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Study Committee B5 Colloquium October 19-24, 2009 Jeju Island, Korea

Modern techniques for Protecting Busbars in HV networks
GAJIC, Z.* (Convenor, ABB, Sweden), BEAUMONT, P. (Toshiba, UK), FUNK, H. W. (Siemens AG, Germany), KOJOVIC, L. A. (Cooper Power Systems, USA), OPSKAR, K. (Statnett, Norway), SANTOS, A. (REN, Portugal), THOLOMIER, D. (AREVA, France), WESTERFELD, J. (ABB, Switzerland), YARZA, J. M. (ZIV, Spain) GUPTA, A. K. (National Thermal Power Corporation, India), KANG, Y. C. (Chonbuk National University, Korea), RAGHAVAN, S. P. (TNB, Malaysia)

Summary
This paper summarizes the CIGRE SC B5 WG16 draft report entitled, “Modern Techniques for Protecting Busbars in HV Networks” . The paper is organized into three sections. Section 1 presents general practices for the selection of busbar protection (BBP) designs and describes centralized and de-centralized digital (numerical) busbar protection solutions. Section 2 describes common features of modern busbar protections. Busbar protection schemes utilise sophisticated algorithms to provide reliable performance during substantial CT saturation, resulting in low CT requirements. A disconnector replica implemented in relay software eliminates the need for switching in CT secondary circuits and trip circuits. Protection functions such as breaker failure protection, end fault protection, and overcurrent feeder protection can be implemented into the BBP. Built-in self-supervision improves BBP reliability. Communication enables remote access to relevant information available within the BBP. Other features presented include disturbance recording (oscillography) and an event list that provides improved evaluation of BBP protection operation. Section 3 addresses advanced features of modern busbar protection designs. Feasibility of using new types of current sensors for current measurements is presented. Also described is integration of other protection functions such as feeder protection within the individual bay units of a decentralized BBP arrangement. Furthermore, the impact of IEC 61850 on busbar protection design and operation is considered describing the use of GOOSE messages and their influence on scheme design, as well as blocking of auto-reclosing after BBP operation. Finally, issues regarding the integration of BBP schemes into modern substations using an IEC 61850 process bus approach conclude the discussion.

Keywords
Relay Protection, Busbar Protection, IEC 61850, Power System.

1. Introduction 1.1 Factors influencing BBP selection and implementation

Today, electric power companies (utilities) worldwide, driven by deregulation and increased competition, have changed the way they operate. Power plants and lines are becoming loaded up to thermal and stability limits. Existing power plants are expected to operate to and
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zoran.gajic@se.abb.com

to minimize the power outage and to ensure continued operation of the healthy parts of the power system. the main requirements for busbar protection include: Security . the protection scheme must remain stable for all types of fault for the time needed to clear the fault. Corrective event-based repair replaces preventive maintenance. solutions that provide a high degree of reliability may be justified. operability.probability that the protection will not operate for a fault on the bus (In-Zone faults) is low. power system protection and control face new technical and economic challenges. therefore. All these requirements are interrelated. which may lead to a power system blackout. Most busbar protection systems operate on a differential principle by comparing input and output currents. A modern busbar protection system is able to dynamically update the bus topology and has design flexibility to protect all existing bus arrangements. Relays are designed to reliably operate in the presence of distorted waveforms. Busbar protection schemes implemented in modern digital multifunction relays are designed to tolerate substantial CT saturation. At EHV/HV levels. The design solution should meet the requirements that correspond to the importance of the substation within the network and the layout of the substation. Modern secondary systems play an important role in satisfying the above requirements for lower investment and operational cost without compromising system reliability. then a false differential current will be derived by the relay.to detect and clear high resistive faults. Considering these changes. For external Out-Zone faults (security). it is not possible to satisfy one without affecting the other. While both security and dependability are important requirements for busbar protection. power transformers. Dependability .probability of an unwanted protection operation for through faults (Out-Zone faults) is low. Manufacturers use different algorithms to achieve relay stability during CT saturation. Reliable performance of the busbar protection system must be preserved for both In-Zone and Out-Zone faults. This requirement is further emphasized by the fact that an incorrect operation of busbar protection will result in loss of all connected lines. and to preserve system transient stability. while providing high-speed operation for InZone faults (dependability).beyond the end of their original design life. Sensitivity . If a CT saturates. or even impossible. one of the most important requirements is reliable performance of power system busbar relay protection. maintainability. This is a challenging task since high fault currents may exist at the substation making it difficult. Selectivity . Speed – high-speed operation is needed to limit equipment damage. High-speed busbar protection operation is required since bus faults may result in large fault currents endangering the entire substation due to the high dynamic forces and thermal stresses experienced. and generators. In general. to avoid saturation of conventional iron-core CT. To assure power system integrity during fault conditions. 101-2 . or prior to CT saturation (time-to-saturation). the preference is always given to security. and cost) need to be addressed when designing a substation and selecting a busbar configuration. Four key issues (reliability.

have equal ratios. Some relays are designed to make decisions before the CT saturates. For modern digital busbar protection schemes. Modern relays. Further savings can be made by integrating more functions such as feeder (bay) protection 101-3 . High impedance differential protection systems have been in use for over 50 years. Centralized systems require all signals to be transferred from all bays to the central unit where a single relay performs the protection function (Figure 1).1. The amount of cabling is approximately the same as in conventional solutions. High impedance protection responds to a voltage across the relay. they also provide functions such as sequence of events. The protection system consists of CTs whose secondary windings are connected in parallel and to one high impedance voltage relay. Typical operating times are one cycle or less. Signals between the bay panels and the central unit have been transmitted using fiber-optic cables. In addition. typically have implemented sophisticated algorithms to cope with severe CT saturation. such as to start CBF protection and to block auto-reclosing. New microprocessor-based high impedance relays operate on the same principle as traditional designs. The same CT core can be used by different protection relays. The advantage of digital protection equipment is simplicity in developing protection functions and flexible arrangements of input/output signals. this solution requires voltage limiting varistors. The CT inputs are connected to individual channels. centralized busbar protection can be found mainly in substations where old conventional protection was retrofitted and the cables are still in good condition.2 Differential protection Systems Two main designs used for high voltage busbar protection are high impedance and low impedance differential protection systems. However. providing fast fault analysis and monitoring. a time-to-saturation of 2–3 ms can be sufficient to stabilize the protection in case of external faults. commissioning. and communication. the switching of CT secondary currents may affect the performance of the protection and increase the cost. which only require wiring over short distances. Furthermore. disturbance recording. requiring small over-dimensioning factors of the CT. All CTs must be well-matched. resulting in reduced cabling and cost savings. The relay derives differential signals by executing protection algorithms. The bay protection panel may be designed to look the same. low impedance differential protection systems derive a stabilizing quantity and apply a percent (biased) characteristic in order to ensure the stability of the scheme. Decentralized systems include dedicated bay protection panels located close to the bay protection devices (Figure 2). 1. Today. the digital technique allows a fast and easy connection to substation automation systems. When used for re-configurable buses. Other advantages include the integrated functions described in Section 2. and have low secondary leakage impedance. A reduction in wiring can only be achieved if additional protection functions are gathered into a busbar protection relay such as circuit breaker failure (CBF) protection. which results in a cost saving and a reduction in the time required for testing. Low impedance differential protection systems employ digital relays.3 Modern busbar protection System designs Digital low impedance busbar differential protection systems may be designed as centralized or decentralized. in addition to the percentage characteristic. These solutions allow the use of CTs with different ratios since CT matching is performed inside the relay. and maintenance. The major disadvantage is the need for dedicated CT cores. In addition to the operating quantity.

trip circuits are adjusted accordingly. Digital low impedance busbar protection schemes are well-suited for complex busbar arrangements. Simultaneously. Line Protection Transformer Protection Busbar & CBF Protection Line Protection Transformer Protection Main 1 Main 2 Main 1 Main 2 Main 1 Main 2 Main 1 Main 2 CB Trip CB Trip CB Trip CB Trip CB Trip Figure 1 Centralized Busbar Protection System Line Protection Transformer Protection Busbar & CBF Protection Line Protection Transformer Protection Main 1 Main 2 BBP CBFP Main 1 Main 2 BBP CBFP BBP Central Unit BBP CBFP CB Trip Main 1 Main 2 BBP CBFP Main 1 Main 2 BBP CBFP CB Trip CB Trip CB Trip CB Trip Figure 2 Decentralized Busbar Protection System 2.functions. without the need to perform physical current switching. Modern relay features This section includes a brief description of some of the main features that characterize modern BBP relays. Decentralized busbar protection systems are mainly used in new and refurbished substations. Dynamic Bus Replica. 101-4 . They provide dynamic bus replica by virtual CT secondary current switching in software.

However. However. it is necessary to determine the CT time-to-saturation to verify that the requirements for proper CT selection are met. CIGRE Report provides guidelines for CT selection for different fault conditions and time-to-saturation requirements. For commissioning and factory acceptance test purposes. and the CT and trip circuit integrity. resulting in low CT requirements. Service Values. substation monitoring. while providing reliable performance. low power ironcore current sensors. A busbar relay may be used as a small monitoring system. 3. which eliminates a need for other external test equipment. Disturbance Recording and Event List. the relay can be interfaced to an external PC that runs software that simulates binary input status. Bay Unit or Communication Failure. BBP relays interfaced to the substation automation system or the remote terminal unit (RTU) can provide detailed information about the event. relay output circuits. They need microprocessor-based equipment designed to accept signals from ECTs such as Rogowski coils. such as the faulty bus section and phases involved in the fault. Provides information from analogue and digital inputs of BBP and all events generated by the BBP itself. Modern digital busbar relays have a human-machine interface (HMI) to provide information about the present status of the BBP and substation. Theoretically. To use such signals with phasor-based protective relays. Modern BBP relays include features such as CBF.1 Electronic Current Transformers Non-conventional current transformers are part of a new generation of current sensors. They have a wide operating range and may have a metering accuracy that allows the use of the same device for both metering and protection. This is convenient for relay setting. signal processing is required to extract the 101-5 . Protection Function Integration. Communication enables remote access to BBP relays. and disturbance and event record collection. For instance. ECTs are low power sensors and cannot be directly interconnected with conventional equipment. Rogowski coil output signal is a scaled time derivative di/dt of the primary current. Latest advances in BBP 3. Signalling and Alarming.CT Requirements. while it is possible to dimension a CT so that it will not saturate under any fault conditions. Self-Monitoring Functions. With distributed arrangements. These functions include monitoring of the relay environment such as status of associated isolators and circuit breakers. modern BBP relays can effectively be virtually tested. it would result in an unreasonably large CT. Busbar protection schemes implemented in modern digital multifunction relays can tolerate substantial CT saturation. External-Monitoring Functions. defined by Standards and as electronic current transformers (ECT). memory modules. Virtual Testing. serial links between bay units and the central unit are continuously monitored. These functions include monitoring of the relay hardware and software such as supervision of voltages (supply and internal). end fault protection to cover dead zones in feeder bays and blind spot logic to cover dead zones in bus coupler bays. and optical current sensors. Remote Access. and watchdog.

Differential voltage can be obtained by analogue or digital summing of secondary voltages of all ECTs protecting a bus. For example. Low power iron-core current sensors have similar designs to conventional CTs. commissioning. transformer differential protection. alarms. and in phase with. which is common for all types of differential protection. Designs that use analogue signal-summing need only one relay and one input channel to connect the differential voltage. As of now. These functions may include line distance protection. or using a non-integrated Rogowski coil output signal. they can saturate in a similar manner to a conventional CT. which must be considered when selecting these sensors. auto-reclose blocking. The integrated output voltage is proportional to. IEDs connected to the substation local area network (LAN) can exchange information with the substation control system or with each other. This may be achieved integrating the Rogowski coil output signal. and event list.2 Integration of Other Protection Schemes into Modern BBP In bay units of a modern de-centralized BBP arrangement additional protection/control functions can be integrated and used as main or back-up protection. Benefits include significant cost reductions in hardware. but employ a minimized iron core. encircling the conductor proportionally to the current flowing in the enclosed conductor.power frequency signal. Generic object oriented substation events (GOOSE) messages can be used to exchange information between different IEDs and BBP such as CBF starting. 3. and maintenance. it needs to be scaled by magnitude and shifted by 90°. Because of the iron core. resulting in a reduced size and weight. autoreclosing. which rotates the plane of polarization of the light travelling in optical fibers. as well as time saved during engineering. disturbance recording. To obtain an output voltage directly proportional to the current. Information that can be provided to the supervisory system may include analogue measurement data (bay-wise and zonewise quantities). IEC 61850-8-1 (station bus) standardizes communication services between IEDs and the substation control system that can also be applied to BBP. For differential protection of busbars. CBF protection. BBP systems based on ECT are not readily available. a resistor is connected internally across the output terminals. Current flowing in a conductor creates a magnetic field. ECTs are connected in a voltage-differential circuit. The interface between the sensor and the electronic module in the control/relay room is over fiber-optic cables. The ECT output signal is a voltage and requires appropriately designed relays.3 Impact of IEC 61850 Standard The IEC 61850 standard consists of ten major sections that standardize communication networks and systems in substations to allow interoperability of devices from different manufacturers. and synchrocheck. the measured current. For BBP interoperability. 3. 101-6 . Applications for Busbar Protection. the IEC 61850 standard specifies only Logical Node Class PDIF. BBP application issues such as splitting and/or merging of Zones are not covered by this standard at this time. Signal integration may be performed within the relay (by using analogue circuitry or digital signal processing techniques) or immediately at the coil location. Designs that use digital signal-summing inside the relay may use one relay with multiple channels or dedicated relays interfaced by communications. Connections to relays can be via wires or through fiber-optic cables. Optical current sensors operate on the principle of the Faraday rotation effect using a monochromatic light source. When using a non-integrated signal.

IEDs connected to the process bus receive sample analogue values (currents and voltages). and primary apparatus status. Another application can be for blocking/releasing signals for simple busbar blocking schemes. IEC Standard 61850.bay inter-tripping. “Instrument transformers – Part 8: Electronic current transformers”. “Modern Techniques for Protecting Busbars in HV Networks” IEEE Standard PC37. IEC 61850-9-2 (process bus) defines communication between merging units (that interface instrument transformers and process bus) and IEDs. Bibliography [1] [2] [3] [4] CIGRE SC B5 WG16 Draft Report. However. 101-7 . as of now.92. With this approach. there are no readily available BBP relays that can operate based on data available on the process bus. “Communication networks and systems in substations”. “Analog Inputs to Protective Relays from Electronic Voltage and Current Transducers”. IEC Standard 60044-8.

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