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POLAR COORDINATES

1.2 Polar coordinates system

1.3 Relationship between Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

1.4 Forming polar equations from Cartesian equations and vice-versa

1.5 Sketching polar equations

- Method 1: Table

- Method 2: Test of symmetries

1.6 Intersection of curves in Polar Coordinates

1

1.1 Parametric Equations

1.1.1 Definition:

parametric equations, and t is called the parameter.

obtain the Cartesian equations?

- no specific method

- use algebraic manipulation

following equations:

t −t 3

(c) x = e , y = e (d) x = t , y = 3 ln t

2

1.1.2 Curve Sketching of parametric equations

2 ways for specific values of t.

Eliminating the parameter.

Example:

Sketch the graph of the following equations

(a) x = 2t , y = 4t 2 − 1

(b) x = 3t − 5, y = 2t + 5

3

1.2 Polar Coordinates System

Definition:

P (r ,θ ) where

r - distance from origin to P

θ - angle from polar axis to the line OP

P( r, θ )

θ

O

Note:

(i) θ is positive in anticlockwise direction, and it is negative in clockwise

direction.

(ii) Polar coordinate of a point is not unique.

(iii) A point (− r ,θ ) is in the opposite direction of point (r ,θ ).

4

Example 1: Plot the following set of points in the same diagram:

( ) (

(a) 3,225 ! , 1,225 ! , ) (− 3,225 ) !

⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞

(b) ⎜ 2, ⎟ , ⎜ 2,− ⎟, ⎜ − 2, ⎟

⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠

5

For every point P(r,θ) in , there exist 3 more coordinates that

represent the point P.

P ( 2, 450 )

Example:

Find all possible polar coordinates of the points whose polar coordinates

are given as the following:

(

(a) P 1,45!) ( ) (

(b) Q 2,−60 ! (c) R − 1,225 ! )

6

1.3 Relationship between Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

1) Polar Cartesian

x = r cosθ y = r sinθ

2) Cartesian Polar

2 2 y

r= x +y tan θ =

x

7

Example 3: Find the Cartesian coordinates of the points whose polar

coordinates are given as

⎛ 7π ⎞

(a) ⎜1, ⎟

⎝ 4 ⎠

⎛ 2π ⎞

(b) ⎜ − 4, ⎟

⎝ 3 ⎠

(

(c) 2,−30 ! )

8

Example 4: Find all polar coordinates of the points whose rectangular

coordinates are given as

(a) (11,5) (b) (0,2 ) (c) (− 4,−4)

9

1.4 Forming polar equations from Cartesian equations and vice-versa.

conversely, use equation

x = r cos θ y = r sin θ r = x2 + y2

10

Example 6: Express the following polar equations in rectangular equations

and sketch the graph.

3

(a) r = 2 sin θ (b) r =

4 cos θ + 5 sin θ

2

e) r2 =

3cos 2 θ − 1

11

1.5 Graph Sketching of Polar Equations

(1) Form a table for r and θ . ( 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π ).

From the table, plot the (r ,θ ) points.

The polar equations is symmetrical about:

(a) x-axis if ( r , −θ ) = f (θ ) or ( −r , π − θ ) = f (θ ).

(b) y-axis if ( r , π − θ ) = f (θ ) or ( −r , −θ ) = f (θ ).

12

(c) origin if ( r , π + θ ) = f (θ ) or ( −r ,θ ) = f (θ ).

13

Example 7: Sketch the graph of r = 2 sin θ

Solution: (Method 1)

Here is the complete table

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210

0 1.0 1.732 2 1.732 1 0 -1.0

-1.732 -2 -1.732 -1 0

14

Method 2

Symmetrical test for f (θ ) = 2 sin θ

Symmetry Symmetrical test

About x-axis

About y-axis

About origin

15

Since r symmetry at y-axis, consider in range [0, 900] and [2700, 3600]

0 30 60 90 270 300 330 360

0 1.0 1.732 2 -2 -1.732 -1 0

16

3

Example 8: Sketch the graph of r = − cos θ

2

Symmetry Symmetrical test

About x-axis

About y-axis

About origin

17

Since r symmetry at x-axis, consider in range [0, 1800] only.

0 30 60 90 120 150 180

3

r = − cos θ

2

18

Example 9: Sketch the graph of r = 2 sin 2 θ

Symmetry Symmetrical test

About x-axis

About y-axis

About origin

19

Since r symmetry at ____________, consider in range ____________

only.

r = 2 sin 2 θ

20

1.6 Intersection Of Curves In Polar Coordinates.

Steps:

points.

-if one of the curves is a line (i.e. θ = k ), we need to find intersection point for

θ = k −π.

- Test for r = 0. If θ exist, it means the 2 curves intersect at the origin.

Example 10:

Find the points of intersection of the circle r = 2 cos θ and r = 2 sinθ for

0 ≤θ ≤π

21

Example 11:

3 2π

Find the points of intersection of the curves r = − cos θ and θ = .

2 3

Example 12:

A polar equation is given as r = 2 − 5sin θ .

a) Show that the curve is symmetrical about the y-axis and passes through the

origin.

b) Make a suitable graph for −900 ≤ θ ≤ 900 . Use the table and the information in

part a) to make a full sketch of the graph.

11π

c) Find the intersection points of the graph and the straight line θ = 12

22

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