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Centrifugal Pump Piping Design Layout


Layout arrangement for Centrifugal Pump Piping

The design of a piping system can have an important effect on the successful operation of
a centrifugal pump. Such items as pump design, suction piping design, suction and discharge pipe
size and pipe supports must all be carefully considered. A typical horizontal centrifugal
pump installation is illustrated in Fig.CPP1, CPP2, CPP3.

Selection of the discharge pipe size is primarily a matter of economics. The cost of various pipe
sizes must be compared to the pump size and power cost required to overcome the resulting friction
1.1 The suction piping size and design is far more important. Many centrifugal pumptroubles are
caused by poor suction conditions.
1.2 The suction pipe should never be smaller than the suction nozzle of the pump and in most cases
it should be at least one size larger. Suction pipes should be as short and as straight as possible.
Suction pipe velocities should be in the 1.0 – 1.5 metre per second range, unless suction conditions
are unusually good. Higher velocities will increase the friction loss and can result in trouble some
air and vapour separation. This is further complicated when elbows or tees are located adjacent to
the pump suction nozzle. In that case uneven flow patterns or vapour separation keeps the liquid
from evenly filling the impeller. This upsets hydraulic balance leading to noise, vibration, possible
cavitation and excessive shaft deflection. Cavitation, erosion damage, shaft breakage or
permature bearing failure etc. may result.

Pemilihan ukuran pipa pembuangan terutama menyangkut masalah ekonomi. Biaya berbagai
ukuran pipa harus dibandingkan dengan ukuran pompa dan biaya daya yang dibutuhkan untuk
mengatasi gesekan yang terjadi.

1.1 Ukuran dan desain pipa isap jauh lebih penting. Banyak pompa sentrifugal disebabkan oleh
kondisi isap yang buruk.

1.2 Pipa isap tidak boleh lebih kecil dari nozzle hisap pompa dan dalam kebanyakan kasus harus
setidaknya satu ukuran lebih besar. Pipa hisap harus sesingkat dan lurus mungkin.

Kecepatan pipa hisap harus berada dalam kisaran 1,0 - 1,5 meter per detik, kecuali kondisi isap
yang luar biasa bagus. Kecepatan yang lebih tinggi akan meningkatkan gesekan dan bisa
mengakibatkan masalah perpisahan antara udara dan uap. Ini lebih rumit lagi bila siku atau tuas
terletak berdekatan dengan nozzle hisap pompa. Dalam hal ini pola aliran atau pemisahan uap
yang tidak merata membuat cairan tidak rata mengisi impeller. Hal ini mengganggu
keseimbangan hidrolik yang menyebabkan kebisingan, getaran, mungkin terjadi
kavitasi dan defleksi poros yang berlebihan. Kavitasi, kerusakan erosi, kerusakan poros atau

Permature bearing failure dll dapat terjadi.

1.3 On pump installations involving suction lift, air pockets in the suction line can be a source of
trouble. The suction pipe should be exactly horizontal or with a uniform slope upward from the
sump to the pump as illustrated in Fig.CPP7. There should be no high spots where air can collect
and cause the pump to lose its prime. Eccentric rather than concentric reducers with flat side top
should always be used.
1.4 If an elbow is required at the suction of a double suction pump, it should be in a vertical
position if at all possible. Where it is necessary for some reason to use a horizontal elbow, it should
be a long radius elbow and there should be a minimum of five diameters of straight pipe between
elbow and the pump suction as illustrated in Fig.CPP9.
2.1 Common location of pumps in chemical and petrochemical plant is under the piperack at grade.
Pumps are to be placed close to and below the vessels from which they take their suction in order to
have net-positive suction head (NPSH) required by the pump.
2.2 Any reduction in suction line size required at pumps should be made with eccentric reducers,
with flat side up to avoid accumulation of vapour pocket. Changes in direction of suction lines
should be at least 600mm away from the pump suction.
2.3 Pumps should be arranged in line with drivers facing the access gangway. Clearances and
piping should provide free access to one side of the driver and pump. There must be good access to
gland / seal and coupling where most of the maintenance and adjustments are done.
2.4 With normal piperack column spacing of 6m, it is generally found that only two pumps of
average size can be arranged between the columns, with a preferred clearance of 1m between the
The clearance between any structure / steel work and the pump discharge line shall be 0.75m
minimum. For small pumps upto 18 KW, clearance between pumps should be 0.9m minimum. A
space of 2 – 2.5 m should be provided for working aisle.
A typical arrangement of pumps is illustrated in Fig.CPP4, CPP5, CPP6.
2.5 Means of lifting should be provided for pumps or motor weighing more than 25Kg.
3. Steps to do Pump Piping
Step 1 : Collect the P&ID and the pump data sheet.
Step 2 : Study the pump data sheet and collect the similar (capacity / head) pump dimensions /
nozzle position.
Step 3 : Analyse the location and the space provided in the unit plot plan w.r.t. suction and discharge
line routing.
Step 4 : Review the maintenance / operation space around and lifting facility.
Step 5 : Locate the control station, Electrical push button station, Electrical-trench, process fluid
drain, flushing / cooling connection as required for the pump model.
Step 6 : Check elevations of all valve handwheels on suction as well as discharge line and provide
common platform for valve operation, if required.
Step 7 : Make Iso sketch for suction and discharge line with all the items as per P&ID and discuss
with process engineer for any change.
Step 8 : Finalise supports of the line and issue for stress analysis, if required.
Step 9 : Get the stress analysis report for Nozzle loads. Compare the allowable loads with the actual
load for any change & finalisation.
Step 10 : Finalise location of pump / drain or trench / Electrical cable route and issue civil
information to civil for foundation design.
Step 11 : Keep necessary insert plate on the foundation block for support of push button switch,
small lines for flushing / cooling manifold.

A typical horizontal centrifugal pump suction and discharge piping arrangements is illustrated in
4.2 Pump suction piping shall be as short as possible and shall be arranged so that vapour pockets
are avoided.
4.3 Reducers immediately connected to the pump suction shall be eccentric type flat side up to
avoid accumulation of gas pocket.
4.4 For end suction pumps, elbows shall not be directly connected to the suction flange. A straight
piece 3 times the line size shall have to be provided at the suction nozzle. This is illustrated in
The effect of elbow directly on suction is illustrated in Fig.CPP9.
4.5 For top suction, pump elbow shall not be directly connected to suction flange. A straight piece
of minimum 5 times the nozzle size shall have to be provided at the suction nozzle.
4.6 T-type strainers are to be used for permanent as well as temporary to avoid disassembly of
suction piping for strainer cleaning.
4.7 Piping shall be so arranged that forces and moments imposed on the pump nozzles do not
exceed the allowable values specified by the vendor.
4.8 When a suction vessel operates under vacuum the vent connection of the pump has to be
permanently connected to vapour space of the suction vessel to allow possible filling of the pump
with liquid before it is started.
4.9 For pumps handling hot fluid, the first factor concerns the support of pump piping which often
includes large expansion loops for flexibility. When the pumps are located below the piperack (to
reduce possibility of hydrogen leakage over motor), support becomes easy otherwise the designer
should consult stress engineer for best location of stops and hanger. With the optimum layout and
support, it is to be ensured that the loadings on the pump nozzles are not exceeded beyond the
allowable limits.
4.10 Piping configuration for a group of pumps of similar size shall follow identical pattern and
the stress analysis of one pump piping should be applicable to the other pumps.
4.11 Auxiliary Pump Piping Arrangements:
The Auxiliary piping are usually cooling water to mechanical seals, bearings, stuffing boxes, gland
quench and lantern ring flush.
When pump fluid is used, a line is attached to the vent connection on the pump case. The circulated
seal fluid has to be sent back to pump stream or referred through the seal to pump internal
In viscous or high temperature hydrocarbon liquids, the seal fluid medium circulates from external
source through connections on the pump seal.
Various Auxiliary piping plan is recommended in API 610 for proper selection according to design
4.12 Pump vendors usually supply the Auxiliary piping and the neat arrangements of these
piping and its support are to be ensured by the designer while reviewing the vendor document.
Fig.CPP10 illustrates one typical Auxiliary piping arrangement on the pump base plate.
4.13 A typical arrangement for piping and valves operation is illustrated in Fig.CPP11 with
maintenance and operation access.
4.14 A typical suction and discharge piping arrangement with common platform for operation
of valves connected to two adjacent pumps is illustrated in Fig.CPP12 and CPP13.
5.1 The basin for the intake of centrifugal pump shall be designed and sized properly for smooth
function of the pump. The recommendations of hydraulic institute are illustrated in Fig.CPP14.
5.2 The flow of fluid to the suction bell should be even, smooth and stream lined without any
5.3 A typical sump with the components and relative dimensions of clearance and submergence is
illustrated in Fig.CPP15.
5.4 For multiple pump installations with high capacity pumps, the analysis of a proposed intake
design are often made by use of a scale model of the intake basin with all parts such as baffles,
screens, gates, separating walls etc.

The large basin is required to ensure low inlet velocity (approx. 2 ft. per sec.) and to eliminate
vortexing at the bell mouth.
5.5 A typical sump pit with pump is illustrated in Fig CPP16. This sump is the collection pit of
waste material coming through a pipeline. A screen at the mouth of the pump avoids choking /
fouling of the pump during operation. The discharge of the pump may go to a slope tank / pond /
waste-removal tanker.
Fig CPP1: Centirfugal pump drawing (Type-1)
Fig CPP2: Centirfugal pump drawing (Type-2)
Fig CPP3: Centirfugal pump drawing (Impeller)
Fig CPP4: Typical pump location plan
Fig CPP5: Typical access for Maintenance
Fig CPP6: Typical pump locations-Elevation
Fig CPP7: Air pockets in suction piping
Fig CPP8: Typical pump suction & discharge piping
Fig CPP9: Elbow at pump suction
Fig CPP10: Typical auxiliary pump piping
Fig CPP11: Maintenance & operation access requirements
Fig CPP12: Typical suction/discharge piping, plan & elevation
Fig CPP13: Typical suction/discharge piping, front view
Fig CPP14: Multiple pump installation (Vertical pumps)
Fig CPP15: Sump dimensions, plan view, wet pit type pumps
Fig CPP16: Typical sump with pump