Autonomous Learning Alicia Ruiz Institución Universitaria Colombo Americana


“Process in which people take the initiative, with or without help from others, in the diagnoses of their learning needs, approach of their objectives, the environment required for learning, the choice and use of right strategies and the evaluation of learning results.” (Slideshare, 2008) . This paper has the objective to help you to find the best method where you motivation will be key in the good use of time by taking out the creation and use strategies in learning process and identify advantages and some problems that can be present during the cognitive process.

Keywords: Technique, individual, strategies, learning, tools, knowledge, experience, motivation, cognitive process.

AUTONOMOUS LEARNING 3 Autonomous Learning

Autonomous learning is a technique which the student or who do use of this takes in a conscious and free way. The individual is an active builder from her/his learning process create strategies, takes advantages from tools like her/his knowledge and experience in order to be able to contextualize her/his knowledge. This relation should be in a constant growth in order to increase and associate the knowledge with the environment where motivation is the principal engine and core in autonomous learning performance and it has as objective to improve significantly cognitive process.

AUTONOMOUS LEARNING 4 Motivation in Autonomous Learning

Motivation is really important in learning process because the first step that have to give the individual is take the initiative and become owner from her/his learning growth. It is the base of a constant change of mind and of course studies habits that will help the individual to create a routine where s/he is a principal and active subject interest in build knowledge and make from it a resource that can help her/him in diary life. “A common theme in justifications for autonomy, especially in general education but also in language learning, is that autonomous learners become more highly motivated and that autonomy leads to better, more effective work. Knowles' claim is illustrative: “… there is convincing evidence that people who take the initiative in learning (proactive learners) learn more things and learn better than do people who sit at the feet of teachers, passively waiting to be taught (reactive learners)…. They enter into learning more purposefully and with greater motivation” (1975: p. 14). What is the link between autonomy and motivation? The writing on motivation in relation to language learning over the past several years has been dominated by the socialpsychological approach to motivation of Gardner and his associates, which gives little help in attempts to link autonomy and motivation. To find such links it is necessary to turn to the literature on motivation in general education, and especially the literature on cognitive motivation. This paper will review the literature on motivation and suggest that there is an important link between autonomy and some

educational theories of motivation which could account for the claimed power of autonomy.” (Dickinson, 2000).


Autonomous Learning Strategies

In order to accomplish autonomous learning process the individual has to make use of some tools or/and strategies that make this process development easier and efficient, those strategies should be create and outline by the individual and these depend of her/his life style. In first place s/he has to make a plan that requires the subject that wants to improve like this the activities necessaries to carry out. These activities should have as principal objective to keep motivation and the individual interest in the process and can be. “The concept of "learning strategies" is based in part on cognitive learning theory, in which learning is seen as an active, mental, learner-constructed process. A seminal definition of language learning strategies was developed by Rebecca Oxford (1990), and is described as specific, self-directed steps taken by learners to enhance their own learning. The most comprehensive language learning strategy scheme, the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), developed by Oxford, separates strategies into two strategy orientations and six strategies groups: (1) a direct learning orientation, consisting of (a) memory, (b) cognitive, and (c) linguistic deficiency compensation strategy groups, and (2) an indirect learning orientation, consisting of (a) metacognitive, (b) affective, and (c) social strategy groups.

The direct learning orientation strategies involve the identification, retention, storage, or retrieval of words, phrases, and other elements of the target language. The indirect strategies concern the management of the learning and include such activities as: needs assessment, activities planning and monitoring, and outcome evaluation. The indirect strategies also involve aspects that aid the learner in regulating emotions, motivation, and attitudes. These include routines for self-encouragement and the reduction of anxiety, and those which address the actions learners take in order to communicate with others, such as asking questions for clarification and cooperating with others in communication. Each of these six strategy groups can be further subdivided, with the end result being a compendium of 60 specific strategies. Oxford's model outlines a comprehensive, multi levelled, and theoretically wellconceived taxonomy of language learning strategies. This taxonomy usefully encompasses a continuum of strategies, from affective personal management and general approaches to basic learning to specific language learning, memory, and communicative techniques. However, in keeping with the practical objective of autonomous learning strategies instruction and learner use, Cohen (1995) suggests that there is a need for greater care in specifying learning strategies on the basis of what is relevant for the given learner in the given learning circumstance. Thus, as a means of increasing accessibility and ease of use by learners and teachers alike, simplification of the language learning strategies model is important, desirable, and justifiable.


In order to make Oxford's model easier for teachers and learners to understand and use, I have simplified the terminology and reduced and clarified the options. I have done this by eliminating extraneous options, simplifying the terminology, and reorganizing the internal relational logic of the model's hierarchy. Such adjustments are necessary in order for learners to be able to understand better the overall model, as well as to be able to orient themselves in the overall scheme of the strategies scheme and to select appropriate strategies accordingly. The hierarchical order of the scheme is from indirect to direct, grouped under the headings of management, learning, memory and communication. This model then becomes an integral part of the SLLS Menu Approach. The materials that learners might use in this simplified `menu' include specific descriptions and explanations, instructions for and examples of use, and exercises for specific strategies.” (Rausch, 2000)



Autonomous Learning Advantages

Reward to the effort could be the right definition for advantages in autonomous learning because when the individual make use of this technique, discover many ways to take advantage of her/his time and at the same time how apply this to all the aspects of her/his time. In a second place is the fact that the individual can increase significantly her/his knowledge and associate this with the environment and different areas of life. “There are two general arguments in favor of trying to make learners autonomous. First, if they are reflectively engaged with their learning, it is likely to be more efficient and effective, because more personal and focused, than otherwise; in particular, what is learned in educational contexts is more likely to serve learners' wider agendas. Second, if learners are proactively committed to their learning, the problem of motivation is by definition solved; although they may not always feel entirely positive about all aspects of their learning, autonomous learners have developed the

reflective and attitudinal resources to overcome temporary motivational setbacks. In the particular case of second and foreign languages there is a third argument. Effective communication depends on a complex of procedural skills that develop only through use; and if language learning depends crucially on language use, learners who enjoy a high degree of social autonomy in their learning environment should find it easier than otherwise to master the full range of discourse roles on which effective spontaneous communication depends.” (Little).



Autonomous learning is one of the most productive techniques that help to students and people from different areas to have an excellent learning style and develop their abilities, to become organized and to take advantage of time and the environment resources in order to achieve personal and knowledge growth. This technique should be based in the initiative of the individual because s/he has to be conscious of the necessity to create and apply studies methods and take decisions about her/his learning and cognitive process.


Dickinson, L. (20 de January de 2000). ScienceDirect. Recuperado el 11 de September de 2010, de _ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VCH-3YCMKN1K&_user=10&_coverDate=05%2F31%2F1995&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_o rig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchSt rId=1457844433&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version =1&_u Little, D. (s.f.). Llas. Recuperado el 11 de September de 2010, de Rausch, A. S. (2000). aasa. Recuperado el 11 de September de 2010, de Slideshare. (2008). Slideshare. Recuperado el 08 de September de 2010, de

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