implies

implies that

that C becomes negative

M,cg becomes negative

CM,cg

•• α↓

α↓ imples

imples that

that C becomes positive

M,cg becomes positive

CM,cg

α > αe

αe

α < αe

Static Longitudinal Stability

•• Disturbance

Disturbance (gust)

(gust) could cause α↑

could cause or α↓

α↑ or α↓

•• α↑

α↑ implies

implies that

that C becomes negative

M,cg becomes negative

CM,cg

–– Pitch

Pitch moment negative ⇒

moment negative ⇒ α↓

α↓ ⇒

⇒ stable

stable

•• α↓

α↓ imples

imples that

that C becomes positive

M,cg becomes positive

CM,cg

–– Pitch

Pitch moment positive ⇒

moment positive ⇒ α↑

α↑ ⇒

⇒ stable

stable

α > αe

αe

α < αe

Further topics in Stability & Control

•• Consideration

Consideration of of all

all contributions

contributions to to the

the pitch

pitch

moment:

moment: Wing,

Wing, Body,

Body, Tail

Tail

•• Neutral

Neutral point

point (location

(location of of c.g.

c.g. where

where C CMMαα=0)

=0)

•• Static

Static margin

margin (distance

(distance between

between c.g.

c.g. and

and n.p.)

n.p.)

•• Lateral

Lateral stability

stability (roll

(roll stability,

stability, dihedral

dihedral effect)

effect)

•• Control

Control (use

(use of

of actuators

actuators such

such as

as elevator,

elevator,

rudder

rudder and

and trim

trim tabs

tabs toto achieve

achieve stability)

stability)

AOE

AOE 3134:

3134: Stability

Stability && Control,

Control, Spring

Spring Junior

Junior

Year

Year covers

covers all

all these

these topics,

topics, and

and will

will likely

likely

include

include some

some sort

sort of

of demonstration

demonstration using

using the

the

aircraft

aircraft flight

flight simulator

simulator

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