Table of Contents Section 1 – Motor and Load Basics.................................................................................................... 9 AC Motors........................................................................................................................................... 11 NEMA Design Types........................................................................................................................ 12 Motor Synchronous Speed............................................................................................................... 12 3-Phase Motor Connections - NEMA ............................................................................................... 13 Rotor Inertia – NEMA....................................................................................................................... 16 3-Phase Motor Connections – IEC Nomenclature............................................................................ 17 Rotor Inertia – IEC ........................................................................................................................... 18 AC Motor Operation above Base Speed .......................................................................................... 19 Synchronous Motors ........................................................................................................................ 20 Wound Rotor.................................................................................................................................... 20 Linear Induction Motors ................................................................................................................... 21 DC Motors........................................................................................................................................... 22 Design Types (typical characteristics).............................................................................................. 22 Operation above Base Speed .......................................................................................................... 23 DC Motor Control Basics ................................................................................................................. 24 Armature-Voltage Control ................................................................................................................... 24 Shunt-Field Control ........................................................................................................................... 24 Combination Control .......................................................................................................................... 24 Operation with Variable Speed Drive ..................................................................................................... 24 Load Types......................................................................................................................................... 25 Constant Torque Load ..................................................................................................................... 25 Variable Torque Load ...................................................................................................................... 25 Constant Horsepower Operation...................................................................................................... 26 Overload Operation.......................................................................................................................... 26 AC Drive Power Structure ................................................................................................................. 27 Regeneration...................................................................................................................................... 29 Stored Energy.................................................................................................................................. 29 Linear........................................................................................................................................... 30 Overhauling Load ........................................................................................................................ 30 Braking ............................................................................................................................................ 30 Line Regeneration............................................................................................................................ 30 Regenerative Brake ..................................................................................................................... 30

Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

Active Converter .......................................................................................................................... 31 Four Quadrants of Operation ....................................................................................................... 31 Section 2 – Basic Physics ................................................................................................................. 33 SI Units (International System of Units) ........................................................................................... 34 Mechanical Quantities...................................................................................................................... 34 Electrical Quantities ......................................................................................................................... 35 Formulas............................................................................................................................................. 36 Mechanical....................................................................................................................................... 36 Linear Motion ............................................................................................................................... 36 Rotational Motion......................................................................................................................... 37 Kinetic energy for Rotational Motion ............................................................................................ 38 Moment of Inertia......................................................................................................................... 39 Power .......................................................................................................................................... 40 Electrical .......................................................................................................................................... 42 Ohms Law ................................................................................................................................... 42 Angular frequency........................................................................................................................ 42 Impedance................................................................................................................................... 42 Power .......................................................................................................................................... 42 Power Factor ............................................................................................................................... 43 3-Phase relationships .................................................................................................................. 43 Imperial Units ..................................................................................................................................... 44 Mechanical....................................................................................................................................... 44 Linear Motion ............................................................................................................................... 44 Rotational Motion......................................................................................................................... 45 Kinetic Energy.............................................................................................................................. 46 Moment of Inertia......................................................................................................................... 47 Electrical .......................................................................................................................................... 48 Power .......................................................................................................................................... 48 Newton’s laws of motion ................................................................................................................... 48 Mass and weight.............................................................................................................................. 48 Lifting.................................................................................................................................................. 49 Friction ............................................................................................................................................... 49 Torque ................................................................................................................................................ 50 Torque and Tension........................................................................................................................... 51 Moment of Inertia ............................................................................................................................... 51 Gearing ............................................................................................................................................... 52 Moment of Inertia Reflected to Motor Shaft...................................................................................... 53 Belts and Sheaves ........................................................................................................................... 53 Acceleration Torque .......................................................................................................................... 54
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Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

Torque and Power.............................................................................................................................. 54 Section 3 – Application Examples .................................................................................................... 55 Application Matrix.............................................................................................................................. 56 Conveyor ............................................................................................................................................ 59 Inclined Conveyor.............................................................................................................................. 65 Gap Conveyor .................................................................................................................................... 71 Centrifugal Fan .................................................................................................................................. 77 Outlet Dampers................................................................................................................................ 78 Variable Inlet Vanes......................................................................................................................... 80 Variable Frequency Drives............................................................................................................... 81 Fan Energy Savings......................................................................................................................... 83 Centrifugal Pump ............................................................................................................................... 87 Throttling System............................................................................................................................. 88 Variable Speed System ................................................................................................................... 90 Lift ....................................................................................................................................................... 93 Calculated Torque Proving............................................................................................................... 98 Brake Permissive......................................................................................................................... 98 Using Drives in Lifting Applications ................................................................................................ 101 Winders ............................................................................................................................................ 103 Center Driven................................................................................................................................. 103 Surface Driven ............................................................................................................................... 109 DC to AC Retrofit ............................................................................................................................. 115 Existing DC equipment installation considerations ....................................................................................... 116 Extruder............................................................................................................................................ 117 Dynamic Braking.............................................................................................................................. 119 How to size the resistor.................................................................................................................. 119 Section - 4 Power Quality ................................................................................................................ 125 Transformers and Grounding ......................................................................................................... 127 Delta / Wye with grounded Wye neutral: ........................................................................................ 127 Delta / Delta with grounded leg: ..................................................................................................... 127 Ungrounded secondary.................................................................................................................. 127 Resistance grounding and ground fault protection: ........................................................................ 128
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............................................................................................................................................................... 141 Power Loss Ride-through..................................... 139 Reactors .............................................................................................................................................................................. 136 THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) and TDD (Total Demand Distortion) ......................................................... 149 Determining Throughput Time ........................................................................................................................................ 132 Grounding and Bonding ........................... 157 Appendix I .................................................... 150 DeviceNet .......................................................................................................... 151 ControlNet . 154 Network Specifications................................................................................................................................................................. 133 Motor Cables .... 155 Section – 6 Appendix............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 129 Cable Charging Current ................................................................. 140 Ride-Through ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Input Current Waveforms............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 143 Logic Ride-through............... 128 Installation Considerations for VFDs ............................... 158 Page 4 .......................................................................................................................................... 129 Common Mode Noise .................................................................................. 133 Use the best ground point....................... 141 Precharge ............................................................................................................................ 152 Communications Interface ................................ 134 Harmonics ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 147 Basics ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 129 Reflected Wave Phenomenon ............................ 145 Section – 5 Networks.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 149 Network Performance .............................................................................................................................................. 150 General Terms.................... 133 Panel Layout............................ 128 Sizing transformers for drive applications.....................Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Open Delta:....... 128 Single Phase Connection:.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Techniques to Provide Extended Power Loss Ride-Through ........ 151 EtherNet / IP ...........................................................................

................................................................................................................................................................ 170 Tension / Unit Width.................................................................................................................................................................................... 161 Belts................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 175 Heat Dissipation in Electrical Enclosures ........ 167 Inertia..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 160 Electric........................ 165 Distance..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Linear .................................... 164 Density......................................................................... 173 Material Properties................ 163 Conversion Factors............................ 160 Electric............................................................................................................................................................................................. 159 Couplings.............................................................................................................................................. 159 Mechanical Systems .................................................................................................................. 175 IEC Designations . 163 Acceleration ....................................... 166 Flow Rate .................. 163 Angular Displacement...............................................................................................................................................................................................Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Appendix I ............................................................................................. 165 Displacement ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 163 Acceleration.................................................... 160 Brakes ........................................................... 175 Nema Designations ......................................................................... 171 Velocity ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 169 Power ......................................................................................................... 167 Linear Velocity ............................................................................................................... 168 Mass......... 176 Page 5 ....................................................................... 171 Weight ........................................ 167 Force ............ 160 Mechanical ................................... 174 Friction Coefficients ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 163 Angular Velocity.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 168 Pressure .................................................................... 159 Gearboxes ...................................................................... 175 Enclosures ...................................................... 160 Mechanical .............................................. 159 Clutches..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 163 Area................................. 161 Appendix II ......................................................... 161 Bearings ...... 166 Energy ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 174 Temperature and Altitude Correction Factors ........................... 163 Angular ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 170 Temperature ................................................... 171 Volume ............................................................. 170 Torque ...............

........................................................................................................... 186 Frustum of Right Circular Cone.. 192 Section – 7 Glossary................................... 185 Solid Cylinder................................................................................................................. 205 H..... 201 E ..................................................................................................................... 187 Cube ................. 185 Moment of Inertia for a given Body Type ......................................................................................................... 183 IEEE-519 ................................................................................................ 186 Right Circular Cone .......................................................................................................................................................................Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Appendix III .......................................................... 188 Torus ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 194 Glossary ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 192 Metric Prefixes ............................................... 195 A ..................................................................................................................... 179 Nema Frame Dimensions – DC Motors and Generators ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 193 Glossary .................................................................................................................................................. 205 I ................ 206 Page 6 ............................................................................................... 188 Rotating Object at end of Rod................................................................................................................. 198 D................ 184 Appendix IV ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 189 Flywheel with a web.................................... 179 National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA).................................................................... 177 Underwriters Laboratory (UL).............................................................................................................................................................................................. 179 CE ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 185 Hollow Cylinder.................................................................................................................................. 202 F ................................................................. 188 Sphere and Hemisphere ................................................................................................................... 206 K ...................................................................................... 181 Nema Frame Dimensions – AC Motors and Generators Continued .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 195 B ................................................................ 197 C.................................................................................................................. 189 Greek Letters .................................................................................................................................................... 205 J............................................... 177 National Electric Code (NEC).................................................................. 183 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 182 IEC Frame Dimensions – Three-Phase Motors..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 187 Pyramid .. 180 Nema Frame Dimensions – AC Motors and Generators ................................................................................................................................................................... 179 Canadian Standards (CSA)........................................................................... 204 G.........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 208 Q............................ 209 S ............. 206 N.............................................Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook L .......................................... 209 R...................................................................................... 215 Z ...................................................................................................................................................... 215 Y ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 207 O............................................................................................................................... 211 T ........................... 214 W .......................................................................................................... 206 M ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 207 P ..................................................................................... 215 Page 7 ................................................................................................................................ 213 U................................................................................................................................................ 214 V .................................................................................................. 215 X ...

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affecting other equipment connected to the same lines. (Starting torque is also called Blocked Rotor Torque. The locked rotor torque and current. The speed-torque curve and characteristics of each design are as follows: Page 11 . breakdown torque. Locked Rotor Torque or Breakaway Torque. determine the classifications for NEMA design motors. Starting torque is usually around 200% even though current is at 600%. This is when slip is the greatest.) Such a large inrush of current may cause the supply voltage to dip momentarily.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook AC Motors Generally speaking the following can be said about a speed torque curve when starting across the line. pull-up torque and the percent slip. Extra protective devices are also required to remove the motor from the supply lines if an excessive load causes a stalled condition.

As the rotor slip decreases. P = Number of Poles Page 12 . high starting torque and low starting current. therefore the slip is usually 3% or less. During starting. This high slip characteristic relates to a low efficiency design and a motor that runs hot. and are not subject to high overload demands after running speed has been reached. The slip of a Design B motor is approximately 3-5% or less. design B motors are a general-purpose type motor and account for the largest share of induction motors sold. Because of the high amount of slip. Design C — motors use a two-cage rotor design. most of the current flows in the low inductance outer bars. Design B — motors have a higher impedance rotor producing a slightly higher starting torque and lower current draw. This creates a high starting torque with a normal starting current and low slip. It is a high efficiency design. high resistance for starting low resistance for running. The slip of the Design C motor is 5% or less. the speed varies dramatically with load. The Design C motor is usually used where breakaway loads are high at starting. Design D — motors have the highest resistance rotor creating high slip. The slip of this type motor is approximately 5 to 8%. Motor Synchronous Speed N = 120 f P where: N = RPM. low inductance rotor producing low starting torque and high breakdown torque.Drive Application Engineering NEMA Design Types Engineering Handbook Design A — motors have a low resistance. current flows more in the inner low resistance bars. For this reason. but are normally run at rated full load. f = Applied Frequency. The low resistance characteristic causes starting current to be high.

Delta Connection T1 1&6 T2 2&4 T3 3&5 6 Leads.NEMA 6 Leads.Drive Application Engineering 3-Phase Motor Connections .732:1 Ratio). Wye or Delta Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (1.732:1) LOW (1:1) CONN WYE DELTA T1 1 1&6 T2 2 2&4 T3 3 3&5 JOIN 4&5&6 — Page 13 . Wye Connection Engineering Handbook T1 1 T2 2 T3 3 JOIN 4&5&6 6 Leads. Dual Voltage (1. Single Voltage. Single Voltage.

Dual Voltage. 6&9.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook 9 Leads. Dual Voltage. 6&9 — 12 Leads. 5&8. 10&11&12 4&5&6. 5&8. 10&11&12 . Wye Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (2:1) LOW (1:1) T1 1 1&7 T2 2 2&8 T3 3 3&9 Page 14 JOIN 4&7. Delta Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (2:1) LOW (1:1) T1 1 1&6&7 T2 2 2&4&8 T3 3 3&5&9 JOIN 4&7. Wye Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (2:1) LOW (1:1) T1 1 1&7 T2 2 2&8 T3 3 3&9 JOIN 4&7. 6&9 4&5&6 9 Leads. Dual Voltage. 5&8.

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook 12 Leads. Dual Voltage. Wye or Delta Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (3.732:1) LOW (1:1) CONN. 5&8. 6&9 4&5&6. 10&11&12 4&7. 5&8. 6&9. 10&11&12 — Page 15 . WYE DELTA WYE DELTA T1 1 1&12 1&7 1&6&7&12 T2 2 2&10 2&8 2&4&8&10 T3 3 3&11 3&9 3&5&9&11 JOIN 4&7.464:1) HIGH (2:1) LOW (1.

3 9 17 20 22 25 28 47 59 68 85 106 129 158 181 200 HP .57 0.6 4.6 3.55 0.7 0.1 0.3 3.5 .47 0.41 0.25 0.21 0.Drive Application Engineering Rotor Inertia – NEMA 2-Pole Lbft2 0.18 0.4 11 14 24 28 39 51 62 68 85 82 86 92 101 101 2-Pole Lbft2 0.3 3.06 0.76 0.65 0.7 0.19 0.6 4.51 1.8 2.6 2.76 0.3 3.04 0.04 0.1 0.18 0.55 0.5 12.6 11 13 16 20 33 39 43 54 60 4-Pole Lbft2 0.3 7.22 0.21 0.05 0.84 0.99 1.1 3.5 56 74.21 0.018 0.8 2.2 2 2.99 1.1 3.8 5 6.015 0.23 0.05 0.68 2.18 0.5 35 17 40.4 6.9 2.2 4.06 0.17 0.37 0.3 2.03 0.5 44.52 0.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 Page 16 .1 12 20 24 31 40 40 44.5 27 61.3 4.6 11 13 16 20 33 39 43 54 60 82 122 6-Pole Lbft2 0.3 1.6 4.5 9 20 10 23.5 85 56 111 74.5 14.21 0.2 3.07 0.62 0.62 0.21 0.5 136 86 136 95 109 114 Engineering Handbook OPD 8-Pole Lbft2 0.91 1.76 0.25 0.4 7.75 1 1.017 0.21 0.035 0.16 0.84 0.13 0.3 9 13 15 24 27 45 56 56 68 85 98 112 130 149 8-Pole Lbft2 0.5 33 57.5 4 11 4.05 0.62 0.5 TEFC 4-Pole 6-Pole Lbft2 Lbft2 0.4 6.15 0.93 1.23 0.8 2.46 0.9 6.08 0.21 0.6 4.9 2.017 0.4 7.91 1.6 0.9 3 4.5 2 3 5 7.2 2.3 7.

Wye or Delta Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (3.732:1) LOW (1:1) CONN. W2&W5. Dual Voltage (1. WYE DELTA T1 U1 U1&W2 T2 V1 V1&U2 T3 W1 W1&V2 JOIN U2&V2&W2 — 12 Leads. WYE DELTA WYE DELTA T1 U1 U1&W6 U1&U5 U1&U5& W2&W6 T2 V1 V1&U6 V1&V5 V1&V5& U2&U6 T3 W1 W1&V6 W1&W5 W1&W5&V2 &V6 JOIN U2&U5. U6&V6&W6 — Page 17 .464:1) HIGH (2:1) LOW (1.732:1 Ratio). V2&V5. Dual Voltage.Drive Application Engineering 3-Phase Motor Connections – IEC Nomenclature Engineering Handbook 6 Leads. U6&V6&W6 U2&U5.732:1) LOW (1:1) CONN. Wye or Delta Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (1. W2&W5 U2&V2&W2. V2&V5.

2 6 7.09 3.028 0.0035 0.79 1.011 0.6 4.3 5.5 4.4 17 24 30 Engineering Handbook 8-Pole Kgm2 0.028 0.0058 0.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 150 160 200 225 250 280 315 355 373 2-Pole Kgm2 0.55 0.023 0.0053 0.02 0.92 1.5 2.07 0.2 4.065 0.52 0.66 1.9 16 20 24 30 36 Page 18 .3 1.13 0.019 0.5 2.33 0.033 0.007 0.00035 0.1 1.0028 0.Drive Application Engineering Rotor Inertia – IEC Rated kW 0.7 3.1 12.088 0.0035 0.6 2.025 0.5 7.3 13.0035 0.58 0.05 0.0048 0.2 0.5 1.2 6 6.014 0.033 0.08 0.24 0.1 1.05 0.055 0.0038 0.29 0.0018 0.37 0.79 0.45 0.2 3 4 5.9 9.4 1.0008 0.0028 0.65 1.2 6.4 12 12.0011 0.4 7.3 3.013 0.3 2.89 1.077 0.002 0.04 0.0025 0.14 0.24 0.75 1.4 2.6 2.9 3.16 0.2 2.00085 0.0015 0.44 0.2 7.37 0.9 4 6.011 0.035 0.0055 0.2 5.5 11 15 18.0063 0.3 3 3.8 2.4 1.21 0.5 4-Pole Kgm2 0.5 9.0015 0.0018 0.4 6.57 0.8 7.0015 0.05 0.3 1.8 3.15 0.5 7.00045 0.44 6-Pole Kgm2 0.

maximum torque at 120hz is only 25% of the maximum torque at 60hz.0 180 3.75 105 2. Torque will be 0. The same Volts per Hertz ratio results when a line started motor is operated at 60hz with only 50% voltage applied (for reduced voltage starting). so going one step further. the volts-per-hertz ratio (460v/60hz) is 7.25 135 2. It can be stated then that torque above base speed drops as the square of the frequency – doubling the frequency. the torque drops off as the inverse of speed. As might be expected the effect on torque is the same.0 . it is more appropriate to define torque in terms of frequency change instead of voltage change. Many machine applications are constant horsepower in their load characteristics. torque may be defined in terms of speed. the v/hz ratio is 3.64 % PEAK TORQUE 1 N2 .25 195 3. Recall that torque varies as the square of the applied voltage: where: K = motor torque constant E = applied voltage M = K × E2 As such.0 120 2.67.13 . Below illustrates the peak torque curve for constant voltage operation from base speed to 4 times base speed.08 .83 (460/120). which satisfies the motor nameplate. If AC drive output frequency is reduced from 120hz to 90hz at a constant voltage. This is the same as providing 66% voltage at 60hz to a line-started motor. This is shown in the curves above.83 to 5.10 . quarters the available torque.5 90 1.25 75 1. 1/N2.25 . 1.5 150 2.095 .44 .07 .Drive Application Engineering AC Motor Operation above Base Speed Engineering Handbook Constant Voltage Operation The motor is operated in a “reduced flux” region.75 165 3. motor torque drops off as the inverse of synchronous speed squared. In the constant voltage range then. Below base speed.16 . or 1/N. in reality.06 Base For 60hz Motor: 60 1. the volts-per-hertz ratio improves from 3.662 or 44% of the full voltage torque at 60hz. The torque drop-off is not as severe as the motor’s peak torque. By doubling the frequency to 120hz.20 . or 1/N2.0 240 Since the voltage.33 . Applied frequency and synchronous speed are equivalent.5 210 3. is not changing above base speed. As speed increases.1 V/Hz. Page 19 .75 225 4.

In a case where a wound rotor motor is fed by an ac drive. In a case where replacing a wound rotor motor with a squirrel cage induction motor and an ac drive it is important to note that the wound rotor motor typically has high starting torque (300-400%). Wound Rotor Some large motors may have a “Wound Rotor”. When operated from an ac drive they require boost voltage to produce the required torque to synchronize quickly after power application. More resistance means higher slip and higher starting torque across the line while using a low value of series resistance results in lower slip and greater efficiency. The two most common types of synchronous motors are reluctance and permanent magnet.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Synchronous Motors Synchronous motors operate at synchronism with the line frequency and maintain a constant speed regardless of load without sophisticated electronic control. or D. B. Therefore. in some applications it may be necessary to oversize the squirrel cage motor and ac drive to achieve the same level of starting torque. C. the wound rotor connections should be permanently jumpered (no series resistance added). Often the resistors will be present for start up then jumpered out while running. This can effectively let the user define the motor torque curve as Nema A. The synchronous motor typically provides up to a maximum of 140% of rated torque. These designs start like an induction motor but quickly accelerate from approximately 90% sync speed to synchronous speed. Page 20 . This allows the motor characteristics to be altered by adding resistors in series with the rotor.

the force can be manipulated by adjustment of the voltage to frequency ratio. Slip quantifies the slower speed of the secondary in comparison with the magnetic field. such as baggage handling. With the use of an inverter. When applying an AC drive to this type of motor. The amount of slip increases proportionally with increases in load. The secondary usually is some common combination of metal layers. induction motor. The secondary is the equivalent of the rotor. The difference being that the linear motor is laid out flat in a straight line. Like the AC induction motor. Linear induction motors are great for extended or unlimited travel applications. With this configuration. or amusement rides. it induces currents into conductive windings of the secondary. By applying a voltage across the winding. gantries. The primary or the static element is the equivalent of the stator. the drive should be configured to operate in volts-per-hertz mode. the magnetic field produces forces on the current carrying conductors of the secondary. First. which results in a thrust force being applied to the secondary. a linear traveling magnetic field is formed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Linear Induction Motors A linear motor operates on the same principal as a rotary. the linear induction motor has an inherent function called slip. people movers. which has windings connected to the supply in one or three phase form. one can control the speed of the motor. Once that is complete. The primary has two effects on the secondary. The secondary is not locked into any position and therefore will continue to slip throughout the motion. squirrel cage. Page 21 .

shunt wound motors offer simplified control for reversing service. Design Types (typical characteristics) Shunt wound motors with the armature shunted across the field. Standard compounding is about 12%. Page 22 . offer relatively flat speed-torque characteristics. Combined with inherently controlled no-load speed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook DC Motors The DC motor converts the adjustable voltage DC from the drive controller to a rotating mechanical energy. such as hoists and cranes. The following characteristic curves are shown with a fixed supply start of the motor. Compound wound motors utilize a field winding in series with the armature in addition to the shunt field to obtain a compromise in performance between a series and shunt type motor. This type offers a combination of good starting torque and speed stability. While the starting torque is comparatively lower than other DC winding types. Motor shaft rotation and direction are proportional to the magnitude and polarity of adjustable voltage applied to the motor. Heavier compounding of up to 40 to 50% can be supplied for special high starting torque applications. this provides good speed regulation over wide load ranges.

A regulated field supply is required to operate in this region. Operation above Base Speed The field current must be reduced to allow motor operation above base speed. motor losses are less with better efficiencies. Speed of DC series motors is generally limited to 5000 rpm and below. the series motor has poor speed regulation. The speed regulation can be improved with various designs. Series motors should be avoided in applications where they are likely to lose their load because of their tendency to “run away” under no-load conditions. Because of the permanent magnet field. Page 23 . Reversing current can be no higher than the locked armature current. These motors can be dynamically braked and reversed at some low armature voltage (10%) but should not be plug reversed with full armature voltage. Permanent magnet motors have a conventional wound armature with commutator and brushes and a permanent magnet field.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Series motors have the armature connected in series with the field. This motor has excellent starting torque. with speed regulation not as good as compound wound motors. While it offers very high starting torque and good torque per ampere. This is referred to as “field weakening”. with corresponding lower rated torques for a given frame.

Drive Application Engineering DC Motor Control Basics Engineering Handbook Commonly used methods of controlling the speed of a direct current motor are armature-voltage control. and a machine constant which is a function of the armature winding. Combination Control Utilizes both armature-voltage and shunt-field control to achieve a very wide speed range. M = KφI a Where: M = torque K = machine constant φ = main pole flux in air gap Ia = armature current Armature-Voltage Control As the name implies. Page 24 . with armature-voltage speed control and constant shunt-field excitation. Reducing the shunt field voltage decreases main pole flux and motor speed is increased. shunt-field control and a combination of armature-voltage and shunt-field control. armature current. Output torque of a d-c motor is proportional to the product of the main pole flux. the torque is dependent upon armature current only. Therefore. At rated armature current the torque is constant. The drive operates the motor in constant torque or constant power by regulating both the armature and the field as shown in the diagram below (armature current constant). Operation with Variable Speed Drive The shunt wound motor is used in conjunction with a dc drive to provide speed and or torque regulation to a given machine. resulting in constant torque capacity and shunt-field control is used to obtain speed above base speed resulting in a constant power capacity. Armature-voltage control is used for speed below base speed. the armature voltage is varied while maintaining constant shunt-field excitation. Shunt-Field Control Adjusting the voltage applied to the shunt-field controls the speed.

Constant torque is also used when shock loads. overloads or high inertia loads are encountered.55 = a proportionality constant Examples of this type of load are conveyors and extruders. usually speed squared (Speed ). HP = Where: Torque = lb-ft. Loads of these types are essentially friction loads. horsepower is a function of speed. the torque demand increases with speed.55 Torque = Nm Speed = RPM 9. 3 2 Page 25 . and torque remains constant in this type of load. Horsepower is typically proportional to speed cubed (Speed ). The figure below shows the constant torque and its effect on horsepower demanded by the load.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Load Types Constant Torque Load The torque demanded by the load is constant throughout the speed range. Variable Torque Load With this type of load. Speed = RPM 5252 = a proportionality constant Torque × Speed Torque × Speed OR watts = 5252 9. Constant Torque Load 100 Torque Demanded by the Load (%) 100 Power Demanded by the Load (%) Speed (%) 100 Speed (%) 100 Since HP is a product of Torque times speed.

The horsepower demanded by the load is constant within the speed range. the I2t of continuous operation may require a larger drive and/or motor.Drive Application Engineering Variable Torque Load Engineering Handbook Examples of loads that exhibit variable load torque characteristics are centrifugal fans. Acceleration and deceleration torque requirements may be severe to meet a machine “cycle time”. Constant Horsepower Load Overload Operation Many constant torque applications require intermittent operation in overload. The speed and torque are inversely proportional to each other. This type of load requires much lower torque at low speeds than at high speeds. Overload protection for both the motor and drive must be considered when the machinery has a severe duty cycle. pumps and blowers. Page 26 . Constant Horsepower Operation This is a function of the motor being operated above base motor speed. Though the drive and motor may be able to perform the application for short periods.

Often an inductor or “link choke” may be added. Though we now have DC voltage. Diodes conduct only when they are forward biased and are used in this stage to convert AC to DC. full wave. While the capacitor bank is always present. the inductor is sometimes an option. though SCR’s are sometimes used in place of diodes. Page 27 . If this stage were isolated from the rest of the power structure we would see a pulsating 360 HZ DC voltage at the DC bus connection when 3 phase power is applied to the input. Therefore a second “filter” stage is required. The choke when used helps buffer the AC line from the capacitor bank and serves to improve power factor and reduce harmonics. it is not smooth. A filter is required to create the smooth stable DC power needed to run the IGBT inverter. The figure above is a diagram of a typical “voltage source” PWM AC drive power structure. The power structure of the drive can be broken into three distinct sections. diode-bridge.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook AC Drive Power Structure The most common type of drive on the market today is the Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) AC drive. In most cases this stage consists of a three-phase. In both cases the 360 HZ pulsating DC voltage is filtered smooth by the Capacitor bank. Primarily this consists of a large capacitor bank. The inverter section requires a stable DC source to operate. The first stage is the converter.

25 FLA motor. Taking advantage of the fact that a motor is basically a large inductor. 5Hz drive output.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook The third stage is the inverter section. 6. Page 28 .25 × 38 × . Only one-phase of the PWM waveform is shown to indicate how the modulated pulse width emulates an AC voltage when applied to an inductive load. rated current is required.35kW The power consumed from the AC line is ~ 10% of the rated power (5HP = 3. This section uses high-speed transistors as switches to apply a “Pulse Width Modulated” or PWM waveform to the motor. To produce rated torque. Varying the width of the pulses in proportion to the frequency creates a volts-per-hertz ratio that satisfies the motor design and allows the motor to produce rated torque at base speed and below without excessive current. and that current does not change very fast in an inductor.732 × I × E × pf 1000 Example: 5HP. 4-pole. but only ~38V (ratio of 460V/60Hz). The output power is equal to the input power plus any efficiency losses within the drive. 460V.85 solve for power. Assuming a motor pf of . 60Hz. kW = 1.85 1000 = 0.732 × 6. the DC bus voltage can be applied in pulses of varying width in order to achieve current in the motor that approximates a sine wave.7kW). kW = 1.

a reduction in commanded speed or an overhauling load that causes the shaft speed to be greater than the synchronous speed. mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. 1 ⋅ Jω 2 2 Page 29 . this energy needs a place to go. utility power is first converted into DC by a diode or SCR rectifier bridge These bridges are very cost effective. Essentially. For this reason. On most AC drives.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Regeneration When the rotor of an induction motor turns slower than the speed set by the applied frequency. the motor is transforming mechanical energy from the motor shaft into electrical energy. When the rotor turns faster than the synchronous speed set by a drive output. In any case this. condition is referred to as ‘regeneration”. This process is referred to as ‘motoring’. For an AC drive and motor in a regenerative condition. a uniform “linear” ramp to stop from a given speed results in a linear reduction in the transfer of energy from motor to drive as the load slows. the AC power from the motor flows backward through the inverter bridge diodes shown below. Stored Energy Rotational In the case of a large rotating mass such as a Centrifuge. the stored energy is: Where J is the moment of inertia in Kg Meters squared and w is the angular velocity (rotational speed) in radians/second. From this equation we can see that the energy is proportional to the square of the speed. Since the laws of physics state that energy is never lost or gained. It may be a ramp to stop. but only handle power in the “motoring” direction. the motor is transforming electrical energy into mechanical energy at the motor shaft. This means that if we cut the speed in half we will have only ¼ the kinetic energy.

Unlike the dynamic brake and chopper. ramping to a stop from a given speed will result in a linear decline in power being absorbed by the brake over the given deceleration time. usually acts a bit different. on the other hand.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Linear This type of load can generally be characterized by a large mass such as a conveyer belt or transfer car being driven by a motor through a gearbox. the regenerative brake has no voltage regulator or power resistor. Kinetic energy for this case is: Where M is the mass in Kg and V is the velocity in meters per second. The typical VFD uses passive devices (diodes) to convert ac to dc. Though the dominant component of stored energy may be in the large mass traveling in a linear motion. The weight of the material constantly being loaded on the belt provides a continuous regenerative energy source. calculating the stored energy is much the same. Rather. The big difference here is that the condition that causes the overhauling can be sustained for extended periods of time. This however is where the similarity ends. it uses a set of IGBT switches synchronized to the line to provide a path for current flow should the DC bus voltage Page 30 . In the case of the linear and rotational load. Braking See Chapter on “Braking” Line Regeneration An “active” converter bridge is required to regenerate power from the drive dc bus to the ac line. a line regenerative brake connects to the dc bus and prevents an overvoltage condition by providing a place for motor and load energy to go when a motor is acting as a generator. 1 ⋅ MV 2 2 Regenerative Brake Like a dynamic brake or chopper. An example would be a decline conveyer where material is being moved from the top to the bottom of the conveyer. It does not attempt to regulate the drive bus voltage. Overhauling Load An overhauling load. An active bridge uses IGBT’s that allow current to flow from the ac line when the ac line voltage is higher than the dc bus voltage. and the opposite direction when the dc bus voltage is greater than the ac line.

The active converter supplies motoring power and a path for load power to be returned to the AC line. the IGBT bridge connected to the AC line is regulating dc bus voltage by switching at a fast rate. Four Quadrants of Operation Page 31 . The regenerative brake does not provide motoring power for the load. Active Converter In this configuration. The motoring power is supplied by the AC drive. This allows power to flow in and out of the drive with very little harmonic content.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook become higher than the line.

Drive Application Engineering This page intentionally left blank Engineering Handbook Page 32 .

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Section 2 – Basic Physics Page 33 .

angular Change in value (delta) Angle (plane) Efficiency Coefficient of friction Density Velocity. linear Force Energy Acceleration. One newton-meter = one watt-second = one joule. Ws. rotational (ω/2π) Pressure Power Flow rate Radius Distance Time Temperature Speed (velocity). angular (2π Mass SI Unit m s2 M N.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook SI Units (International System of Units) Mechanical Quantities Symbol a d F g J l M n p P Q r s t T v w W α ∆ γ η µ ρ ω m Quantity Acceleration Diameter Force Acceleration due to gravity Moment of Inertia Length Torque Speed. Nms-1 m3 s 1 m m s K m s1 N Kg m2s2. kg m s2 m s2 kg m2 m Nm rev s1 Nm2. Js1.81m s Page 34 . Pa W. J. 2 Acceleration due to gravity 9. Therefore one newton produces unit acceleration of unit mass. Nm rad s2 rad n) kg m3 rad s1 g The SI unit of force is the newton.

Drive Application Engineering Electrical Quantities Symbol C f g G I k L n p P Q R S W U or E Xc Xl Z α ∆ pf cos φ ω Engineering Handbook Quantity Capacitance Frequency Fundamental frequency content Conductance Current Distortion factor Inductance Rotational speed Number of poles Real (active) power Reactive power Resistance Total (apparent) power Energy Potential difference (voltage) Capacitive reactance Inductive reactance Impedance Delay angle Change in value (delta) Power factor Displacement factor. phase angle between voltage and current SI Unit F Hz S A H rad s1 W var Ω VA J. This is illustrated below. Ws V Ω Ω Ω deg rad s1 A radian is an angle whose length equals one radius. there are 2*PI radians in a complete circle. Since the circumference of a circle is 2* PI *radius and a radian spans an arc of one radius. Page 35 .3). So 1 radian equals 360/(2*PI) degrees (57.

s = vt m Linear acceleration a= v t m s2 m s m m s N. Ws Velocity after time t when under constant acceleration. Ws Page 36 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Formulas Mechanical Linear Motion Distance after time t at a constant velocity. (v0 = initial velocity) v = v0 + at Distance after time t when under constant acceleration. Ws Nm. kg m 2 N. v 2 − v0 = 2as 2 Accelerating force or mg v F= m • t Kinetic energy at constant velocity F = ma W= 1 2 mv 2 Work done by acceleration force W = Fs or change of kinetic energy at constant acceleration W = 1 2 m v 2 − v0 2 ( ) Nm. ⎛1 ⎞ s = v0t + ⎜ at 2 ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ Derived velocity-acceleration-distance equation. kg m 2 Nm.

∆ is difference between initial and final values. Rotational speed. t in seconds.Drive Application Engineering Rotational Motion Angular velocity (angle measured in radians) Engineering Handbook ω = 2π n or Angular acceleration (n in rev/s) πn 30 (n in rev/min) = 2πn (n in rev/s) t rad s rad s α= or ω t πn 30t rad s2 rad s2 rad rad s (n in rev/min) ⎛1 ⎝2 ⎞ ⎠ Angular displacement after time t under acceleration γ = ω ot + ⎜ α t 2 ⎟ Angular velocity after time t under constant acceleration ω = ωo +α t Derived velocity-acceleration-angle equation ω 2 − ω o 2 = 2α γ Acceleration – (linear accelerating force) Torque rad s2 M = Time Jω t Jω M (where ω = 2π radians) kgm 2 s2 s t= Acceleration torque -(revolutions) Where d in meters. n is in rev / min . n is in rev / s M= π 4 m d2 ∆n ∆t Page 37 kg m 2 s2 Rotational speed.

Ws or change of kinetic energy Page 38 . Ws Rotational speed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook M= π 240 m d2 ∆n ∆t ∆n M or kg m 2 s2 s Acceleration time -(revolutions) Rotational speed. n is in rev / s W = 2π 2 J n 2 Rotational speed. Ws Work done by acceleration force W = Mγ r Nm. Ws W = π 2 J n2 1800 Nm. n is in rev / min Nm. n is in rev / s t= π 4 m d2 t= 2π J∆n M s ∆n M Rotational speed. n is in rev / min t= π 240 md2 s or t= 2π J∆n 60M s Kinetic energy for Rotational Motion At a constant velocity W = 1 J ω2 2 Nm.

Equivalent = J motor Linear ⎡ n ⎤ = J⎢ ⎥ ⎣ nmotor ⎦ 2 2 kgm 2 Equivalent moment of inertia J or WK of linearly moving parts can be directly referred to the motor shaft as follows.5493 is the constant for converting Rev/min. Page 39 . Equivalent moment of inertia referred to the motor shaft through reducer or gearbox. K is radius of gyration. based on the principle of conservation of energy Kinetic Energy linear = Kinetic Energy rotary: Where m is the mass in kg of the total load including equipment. v is linear velocity in m/s and n is in rev / min . n is in rev / min.543Mt ∆n kgm 2 Refer to Appendix IV for Moment of Inertia for a given Body Type description and formulas. 9. to Radians /sec.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook W = Moment of Inertia Rotational 1 2 2 J ω 2 − ω1 2 ( ) Nm. J = Wk 2 = 9. and Rotational speed. Ws Rotational speed. n is in rev / min J= J= 60Mt 2π∆n 60 Mt = Wk 2 2π∆n kgm 2 kgm 2 Where W (not as SI unit) is the total mass in kg.

Total equivalent moment of inertia referred to the motor shaft can be a combination of rotary and linear 2 2 2 ⎡ nC ⎤ ⎡ nB ⎤ mv 2 JT = J A + J B ⎢ + JC ⎢ + kgm ⎥ ⎥ 2 ⎣ n motor ⎦ 39. Care must be taken when calculating acceleration and/or deceleration torque requirements. to use appropriate formulas that compensate for the additive and subtractive respective effects of friction and windage.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook J= mv 2 ω 2 kgm 2 OR 2 J= mv ⎛ 2πnmotor ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 60 sec/ min ⎠ OR kgm 2 Where v is linear velocity in m/min and n is in rev / min mv 2 J= 2 39.48 n motor ⎣ n motor ⎦ ( ) Where JA is for all rotating parts on the same direct drive shaft of the motor. Power Efficiency η= Power delivered Power consumed Page 40 per unit . JB is for all rotating parts on an intermediate shaft. This formula is useful and accurate for applications with relatively free moving bodies of mass or for isolating only the moment of inertia.48 n motor is for linearly moving load and parts.48(nmotor ) kgm 2 Caution: This linear to rotation equivalent inertia formula does not take into account the influence of coefficient of friction nor windage. JC is for all rotating parts on the final shaft 2 2 mv / 39.

n is in rev / s P= πMn 30 Mn 9550 Where rotational speed. s s kW P= m v2 t Power for Rotational Motion P = Mω P= Jω 2 t P = 2π M n Where rotational speed. n is in rev / min P= Power due to Acceleration of Gravity P= m•g•h t J • ∆ω M ave Where g = 9. s s Nm J . W. s s Nm J . s s Nm J .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook P = Fv Power for Linear Motion Nm J . s s Nm J . s s t= s Where ∆ ω is the change in speed (rad/s) and Mave is the average accelerating torque Page 41 . W. s s Nm J . W. h = height in meters Time for Motor to Reach Operating Speed 2 Nm J . W. W.8 m/s . W. W.

Drive Application Engineering Electrical Ohms Law Engineering Handbook E = I•R E I= R E R= I V A Ω or 2π n rad s Ω Angular frequency ω = 2π f Impedance XL =ω L 1 XC = ωC Ω Z= Power DC (R 2 + X2 ) Ω Where X = XL + XC for series circuits P = E•I S = E•I W VA AC Single-Phase P = E • I • pf AC Three-Phase W VA W v ar S = 3E • I P = 3E • I • pf Q = (S 2 − P2 ) Page 42 .

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Power Factor For 3-Phase. Balanced Systems (where V(THD) <or=5%) True Apparent Power = S = V x Itotal (kVA) Apparent Power = S1 = V x Ifund (kVA) Real Power = P = V x Ireal (kW) True Reactive Power = Qt = V x sqrt(Ireact2 x Iharm2) Reactive Power = Q = V x Ireact (kVAR) Harmonic Power = D = V x Iharm (kVAR) S = sqrt(P2 + Q2 + D2) = sqrt(P2 + Qt2) pf total = true pf = pf disp x pf dist = Ireal / Itotal = P/S pf disp = cosφ = Ireal / Ifund = P/S1 pf dist = cosφ = Ifund / Itotal = S1/S (φ is the phase angle between the sinusoidal voltage and the fundamental current waveforms) 3-Phase relationships Voltage and current in RMS quantities Wye or Star connection Line voltage U L = 3 × phase voltage U P Line current I L = phase current I P Delta connection Line voltage U L = phase voltage U P Line current I L = 3 × phase current I P Power (sinusoidal voltage) S = 3UL IL Page 43 VA . Non-Sinusoidal.

lb ft lb W = Page 44 . s2 s2 ft in . s = vt v t ft.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Imperial Units 1 HP = [33. lb Poundal. ⎛1 ⎞ s = v0t + ⎜ at 2 ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ Accelerating force Kinetic energy at constant velocity F = ma or mg v F = m• t 1 2 mv 2 Poundal.000 ft lbs] x [1 rad/min] Pwr(HP) = [Trq(ft lbs)] [Spd(rad/min)] / [33.000 ft lbs/min)] Pwr(HP) = [Trq(ft lbs)] [Spd(RPM)] [0. s s ft.000 ft lbs/min / 2πrad/rev] Mechanical Linear Motion Distance after time t at a constant velocity.000 ft lbs/min] Pwr(HP) = [Trq(ft lbs)] [Spd(RPM)] [2π rd/rev]/[33.0001904] or Pwr(HP) = [Trq(ft lbs)] [Spd(RPM)] / [5252] Note: 5252 = [33. in ft in . (v0 = initial velocity) v = v0 + at Distance after time t when under constant acceleration. in Linear acceleration a= Velocity after time t when under constant acceleration.

Drive Application Engineering Work done by acceleration force Engineering Handbook W = Fs ft lb or change of kinetic energy at constant acceleration W = 1 2 m v 2 − v0 2 ( ) ft lb Rotational Motion Angular velocity (angle measured in radians) ω = 2πn (n in rev/s) 2πn ω= (n in rev/min) 60 OR rad s rad s rad s2 rad s2 rad rad s rad s2 lbft 2 s2 Angular acceleration α= ω t = 2πn t (n in rev/s) OR Angular displacement after time t under acceleration 2πn α= 60t γ = ω 0t + ⎜ αt 2 ⎟ Angular velocity after time t under constant acceleration ⎛1 ⎝2 ⎞ ⎠ ω = ω 0 + αt Derived velocity-acceleration-angle equation ω 2 − ω 0 2 = 2αγ Acceleration – (linear accelerating force) Torque M = WK 2ω (where ω = 2π radians) t Page 45 .

∆ is difference between initial and final values. n is in rev/min lbft 2 s2 lbft 2 s2 s M = π 240 md 2 Acceleration time – (revolutions) Rotational speed. n is in rev/min 2πJ∆n M OR s ∆n M s OR π 240 md 2 2πJ∆n 60M s Kinetic Energy At a constant velocity 1 W = WK 2ω 2 2 ft lb Rotational speed. n is in rev/min ft lb ft lb Page 46 W = π 2WK 2 n 2 1800 . n is in rev/s ∆n ∆t t= t= t= t= π 4 md 2 ∆n M Rotational speed. n is in rev/s WK 2ω M s ∆n M = md 4 ∆t 2 π Rotational speed. t in seconds. Rotational speed.Drive Application Engineering Time Engineering Handbook t= Acceleration torque – (revolutions) Where d in feet. n is in rev/s W = 2π 2WK 2 n 2 Rotational speed.

ω 2 = Wv 2 2πn 2 lbft 2 Page 47 . K is radius of gyration in ft. v is linear velocity in ft/s.Drive Application Engineering Work done by acceleration force Engineering Handbook W = Mγr ft lb Or change of kinetic energy 1 2 2 W = WK 2 ω 2 − ω1 2 Moment of Inertia Rotational ( ) ft lb 308 • Mt WK 2 = ∆n Rotational speed. n is in rev/min lbft 2 Where W is the total weight in lb. n is in rev/min. based on the principle of conservation of energy Kinetic Energy linear = Kinetic Energy rotary: WK 2 = Wv 2 Where W is the weight in kg (representing mass on earth’s gravitational influence) of the total load including equipment. Equivalent moment of inertia referred to the motor shaft through reducer or gearbox. Refer to Appendix IV for Moment of Inertia for a given Body Type description and formulas. 308 is the constant for converting Weight to mass and Rev/min to Radians/sec when Rotational speed. ⎡ n ⎤ Equivalent WK = WK ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ nmotor ⎦ 2 2 2 lbft 2 Linear Equivalent moment of inertia WK2 of linearly moving parts can be directly referred to the motor shaft as follows. K is radius of gyration in ft. and n is in rev/min.

The rate of change of momentum produced by an impressed force is proportional to that force. Page 48 . and the change of momentum occurs in the direction of the action of the force. Weight is the vertical force exerted by the mass acted upon by the gravitational pull. Where: And m is measured in kilograms a is measured in meters per second per second Mass and weight Mass is the property of an object. Action and reaction are equal and opposite. A body continues in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless an external force acts upon it. 2. which determines its resistance to changes in velocity. 3. F = m* a A force F acting on a mass m produces acceleration a.Drive Application Engineering Electrical Power 3-Phase 1-Phase Engineering Handbook DC Kva kW kW kW HP I 3•I•E 1000 HP • 746 Eff • 1000 3 • I • E • pf 1000 I•E 1000 HP • 746 Eff • 1000 I • E • pf 1000 HP • 746 Eff • 1000 I•E 1000 kva • pf kva • pf I • E • Eff • pf 746 HP • 746 E • Eff • pf kva I • E • Eff 746 3 • I • E • Eff • pf 746 HP • 746 3 • E • Eff • pf I I HP • 746 E • Eff kW • 1000 3 • E • pf kW •1000 E • pf kva • 1000 E kW • 1000 E kva • 1000 3•E Newton’s laws of motion 1.

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Lifting The mass to be lifted must be accelerated from rest to the desired speed and must -1 overcome the gravitational effect. which is the force pressing the two surfaces together. The formula for frictional resistance is: Fr = m • g • µ N The frictional resistance on an incline plane must take into account the angle of ascent. to the weight. Fr = µ • FN OR Fr = m • g • µ • cos α N Page 49 . Example. to accelerate a mass from rest to v m s in t -2 seconds requires an average acceleration of v/t m s . Therefore the total lifting force is v F = m + mg t ⎛v ⎞ = m⎜ + g ⎟ ⎝t ⎠ Friction N The horizontal force required to overcome friction is found by applying the coefficient of friction. and therefore a force of F= m • v t N But the acceleration due to gravity must be overcome too. u.

the value of a will be decided by operational constraints of velocity and time.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Torque A rotational force acting through a lever arm or radius is called a torque or moment. 2. the required torque input is obtained as shown in Fig. Torque is the product of a force F and the radius r of the lever through which it acts. if frictional and other resistance were absent. In practice. When F is known. Calculation of the torque value begins with the horizontal force F required to accelerate the mass m. 1 or 2. M. expressed as: M = F •r Nm A torque is required to operate a typical conveyor installation. It is important to understand the fact that. to be applied by the motor at the driving pulley (neglecting friction) is the accelerating force multiplied by the radius of the pulley M = F •r Nm Nm Page 50 =m•a•r . 2. A force F is required to accelerate the mass from rest. as it will be. The torque. once the mass m is in motion no force at all would be required to keep it moving. unit Nm. If the mass is known. Fig. Fig. the only variable in F = m* a is the acceleration a.

exerted by each pulley. if the torques are in the opposite sense (that is. If the sense of torque M2 is in the same as M1. which is constrained to rotate about an axis. Page 51 . The conversions are: GD 2 = 4J GD 2 = 4. 3 shows how tension is directly related to torque.21 WK 2 • 10 -2 kg m 2 kg m 2 To calculate the moment of inertia for a given shape. Rotational acceleration of a symmetrical mass is directly analogous to horizontal linear acceleration of mass. Manufacturers’ data for 2 2 moment of inertia may be given in the SI-derived quantity GD (or imperial quantity WK 2 measured in lb-ft ). The tension T is the difference between the torques.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Torque and Tension The diagram Fig. The torque of each pulley is equal to the force at its rim multiplied by the pulley radius. T will be increased. T will be reduced. In linear motion the acceleration force is F = ma. refer to Appendix IV. Moment of Inertia A mass. Correspondingly. is independent of gravity – unless it is not symmetrical about the axis of rotation. if M2 is a braking torque and therefore negative). For rotating machinery the moment of inertia is measured by test procedures. The acceleration force may act tangentially upon the mass or may be a shaft torque (as it is in VSD applications). in rotational motion the accelerating torque is M = Jα Nm Where J is the moment of inertia and α is the angular acceleration in radians per second. M1 and M2. Calculation of moments of inertia is only valid for a few simple shapes.

As shown above. The speed ratio of gearing is the difference between motor and load rotational speed. usually to enable the final output shaft to turn slower than the motor shaft. The relationships on either side of a transmission ratio are as follows: ω1 n1 = ω 2 n2 ω1 M 2 = ω2 M1 ω1 ⎛ J 2 ⎞ 2 ⎟ =⎜ ω 2 ⎜ J1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 where ω is in rad rev and n is in rpm or s s Torque ratio is the inverse of the speed ratio. There are 2π radians (rad) in 360 . The measurement of velocity is more conveniently measured in rev-per-minute or rev-persec.. so that: 0 (n in revs per second ) (n in revs per minute) ω = 2π n ω = 2π π n = n 60 30 rad s rad s Page 52 .. The transmission of the torque is reduced by the losses of the gearing.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Gearing The mechanical transmission system between the motor and the driven load frequently incorporates gearing of one kind or another. transmission systems that reduce the speed at the output are torque amplifiers. typically stated as: Input Shaft RPM Output Shaft RPM example : 1750 = 25 : 1 gear ratio 70 If there are two or more gearing devices in the transmission system. Moment of inertia ratio is the inverse square of the speed ratio.. the overall ratio is the product of: Ratio1 × Ratio 2 × Ratio 3 × .

η. the load moment of inertia reflected to the motor shaft. Load inertia reflected to motor shaft calculation J LOAD = J L ω2 2 ω1 2 × 1 η kg m 2 Total inertia reflected to motor shaft calculation ⎛J ω 2 1⎞ J T = J M + ⎜ L 22 × ⎟ ⎜ ω η⎟ 1 ⎝ ⎠ Belts and Sheaves kg m 2 The ratio of the pulley diameters when a belt/sheave transmission system is used determines the speed ratio. The efficiency. must also be taken into consideration. is the inverse square of the speed ratio. Driven RPM = Motor Pulley Dia. • Motor RPM Driven Pulley Dia Page 53 .Drive Application Engineering Moment of Inertia Reflected to Motor Shaft Engineering Handbook As shown by the earlier formula.

Torque and Power Torque is a measurement of the mass and acceleration. the load. This is derived from α1 = ω1α 2 ω2 rad s 2 Where α2 is the desired angular acceleration of the input shaft of the driven load. gearing and motor resistances must first be overcome. Power P = Torque × Speed = Mω W Page 54 . then additional torque must be applied that allows acceleration to occur. where power is a measure of the torque and the velocity. Acceleration torque at any moment is - M Accel = M Motor − M Re sis tan ce whe re : M Re sis tan ce = M Load + M Losses N The acceleration torque at the motor is M = J T α1 Nm Where α1 is the angular acceleration of the motor shaft. Another way of stating this is: to accelerate the motor and connected load.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Acceleration Torque Accelerating torque is the difference between the torque applied to the input shaft and the sum of all the torques demanded by the load.

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Section 3 – Application Examples Page 55 .

Barkers Diverters Dryers Edge Trimmer Elevators Extruders Feeders Floculators Flying Cut Off Gantry type Cranes and Hoists Grinders Hoists HVAC Indexers Injection Molding Kiln Drives Lift applications Line Shaft Mill / Ball Type Mill / Machining Type Friction x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Gravity Fluid Inertia CT x x x x x x Speed / Torque Characteristics VT Speed Range 30:1 10:1 15:1 4:1 10:1 3:1 30:1 4:1 60:1 10:1 10:1 20:1 30:1 40:1 10:1 100:1 20:1 40:1 10:1 15:1 100:1 60:1 4:1 10:1 100:1 100:1 10:1 100:1 3:1 20:1 40:1 10:1 100:1 10:1 10:1 100:1 x x x x Regen/ Braking Reg Type S S S S S S S S/T S/T S S S S S/T S S/P S S S S S/T S/T S S S/P S/T S S/T S S/P S/T S S/T S/T S S/P x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Regulation types: S=Speed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Application Matrix Load Characteristics Application Agitators Braider Can Making Centrifugal Fans Centrifugal Fans (I D) Centrifugal Pumps Centrifuge Coaters Coilers Compressors / Reciprocating Compressors / Screw Type Conveyors ( Auger) Conveyors ( Belt) Conveyors (Chain Type/Load Share) Conveyors ( Vibratory) Cut to Length De. T=Torque. P=Position Page 56 .

P=Position Page 57 .Drive Application Engineering Application Mill / Plate Type Mill / Rod Type Mixers ( Rotating Beater) Mixers / Banbury Monorails Packaging Equipment Palletizers Positioning Positive Displacement Blowers / Pumps Press / Blanking Type Press / Punch Type Press / Reciprocating Press Feeders Rolling Mills Rotary Tables Shakers Slitter Sorter Spindles Spray Painting Stackers / Storage & Retrieval Tension Reels Tentoring Test Stands / Chassis (Dynamometer) Test Stands / Engine Test Stands / Generic Test Stands / Transmission Tower type Cranes and Hoists Transfer Line Unwinder (for web / wire) Web Calendaring Web Coating Web Pickling Wind Tunnels Winder ( for web / wire) Wire Drawing Friction Load Characteristics Gravity Fluid Inertia x x x x x x x x x CT x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Engineering Handbook Speed / Torque Characteristics VT Speed Regen/ Range Braking 10:1 x 10:1 x 4:1 10:1 10:1 20:1 10:1 100:1 10:1 30:1 30:1 10:1 60:1 10:1 100:1 10:1 100:1 40:1 100:1 40:1 10:1 100:1 100:1 100:1 100:1 100:1 100:1 100:1 10:1 100:1 100:1 100:1 20:1 4:1 100:1 40:1 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Reg Type S/T S/T S S/T S S/P S/P P S S S S S S S/P S S/T S S S S/P S/T S/T T T T S/T S S/T S/T S/T S/T S S/T S/T x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Regulation types: S=Speed. T=Torque.

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook This page intentionally left blank Page 58 .

moving Breakaway torque. Application data Material delivery rate: Density of material: Width of belt: Length of conveyor: Depth of load: Weight of belt: Diameter of belt pulley Coefficient of friction. 4. 3. Find the rating of a standard 3-phase. Calculations 1. fully loaded Desired acceleration Data Given 1000 tons per hour 2 kg dm-3 750 mm 325ft 100mm 15 kg per meter 400mm 0.1m) (0. values shown in parenthesis Page 59 . Procedure 1. static Coefficient of friction.09 0.06m) (0.4m) (4280Nm) The example application is required to start when fully loaded.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Conveyor Sizing a motor for desired operation of the conveyor. Determine the loading and acceleration. assuming typical 4-pole.07 5800 lb-ft 4 seconds Converted to SI Units (252 kg/s) (2000 kg/m3) (0. 60Hz. 2. Data not in SI units converted. Convert all value to SI units. Determine the linear and rotational speeds and gear ratio. Calculate power ratings of the motor and the drive. and from them the forces to accelerate and to run. 1750RPM at full load. if not already done. 460V AC induction motor to drive the conveyor.75m) (99.

section area 0 . Velocity and Gearing 2. Required delivery rate per hour = volume x density Engineering Handbook Volume delivered = mass delivered density m3 hr Volume per second = 252 2000 m3 m3 s s = 0.2 Linear velocity v= volume per second cross .75 x 0 .2 = 23 to 1 approximately.Drive Application Engineering 2.3 Rotational speed of driven pulley.875 rad rad rad s s s RPM = ω x 30 π = 75.575 = 0. 126 = ( 0 .1) = 1.126 2.4 Gearbox ratio will be 1750 / 75.2 rpm 2. ω= linear speed radius 1.1 Volume of required delivery rate.2 = 7. Page 60 .575 m m s s 2.

• Output speeds are determined by the application but input speeds can be varied. Linear velocity = 1. torque to accelerate conveyor against rolling friction is force multiplied by the radius of pulley. Calculating Load.3 Horizontal force required to accelerate the loaded conveyor against rolling friction after breakaway is.75 x 0. where p is the number of poles and f is the rated frequency. 4280 Nm 3. If the gearbox calculated for a particular application is unacceptably high. Fa = (load mass x accelerati on ) + (load mass x g x coeff.39 4 m s2 Page 61 .575 (from step 2.830. is n = f x 120 p rpm 3.4 Determine the linear acceleration.06 x 15) = 17. all other factors being known.2 Breakaway torque to start the conveyor from rest in a fully loaded state is given in the data as.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Notes • This is the ratio appropriate for a standard 4-pole motor as stated earlier.575 = 0. a motor with more pole pairs may be a better solution. 3.2) Required acceleration time is 4sec (given in data) Linear acceleration = 1.1 Load calculations Load = mass of material plus mass of belt = (volume of material x density) + 2(conveyor length x mass of belt per meter) = [(99.06 x 0.1)(2000) ] + 2(99. • The rotational speed n of a motor. 3.8 kg 3. Force and Torque Note • A factor of 2 is applied to account for the return run of the conveyor belt. of rolling friction = ma + mg µ or m (a + g µ ) N ) and.

therefore power is also zero. Since this is well within the intermittent overload time of a typical motor. 07 )]0 . At the instant of starting.Drive Application Engineering 3. motor and drive 4.830 [0 . Power ratings. P = Mω W Since power is proportional to speed. Per the data given. this appears to present a problem. 83 x10 3 x 9 . The power demand at the belt pulley is the power demand at the motor. 2 = 2448 Nm 4.6 Horizontal force required to run the fully loaded conveyor at full speed against rolling friction. the motor speed is zero. Page 62 .39 + (9 . During acceleration.5 From step 3.2 Summarize the known torque demands. of rolling friction ) = mgµ Nm and. the speed increases from zero to the running speed and therefore the power demand appears to have no particular value. the overload capability may be used for acceleration power. The accelerating torque at full speed can be used as the accelerating power demand. the starting and acceleration period is 4 seconds.3 Engineering Handbook M a = [m (a + g µ = Fa r )] r Nm Nm M a = 17 . 81 x 0 . (Assuming wind resistance to be negligible) Nm Fs = (load mass x g x coeff. Breakaway torque = 4280 Nm Accelerating torque (Ma) = 3839 Nm Running torque (Ms) = 2448 Nm Torque and acceleration do not need to be referred to the motor since power is equal on both sides of a gearing mechanism. 07 x 0 . M s = Fs r = mg µ r = 17 . 81 x 0 . 2 = 3839 3. torque to run the conveyor against rolling friction is force multiplied by the radius of pulley.

The drive must be able to deliver the current required for breakaway torque.5) x 7.4 This rating must now be verified with the drive required to operate the motor.2 and 3. and having found the starting current demand. full speed.95 31 . ( from 3.8 kW 4.) is assumed to be the full load.f. Page 63 . find the rating of the drive.3 Motor power to accelerate the conveyor is the accelerating torque at the conveyor pulley multiplied by the rotational speed of the pulley at full speed. the actual rating is: 1 0.3 This would be the rating of a motor able to deliver accelerating torque continuously.5 Calculate the currents involved. P = 3 x V L x I L x p. Pa = M aωη = 3839 (from 3.3 = 31. not the selected 22kW rating.4) 4280 3839 Note that the current demand during acceleration must be based on the 31. 0.875(from 2. full voltage rated power factor of the motor. the current demand is in the ratio of required acceleration current. kW Where the working power factor (p. f .3) x = 31823 x 10 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook 4. but in practice it must be verified for the gearbox installed. For this example. 8 x 100 = 21 . In order to make full use of the 150% overload rating of the motor. 2 150 kW A standard 22kW rated motor will work. 4.85 (from data). η is 95%. 4.8 kW and is calculated from. Since current is proportional to torque. taking into account the efficiency (η) of the gearing.8kW overload rating for acceleration. The starting current is based on the motor rating of 31.

For this example. The full load rated current of the drive is 52.4 A 4. 85 = 47 Starting current = 47 x = 52.98 A Note • The overload performance of a given drive may vary in magnitude and time rating.4 x 100 1 x = 35. Page 64 . = 31800 3 × 460 4280 3839 x 1 0 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Total I L = P 3 x V L x p.6 Like the motor. 150% for 60 seconds is assumed.6 150 0. The drive efficiency must be taken into account (98% assumed). the drive will have a short duration overload.f.

(Note . 14 ÷ 99). The total force is the hypotenuse of the vector diagram of which the horizontal component is the force required to start. F is calculated from. find the motor power if the conveyor raises the load through a height of 14 meters. accelerate and run the incline conveyor at constant speed. we can calculate the forces required to start.calculator must be in radians mode) F = Fh + (mg sin γ ) 2 [ 1 2 2 ] N Using the torque values from step 4. These have already been calculated in the “conveyor” application.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Inclined Conveyor From the same conveyor data. An inclined plane adds a component of force to the forces required to start. 1. These torque values were either given in the data or calculated by multiplying the force x the radius of the pulley. This component is the force required to raise the load. The total force. Page 65 . accelerate or drive the load at constant speed.1 of the previous “conveyor” example. accelerate and run the conveyor. The pulley radius is 0.2 meters. The additional vertical component is m g multiplied by the sine of the angle of the slope.1 Calculate the Force required to start the conveyor. γ (in this case. Starting torque is 4280 Nm.

The mass. 4. 3839 = 19.707 × 10 4.83 × 10 3 )] 1 2 2 N N = 32. Now.2 ⎛ 14 ⎞ ⎟ = 0. m of the load is 17.1 Starting force is (Note: calculator in radians mode) Fstarting = Fh + (mg sin γ ) 2 [ 1 2 2 ] N ⋅ 9.2 Calculate the force required to accelerate the conveyor.83 x 10 kg (from conveyor example step 3. 4.2 Accelerating force is (Note: calculator in radians mode) Page 66 . using these force values (step 1.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook F= M r 4280 = = 21. This is determined by taking the incline height (given at 14 meters) and dividing by the length (given at 99 meters).2 1.2 N N N 1. 2448 = 12.24 × 10 3 0.3 Calculate the force required to run the conveyor.3).81 ⋅ sin 0. γ = sin −1 ⎜ rad 3.1).4 × 10 3 0. we can calculate the force required to raise (incline) the conveyor 14 meters in a distance of 99 meters.1418 ⎝ 99 ⎠ 3 N We can calculate the angle of the slope.4 × 10 [( 3 2 3 ) + (17.1418 = 21.1-1.195 × 10 3 0. Accel torque is 3839 Nm. Running torque is 2448 Nm.

2 Accelerating torque is ( ) Nm Nm M = 31. Calculate the power by multiplying the torque at the conveyor pulley by the rotational speed of the pulley at full speed.83 × 10 2 1 ⋅ 9.1 Starting torque is M = 32.24 × 10 3 = 27. The efficiency of the gearing must also be considered.51 × 10 3 ( ) Nm Nm 6.3 Running force is (Note: calculator in radians mode) Frun = 12.26 × 10 3 5. Page 67 . For this example.83 × 10 ⋅ 9.707 × 10 3 ⋅ 0.309 × 10 3 [( [ ] N 3 ) + (17.81 sin 0.309 × 10 3 ⋅ 0.81 ⋅ sin 0.2 = 6.3 Running torque is ( ) Nm Nm M = 27.1418 )] 1 2 2 N N 4.2 = 6. the next step is to determine the power required for acceleration.1418 )] 1 2 2 N N Nm 3 5. Now that the torque values have been calculated. 5.597 × 10 M =Fr [( = [F 2 h 2 + (mg sin γ ) ]2 2 N 3 ) + (17.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook 1 2 2 Faccel = Fh + (mg sin γ ) 2 = 19. Torque required for the forces calculated.597 × 10 3 ⋅ 0.195 × 10 3 = 31. we will use 94%.54 × 10 3 5.2 = 5.

6.2) 6541 6261 Note that the current demand during acceleration must be based on the 54. kW The working power factor (p.5 100 150 kW kW A standard 37kW rated motor will work. Starting current is based on the motor rating of 82.3 Calculate the currents involved. f .85. P = 3 × VL × I L × p. and full voltage rated power factor of the motor.94 W W kW kW 6.8kW overload rating. Page 68 . 6. so the current required is in the ratio of breakaway to acceleration torque. not the selected 37kW rating.1 and 5. 0. Current is proportional to torque. find the rating of the drive.79 1 0.1 The power calculated is continuous.2 This rating must now be verified with the drive required to operate the motor. full speed.) are assumed to be the full load.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook P = M aω η = 6261 × 7. The drive must be able to deliver the current required for breakaway torque.3kW. so we will make use of the overload capability of the motor (150%) so the actual rating required is: 54.f.79 × = 36.875 × = 54798 × 10 −3 = 54. (from 5. having found the starting current demand.

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Total I L = P 3 ⋅ VL ⋅ p.4 Like the motor. The full load rated current of the drive is: 84.5 A A Note • The overload performance of a given drive may vary in magnitude and time rating. f .5 × 100 1 × 150 0.79 × 10 3 3 × 460 × 1 0.85 A A = 80.5 6541 6261 A A 6. the drive will have a short duration overload. = 54. 150% for 60 seconds is assumed.98 = 57. Page 69 . For this example. The drive efficiency must be taken into account (98% assumed).9 × = 84.9 Starting current = 80.

Drive Application Engineering This page intentionally left blank Engineering Handbook Page 70 .

Determine the rotational speeds and gear ratio.07 per unit 35.36 kg) (0.440 kg/m) (45. Application Data Conveyor Speed: Conveyor Length: Belt Mass: Load Mass: Belt Pulley Radius: Coefficient of Friction.6363 (0.651 m/s) (1. and dynamic braking.0065 kg*m2) kg*m2) kg*m2) kg*m2 Procedure 1. if not already done.0762 m) (47. Determine the rotational speeds and gear ratio.0 lb*ft 0. Because of their fast accel and decel times it is necessary to take into account the inertia of the system.219 m) (7. Convert all values to SI units. Calculations 1.0211 0.1 Angular velocity.4762 (0. Convert data not in SI units. running. 2.3 sec 0. and decelerating torque. drive.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Gap Conveyor A gap conveyor is a short conveyor with fast accel/decal times used to load the product onto the longer conveyor when there is an opening. Moving: Breakaway torque. 3. 2.4 sec 0. Page 71 . fully loaded: Desired Acceleration: Desired Deceleration: Run Time @ Top Speed: Idle Time: Desired Motor RPM Inertia: Drive pulley: Tail pulley Idler roller: Rotor Inertia: Data Given 325 fpm 4 ft 5 lb/ft 100 lb 0.25 ft 0.1 11. Determine the accelerating. SI values shown converted in parenthesis.46 Nm) (0.3 0. 2.5 lb*ft^2 lb*ft^2 lb*ft^2 Converted to SI Units (1.3 sec 0. 4.5 sec 1750 RPM 15. Calculate the power ratings of the motor.

Force.219 × 7.67 × 30 π = 206.67 rad rad rad s s s Now the RPM at the load side of the gear box are calculated.0762 = 21.3 Load Inertia kg kg kg kg Linear Acceleration = v 1.36) + 2(1.46 to 1 approximat ely 206.0762 = 29. Load Calculations m Load = mass of material + mass of belt = (mass of material) + 2(conveyor length × mass of belt) = (45.1 3.50(5.9 rpm Gearbox Ratio = 3.503 + 9.95 Page 72 Nm Nm Nm .50 3.503 t 0. and Torque Breakaway torque to start the conveyor from rest in a fully loaded state is given in the data as 47.651 = 0.46 Nm. 3.440) = 63.651 = = 5.0 × 0.07) = 393.2 Desired Motor RPM 1750 = = 8.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook ω= linear speed radius 1.81 * 0.3 m s2 F = m Load × a + m Load × gµ = m Load (a + gµ) = 63.9 206. RPM = ω × 2.0 N N N M = Fr = 393.9 Load.2 Gearbox ratio will be 30 π = 21.

4146 3.81 × coeff .013 3.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook J Load = M×t ∆ω = 29.67 kg m 2 kg m 2 kg m 2 = 0. of rolling friction = 63.67 = 0.95 × 0.61 × 0.4146 + 0.0065 x 8.4 Total Inertia J Total = J Load + J Drive Pulley + J Tail Pulley + J Idler Roller + (J Rotor x Gear Ratio 2 ) kg m 2 = 0.61 M Run = FRun × Belt Pulley Radius = 43.50 × 9.4762 + 0.7 Decelerating Torque N N N Nm Nm Nm Page 73 .5 Accelerating Torque kg m 2 M Accel = J Total × ∆ω Accel Time 2.013 × 21.0211 + (0.323 3.3 21.6 Running Torque FRun = Load × 9. 3 = 145.4 Nm Nm Nm 3.07 = 43.6363 + 0.0762 = 3.4582 ) kg m 2 = 2.81 × 0.

Next we solve for current. Page 74 . Because the motor is accelerating and decelerating 0. full torque. Therefore. PAccel = M Accel × ω × η 1 = 145.5 second. a standard 3.4 × 21.67 = 3151 4. Drive and Dynamic Braking From step 3. Motor power to accelerate is the acceleration torque multiplied by the rotational speed. and decelerating torque.013 × 21. the motor power factor is 0. We will calculate the required current rating of the drive using the largest of either the PAccel or PDecel above and the formula for 3 phase power. W The motor power factor (p. In this example.2 W W W Motor power to decelerate. PDecel = M Decel × ω = 145.4 × 21.4 Nm Nm Nm 4. and full voltage.85.f. we will use accelerating torque to calculate the motor size.4 Drive size.3 W W W Motor size.67 = 0.7kW (5 HP) motor will work. 4. taking into account the efficiency of the gearbox η. we will not utilize 150% overload capability. In this example η is 95%.6 seconds out of a total cycle time of 1.) is assumed to be at full speed.67 × 0. accelerating torque. but in practice it must be verified with the gearbox installed. We will not take into account the losses in gearbox efficiency in order to give us some headroom for sizing dynamic braking. 4.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook M Decel = J Total × ∆ω Decel Time 2. P = 3 × VL × I L × p.1 Power Ratings of the Motor. 3 = 145. running torque. Motor power to accelerate is the acceleration torque multiplied by the rotational speed.95 = 3317 4. since it is the largest torque requirment out of the 4 torques calculated: breakaway torque.f .

5 Dynamic brake size. 5A drive will be sufficient for this application. or other method of regeneration.7 W W W W W W The dynamic brake chosen. 4. and taking into account motor efficiency. Motor efficiency for the motor is 0. 3317 A A A 3 × 460 × 0.3 = × 2 1. must be able to dissipate 2647 W peak and have a continuous rating of at least 265 W.84 = 2647 PAve = PPeak decel time × 2 cycle time 2647 0.85 = 4.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook IL = = P 3 × VL × p. We calculate the peak power that must be dissipated in the dynamic brake based on power to decelerate.84.898 A 460V. Page 75 .f . PPeak = PDecel × motor efficiency = 3151 × 0.5 = 264.

Drive Application Engineering This page intentionally left blank Engineering Handbook Page 76 .

Quite often the actual demand varies and may be much less than the designed capacity. It shows how much pressure is required from the fan to overcome system losses and produce airflow. Below is an example of what a typical centrifugal fan can produce at its outlet at a given speed. The centrifugal fan imparts energy into air by centrifugal force. These are useful for selecting the optimum fan for any application. Standard fan curves will usually show a number of curves for different fan speeds and includes fan efficiency and power requirements. The curve is a plot of outlet pressure (in static inches of water) versus the flow of air (in cubic feet per minute). The system curve shows the requirements of the vent system that the fan is used on. Page 77 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Centrifugal Fan Fans are designed to be capable of meeting the maximum demand of the system in which they are installed. and are required to predict fan operation and other parameters when the fan operation is changed. This results in an increase in pressure and produces airflow at the outlet of the fan.

the fan will operate only at this point. Without external influences. Variable Inlet Vanes – By modifying the physical characteristics of the air inlet. The system curve can be stated as. the system or fan curves are affected which produces a different natural operating point. the performance of the fan changes producing a different airflow. These include: Cycling – As done in home heating systems. they are turned to restrict the outlet. There are several methods used to modulate or vary the flow (or CFM) of a system to achieve the optimum points. In so doing. This produces erratic airflow and is unacceptable for commercial or industrial uses.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook zThe system curve is a plot of “load” requirement independent of the fan. By changing the airflow. It is the actual pressure and flow that will occur at the fan outlet when this system is operated. Many systems require operation at a wide variety of points. The intersection of the fan and the system curve is the natural operating point. which reduces the airflow. Outlet Dampers – Control louvers or dampers are installed at the outlet of the fan. the fans operating curve is modified which changes the airflow. they also may change the fan’s efficiency and power requirements. Variable Frequency Drives – By changing the actual fan speed. Outlet Dampers The outlet dampers affect the system curve by increasing the resistance to airflow. To control airflow. or the fan speed. Page 78 .

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook P = K × (CFM ) Where: 2 P is the pressure required to produce a given flow in the system. CFM is the airflow desired. Outlet Damper – System Curves The power requirements for this type of system decrease gradually as flow is decreased as shown in the following diagram. K is a function of the system that represents the friction to airflow. CFM × LbFt 2 HP = 33. The diagram below shows several different system curves indicating different outlet damper positions.000 × Eff Fan HP = CFM × PIW 6356 × Eff Fan Where : CFM = Cubic feet per minute PIW = Inches of water gauge Eff Fan = %/100 CFM × LbIn 2 HP = 229 × Eff Fan Page 79 . The outlet dampers affect the K portion of the formula.

Page 80 . and to a greater extent than the outlet damper. Below is a representation of the changes in the fan curve for different inlet vane settings.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Outlet Damper – Power Requirements Variable Inlet Vanes This method modifies the fan curve so that is intersects the system curve at a different point. Variable Inlet Vane Settings The power requirements for this method decrease as airflow decreases.

Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

Variable Inlet Vane – Power Requirements

Variable Frequency Drives This method takes advantage of the change in the fan curve that occurs when the speed of the fan is changed. These changes can be quantified in a set of formulas called the affinity laws.

Q2 N 2 = Q1 N1
Where:

P2 ⎛ N 2 ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ P1 ⎜ N1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

2

HP2 ⎛ N 2 ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ HP1 ⎜ N 1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

3

N = Fan speed Q = Flow (CFM) P = Pressure (Static Inches of Water) HP = Horsepower Note that when the flow and pressure laws are combined, that the result is a formula that 2 matches the system curve formula – P = K x (CFM) .

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Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

⎛N P2 = P1 × ⎜ 2 ⎜N ⎝ 1 ⎛Q Q2 N 2 = → ⎜ 2 ⎜Q Q1 N 1 ⎝ 1
2

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

2

⎞ ⎛N ⎟ =⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜N ⎠ ⎝ 1

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

2

By substituting (Q2/Q1)2 for (N2/N1)2 in the first equation gives us:

⎛Q P2 = P1 × ⎜ 2 ⎜Q ⎝ 1

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

2

⎡ P ⎤ 2 or P2 = ⎢ 1 2 ⎥ × (Q2 ) ⎣ (Q1 ) ⎦

The quantity P1/(Q1)2 coincides with the system constant, K. This shows that the fan will follow the system curve when its speed is changed. Variable Speed Curves

As the fan speed is reduced, a significant reduction in power requirement is achieved.

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Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook Variable Speed – Power Requirements

The variable speed method achieves flow control in a way that closely matches the system or load curve. This allows the fan to produce the desired results with the minimum of input power. Fan Energy Savings It is possible to estimate the power consumption for reach of these various methods and associate a cost of operation with them. To accomplish this, an actual load profile and fan curve is required as shown below.

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Drive Application Engineering Load Profile

Engineering Handbook

Page 84

These calculations are then summed to produce a “weighted horsepower” that represents the average energy consumption of the fan. that the fan operates at this point. CFM Duty Cycle (% of Time) 100% 10% 80% 40% 60% 40% 40% 10% For each operating point. Page 85 . assume the fan selected is to be run at 300 RPM and 100% CFM is to equal 100. Using the fan curve shown previously. Assume the following Load Profile.000 CFM as shown on the chart. This horsepower is multiplied by the percent of time (divided by 100%). a simple analysis of the variable speed method compared to the outlet damper method follows.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Fan Performance As an example. we can obtain a required horsepower from the fan curve.

746 0.07 $ 0. HP2/HP1 = (N2/N1)3 to give us: HP2 ⎛ Q2 ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ HP1 ⎜ Q1 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 3 When Q1 = 100% and HP1 = 35HP. We can use the formulas from the affinity laws to overcome this.746 and then multiply the result by the hours the fan will operate in a period of time. The flow formula Q2/Q1 = N2/N1 can be substituted into the horsepower formula.Drive Application Engineering CFM 100 80 60 40 Duty Cycle 10 40 40 10 Outlet Damper Method Horsepower 37 35 31 27 Total Engineering Handbook Weighted HP 3.34 $ 554. However.6 3.237 14.5 7.862 7.537 X kW / HP 0.37 Total 40 2.37 Weighted HP 3.2 0.916.16 This example shows a cost saving of more than $700 per month by using a variable speed method.8 Similar calculations are done to obtain a weighted horsepower for variable speed operation. the fan curve does not have enough information to read all the horsepower values for our operating points. Variable Speed Method CFM Duty Cycle Horsepower 100 10 35 80 40 19 60 40 8 40 10 2.55 X Cost $ 0. To calculate this.7 32.537 Comparing the results of the two methods of control indicates the difference in energy consumption.250. Page 86 . Note that the example is very basic and does not motor and drive efficiency.7 14.07 = Total Cost $ 1. Q2 and HP2 will have the following values: Q2 80 60 19 8 HP2 Now sufficient information is available to calculate the weighted horsepower.746 X Hours per Month 730 730 = kWH per month 17.8 14. The first point is obtained from the fan curve.0 12. In order to get a dollar value of savings kilowatt-hours used must be known. Outlet Damper Variable Speed Weighted HP 32. multiply the horsepower by 0. 100% flow equals 100% speed equals 37 HP. This would typically be for a month.4 2.

where centrifugal pumps are variable torque in nature.0) Head × ( specific gravity ) 3960 Brake Horsepower – The horsepower required to operate the pump at a specific point. The momentum produces an increase in pressure or flow at the pump outlet. usually in feet of water.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Centrifugal Pump Pumps are generally grouped into two broad categories. The dynamic head usually increases proportional to the square of the flow rate. Water Horsepower – The energy output of the pump derived directly from the outlet parameters. Positive displacement pumps use a mechanical means to vary the size (or move) of the fluid chamber to cause the fluid to flow. To get water to flow into the vessel at a particular volume may require 10-FT static head plus 1-FT dynamic head.(or Friction Head) Pressure losses within the pipe or pipe system due to flow. To get water from the base to a spout at the top of a 10 FT vessel would require a static head of 10 FT. positive displacement pumps and dynamic (centrifugal) pumps. Brake HP = Water HP Pump Efficiency Page 87 . Static Head – The pressure required to overcome an elevation change in the system. Centrifugal pumps impart a momentum in the fluid by rotating impellers immersed in the fluid. A 30 FT head is the pressure equivalent to the pressure found at the base of a column of water 30 feet high. specific gravity = 1. Q. Pump Curve – A characteristic curve of a pump showing the head-flow relationship of the pump. Water HP = Flow × (For water. Pump Terms Head – A measurement of pressure. Dynamic Head . Positive displacement pumps have a constant torque characteristic. This section will discuss only the centrifugal pump. Pump Head – The pressure the pump produces at its outlet. Head = K × Q 2 where K = system constant System Head – The curve of the head required to satisfy both static head and the dynamic head for a range of flows on a given system.

the length of pipe. the number and location of elbows. There are two methods used to accomplish the continuously varying flow objective. obstructing flow increases the head pressure. and other factors. Where these two curves intersect is the natural operating point. then some method of altering the pump characteristics or the system parameters is necessary. A system with two different valve settings is shown below. One method is throttling which changes the system curve by use of a control or throttling valve. The system curve is completely dependent on the size of pipe.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook The pump curve is solely a function of the physical characteristics of the pump. Throttling System With this method. which modifies the pump curve. That is where the pump pressure matches the system losses and everything is balanced. The other method is to vary the speed of the pump. See the following diagram. Page 88 . Pump and System Curves If the system is part of a process that changes often or continuously.

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook For comparison. See Pump Curve Below. let’s use an example to determine power requirements for the throttling system. Page 89 . This pump is to operate a system requiring a 63-FT head at 1.200 GPM. then the variable speed system. A pump (with a 14” impeller) operating at a base speed of 1150 RPM is used.

They are: GPM % FLOW BRAKE HP 1. A set of formulas that are used to predict the operation of a centrifugal pump at any operating point based on the original pump characteristics is known as the affinity laws.200 100 25 960 80 23 720 60 21 480 40 19 Water HP = Flow x Head 63 = 1200 x = 19 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook From the information shown on the graph.09 = 25 0. we can obtain the various horsepower requirements at the flow rates shown in the table below for a throttling system. Page 90 . the variable speed method takes advantage of the change in pump characteristics that occur when the impeller speed is changed.76 Variable Speed System In comparison. 09 3960 3960 Brake HP = Water HP Pump Efficiency = 19.

4 480 40 40 1. The example also did not have a static head associated with it. ⎛ 80% ⎞ ⎛ 0.Drive Application Engineering Affinity laws Engineering Handbook Q2 N2 = Q1 N1 Where: ⎛N ⎞ P2 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ N ⎟ P1 ⎝ 1 ⎠ 2 ⎛N ⎞ HP 2 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ N ⎟ HP 1 ⎝ 1 ⎠ 3 N = Pump speed Q = Flow (CFM) P = Pressure (Feet of Water) HP = Horsepower Using the same pump example as the throttling system. we can calculate the power requirements for the system when the pump speed is varied.200 100 100 25 960 80 80 12.6 Note: Use 25HP for HP1 and 100% for N1 to fill in the table above.8BHP ⎝ 100% ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎠ 3 3 It is obvious that varying the speed requires much less power. To determine the actual power required. the efficiency of the drive should be factored in. GPM % FLOW % SPEED BRAKE HP 1. A system with static head does change the system curve and the horsepower requirements. Page 91 .8 ⎞ BHP at 960GPM = ⎜ ⎟ × 25 therefore ⎜ ⎟ × 25 = 12.8 720 60 60 5. The energy savings will depend on the amount of time the pump is operated at each reduced speed point.

Drive Application Engineering This page intentionally left blank Engineering Handbook Page 92 .

The block-and-tackle arrangement has two pulley sheaves at the top and two at the hook. 2. (converted data in parenthesis) 1. and has a ratio of 4:1. Speed and acceleration of the hook Page 93 . The load is sensitive and must be gently raised from rest. 3.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Lift In this application example. motor to drum 10:1 Coefficient of hoisting friction 0. The pulley ratio is the numerical ratio determined by the number of falls (ropes passing between pulleys).095 Maximum Load 200mm 3 US tons (2. Application Data Diameter of lifting drum Gearbox ratio. convert all data to SI units. 4-pole. Calculations 1. 2. 4. Determine the speed and acceleration of the hook. Or simply counting the number of pulley wheels in both sheaves will also generate the ratio. Determine the pulley ratio of the hoist block-and-tackle arrangement. Determine the lifting force and torque required to maintain full speed. The fixed end of the rope is secured at the top sheave block. 5. The hoist is to be operated by a standard 3-phase. Determine the motor and drive power rating.721 x 103 kg) Procedure First. a hoist is required to lift material of 3 tons (USA) maximum. The data given is shown above. Determine the lifting force and torque required to accelerate up to full speed. 460V 60hz induction motor with a full load speed of 1750rpm.

1 The linear force. gear ratio. Fa required at the hook to raise the load from rest up to full speed is the algebraic sum of the forces necessary to: a) Hold or suspend the load mg. since the calculation is from output to input).2 Since the load to be raised is sensitive. and the pulley ratio.4581 s Drum Speed = 2. An acceleration time of 9 seconds should be adequate. diameter of lifting drum. The linear acceleration of the load is derived from the following. a slow acceleration from rest is required. b) Accelerate the load to full speed ma c) Overcome rolling friction mgu = m[a + g (1 + µ )] Fa = mg + ma + mgµ N N 3. Motor Speed 1 rev × Gear Ratio 60 s Drum Circumference Hook Speed = Drum Speed × Lifting Ratio 1750 1 0. Fda at the winding drum is Fa multiplied by the inverse of the lifting ratio (inverse. v = v0 + at a= where v 0 = 0 m s2 m s2 v t 0.4581 = = 5.09 × 10 − 2 9 Lifting force and torque required to accelerate to full speed 3.2π m Hook Speed = × × 10 60 4 s m = 0. Page 94 .1 The speed of the hook is a function of the motor speed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook 2.2 The equivalent force.

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Fda = Fa × 1 m[a + g (1 + µ )] = 4 4 N 3.3 The acceleration torque at the drum is the force multiplied by the drum radius.721 × 10 3 5. Lifting force and torque required to maintain full speed.721 × 10 × 9.09 × 10 − 2 + 9.81(1 + µ ) 0.3 The full speed torque at the drum is the sum of the force multiplied by the radius the drum. mg b) Overcome rolling friction. mg (1 + µ ) d × 4 2 3 2.2 The equivalent force Fds at the winding drum is Fs multiplied by the inverse of the lifting ratio (inverse. mgu = mg (1 + µ ) Fs = mg + mgµ N N 4.2 = × 4 2 = 730.81(1 + 0. Fds = Fs × 1 mg (1 + µ ) = 4 4 N 4.095) 0.7 = Page 95 M ds = Fds × drum radius Nm Nm Nm Nm .2 = × Nm 4 2 = 734. 4.2 Nm = M da = Fda × drum radius Nm [( ) ] 4. since the calculation is from output to input). m[a + g (1 + µ )] d × Nm 4 2 2.1 The linear force Fs required at the hook to maintain the load at full speed is the algebraic sum of the forces necessary to: a) Hold or suspend the load.

Drum Rotational Speed = = motor speed 1 × ×π gear ratio 60 rad s 1 rad s 1 rad s 1 1750 1 × ×π 10 60 = 9.Drive Application Engineering 5. of the gearbox is considered (power is equal on either side of the gearbox less efficiency losses of the gearbox). Motor and drive power rating Engineering Handbook Power is the multiple of torque and speed. will be assumed at 97%. η. It does not matter if the calculation is done at the motor or at the winding drum as long as the efficiency. P = Mωη 5.163 Accelerating power is: Page 96 . so the torque demand at full speed will be used to calculate the acceleration power required. the efficiency. the speed ramps from zero to full speed. During acceleration. For this example. η. The worst case power demand is at full speed. therefore the power has no particular value.1 Motor power required for acceleration W 1 Pa = M da × ω d × η W Where : M da = acceleration torque at the drum ω d = rotational speed of the drum in radians per second η = efficiency of the gearbox Note that the inverse of the gearbox efficiency is used since greater torque and power is required from the motor than the calculated torque at the winding drum.

97 1 × 10 −3 0.2 × 9. Page 97 .5kW motor will be adequate.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Pa = M da × ω d × 1 0.97 W kW kW = 734. full voltage rated power factor of the motor. 0. If the overload capability is to be used. find the rating of the drive. 6. f .62 100 150 kW kW Motor power is directly proportional to torque. full speed.163 × = 6. 4.2 This is the rating of a motor capable of delivering continuous accelerating lifting torque.5kW.62 × = 4.) will be assumed to be the full load.935 × = 4.935 5. 5.3 Drive power rating Calculate the currents involved.85.2 kW kW A standard 5.6 730. then the size is calculated as follows. The acceleration time of 9 seconds is well within the maximum overload time of the motor. having found the starting current demand. The power demand at full lifting speed can be determined from the ratio of full speed torque to accelerating torque. kW The working power factor (p. P = 3 × VL × I L × p.7 734. Starting current is based on the motor rating of 5.f. Standard motors are capable of delivering a short-term overload of 150%.

but we are not going to take advantage of it in this application. and comparing that value to a setpoint threshold. etc. In some applications. This is also necessary because once the motor and drive are in control of the load (including working against the brake for a time). before releasing a mechanical brake. The brake must stay released until the end of the cycle. the setpoints during the rest of the cycle. the drive will have a short duration overload. such as a long acceleration time.5 × 10 3 1 3 × 460 0. nor are necessary to satisfy. f . the value of torque reference. Brake Permissive The brake permissive circuitry will need to take into account the torque proving circuit and any safety circuits that must be satisfied prior to release of the mechanical brake. Like the motor. the motor flux component and all other Permissive Interlocks must stay maintained throughout the cycle. Motor flux must be at the rated value and the torque component must be at or above the threshold. This logic process controls release of the mechanical brake. The controller and drive or drives can implement a speed profile to put the lifting mechanisms in motion. For these applications. These values are very likely not to satisfy. regardless of up (forward) or down (reverse) direction by monitoring for a positive torque working against gravity and the brake before release. The plot in Figure 3 represents a profile of a typical “start-lift-stop” cycle without any dwell time after the start and stop commands. The value of Torque Reference could swing significantly after the brake releases.5 amperes continuous is suitable. the drive may need to be oversized. this method may cause undue wear and stress on Page 98 . = 5. and as the drive responds to the work profile commanded. in the raising direction. pressure.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Total I L = P 3 ⋅ VL ⋅ p. The objective is to produce enough lifting torque so a load suspended will not drop or sag when the brake is released.85 × A A = 8. Although a viable method of control.12 A drive capable of delivering 8. gravity. A Run command in either direction will initiate flux and torque to be built. The torque threshold need only be a momentary condition. will immediately reflect the values dictated by process conditions. All conditions must be satisfied before an output signal changes state. in the motor. The Brake Output maintains an energized state until a NOT RUN condition occurs. the overload capability of the motor is not used to reduce the motor rating. Calculated Torque Proving Principles of Torque Proving focus on monitoring a drive parameter that represents the level of torque produced at the motor shaft. Once the brake is released and the lift is operating in a controlled fashion.

Note: The recommended end of cycle sequence (figure 4) is to decel to “0” speed and have the drive/motor hold the load and dwell for a duration. When the drive senses “0” speed feedback it turns off the Inverter. long enough to insure that the mechanical brake secured the load. The physical brake settting delay time needs to be considered. Page 99 . a NOT RUN or Stop command de-energizes the brake coil allowing the brake pads to stop and secure the load.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook the equipment. Figure 3 At the end of the cycle. See Figure 4 and explanation for a more equipment friendly method of control using the precise torque regulation capability of the 1336 Impact drive.

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Figure 4 Page 100 .

There needs to be agreed upon understandings of Rockwell Automation's role or involvement. we try to alert them of the proper choice of drive and key control criteria they ought to consider designing in. direction and torque at slow speeds and to hold the load at rated torque at zero speed. This is because we strongly feel that the ONLY responsible control design involves a legitimate form of "torque proving" prior to release of a mechanical brake and true control of torque throughout the range of motion. Our drives do not have "canned features" supporting lifting applications. We suggest you do the same. there is engineering control design work and set up added to properly use the drive. The drives do not stand alone to perform a safe control scheme. the ONLY PROPER application of a VFD in lifting applications. A second critical criteria that must be promoted. that if they do not utilize our drives as recommended. Our drive products can be applied to a multitude of applications. Lifting applications have a rather high degree of risk for danger to safety and cost of damage potential. sensing information. The essential features. Like with most involved applications of various sophistication levels. particularly if we did not engineer the control scheme. parameters. but require the additional logic. Our drives are not typically labeled as a "hoist drive" or a "winder drive" or a ". here in Commercial Application Engineering. etc. interfacing with our drives to implement "torque proving" and other safety criteria. Page 101 . The volts per hertz VFD varieties can safely perform the other non-lifting functions associated with the lifting function like bridge and trolley traversing. The whole control picture requires additional logic control outside of the drive. or if the customer asks for advice in using our VFDs on lifting applications. Our drive products have the means to do such applications. even zero speed. This is essential to safely control speed. and if torque proving or the right choice of drives has not been implemented. should something go wrong. are there to use in lifting applications. Or there needs to be additional logic control outside the drive with significant safety backup logic and third party monitoring input to compensate. are those that truly regulate TORQUE at any speed. drive".Drive Application Engineering Using Drives in Lifting Applications Engineering Handbook Variable Frequency Drives can be an excellent control solution for lifting applications. we would rather not sell you or them the drives and walk away from the opportunity. When we become aware that a drive is being purchased for lifting application. is the use of encoder feedback from the motor shaft back to the drive. will boldly tell you or an inquirer. Encoderless operation is neither reliable nor safe for lifting applications and must be avoided in control designs. That is how strongly we feel about doing a lifting application correctly.…. We.

Drive Application Engineering This page intentionally left blank Engineering Handbook Page 102 .

Calculate ratings of motor and drive.52 m) (0. values shown in parenthesis Page 103 . Center driven winders have the benefit of controlling tension via directly controlling the torque of the wound product. Tension taper can be applied as the diameter increases Application Data Maximum Line Speed: Density of Material: Width of Material: Core Diameter: Maximum Roll Diameter: Maximum Line Tension: Desired Acceleration: Data Given 400fpm 75 lb/ft^3 60 in 6.03 m/s) (1201.17 m) (0. if not already done.6 in 35 in 240 lbf 4 sec Converted to SI Units (2.89m) (1067. Data not in SI units converted. Determine torque required for maximum tension at minimum and maximum diameters. Determine maximum roll speed for minimum roll diameter.4 kg/m^3) (1. Calculations 1.57 N) Center Driven Web Procedure Convert units to SI units.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Winders Sizing a motor for a Center Driven Winder Paper product.

If the gearbox calculated for the particular application is unacceptably high. is • Page 104 .2 RPM = ω * 2.08382 ⎠ ω = 24.98 Using 12:1 Gear ratio which will give 2772 maximum motor RPM.445 ⎠ rad s 30 ω = 4. Speeds and Gearing 2.03 ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 0. a motor with more pole pairs may be a better solution. Notes: • Output speeds are determined by the application but input speeds can be varied.03 ⎞ ω =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ . Engineering Handbook ω =⎜ ⎟ ⎛v⎞ ⎝r⎠ ⎛ 2. using 3000 RPM maximum safe speed ⎛ 3000 ⎞ Gearing = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 231 ⎠ Gearing = 12.1 Determine RPM of core at line speed maximum.3 π = 43.56 Determine gear ratio.2 rad s rad s rad s 30 π = 231 Determine RPM at maximum roll diameter ω =⎜ ⎛ 2.56 RPM = ω * 2.Drive Application Engineering 2. The rotational speed n of a motor. where p is the number of poles and f is the rated frequency.

445 2 − 0.4 Nm Nm Nm Torque required accelerating to maximum speed at rated tension with maximum roll size. M = Ma + MT M = 670.198 + 0.0 Load & Force 3.28 M = 12 (Gear ratio) M = 95.8 3.52 * (0.48 3.1 ⎠ ⎝ M = 670.48 (accelerating) + 474.46kg 3.1 f *120 p rpm Determine mass of material on maximum roll diameter m = πρl (r2 − r1 ) 2 2 m = π * 1201.007225) * (228.4 * 1.8 (tension) 1145.1(sec rev / min rad ) ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 1094.2 Torque required to accelerate load to maximum speed ⎛ m(kg ) * (r1 2 + r2 2 ) * (∆RPM / ∆t (sec) ⎞ ⎟ M =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 19.16764 2 ) m = 1094.3 Torque required to hold tension on sheet Nm Nm Nm M = (Tension N * r ) M = (1067 * 0.46 * (0.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook n= 3.445) M = 474.44 motor required Page 105 Nm Nm Nm Nm .06 / 4) ⎞ M =⎜ ⎟ 19.

Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

Notes • Torque for acceleration and tension must be added together for the motor sizing. Tension is required during acceleration on center driven winder systems. 4.0 Motor selection. 4.1 Calculate required torque at minimum diameter to hold tension.

M = (Tension N * r ) M=

M = (1067 * 0.08382 ) 89.43 12 ( gear ratio)

Nm Nm Nm Nm

M = 7.453
4.2 Calculate kW at minimum diameter to hold tension.

kW =

7.453 * 2772 9500 kW = 2.1

4.3

Calculate motor rating. In order to make use of the full 150% overload rating of the motor the actual rating is:

Nm * RPM 9550 95.4 *1750 kW = 9550 Total kW kW = 17.48 100 kW = 17.48 * 150 Continuous kW kW = 11.65 kW =
A standard 15kW motor will be used because a standard 11kW motor would be at 160%.

Page 106

Drive Application Engineering 4.4

Engineering Handbook

Calculate current required. After finding current, determine rating of the drive. The starting point will be with 17.48kW.

P = 3 * VL * I L * p. f .

kW

Where the working power factor (p.f.) is assumed to be the full load, full speed, full voltage rated power factor of the motor. 0.85 (from data).

Total I L =

P 3 * V L * p. f

=

17.48 * 10 3 3 * 460

*

1 0.85

A A

= 25.8
4.5

Like the motor, the drive will have a short duration overload. For this example, 150% for 60 seconds is assumed. The drive efficiency must me taken into account (98% assumed). The full load rated current of the drive is also affected by the difference in motor rating to total kW rating.

25.8 *

1 15 * 17.48 0.98 = 22.59

A A

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Engineering Handbook

Page 108

Drive Application Engineering Surface Driven

Engineering Handbook

Winder drives that are not center driven are surface driven. They may be speed regulated or armature current (torque) regulated. Buildup does not appreciably affect winder horsepower. Taper tension is difficult to provide, and the quality of roll will not be as good as with center driven winders.

Application Data Maximum Line Speed: Density of Material (Driven Drum): Diameter of Driven Drum: Inside Diameter of Driven Drum: Width of Drive Drum: Density of Process Material: Core Diameter: Maximum Material Diameter: Material Width: Maximum Line Tension: Desired Acceleration: Procedure Convert units to SI units, if not already done. Determine mass of driven roll. Determine maximum roll speed. Determine torque required for maximum tension. Calculate ratings of motor and drive.

Data Given 800fpm 495 lb/ft^3 12 in 8 in 192 in 75 lb/ft^3 6.0 in 60 in 192 in 200 lbf 10 sec

Converted to SI Units (4.06 m/s) (7929 kg/m^3) (0.3048 m) (0.2032 m) (4.88 m) (1201.4 kg/m^3) (0.1524 m) (1.52 m) (4.88m) (889.64 N)

Calculations 1. Conversions - Data not in SI units converted, values shown in parenthesis 2. Mass - Determine the mass of the driven roll

m = π * p * l * ( r2 − r1 )
2 2

kg

m = π * 7929 * 4.88 * (0.02322 − 0.0103) kg m = 1555 kg
2.1 Determine mass of maximum material diameter.
Page 109

342 rpm = ω * rpm = 51 30 π .5776 − 0.06 ⎞ ω =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.1524 ⎠ rad s rad s rad s rpm ω = 26.3 Determine ν (velocity) of maximum material roll. ω =⎜ ⎟ ⎛v⎞ ⎝r⎠ ⎛ 4.0058) kg m = 10531 kg 3.06 ⎞ ω =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.1 Determine RPM of Drive Drum at maximum speed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook 2 2 m = π * p * l * (r2 − r1 ) kg m = π * 1201. 3.64 rpm = ω * 3.76 ⎠ rad s rad s rad s rpm rpm Page 110 ω = 5.4 * 4.4 rpm Gearing = ⎜ ⎛ 1750 ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 254.88 * (0.4.4 ⎠ Gearing = 6.879 Gearbox selected 6:1. Speeds and Gearing 3. ω =⎜ ⎟ ⎛v⎞ ⎝r⎠ ⎛ 4.2 Determine Gear Ratio 30 π rpm = 254. maximum motor speed of 1526.

Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

4. Torque Requirements 4.1 Torque required to accelerate driven drum.

⎛ m(kg ) * (r1 2 + r2 2 ) * (∆RPM / ∆t (sec) M =⎜ ⎜ 19.1(sec rev / min rad ) ⎝

⎞ ⎟ Nm ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ 1555 * (0.02322 + 0.0103) * (254.4 / 10) ⎞ M =⎜ ⎟ Nm 19.1 ⎝ ⎠ Nm M = 69.4
4.2 Torque required to hold tension.

M = (Tension N * r ) M = (889.64 * .1524) M = 135.6
4.3 Torque required to accelerate maximum material.

Nm Nm Nm

⎛ m(kg ) * (r1 2 + r2 2 ) * (∆RPM / ∆t (sec) ) ⎞ ⎟ M =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 19.1(sec rev / min rad ) ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 10531 * (0.58064 + 0.0058) * (51 / 10) ⎞ M =⎜ ⎟ 19.1 ⎠ ⎝ M = 1649
Notes: ♦

Nm Nm Nm

Torque for acceleration tension, and Maximum material must be added together for the motor sizing. Tension is required during acceleration on winder systems. Maximum material must be used for accelerating and stopping the system, also Emergency Stop considerations must be included in calculations.

Page 111

Drive Application Engineering 5.0 Motor Ratings 5.1 Calculate kW of motor for tension and acceleration. Summarize the known torque demands Accelerating torque (Driven Drum)= 69.4 Nm Accelerating torque (Maximum Material) = 1649 Nm Tension(Running) torque = 135.6 Nm

Engineering Handbook

Torque and acceleration do not need to be referred to the motor since power is equal on both sides of a gearing mechanism. The power demand at the Driven Drum is the power demand at the motor.

P = Mω

W

Per the data given, the starting and acceleration period is 10 seconds. Since this is well within the intermittent overload time of a typical motor, the overload capability may be used for acceleration power.

5.2 Motor power to accelerate the Driven Drum is the accelerating torque plus the tension Torque, multiplied by the rotational speed of the Drum at full speed. Taking into account the efficiency (η) of the gearing. For this example, η is 95%, but it must be verified fot the gearing installed.

Pa = M a ωη = 205 Nm (Sec 4) * 26.64 Nm (Sec 3.1) * = 5748.63 * 10 −3 = 5.75 Driven Drum 1 0.95 = 1649 Nm (Sec 4.3) * 5.342 * = 9272.6 * 10 −3 = 9.3 = 9.3 + 5.75 = 15 System Total
Page 112

W 1 0.95 W W kW W W kW kW kW

Maximum Material

Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

5.3 This would be the rating of a motor able to deliver the total torque continuously. To make use of the 150% overload rating of the motor, the actual rating is:

15 * = 10

100 150

kW kW

A standard 7.5 kW motor will work. 5.4 Calculate the current involved, find the rating of the drive based on the 98.75 kW rating.

P = 3 × V L × I L × p. f .

kW

Where the working power factor (p.f.) is assumed to be full load, full speed, full voltage rated pwer factor of the motor, 0.85 ( from data).

Total I L =

P 3 ⋅ V L ⋅ p. f .

=

7.5 × 10 3 3 × 460

×

1 0.85

A A

= 11.1

Page 113

Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

Additional application data required in designing winder drives includes the following: Line Speed Range. Tension range. Product Width Range. Product Thickness Range. Core Outside Diameter Maximum Roll Diameter. Product Modulas of Elasticity. Taper Range. Roll Change Procedure. Accelerating and Decelerating times. Dancer loop Active Storage. Static Losses in Dancer Air Loading System. Load Cell Tension Roll Weight, Diameter, Angle of Wrap, Mounting Position and Continue. Inclination of the Pass Line with respect to horizontal. Lineal feet of material between the Driven Roll and the Feedback device. Number of, and inertia of Strip Driven Idler Rolls between the Driven Roll and the feedback device. Turret Rotation Direction and Speed. Type of winder Web Severing and transfer, Bump and Cut or Enveloping Roll or J Arm. Rate of change of position of Hold Down Rolls, Bump and Cut Rolls or Enveloping Rolls. It is usually not possible to determine all the above exactly for any one application. However, going through all of them, step by step will avoid the necessity to make assumptions, and ensure a better winder installation.

Page 114

Motor Torque is the mechanical torque produced at the shaft of the motor. It is the maximum magnitude of output current limited by the Drives current regulator for a specified period of time.e. Drives are designed to monitor the level of current and time the duration (I2 t current squared times time) before turning off the output to protect the motor and register a “Motor Overload” fault. 100% of rated current continuously 150% of rated current for 1 minute 200% of rated current for 10 seconds and some DC drives may have an additional rating of. Definitions The most critical focus when specifying or sizing drive inverter hardware is the magnitude and duration of the current demanded by the process to be controlled. when converting from existing DC drive installations to an AC Drive solution. I2t (square of the motor current x time) is the protection algorithm implemented by the drive to protect the motor from overload. The following definitions apply: Maximum Drive current limit is the maximum rated capacity current output from the drive to the motor to develop torque at the shaft. Torque development is directly related to the amount of armature current flowing through a DC motor and directly related to the Iq (the torque producing current vector) current flowing through an AC motor. due to heat from handling too much current for too long a period of time.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook DC to AC Retrofit The following is intended to point out important considerations. Particular characteristics and limitations of both types of drives require an understanding before proceeding. and more recently.e. i. Any amount above this value is considered harmful to the motor in terms of overheating damage. It (current x time) is the protection algorithm implemented by the drive to protect itself from component damage. some may have an additional rating of. established to protect the drive components. Page 115 . 100% torque is equal to the maximum rated torque the motor is designed to produce continuously. Typically motors can develop anywhere from 200 to 400% of rated torque but cannot sustain these levels for extended durations of time before self-destroying due to heat. 100% of rated current continuously 150% of rated current for 1 minute 200% of rated current for 2 or 3 seconds FLA . AC drives typically have the following specifications. 250% of rated current for 2 or 3 seconds i. There are acceptable duration’s of time to operate above the FLA level and are determined by the I2 t algorithm.Full Load Amperes is the nameplate value representing the maximum magnitude of motor current necessary to develop full rated torque at the motor shaft. DC drives typically have the following specifications.

back to the AC line.Drive Application Engineering Existing DC equipment installation considerations Engineering Handbook For many drive conversions or retrofits. or with measurement equipment. determine regenerative energy handling requirements. or is being subjected to significant short term loading that must be known and considered. Some DC drives have regeneration to the AC line capability. This information is very valuable and necessary in determining the extremes that are being demanded of the existing DC drive and motor. measure and capture this information first hand. assess as much of the existing installation as possible for nameplate information and monitor loading profiles throughout the process cycle by reading drive parameters. or request that the Armature current levels and the respective durations of time be monitored and noted. The AC drive is not likely to be able to absorb significant regenerated energy levels due to decelerating loads and will require some form of dynamic braking. Caution! Do Not Make Assumptions! Many DC motor installations have 1200 RPM ratings. There are applications where the existing DC Drive may be operating at/or near the maximum of its capacity. (N = 120 * f / # of poles). When possible. This means that the DC drive has the capacity to channel regenerative current from the motor up to its rating. if the natural assumption to specify a one for one match of HP for HP of an AC motor and drive to a DC motor and drive. Gearbox ratios and pulley sheave ratios dictate the speed and torque range of the equipment and ought not to be taken for granted. it becomes critical to determine the specific operating demands of the present installation. Page 116 . Caution! Do Not Assume! The current demands may be greater than the rated performance capability of the replacement AC Drive. Second. Realize that stand-alone AC drives do not have the inherent capability to regenerate back to the AC line. which are not the same as traditional AC 1800 RPM motor installations. First. Particularly note the peak levels of torque demand or armature current requirements and the duration of time. Do Not be Careless! Also make particular note of the motor base speed rating.

197% of rated torque will require approximately 197% of FLA (240A x 197%) or 471 Amps. From our measurements we are aware that the DC machine requires 634 Amps (197% of FLA) to develop approximately 197% of the motors rated torque for about 2 seconds. A direct replacement 200 HP AC Field Oriented Control vector drive will limit its current output to (290 Amps x 150%) or 435 Amps for up to1 minute.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Extruder DC to AC Retrofit An ABS plastic extruder produces a variety of different stocks. There is no extra overshoot of current or torque for the required 2 seconds. 500/300 VDC. Focus on what rating facts are available. The largest cross section stock is made with the motor producing rated torque right at rated Armature current and running at 15% of base speed. but not all choices have this capability. a 250 HP drive with a limit of its current output to (325 Amps x 150%) or 487 Amps for up to1 minute for this application. From information provided or obtainable we determine the motor can develop 590 ft-lb. of torque. we should round up to insure a margin for performance. This is short of the 471 Amps required to develop 197% of rated torque for 2 seconds. When the extruder is required to start up with material in the barrel. It has an existing DC motor with nameplate data of 200 HP. We should recommend using the next larger size drive. By relative association. Page 117 . Choosing an AC motor at 200 HP 460VAC 1736 RPM. the armature motor current consistently reaches peaks at/or near 634 Amps (197% of FLA) for about 2 seconds. The motor is also forced air cooled so it can operate at very low speeds at full rated torque. 240 FLA. Focus on this and the fact that the AC Field Oriented Control vector drives precisely limit current (thus an equivalent limit of torque) to 150% of its rating. Extruders require precise control of torque across the whole speed range of operation including at very slow speeds. The customer confirms that some types of stock require operating at slow speeds to allow the material to cool and solidify before its shape would deform due to gravity. You have been asked to size the appropriate AC Drive and motor for conversion and replacement. because of the need to accurately control torque. Some AC drives may have an additional rating of 200% of rated current for 2 or 3 seconds. DC drives inherently provide good torque control by regulating armature current. Considerations: 1st understand what type of control the application requires and what the DC drive provides. RPM. 590 ft-lb appears straightforward. 2nd realize that AC Field Oriented Control vector drives are typically rated: 100% of rated current continuously 150% of rated current for 1 minute. Caution: Even if the calculations may come out marginally close to the capacity limit of the drive. 1750 RPM / 2100 max. 322 Armature Amps. An equivalent type of AC drive appropriate for this application is a Field Oriented Control vector drive.

must be able to adjust the voltage in order to regulate current. The current regulator. The regulator also requires some margin for proper operation. typically 437V – 445V. Larger drive and motor sets are expensive and may not be oversized in order to save on installation costs. Larger drives (300 horsepower and up) tend to show more signs of it than smaller ones. the user may be more concerned about the operating condition. Large drives are the main concern. which must be planned for during continuous operation at frequencies 55Hertz and above. it needs some extra voltage headroom to regulate any instantaneous current demand. Page 118 . This results in a higher source impedance and lower peak line voltage. That is to say. This reduced voltage will result in approximately 3 to 5 % higher output current above FLA rating. This voltage headroom is roughly responsible for a 3 to 5% reduction in the maximum output voltage when the motor is at full speed and full torque. This will allow for more than adequate voltage headroom. For this reason. Also. In the case of the current regulated drive (AC Field Oriented Control vector drive). motor current as in any electrical circuit. Though this voltage utilization phenomenon exists for all current regulated drives. The bus voltage will be lower because of this. it would be better to suggest a 400 or 415 V rated motor with a corresponding higher FLA. current is determined by the circuit impedance and applied voltage. we are left with only the voltage as a means to regulate current. Since the motor speed and load determine the motor impedance. therefore. least it should drop too low. Large drives are more likely to be fed from a transformer more closely matched to the drive size with little over sizing of the transformer. reluctant to let the motor run at 105% since the cost of this motor failing is much larger than the cost of a small motor failure.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Another consideration has to do with a voltage utilization phenomenon. if the customers incoming line voltage is chronically lower than 460 V. There are a few reasons for this.

Page 119 . Some variable speed drives have the switching device incorporated into its packaging.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Dynamic Braking “Dynamic braking” is one of the simplest and most common methods of dealing with regenerative energy that is of a decelerating nature. If this is the case. The figure below is a schematic diagram of a dynamic brake circuit. Take the motor HP x 746 x 1. If the switching device is not within the drive packaging. The control circuit monitors the DC bus voltage level and turns the switching device on and off at the appropriate level. The simplest way to connect a resistor to a drive with a switching device is to consider the horsepower of the motor connected to the drive. Connecting a resistance that is smaller than this value will result in damaging the switching device. Usually this is 150%. a separate electronic package needs to be connected to the DC bus. How to size the resistor Note: The methods described in the following text apply to decelerating applications. This is not usually a good solution for overhauling loads. Now check the specifications of the drive for the minimum resistance that can be connected to the drive. If the voltage increases to 750 volts the control circuit will turn on the switching device connecting a resistor across the DC+ and DC. usually called a “chopper”.Bus. Most drives have the ability to supply more current than the rating of the motor for a short period of time. the nominal DC bus voltage is about 650 volts. the resistor and the control circuit.5 for total worst case wattage dissipation that the drive will be able to handle without going into an internal over current protection mode. a resistor need only be connected to the proper terminals to function. The three major components are the transistor (switching device). The resistor is then connected to the chopper. It is a voltage regulator that attempts to control the DC bus voltage from reaching the overvoltage trip point of the drive. This resistor must be within the boundaries of the drive specifications. In the case of a 460 volt drive.

torque.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Select a resistance greater than the minimum allowed with a wattage rating equal to HP x 746 x 1. 1. torque and power profiles of the drive as a function of time for a particular cyclic application that is periodic over t4 seconds. 5. Figure 2 shows the speed. ω Rad / s = 2πN RPM 60 N(t) = The motor shaft speed in Revolutions Per Minute. The nameplate power rating of the motor in watts.ft = 1. or RPM T(t) = The motor shaft torque in Newton. The motor inertia and load inertia in kilogram-meters2.meters.m P(t) = The motor shaft power in Watts. the following variables are defined: ω(t) = The motor shaft speed in Radians/ second. The desired time to decelerate is known or calculable and is within the drive performance limits. GR. This method will typically result in unnecessary expense in resistors and is not the preferred way to address decelerating regenerative energy. The nameplate speed rating of the motor in rpm. or horsepower. 1. if a gear is present between the motor and load. and power profile of the drive application.0 HP = 746 Watts -Pb = The motor shaft peak regenerative power in Watts ω (t) 0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t1+ t4 t T(t) 0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t1+ t4 t P(t) 0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t1+ t4 t -Pb Figure 2 Application speed.0 lb. In Figure 2. or lb-ft2. Gather the following information: 1.355818 N. The motor shaft speed. The preferred method of calculating DB resistors is as follows.5. or rps. torque. kilowatts. The gear ratio. and power profile Page 120 . 4. 2. 3.

0 HP = 746 Watts Compare the peak braking power to that of the rated motor power.meters2 . RPM t 3 .m2 2 πN b 60 ω o = angular rotational speed.meters2 .ft 2 GR = the gear ratio for any gear between motor and load. kg .ft 2 1. lb . needs to be increased so that the drive does not go into current limit. Rad / s = N b = rated motor speed.meters2 . Step 3 – Calculating the Maximum Dynamic Brake Resistance Value 0. lb . or pound . dimensionless J L = load inertia. kilogram .9 × Vd2 Vd = the value of DC Bus voltage that the chopper module regulates at Rdb1 = Pb and will equal 375 Vdc. Do not reduce Pb by any ratio because of estimated losses in the motor and inverter. kg .ft 2 = 0.5 Vdc Pb = the peak braking power calculated in step 2 Rdb1 = the maximum allowable value for the dynamic brake resistor The choice of the Dynamic Brake resistance value should be less than the value calculated in step 3. the drive can trip on DC Bus overvoltage. then the deceleration time.m2 Step 2 – Calculate the Peak Braking Power Pb = J T × ω b (ω b − ω o ) t3 − t2 J T = total inertia reflected to the motor shaft. watts 1. less than rated speed and can be zero. lb . (t3-t2).04214011 kg .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Step 1 – Determine the Total Inertia J T = J m + GR2 × J L J T = total inertia reflected to the motor shaft. or pound . kilogram.m2 .feet 2 . if the peak braking power is greater than 1. seconds Pb = peak braking power. If the value is greater than the calculated value.m2 . Rad / s ω b = rated angular rotational speed. kilogram .5 times that of the motor.t 2 = total time of deceleration from ω b to ω o .m2 .ft 2 J m = motor inertia.0 lb .feet 2 .feet 2 . Page 121 . This has been accounted for by an offsetting increase in the manufacturing tolerance of the resistance value and the increase in resistance value due to the temperature coefficient of the resistor element. or 937. or pound . kg . kg . 750 Vdc.

If a lower resistance were to be used with the Chopper Module of choice. the IGBT could suffer damage from overcurrent. Step 6 – Choosing the Dynamic Brake Resistance Value Choose a resistor value that lies between Rdb1 (Step 3) and Rdb2 (Step 5). If (t3-t2) = the time in seconds necessary for deceleration from b speed to o speed. Step 5 – Calculating the Minimum Dynamic Brake Resistor Value R db2 = Vd Id 2 R db2 = the minimum value of the dynamic brake resistor Vd = the value of DC Bus voltage chosen in step 3 I d2 = the value of the current rating for the chopper module This step calculates the minimum resistance value that the Dynamic Brake Resistor can have.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Step 4 – Choosing the Chopper Module I d1 = Vd R db1 I d1 = the minimum current flowing through the chopper module transistor Vd = the value of DCBus voltage chosen in step 3 R db1 = the value of the dynamic brake resistor caculated in Step 3 The value of Id1 sets the minimum value of current rating for the Chopper Module. the current rating of the Module Transistor must be greater than or equal to the calculated value for Id1. with the preferred values of resistance as close to Rdb1 as possible. Step 7 – Estimating the Minimum Wattage requirements for the Dynamic Brake Resistor It is assumed that the application exhibits a periodic function of acceleration and deceleration. When the Chopper Module choice has been made. Page 122 . The power as a function of time is a linearly decreasing function from a value equal to the peak regenerative power to some lesser value after (t3-t2) seconds have elapsed. See Chopper Tables in the back of this booklet. and t4 is the time in seconds before the process repeats itself. then the average duty cycle is (t3-t2)/t4.

How much stress depends on the size of the inertia and length of the time the chopper is conducting. This is because the constant temperature curve may be exceeded.t 2 = elapsed time to decelerate from ω b speed to ω o speed. watts t 3 . Rad / s The Dynamic Brake Resistor power rating in watts that will be chosen should be equal to or greater than the value calculated in step 7.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook The average power regenerated over the interval of (t3-t2) seconds is: Pb ⎛ ω b + ω o ⎞ ⎜ ⎟. you may experience stress on the resistor bank. It should be noted at this point that if the deceleration time is unusually long it is possible that the resistors may become very hot. Rad / s ω o = a lower motor speed. seconds t 4 = total cycle time or period of process. watts ω b = rated motor speed. Should you have an application that decelerates a huge inertia longer than 50 seconds. 2 ⎝ ωb ⎠ The average power in watts regenerated over the period t4 is: Pav = ( t 3 − t 2 ) Pb ⎛ ω b + ω o ⎞ × ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ωb ⎠ t4 Pav = average dynamic brake resistor dissipation. seconds Pb = peak braking power. Page 123 .

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It provides re-balancing of unbalanced voltage with a 30degree phase shift. the grounded neutral may be a path for common mode current caused by the drive output. In all cases. Grounding of the transformer secondary is essential to the safety of personnel as well as the safe operation of the drive. the input power to the drive should be referenced to ground. In many cases this voltage could exceed the rating of the input MOV protection devices of the drive causing a catastrophic failure. then an isolation transformer should be installed with the secondary of the transformer grounded. Leaving the secondary floating can permit dangerously high voltages between the chassis of the drive and the internal power structure components. Again. depending on the output connections from the drive to motor.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Transformers and Grounding The type of transformer and the connection configuration feeding a drive plays an important role in its performance and safety. Depending on the output connections from the drive to motor. If the transformer can not be grounded. Delta / Wye with grounded Wye neutral: This configuration is one of the most common. the grounded neutral may be a path for common mode current caused by the drive output. Ungrounded secondary. Page 127 . Delta / Delta with grounded leg: Another common configuration providing voltage re-balancing with no phase shift between input and output. The following is a brief description of some of the more common configurations and a discussion of their virtues and shortcomings.

Drive Application Engineering Resistance grounding and ground fault protection: Engineering Handbook Connecting the Wye secondary neutral to ground through a resistor is an acceptable method of grounding. Open Delta: This type of configuration is uncommon. The transformer VA should be limited to no more than 4-5 times the drive VA rating. Use the formula below to determine the maximum VA rating of the transformer. Single phase will not work with an SCR front end drive. Since high frequency ground current can flow through this resistor. When used to power a drive this configuration must be derated to about 70% of the single phase rating of one transformer. Ripple current becomes 120 hertz rather than 360. Z Drive = VL− L 3 ×Input Amps VAMax = (VL − L ) 2 × %Source Leakage Z Drive × 0. Sizing transformers for drive applications The transformer supplying power to the drive needs to be sized relative to the drive rating. care should be taken to properly connect the drive motor leads using the recommended cables and methods. The resistor is often used to detect ground current by monitoring the associated voltage drop. In this case the drive must be derated to 50% of its rating. Single Phase Connection: For a small drive with a diode rectifier front end it is possible to run a three phase output with a single phase input. Only part of the three phase input bridge is used. Under a short circuit secondary condition. any of the output phases to ground will not exceed the normal line to line voltage. The technique uses two single phase transformers to derive a third phase.01 Page 128 . Typical Source Leakage is 5-6%. From time to time it may be encountered where only single phase power is available and three-phase power is required. multiple drives on one transformer can produce a cumulative ground current that can trigger the ground fault interrupt circuit. In some cases. This is within the rating of the MOV input protection devices on the drive. The result is that the drive must be derated to 50% current. This places a greater demand on the DC filter components (Capacitor bank and DC choke). This system provides poor regulation and it is possible that only the two line connected phases will provide power.

• Attenuate the noise at the drive’s output terminals with a filter such as an eliminator or sine wave filter. Page 129 . This is probably the least desirable solution. a means of coupling that noise from the source to the ground plane. Although the reactor does reduce the rise time of the reflected wave voltage. Reflected wave magnitude is dependent on the extent of the impedance mismatch. Problems due to common mode noise imply a source of noise. it can still reach high peaks. • Attenuate the noise at the drive’s output terminals with a reactor. Reflected wave rise time is affected by the rise time of the VFD’s output devices. and equipment sensitive to that noise. A combination of reflected wave voltage magnitude and rise time has a major influence on the dielectric withstand capability of the motor. Motor Reflected Wave Pulse Amplitude [5us/div:200v/div] (A) Unterminated (B) Reactor at Drive (C) Terminator Line-Line Motor Voltage (VPK) Time (µs) Common Mode Noise Common mode noise is a type of electrical noise induced on signals with respect to a referenced ground. Waveform (A) shows an the reflected wave voltage for a 450VAC drive. Up to 2 per unit (twice) VFD DC bus voltage may exist on line to line motor terminals. Solutions to Reflected Wave Phenomenon • Select NEMA MG1 Part 31 Inverter Duty Motors. • Terminator (RC network) at the motor to absorb the energy. • Limit motor cable length.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Installation Considerations for VFDs Reflected Wave Phenomenon This phenomenon occurs when cable surge impedance does not match load (motor) surge impedance.

This resistor is in the series path of the CM noise current return and significantly reduces peak CM current magnitude to small levels such that potential differences in Page 130 . A solid grounded wye secondary system is a low impedance to the transient CM noise current and completes the return path back to the drive input leads from the ground grid. and PLC communication links. 4-20mA current loop sensors. 0-10V I/O. bar code/vision systems. and computers. Noise Abatement Solutions • Grounding Practices: Bringing the motor ground directly back to the VFDs ground terminal allows a more direct path for the common mode current to flow back to the VFD. • Equipment sensitive to noise include ultrasonic sensors. temperature sensors. Source of Common Mode Noise: VFD Common Mode Output Current VFDs have abrupt voltage transitions on the drive output that are a source of radiated and conducted noise. Whereas a motor grounded to a sub-panel or ground terminal block not located at the VFD allows common mode current to flow through other paths. Noise Source: Drive Induced Common Mode Current t rise DC Bus fc tfall fn= . capacitive proximity or photoelectric sensors. These voltage transition times are determined by the semiconductor technology used. The magnitude of these currents is determined by the amount of stray capacitive coupling phase to ground during the fast switching voltage transitions on the drive output.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Signals and Equipment Sensitive to Common Mode Noise • Control signals sensitive to noise include encoder feedback. weighing sensors. A high resistance ground system would add typically 150-200 Ω to the T1 secondary neutral circuit that is grounded.318 / trise VL-L t Iao t Noise Coupling: Conducted Common Mode Current to Ground Common mode current can flow thru the motor cable capacitance to ground and thru the motor stator winding capacitance to ground. Highest CM current magnitude occurs with this system but very little CM noise goes out into the PE grid beyond the transformer neutral connection. so that CM noise is contained.

• Attenuate the Noise Source: The best way to eliminate system noise is to attenuate it at the source (the drive) before it gets out into the system grid and takes multiple high frequency sneak paths which are hard to track down in an installation. A Common Mode Choke (CMC) is an inductor with output Phase A. Past experience has shown Common Mode Chokes on the drive output and CM cores on the interface equipment are highly effective in ensuring fully operational tripless systems in medium to high risk installations. The shield/armor is isolated from accidental contact with grounds by a PVC outer coating so that the majority of noise current flows in the controlled path of the cable and very little high frequency noise goes into the customer PE ground grid. the 60 Hz green Safety wire.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook the plant ground grid caused by CM noise is minimal. CM noise currents are generated from cable phase conductor to the cable green ground wire. the cable shield/armor or the customer ground grid. An ungrounded secondary system breaks the CM return current path back to the drive input so that very little CM current in the ground grid exists. a disadvantage is that surge test results show primary to secondary line to ground high voltage transients are passed directly to the secondary side without attenuation. safety concerns must be addressed with this system. from phase to cable shield and from motor winding to ground. These currents have 3 return path options back to the drive. Also. Page 131 . B and C conductors all wound in the same direction thru a common magnetic core. Surge testing has shown acceptable primary to secondary line to ground transient voltage reduction. Thus. The predominant return path is the shield/armor since it has the lowest impedance to the high frequency noise. CM noise is reduced. Attenuation of Drive Noise with Common Mode Chokes 70 n S In v erter o u tp ut vo ltage V LL Com mon M ode C u rren t 6 M Hz C u rren t W ith Com mon M ode C h o kes 1 .5 to 5 u S I P EA K 2 00 kHz to 6 3 k H z SPE C TR U M 1/3 I P EA K • Shield Noise Away from Equipment Use 3-conductor w/ ground shielded or armored cable. However.

Cable Charging Current Paths U DRIVE PE V W ILINE IMOTOR Co1 MOTOR PE Cog Capacitively coupled currents could exceed the drive rating. There also exists a motor line to ground capacitance. drives < 2 hp are more susceptible to overload and overcurrent trips due the additional charging currents. defined by the stator winding capacitance to the motor PE frame ground. Techniques to mitigate cable charging current • Reducing carrier frequency • Reducing cable lengths to manufacturer recommended values • Over-sizing the drive hp for a smaller motor hp load is also effective to insure cable charging limits are not met • Add a 3 phase inductor on the drive output to reduce the cable charge current magnitude Page 132 . Co1 = Line to line capacitance path Cog = Capacitance path line to ground This phenomenon exists for all drives. which may be added to Cog .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Divert Noise from Susceptible Equipment with Proper Cabinet Layout: Grouping the input and output conduit/armor to one side of the cabinet and separating the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and susceptible equipment to the opposite side will eliminate many effects of CM noise currents on PLC operation. It is recommended that no more than 3 drive output wires be routed in the same conduit to prevent additional drive to drive capacitive currents resulting from tightly bundled output wires in a conduit. a capacitive coupled cable charging current is sourced from the drive. Capacitively coupled currents can also exist between the output wires of different drives that are routed in the same conduit. However. Shielded motor cable has higher capacitance line to line and line to ground than wires in a conduit and may increase the charging current magnitude. During each dv/dt transition on the drive output line to line pulse. Cable Charging Current A drive to motor 3 wire plus ground cable consists of Co1 line to line stray distributed capacitance and Cog distributed line to ground cable capacitance. This phenomenon is exhibited to a greater degree on 460 V drives than on 230 V drives due to the higher output transition voltage. flows through Co1 and returns through another phase. The drive switching transition in a given phase output also sources another cable charging current path from line to ground through Cog.

Do not route more than 3 sets of drive cables in any one conduit. Route power and control separately and ground all shields per instructions. the incoming supply neutral or ground will be bonded to the building ground. do not randomly distribute them. if any. Grounding of a drive or drive system is done for 2 basic reasons: safety as defined above and noise containment or reduction. 3. When laying cable in cable trays. use quality wire inside the conduit. also away from sensitive equipment. Building steel is judged to be the best representation of “ground” or “earth”. Because the output of a PWM ac drive can produce high frequency common mode (coupled from output to ground) electrical. Choose conduit entry points that allow any common mode noise to remain away from PLCs and other equipment that may be susceptible to noise. Always use shielded cable for encoder signals and route in a separate conduit. The structural steel of a building is generally bonded together to provide a consistent ground potential. care should be taken in those installations where the presence of such noise may cause other sensitive equipment to malfunction. Use shield terminating connectors whenever possible. If a pigtail must be used. Cables for each drive should be bundled together and anchored to the tray. the user should understand the voltage potential. Use wire with XLPE insulation with good concentricity and insulation thickness greater than 15 mils. ground (or earth) potential at power frequencies. 1. Connect the supply transformer secondary neutral / ground directly to the drive PE terminal. Common mode current on the return ground wire from the motor will flow to the copper PE bus and back up the input PE ground wire. The object of safety grounding/bonding is to ensure that all metalwork is at the same. Panel Layout Plan the cabinet layout so that drives are separated from sensitive equipment. well away from sensitive equipment (such as the PLC). 2. shielding or armor can flow into the cabinet bond and most likely exit through the adjacent input conduit/armor bond near the cabinet top. Solder a flying lead to the braid and connect to the proper ground terminal. such as ground rods. make certain that surfaces are scraped and cleaned for solid connection. between ground rods in different areas of the installation. Avoid or understand the effects of accidental or unrecognized contact between conduit and ground point along the run. pull and twist the exposed shield after separation from the conductors. ground water level and other environmental factors can greatly affect the voltage potential between ground points if they are not bonded to each other. If conduit is used. 4. 5. they should be considered as totally different circuits with different requirements. 6. Impedance between the drive and the building system ground must conform to the requirements of national and local industrial safety regulations and/or electrical codes. Use shielded cable with a PVC outer jacket where possible to contain or properly route noise. Page 133 . Use the best ground point If intentionally bonded at the service entrance. . While the safety ground system and the noise current return circuit may sometimes share the same path and components. If other means of grounding are used. Common mode noise current returning on the output conduit. If painted surfaces are involved. Type of soil. The grounding scheme used can greatly affect the amount of noise and its impact on the system. Article 100B).Drive Application Engineering Grounding and Bonding Engineering Handbook An effectively grounded system or product is one that is “intentionally connected to earth through a ground connection or connections of sufficiently low impedance and having sufficient current-carrying capacity to prevent the buildup of voltages which may result in undue hazard to connected equipment or to persons” (as defined by the US National Electric Code NFPA70.

The CIV (Corona Inception Voltage) for the air void may be reached. Effect of Reflected Wave on Cable Life of XLPE and PVC Individual Phase Conductor Cable All 600v rated XLPE cables are adequate to handle the 2 per unit reflected wave transient per our test results. Many reasons exist for selecting a specific cable construction and insulation type. 600v PVC cables will be suspect based on insulation thickness and environment conditions. the less voltage the wire can withstand. This issue is of even greater concern when the wire is pulled through multiple 90 degree bends in the conduit.e. It is these nicks that Page 134 . which attacks the PVC insulation and produces carbon tracking. Considerations with THHN Wire Due to inconsistencies in manufacturing processes or wire pulling. UL and agency approval listing. Applications where moisture is prevalent in the environment should refrain from using THHN (PVC insulation) wire with IGBT based drives. chemical resistance. Final selection may be based on important non-electrical characteristics such as mechanical rigidity. galvanized steel or box type conduit with individual phase and ground conductors • Metal Clad (MC) armor cables Common cable insulations used are cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC). Nicks reduce the thickness of the installation. fire retardency. Wire Insulation Inconsistencies THHN jacket material has a relatively brittle nylon coating that lends itself to damage (i. The smaller the insulation thickness.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Motor Cables Commonly Used Cable Types and Insulation Typical cable constructions used in industrial applications are: • Tray Cable (TC) or shielded TC laid in a 12” – 24” tray • PVC. Because the dielectric constant of air is much lower than the dielectric of the insulation. as well as past historical experience. the transient reflected wave voltage may appear across the small air void capacitance. leading to the susceptibility of insulation breakdown as in the above case. A wire with 15 mil specification was observed to have an insulation thickness of 11 mil at some points. cuts) when pulled through conduit on long wire runs. nicks. air voids can occur in THHN wire between the nylon jacket and PVC insulation. Asymmetrical construction of the insulation has also been observed for some manufacturers of PVC wire. moisture resistance.

It is superior to loose wires in dry.Drive Application Engineering may be a starting point for corona that leads to insulation degradation. PVC jacketed. 3 conductor armored cable is also superior to loose wires in dry. damp and wet applications and can significantly reduce capacitive coupling and common mode noise. Page 135 . shielded type Tray Cable with XLPE conductor insulation designed to meet NEC code designation XHHW-2 (wet locations) is recommended. Engineering Handbook Cable Recommendations A 3 conductor with ground. damp and wet applications and can significantly reduce capacitive coupling and common mode noise.

Linear Load: in a linear load. with each waveform having a frequency that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. The distorted waveforms can be represented as a series of waveforms. Page 136 . The waveform is distorted. the voltage is proportional to current and the waveforms are undistorted sine waves consisting of one fundamental frequency. Input Line to Neutral Voltage and Input Current on phase A of a Linear Load Nonlinear load: in a nonlinear load. The figure below shows the voltage and current waveforms for a linear load with a fundamental frequency of 60 Hz. current is not proportional to voltage. The figure above shows typical waveforms for a 3-phase AC drive with a DC link choke. Input Line to Neutral Voltage and Current on Phase A of a 6 Pulse AC drive w/ DC Link Choke Current harmonics seen on the AC line side PWM AC drives are a result of the 3-phase converter section.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Harmonics Nonlinear loads cause harmonics.

95-0. if a consumer’s plant is running at a small percentage of their peak loading. Refer to IEEE-519 tables in Appendix III.0% 12-Pulse Drive 6.0-3.0-7. IEEE-519 uses a term called TDD (total demand distortion) to express current distortion in terms of the maximum fundamental current that the consumer draws: TDD % = ∑ (I h=2 h=∞ h )2 × 100 % I load Iload is the maximum fundamental current that the consumer draws and it could be measured over a specified time period. TDD will most likely less that THD.0-1.0-2.0-6.0-2.5% 18-Pulse Drive 4.0% 4.0-2.5-4. or estimated. the THD calculated may be very high. IEEE-519 is a standard that provides guidelines for limits on harmonic distortion.5-2.0 97.96-0.0 97.98 0.5-98.97-0.5-1. the 5th and 7th harmonics are the dominant harmonics (besides the fundamental).0 2.0-2.5% 0.0% 2.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook In an AC drive.0 4.0% 1.5-9.99 1.95 0.0% 0.0% 1.5-97. Therefore.5-1.0-3.98 2. Keep in mind that TDD is only used to measure current distortion. PWM AC drive with DC link choke: Category Current THD Power Factor DPF K-Factor Efficiency 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 6-Pulse Drive 30-35% 0.97 3.5 20-30% 4. Page 137 .0-5.0-7.5% 1. It is important to note that THD uses the instantaneous fundamental current as the denominator.98-0.0% 3.0% 2.99 0.0% 1.0% THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) and TDD (Total Demand Distortion) Harmonic distortion measurements are normally given in “total harmonic distortion” or THD. Typical harmonic current spectrum for a 3-phase. not voltage distortion.0-98.98-0.5% 1. Because TDD uses the maximum fundamental current consumed as the denominator.0% 3. THD defines the harmonic distortion in terms of the fundamental current drawn by a load: THD % = h=∞ 2 ∑ (M h ) h=2 × 100 % M fund Where Mh is the magnitude of either the voltage or current harmonic component and Mfund is the magnitude of either the fundamental voltage or current.0-5.5% 0.5% 1.0-2.5% 1.5-2.5-5.0-4.5-5% 0.92-0.0 96.

and the more current TDD allowed. Passive Filter A network of capacitors and inductors tuned to reduce mainly the 5th and 7th harmonics. The active converter takes the place of the diode or SCR converter section of the drive. Page 138 . Active (Regenerative) Converter This technique uses an active switch arrangement (IGBTs) that looks very much like the inverter side of a drive. 18-Pulse Converter with phase-shifting transformer An 18-pulse converter replaces the standard 6-pulse converter to give a more sinusoidal input current waveform. the higher the ratio Isc/Iload will be. the “stiffer” the supply. Isc can also be calculated knowing the supply transformer impedance using the following formula: Isc ≈ KVA × 1000 Zxfrm.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook The limits IEEE-519 places on current distortion also depend on the ratio of Isc/Iload where Isc is the short circuit current. pu × V sec ondary × 3 The ratio of Isc/Iload determines the “stiffness” of the supply. 12-Pulse Converter with phase-shifting transformer A 12-pulse converter replaces the standard 6-pulse converter to give a more sinusoidal input current waveform. this can be an effective means of reducing harmonics and will provide a similar level of harmonic reduction as a DC link choke. making the current up stream from the drive look sinusoidal. Therefore. Isc for a supply transformer can usually be obtained from the utility. AC Line Reactor Especially for drives with no DC Link Choke. Techniques for reducing harmonics in PWM AC Drives (in order from least harmonic reduction to most harmonic reduction) • • • • • • • DC Link Choke A DC Link Choke installed right in the drive significantly reduces current peaks. Active Filter This technique works by using an active switch arrangement (IGBTs) that looks very much like the inverter side of a drive. Using current sensors this device adds the sine wave complement of the current it measures to the line. This technique has the added benefit of being able to regenerate to the AC line.

Drive Application Engineering Input Current Waveforms Engineering Handbook Page 139 .

To reduce AC line Harmonics. Applications for line reactors on VFDs • • • • • Add line impedance when supply transformer is more than 6 times power rating of the VFD and the VFD has no DC link choke. To compensate for a low inductance motor and when multiple motors are running on one VFD. Inductance of 1 & 3 Phase reactors L = E 2 × Z • 10 6 / kva × 1000 × 2πf Cable Inductance uh L ≈ 0. As part of a filter for reflected wave reduction.5uh / m Resonant Frequency f = 1 2π LC 2 Capacitance of known kVar ⎛ k var× 1000 ⎞ ⎛ v ⎞ C =⎜ ⎟ / 2πf × ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 1000 ⎠ uf Page 140 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Reactors To calculate the reactance (XL) of a reactor of a given inductance (L in Henries): X L = 2πf • L Ω To calculate the % impedance based on a given VFD rating the following formula can be used: X% = 2πf • L • S • 100 E2 % Where S is the input VA rating of the VFD and E is the line to line voltage rating. (refer to “sizing transformers” section) To provide some light buffering against low magnitude line voltage spikes. especially when the VFD has no DC link choke.

precharge is taken care of by phasing up the firing angle (alpha) on the gate of each of the six SCR’s. alpha is reduced or “ phased back”. Drive Output PWM Stop's Drive Output Drive Logic 100% DC Bus 85% DC Bus Line Loss Fault Minimum% DC Bus Undervoltage Fault (depending on [Low Bus Fault]) T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T5 Page 141 . • Logic ride-through is keeping the control circuit active and ready to reconnect to the motor when line power is restored. When the DC voltage level drops low enough (typically 15 to 20% of a rolling. the inverter section of the drive is disabled since it is not possible to source power through the precharge resistor or through a “phased back” SCR front end. the precharge method may be a series resister in the DC bus with a relay or solid state switch such as an SCR or transistor in parallel with this resistor. During a line dip or power loss. the parallel switch is closed. With either method of precharge. During precharge the drive is de-coupling itself from the line in order to protect itself from potentially excessive inrush. For a drive with an SCR converter bridge.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Ride-Through Types of Ride-through • Power loss ride-through is defined as maintaining output current to the motor. time weighted average) the drive pre-charge mode is invoked as shown. For a drive with a diode front end. When precharge is complete. Precharge Precharge is the drives way of protecting itself from current inrush during power up or a power dip or line loss event.

T3: if the AC line power is restored. Power Loss Ride-through Power loss ride-through is the ability of the drive to maintain power out to the motor with a power line loss at the input to the drive. T2 to T3: the drive is in “Logic ride-through” and the rate of decay on the bus voltage is much slower since the drive is not producing output power to the motor. the DC bus will begin to climb.700 mfd. Page 142 . T4: the DC bus is back above the precharge level and output to the motor resumes.Drive Application Engineering T1: power into the drive is lost and DC bus voltage begins to drop rapidly. In some cases the drive will fault if the DC bus voltage falls below a Minimum level. DC bus voltage and load level to determine ride-through time. Pre-charge drop level of 20%. The energy supplied to the motor during a power ride-through is supplied by the internal dc bus capacitors in the drive power structure. Example: • • • • 30 horsepower drive and motor running at a 55% load. Engineering Handbook T2: the level where the drive goes into precharge. at this point the precharge circuit limits the input line current as it charges the DC capacitor bank. This prevents large inrush currents and controls the rate of rise in DC bus voltage. C is capacitance in Farads and V is DC bus voltage. We only get the energy between the starting voltage before the power loss event and the voltage level at the point where the drive goes into pre-charge mode. Keep in mind. Nominal DC bus voltage of 640 volts. With some drives this can be a fault or perhaps a configurable fault that may be disabled. a line loss fault or undervoltage fault could occur at T5 or T6. T5 and T6: if we had not restored line power at T3. Thus the ride-through energy for a drive can be calculated: W= 1 C (V1 − V2 ) 2 2 Where W is in Joules. In any case. output to the motor stops. DC bus capacitance value of 4. The type of ride-through is in essence dependent on bus voltage level and precharge level. C is DC bus capacitance in Farads V1 and V2 are the DC bus voltage levels at the instant of the input power loss and the DC voltage at the pre-charge point respectively. The equation for stored energy in a capacitor bank is: W= 1 CV 2 2 Where W is in joules or watt-seconds. It is then necessary to know the total drive DC bus capacitance. This minimum DC voltage level may be the lowest safe point to operate the internal control power supply.

Drive Application Engineering Let’s calculate ride-through for this 30 horsepower 460 volt drive. bus capacitance can be used to ride-through very short power losses. In general.380kw.309 watts = about 3. a very quick and smooth recovery can be seen when line power is restored.5 Joules (or watt-seconds) / 12. Under a line loss condition when the DC bus voltage begins to drop.8))2). Power ride-through = 38. the drive responds by slightly decreasing the output frequency.309Kw.700((640-(640*.1 milliseconds. Multiplying 22. Additional capacitance could be connected to the DC bus of the AC drive. Engineering Handbook The energy available in Joules is = ½C(V1-V2)2 or ½*4. This gives us about 38. Techniques to Provide Extended Power Loss Ride-Through • Inertia Ride-through This method of ride-through requires a load with an inherently large moving or spinning mass and relatively little friction. There are 746 watts per horsepower giving us a motor kw rating of (30X746) or 22.38 by the 55% load level we see that we are running at about 12. Since the drive never stopped producing output power to the motor. Page 143 . We can calculate a maximum time for inertia ride-through.5 Joules. This causes a regenerative condition and will maintain the bus voltage at a level determined by the drive’s software.

W = 10 X ( 1500 ( 6. This calculation assumes that the nominal power consumption is a constant 22. • Battery Back Up This source of energy might be as simple as a battery or it may be an uninterruptable power supply. In reality the power consumption may not be constant. Normal operational speed = 1. Boost Converter For Brown Out Conditions A boost converter is wired into the DC bus of an AC drive.000 watts. During a brown out condition. Page 144 .740 watt – seconds.2 seconds.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook W = J (∆rpm 2π 2 ) 60 Where W is in Joules or (watt-seconds).000 watts total.500 rpm. releasing stored energy from L1 to the DC bus of the drive. Drive and motor efficiency will also have some small and perhaps varying degree of an effect in reducing the theoretical calculated ride-through time since the motor and drive will run at varying current levels as the inertia ride-through progresses.28 / 60 ) ) 2 W = 246. For a fan or pump load the power consumption will diminish with the inverse square or inverse cube of the speed. A battery back up tied to the DC bus through a series diode works well on a common bus type drive or a drive with a simple diode bridge converter. This method of ride-through can be used as long as some reasonable level of line voltage (roughly 50% or more) is present. Dividing by 22.000 watts we get a ride-through time of 11. It works by storing energy in the L1 inductor when the AC line is at normal levels. J is moment of inertia in kilogram-meters squared and rpm is revolutions per minute of the spinning mass. the Q1 transistor • turns off. Example: Moment of inertia for motor and coupled load = 10 kgm2. Nominal power consumption 22.

while maintaining the drive control logic is important. One example of where this is used is for remote / unmanned pumping stations where a temporary power loss can occur but it is not practical for someone to go on site and restart the system. In many cases the logic ride-through can be extended indefinitely by using a separate. Motor speed could come from encoder feedback. or could be found using another speed search method. typically down to about 250 volts DC for a 460 volt drive. run on power up can be useful in some applications where it is important for the drive to run anytime input line power is applied. if the drive has this input capability. This method of ride-through can be used as long as some reasonable level of line voltage (roughly 50% or more) is present. • Page 145 . but often it will not give the best response/reconnect time. In most cases the logic power is supplied by a switch mode power supply tied to the DC bus. Once the output to the motor stops. To comply with this requirement. It is possible to boost the DC bus voltage to a desired set point with this device. The active front end uses energy stored in the input reactor to “boost” the DC bus voltage and keep it at the set point. low voltage logic supply. most of the energy in the capacitor bank is available to run logic power. an active discharge circuit is often used to discharge the capacitor bank in under a minute. Generally the limitation is an Underwriters Laboratory requirement for the drive to have less than 50 volts on any internal component within 1 minute of a power shut down. Logic Ride-through For some applications power ride-through may not be critical. could be found using CEMF (counter electro-motive force). Reconnecting to the Motor after Logic Ride-through Starting the drive from a 0 Hz output may work.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook • An Active Front End (also known as a Regenerative Front End) Another method for brown out ride-through is to replace the drive diode or SCR converter front end with an active front end. The switch mode power supply can operate under a wide ranging DC bus voltage level. In theory this should be able to provide logic power for several minutes on a large drive. • “Flying Start” “Flying Start” (available on some drives) allows a drive to connect more quickly to a motor by using motor speed information. Run On Power Up Though not technically a ride-through feature.

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Section – 5 Networks

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Engineering Handbook

Basics
Network Performance The performance of a network is measured in through-put time. Several factors determine the actual time it takes for a signal to be processed and sent to a device which then reacts to the data it receives. The main factors are: Network Model is the most important factor in determining throughput because it determines information flow (the number and how often messages are exchanged). Some Network Models require 10 messages to talk to 10 nodes whereas others only require 1 message to talk to 10 nodes.

The Source/Destination model shown above left is also known as a polled or Master/Slave network. The master communicates to its slave sequentially one at a time. The slaves are passive and respond to the master’s commands. Examples of this are RIO, Profibus, Polled I/O on DeviceNet. The messaqe format is shown below.

A Producer/Consumer model is shown above right. Using this model, a device produces a message on the network and all other devices have the option to consume it. Examples of this are DeviceNet, ControlNet and EtherNet/IP. The message format is shown below.

Protocol Efficiency refers to the percentage of actual data within a given message. The slide shows two examples of equal length messages. The key difference is the first example contains more actual data. It takes the second example 2 messages to transmit the amount of data available in the first example. Additional messages mean lower throughput.

Baud Rate determines the “time on the wire” which is important, but not as significant as Protocol Efficiency (#2) and Network Model (#1). As the number of messages increase on the network, the time on the wire can become a burden on the bandwidth.

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I/O Messaging . Explicit Messaging – Are Request-Response type messages triggered by the device’s application. Attribute . processing times and wire times. Communication module to drive 7.A characteristic of an Object and/or Object Class. The following diagram shows all of the pieces that add to the throughput time. which distinguishes a node among all other nodes on the same network (node address). Instance. Cyclic or Polled production triggers. 1.An identification value assigned to each node.The actual representation of a particular Object within a Class. Instance . They may be unidirectional or bi-directional. Scanner update time 4. Processor Scan Time 2. The data field is all data (contents defined by the application) It is also referred to as “Implicit Messaging” since the receiving device already knows what the data is for (implied). Time on the wire 5. Communication module processing 6.Data transfers that are run-time in nature which can have COS. and Attribute). It can be Connected or Unconnected (with limited services). Drive update or scan time Note: The time on the wire is typically the smallest contributor to the overall throughput time.A set of Objects that all represent the same kind of system component. Page 150 . Class . General Terms Media Access Control Identifier (Mac ID) . Objects – is an abstract representation of a particular component within a product.Drive Application Engineering Determining Throughput Time Engineering Handbook The total time for data exchange from the controller to a device on the network must take into account scan times. Processor to Scanner communications 3. This type of message contains explicit protocol in the data field which includes internal object addressing information (Class.

unscheduled. and maintenance messages sent.is a receiver of data. Change Of State (COS) – is an I/O method where data is transmitted when a change of data occurs.The repetitive time interval in which data can be sent on the network. but connections must be created and configured before they are used. 64. Bus level 1 = recessive. Any and all interested consumers can pick data packets off the wire. There are two ways to do this in DeviceNet: UnConnected Message Manager (UCMM) or Group 2 Unconnected Port. Requested Packet Interval (RPI) – The time interval set by the user for a nodes Scheduled data on the network. ControlNet will meet or beat the requested time (RPI) or provide feedback that the configuration can not be supported.DeviceNet is a connection based protocol. A UCMM device can speak for itself whereas a Group 2 device requires a scanner to proxy for it.Drive Application Engineering Service . Bus idle = recessive) The dominant level overrides the recessive level. 16. 128 Each node on ControlNet can send at a different rate.A function supported by an Object and/or Object Class.The determinism is fixed regardless of nodes entering or leaving the system. Network Update Interval (NUI) – Is a single occurrence of the network update time (NUT). Actual Packet Interval (API) – Is the actual packet interval for Scheduled data on the network. Rates supported will be binary multiples of the NUT. The collisions are non-destructive. Network Update Time (NUT) .1. Page 151 . DeviceNet Collision Sensing Multiple Access / Non-destructive Bit-wise Arbitration (CSMA/NBA) . Producer . Polled – Is a Master / Slave based I/O method where each slave is queried and may or may not respond before the next device is queried. 4. 2. Engineering Handbook Consumer . Physical Signaling – (Bus level 0 = dominant. 8. Repeatable .is a sender of data that transmits data packets on the wire. UCMM / Group 2 Only . 32. The complete NUT is the sum of scheduled.All nodes can transmit on the wire and can detect when a collision occurs. Cyclic – Is an I/O method where data is transmitted on a user-configured time interval. Binary multiples . ControlNet Concurrent Time Domain Multiple Access (CTDMA) – Is a time-slice algorithm which regulates a node’s opportunity to transmit in each network interval (NUI). Deterministic – The ability to predict when data is received from a transmitting device.

Bridge . Datalinks. the overall signatures. Examples: Logic Command / Reference. Unscheduled . it will begin transmitting. In a single keeper network the active keeper can only be node 1. Hub . and then begin to transmit.Is the center component of a star topology that utilizes twisted pair or fiber cable to connect to devices. it is possible that two (or more) devices listen to the network at the same time. and network management resources to all nodes on the network.Is a device that connects network segments and routes messages between networks. The active keeper is a keeper capable node responsible for sending a periodic keeper broadcast every fourth NUT. but the lowest node number keeper capable device will be the only active keeper. Each node will wait an arbitrary amount of time before retransmitting.Communication used for event-driven peer-to-peer messaging. This packet contains information about which keeper should be active. Routers are used extensively on the Internet. There is special circuitry in each node that can detect if a collision occurred. Router . If both single keeper and multi-keeper devices are on the same network. If two nodes begin transmitting at the same time a “collision” will occur. Page 152 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Scheduled . EtherNet / IP Carrier Sensing Multiple Access / Collision Detection . the single keeper device cannot be node 1.Communication used to control I/O and has the highest priority because it is the deterministic and repeatable portion of ControlNet. The collision will cause both signals to be corrupted.is the center component of a star topology that utilizes twisted pair or fiber cable to connect to devices. A hub broadcasts everything it receives on any channel out all other channels. “MA” refers to all devices having equal access to the network. Logic Status / Feedback. Keeper . the transmitting nodes will know they have to retransmit their message. The active keeper is also responding to requests for scanner signatures from nodes with scheduled connections. pending network change operations. there can be more than one keeper capable device on the network.When a node wants to transmit it will listen to the network and if it does not detect that any other node is transmitting (Carrier Sensing). If so. HMI.A keeper is a ControlNet node with the capability to store and apply network parameters for a unique network configuration. “Set Scattered” Parameter writes via an explicit message. It is transparent to the network and protocol independent. Routers use routing tables to route packets. The term “Gateway” is sometimes used to refer to a router which also translates data between different formats. Switch . determine no one is transmitting.is a device that isolates traffic between segments by selectively forwarding packets to their proper destination. In a multi-keeper network. Therefore. A switch is different than a hub in that a switch has the intelligence to only transmit out the port that the message needs to be transmitted. and programming Examples: “Get Single” Parameter read via an explicit message. A switch is really a multi-port bridge.

The subnet mask is used to determine if a message is for a node on the local network. Full-Duplex . Bootstrap Protocol .Is a communication method where a device may either send or receive data at a given moment. If a BootP server is on the network.When a device that is configured for BootP joins the network. Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) .The node address of the device which other nodes will use to communicate to the device. or I/O control messages. it is identifying that the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the network address. If it finds an entry for that hardware address. it will send a message back to the device with an IP address. it will send out a broadcast message asking for an IP address. If the network portion of the IP address does not match.Is the address of the device which all remote packets must be sent in order to be routed. For example. so UDP is an ideal choice for I/O since it uses less overhead and allows for faster communication than TCP. Subnet masks are commonly seen as: 255.Used for Implicit. The message will be ignored by all other devices except the BootP server.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook IP Address .is one of the most popular protocols used on Ethernet.255. 128 . to make sure the message is broken up at the sending station and put together in the receiving device correctly. but not at the same time.0. and in the case where multiple transmissions are needed for a single message. We do not allow you to route I/O messages. IP is used primarily for routing the message to its ultimate destination User Datagram Protocol (UDP) . Half-Duplex . It is a protocol designed for speed When we are controlling I/O. TCP is used primarily to make sure the messages arrived correctly. IP addresses are 32-bit numbers that are normally grouped into 4 bytes to make them easier to read. we stay on one subnet and construct the network to limit collisions. then the packet will be sent to the router. Page 153 . it will look at the hardware address of the device and compare it to its BootP table.Is a communication method where a device may simultaneously send and receive data. All nodes on the local network must have the same subnet mask. 8 . an IP address of: 129 . or it must be routed to a remote network. and which part is the host part. Gateway Address . 31 Is actually: 10000001 00001000 10000000 00011111 (binary 129) (binary 8) (binary 128) (binary 31) Subnet masks .are used to identify which part of an IP address is the network part. Wherever a “1” appears in the subnet mask.0 Subnet masks are 32-bit numbers that are represented as 4 bytes to make them easier to read.

CN1) 16-bit only 16-bit only Up to 6 Integer Yes Yes – Port 2 on Drive (using V3. adding Time peripherals increases time DPI 125K. Adding a 2nd peripheral increases the I/O update time. The PowerFlex Architecture Class products interface is referred to as DPI.xx AnaCANda) 16-bit & 32-bit 16-bit & 32-bit Up to 6 16 & 32-bit Integer. Typical interfaces use a UART. Yes Yes 2 Words In / 2 Words Out No Up to 2 16-bit Integer Peripheral-to-Peripheral Communications Routing Reference/Feedback Size Datalink Size Max # of peripherals Data Types No Yes . or CAN. Boolean Page 154 . Floating Point. dual-ported RAM. The first interface to use this is referred to as SCANport which is used in the 1336 product family. Anybus. SCANport / DPI / DSI Comparison Feature SCANport Baud Rate 125K Minimum I/O Update 10ms.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Communications Interface This is the communications interface between the network and the drive microprocessor. The PowerFlex Component Class uses DSI.DF1 port (GU6.2K The ‘master’ peripheral must continually poll and allocate time for a ‘slave’. 500K 5ms DSI 19.

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Network Specifications Network EtherNet IP ControlNet DeviceNet Remote I/O RS485 DF-1 Modbus RTU MetaSys N2 Siemens P1 Profibus DP Interbus – S LonWorks Network Model Producer/Consumer Producer/Consumer Producer/Consumer Master/Slave Master/Slave Master/Slave Master/Slave Master/Slave and Producer/Subscriber Master/Slave Master/Slave Master/Slave Max Nodes Unlimited 99 64 1 scanner.8-38. 9600 bps 9. 32 nodes 254 247 32 32 126 512 32k per domain Baud Rate 100 M bps 5 Mbps 125-500 kbps 57.8-38.4 kbps 9600 bps 4800.4 kbps 4. 3km (fiber) 500m 3km 1200m 1200m 1200m 1200m 1200m 12. Fiber Twisted-pairs Twisted-pair Twisted-pair Twisted-pair Twisted-pair Twisted-pair Twisted-pair Twisted-pairs Twisted-pair Redundancy No Yes No No No No No No No No No Max Length World wide 1km (coax).6k -12M bps 500 kbps 78 kbps Data Size Max 1500 bytes 510 bytes 8 bytes 128 bytes 244 bytes 252 bytes 252 bytes 251 bytes 244 bytes 512 bytes 228 bytes Network EtherNet IP ControlNet DeviceNet Remote I/O RS485 DF-1 Modbus RTU MetaSys N2 Siemens P1 Profibus DP Interbus – S LonWorks Deterministic No Yes No No No No No No No No No Media Twisted-pairs Coax.8km 1200m Page 155 .6–230 kbps 4.

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Series trains: The overall ratio is input speed divided by the output speed. shear. Some of the common gear designs are shown below. the setup is called a gear train. Other couplings like the helical type are designed to reduce backlash. fixed-reduction ratio. Planetary gearing: It is a gear train in which a planet gear rotates about another gear called the sun gear. Flexible couplings such as bellows. Speed reducers: Gearboxes usually offer only a single. the greater the torque capacity of the system. Ratio is most easily found by dividing the product of numbers of teeth of driven gears by the product of numbers of teeth of driving gears. Couplings Many types of couplings are available for a variety of applications.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Appendix I Mechanical Systems This section is dedicated to the power transmission section of the machinery being controlled. they permit higher speed ratios than are feasible with a single pair of gears. As the name implies. rubber block and flexible-sleeve types allow slight misalignment by absorbing torsional shock loads. the more planet gears. It’s also the product of individual ratios at each mesh. Gearboxes A gearbox may have one or more gear pairs. Worm gears generally cannot be back-driven at ratios greater than 20:1. a reducer is almost always used to gear “down”. except in planetary gears. The larger gear is referred to as the “gear” while the smaller one is called a “pinion”. The gear pairs may be on parallel or non-parallel axes and on intersecting or non-intersecting shafts. Generally. Generally. If it has more than two pairs. These components are necessary to transmit and or control power and motion. Page 159 .

Magnetic-particle types use an input disk that is closely fitted within the output housing that contains magnetic particles. Electric Hysteresis clutches use a coil inside the input rotor to generate a magnetic field in the rotor and drag cup. The friction and wear encountered by the working surfaces are severe.Drive Application Engineering Clutches Engineering Handbook Clutches rely on mechanical or electro-magnetic action for torque transmission. A disc type clutch drives the clutch plate into the driven plate to engage. Mechanical brakes all act by generating frictional forces as two surfaces rub against each other. The torque is proportional to the coil current. The Eddy Current coil sets up a magnetic field that links the input drum and output rotor. Mechanical type clutches use friction to couple torque from input to output while electro-magnetic use magnetism to transmit torque. The sheaves move axially to engage or disengage a belt. Mechanical Axial clutches can be a simple cone type such as a sheave. Hysteresis Brakes Magnetic-Particle Eddy Current Mechanical Brakes absorb energy and convert it to heat. Drum clutches are designed so that a set of shoes connected to one shaft travel outward to engage a rim or drum connected to the other shaft. and the durability of a brake depends heavily on the type of material used to line Page 160 . Eddy currents induced in the input drum interact with the magnetic field in the output rotor creating coupling torque proportional to coil current. The hysteresis loss sets up a torque reaction in drag cup as the rotor is turned. The stopping power or capacity of a brake depends largely on the surface area of frictional surfaces as well as on the actuation force applied. When the coil is energized. the particles form a rigid bond between the input disk and output housing to transmit torque.

width machining precision and radial clearance. it is generally assumed to be rotational. called linear bearings. Magnetic particle brakes require less control current than hysteresis brakes for the same holding torque. clutching.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook the shoe or pad which is the “wear” item. Belts Belts provide an efficient load transfer between shafts as well as tasks such as speed ratio variations. they generate considerable heat and have a limited thermal capacity. Operating in slip. Bearings Bearings accommodate rotational or translation motion. The most common is a friction brake. Translation bearings. and reduces the tension required for an equivalent torque. Bearing dimensions and tolerances are governed by standards for inside/outside diameter. Eddy current brakes have no holding power and are used only for drag load. They also provide considerable holding torque at zero speed. but may overheat when used at high slip. This type has precise control. the load can be either perpendicular to the axis of rotation (radial load) or coincident with the axis of rotation (thrust load). If the motion is not specified. which multiplies the frictional force produced by tension. high torque applications. Torque is independent of speed and is a linear function of control current except at low currents or near magnetic saturation. Not recommended for low speed. which is a mechanical brake that is electrically actuated. In rotational bearings. Some applications may require retentioning periodically to avoid slippage. and torque limiting. Electric Electric brakes operate according to the same principles as electric clutches. Hysteresis brakes provide constant torque (braking force) for a given control current. The drum or disc is designed to undergo minimum wear and is a permanent part of the brake. are loaded perpendicular to the direction of motion. They tend to run hotter than other nonfriction brakes and sometimes require special cooling provisions. AFBMA – Anti Friction Bearing Manufacturer Association JIS – Japanese Industrial Standards DIN – Deutsche Industrial Normen Page 161 . V-belts wedge in the pulley.

Anti friction bearing types Bearing comparison guide Radial Load Thrust Load Combined Capacity Capacity Load Capacity Single Row 2 3 2 Deep Groove Single Row 1 3 3 Max Capacity Double Row 1 2 2 Deep Groove Angular 2 1 1 Contact Cylindrical 1 4 4 Rating: (1) excellent. (4) unacceptable Life Expectancy 1 2 1 1 1 Operating Speed 1 2 3 1 2 Page 162 . (2) good. (3) fair.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Most bearings are designed to fit into one of four series of standard dimensions for the bore and outside diameter.

283 2 rad /sec rad /sec rad /sec rpm rpm rpm 5.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Appendix II Conversion Factors To Convert Acceleration 2 m / sec 2 m / sec 2 m / sec Multiply By To Obtain 3.Linear 1 km / hr / sec 2.281 3.047 x 10 -2 1.438 x 10 -1 radians 6.237 4.592 x 10 6 -1 1.6 x 10 4 6.366 x 10 3 radians 2.47 x 10 1.7296 x 10 3 radians 3.7296 x 10 9.6093 -1 4.745 x 10 3 3.111 x 10 -2 1.6 x 10 -2 Angular Displacement 1 radians 5.778 x 10 -1 km / hr / sec 9.549 -1 1.063 x 10 revs revs revs Angular Velocity 3.47 x 10 1 ft / sec km / hr / sec mph / sec cm / sec 2 ft / sec km / hr / sec 2 m / sec cm /sec 2 ft / sec 2 m / sec mph / sec quadrants rad sec degrees minutes quadrants seconds degrees quadrants radians 2 2 2 mph /sec mph /sec mph /sec mph /sec Acceleration .113 x 10 -1 km / hr / sec 2.667 x 10 1 deg / sec rpm rps deg / sec rad / sec rps Page 163 .6 2.778 x 10 -1 km / hr / sec 6.467 1.214 x 10 Angular degrees degrees degrees 1.

973 x 10 -3 1.55 x 10 6 1 x 10 1.29 x 10 -1 1.067 x 10 -1 7.29 x 10 2 1.44 x 10 -2 9.196 4 2 -5 -6 circular mills 2 ft 2 in 2 m 2 mm cm sq mills 2 in acres circular mills 2 cm 2 in 2 m 2 yd acres 2 ft acres 2 ft 2 m sq miles 2 yd cm 2 ft 2 in 2 mm 2 yd circular mills 2 cm 2 ft 2 in acres 2 ft 2 km 2 m 2 yd 2 2 circular mills circular mills circular mills ft 2 ft 2 ft 2 ft 2 ft 2 ft hectares hectares km 2 km 2 km 2 km 2 km m 2 m 2 m 2 m 2 m mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm sq miles sq miles sq miles sq miles sq miles 2 2 2 2 1.788 x 10 2.59 6 2.076 x 10 2.076 x 10 -3 1.854 x 10 2.076 x 10 6 1 x 10 -1 3.296 x 10 8 1.076 x 10 -1 1.471 5 1.55 x 10 6.098 x 10 2 3 Page 164 .854 x 10 -7 7.4 x 10 7 2.55 x 10 -4 1 x 10 2 1 x 10 5.196 x 10 1 x 10 1 1.59 x 10 6 3.111 x 10 2.833 x 10 2 9.076 x 10 3 1.471 x 10 7 1.973 x 10 -2 1 x 10 -5 1.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Area 2 cm 2 cm 2 cm 2 cm 2 cm Multiply By To Obtain 5 Engineering Handbook 1.861 x 10 6 1.

778 x 10 8 2.54 x 10 1 2.094 -3 1 x 10 2 1 x 10 1 x 10 -6 10 Page 165 .578 x 10 3 1 x 10 -2 2.602 x 10 5.937 x 10 4 1 x 10 6 2 1 x 10 -2 fathoms hectometers in in in in in in in in m m m m m m m m microns 2.214 x 10 1.602 x 10 -4 5.281 x 10 2 3.243 x 10 -5 3.613 x 10 1 x 10 -2 6.345 -2 -2 -3 lb / ft 3 lb / in gm / cm 3 lb / ft 3 lb / in lb / mil-ft 3 3 kg / m 3 kg / m 3 kg / m 3 kg / m lbs / ft 3 lbs / ft 3 lbs / ft parts / million parts / million Displacement cm cm cm 3 3 grms / cm 3 lbs / in 3 kg / m 3 grains / gals lbs / million gals ft mills microns ft meters cm m mm miles mills yds angstrom units rods angstrom units fathoms ft in miles yards km cm meters 3.54 -2 2.0505 x 10 1 x 10 -1 5.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Density 3 gm / cm 3 gm / cm Multiply By To Obtain 1 Engineering Handbook 6.243 x 10 -2 3.4681 x 10 3.937 x 10 -4 6.54 x 10 -3 5.54 x 10 -5 1.84 x 10 8.281 1 3.787 x 10 1 1.613 x 10 -10 3.405 x 10 1.

055 x 10 -4 2.9 x 10 12 9.183 x 10 2 4.6909 x 10 3 5.144 x 10 -4 9.927 x 10 3 1.163 x 10 -4 10 1 joules joules joules joules joules kg-calories kg-calories kg-calories kg-calories kg-calories kg-calories .4609 x 10 1.144 x 10 -4 5.682 x 10 1.52 x 10 -4 3.558 x 10 3 4.048 x 10 -4 1.389 x 10 1 3.486 x 10 7 1 x 10 -1 7.28 x 10 4 6.76 x 10 -13 1.65 x 10 2 1.928 x 10 9.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Distance ft ft ft Multiply By To Obtain -1 Engineering Handbook 3.98 x 10 -3 3.336 x 10 1.69 x 10 5 12 m miles mills miles miles km cm ft in km yd light years m ft in miles cm km m miles ergs ft lbs (work) gram-calories hp hours joules = N m kw hours btu ergs ft lbs kg-calories Nm btu ft lbs hp-hrs joules kg-meters kw-hrs Page 166 league light year light year miles miles miles miles miles miles rods rods rods rods yds yds yds yds Energy btu btu btu btu btu btu 5.968 3 3.055 x 10 2 7.125 x 10 9.2 x 10 3 5.086 x 10 -3 1.269 x 10 -3 1.609 3 1.7816 x 10 2 2.894 x 10 4 1.029 1 1.144 x 10 -1 9.736 x 10 -4 2.

6 x 10 2 8.448 x 10 -2 4.383 x 10 -1 1.448 1 3.448 4.248 x 10 1 -1 1.54723 Force joules / cm joules / cm joules / cm 1 x 10 2 1 x 10 1 2.228 x 10 -2 6.108 x 10 4.217 x 10 2.248 x 10 1 x 10 -1 2.5985 x 10 1.383 x 10 -3 1.308 x 10 5.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Multiply By To Obtain 3 Engineering Handbook kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs Flow Rate gpm gpm 3.655 x 10 5 8.403 x 10 1.6 x 10 6 3.5985 x 10 5 3.373042 x 10 3 3.341 6 3.413 x 10 13 3.448 x 10 4.585 x 10 1 -4 -3 btu ergs ft lbs gm-calories hp-hrs joules Nm kg-calories kg-meters ft / sec liters / sec ft / sec gps gpm ft / sec dynes N (newtons) lbs dynes lb joules / meter kg (mass) dynes joules / cm joules / m N (newtons) lbs dynes joules / cm joules / m N (newtons) poundals 1 3 3 3 liters / min liters / min liters / sec million gal / day 1.671 x 10 2.886 x 10 -3 4.0197 x 10 1.383 x 10 -2 3.4172 x 10 5 4 5 7 N N N N poundals poundals poundals poundals poundals lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs Inertia 2 Kgm 2 Kgm lbft 2 lbin Page 167 2 .6 x 10 6 2.383 x 10 -1 1.

468 x 10 -1 9.2046 1 3.688 1 5.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Multiply By To Obtain -2 Engineering Handbook Lbft 2 Lbft 2 Lbin 2 Lbin 2 4.778 x 10 1 5.684 x 10 1 2.852 1.667 x 10 9.214 x 10 6.217 x 10 Page 168 1 5 1 3 1 -2 fps (ft / sec) m / min mph (milies / hr) cm /sec fpm fps knots m / min miles / hr ft / hr km / hr mph ft / sec cm / sec cm / sec fpm fps km / hr km / min knots meters / min miles / min dynes (force) gm (mass) joules /m (force) N (force /weight) lbs (force / weight) oz (force / weight) hectograms milligrams kg (mass) lb (force) km / hr km / hr km / hr km / hr km / hr km / hr knots knots knots knots knots mph mph mph mph mph mph mph mph Mass kg kg kg kg (mass/weight) kg kg kg kg slugs slugs .807 x 10 3 1 x 10 9.667 x 10 -1 3.807 2.926 x 10 Kgm 2 lbin 2 lbft 2 Kgm 2 Linear Velocity fpm fpm fpm 1.682 x 10 -1 8.8 x 10 1.47 x 10 1 8.527 x 10 1 1 x 10 -6 1 x 10 1.076 x 10 1.807 9.151 1.682 x 10 -2 1.214 x 10 2 1.396 x 10 1 1.136 x 10 2.113 x 10 -1 5.440 x 10 -3 6.667 x 10 -1 6.048 x 10 -2 1.944 x 10 -4 2.144 x 10 4.6093 -2 2.459 x 10 1 3.467 1.

678 x 10 -5 9.342 x 10 1.36 x 10 -1 1.934 x 10 1 x 10 -6 -2 2.912 x 10 0 -2 -2 atmospheres in-mercury 2 kg / m 2 lb / in lb / ft 2 in-mercury in-mercury in-mercury in-mercury in-mercury in-water @ 4 C 0 in-water @ 4 C 0 in-water @ 4 C 0 in-water @ 4 C 0 in-water @ 4 C 0 in-water @ 4 C kg / m 2 kg / m 2 kg / m 2 kg / m 2 kg / m 2 kg / m 2 kg / m oz / in 2 oz / in poise lbs / ft 2 lbs / ft 2 lbs / ft 2 2 2 atmospheres ft-water 2 kg / m 2 lb / ft 2 lb / in atmospheres in-mercury 2 kg / cm 2 oz / in 2 lb / ft 2 lb / in atmospheres bars ft-water in-mercury 2 lb / ft 2 lb / in 2 dynes / cm dynes / cm 2 lbs / in gram / cm 2 2 2.0481 3.414 x 10 Page 169 -4 3 -5 -3 atmospheres ft-water in-mercury .048 x 10 -3 1.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Pressure bars Multiply By To Obtain -1 Engineering Handbook 9.807 x 10 -3 3.309 x 10 -2 6.453 x 10 1 7.422 x 10 1 9.461 x 10 2 1.133 2 3.316 x 10 -1 4.048 x 10 -1 4.807 x 10 4.204 -2 3.355 x 10 2 2.335 x 10 2.54 x 10 -1 5.781 x 10 5.25 x 10 1 4.458 x 10 -2 7.602 x 10 -2 1.073 x 10 -1 4.95 x 10 -1 8.725 x 10 -2 1.826 x 10 2 3.613 x 10 9.869 x 10 atmospheres atmospheres ft-water 2 kg / m 2 lb / in bars cm-mercury cm-mercury cm-mercury cm-mercury dynes / cm ft-water ft-water ft-water ft-water gm / cm 2 2 1.896 x 10 -1 2.281 x 10 -3 2.

307 2.882 -3 6.341 1 1.757 x 10 4.356 x 10 1 1.426 x 10 2 7.944 x 10 6.3 x 10 2 5.244 x 10 4 3.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Multiply By To Obtain Engineering Handbook lbs / ft 2 lbs / ft lbs / in 2 lbs / in 2 lbs / in 2 lbs / in 2 lbs / in 2 lbs / in 2 lbs / in Power btu / hr btu / hr btu / hr 2 2 4.1626 x 10 -4 3.931 x 10 1.036 2 7.351 x 10 -2 kg-calories / min 6.804 x 10 2.929 x 10 -1 2.89 x 10 -2 kg / m 2 lbs / in atmospheres ft-water in-mercury 2 kg / m 2 lbs / ft 2 kg / cm bar ft lbs / sec hp watts ft lbs / sec hp watts btu / min ft lb / min ft lb / sec kg-calories / min kw hp kw btu / min ft lb / min ft lb / sec hp kg-calories / min watts erg / sec hectowatts fahrenheit (degrees) kelvin (degrees) PLI kN / m Page 170 2 2.711 -1 PLI 1.031 x 10 2 1.068 x 10 -1 7.296 x 10 -2 2.751 x 10 .44 x 10 -2 7.972 x 10 kw kw kw kw kw kw watts watts Temperature centigrade centigrade 5.457 x 10 -2 1 1 -1 btu / min btu / min btu / min hp hp hp hp hp kg-calories / min 9.03 x 10 -2 6.434 x 10 3 1 x 10 1 x 10 -2 1 x 10 ( C x 9/5) + 32 0 C + 273.692 x 10 4 4.18 0 7 1 Tension / Unit Width kN / m 5.5 x 10 1 1.376 x 10 1.

s.337 x 10 2 2.6093 -1 8.704 x 10 7.684 x 10 1 6 x 10 3.468 x 10 -2 6 x 10 -2 3.-liquid) ft 3 in 3 m liters barrels (u.785 x 10 3.-liquid) quarts (u.-liquid) barrels (oil) 3 3 .832 x 10 1 5.s.103 x 10 2.-liquid) liters pts (u.667 3.682 x 10 1 8.382 x 10 -1 6.728 x 10 1.-fluid ft 3 ft 3 ft 3 ft 3 ft 3 ft 3 ft gal gal gal gal gal gal (oil) 3 m 3 in 3 yd gal (u.1746 x 10 -2 2.31 x 10 -3 3.s.832 x 10 3 1.6 -2 6 x 10 2.356 1.s.968 x 10 3.785 -2 3.6967 2.8 x 10 1.281 -2 5.237 2 Nm 2 kg-m / sec ft lbs cm / sec fpm fps km / hr knots mph fpm fps km / hr km / min mph cm / sec ft / sec km / min knots / min mph ounce (u.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Torque ft lbs ft lbs Nm Velocity mpm mpm mpm mpm mpm mpm Multiply By To Obtain Engineering Handbook 1.376 x 10 1.705 3.s.281 3.48052 1 2.984 x 10 1 2.992 x 10 1.24 x 10 -2 3.356 -1 7.728 x 10 -2 3.-fluid) 3 in drams cm 3 mps mps mps mps mps miles / min miles / min miles / min miles / min miles / min Volume centiliters centiliters centiliters 2.38095 x 10 Page 171 -1 -2 -1 3 drams u.s.

liquid) milliliters hectoliters cm 3 ft 3 in gal (u.-liquid) barrels (u.-liquid) quarts (u.642 x 10 3 1 x 10 3 2.464 x 10 -2 1.639 x 10 -3 4.787 x 10 -5 1.732 x 10 1.6418 x 10 1 x 10 -2 3.s.s.308 1 3.s.646 x 10 5 2 6 2 3 cm 3 ft 3 m gal (u.-dry) cm 3 ft 3 m 3 3 3 3 3 Page 172 .-liquid) cm 3 ft 3 in 3 m gal liters barrels (u.1023 x 10 2 2.-liquid) liters pts (u.7 x 10 -1 7.642 x 10 2.464 x 10 -1 2.639 x 10 -2 3.057 x 10 9.775 x 10 -4 9.s.-dry) liters 3 yd 3 ft gal (u.s.102 x 10 -3 1 x 10 -3 1.463 x 10 -2 1.464 x 10 -2 3.s.639 x 10 -4 5.s.646 x 10 1 2.057 3 1 x 10 -2 1 x 10 1 x 10 1 3.531 x 10 1 6.05 x 10 7.s. liquid) cm 3 ft 3 in 3 m 3 yd gal (u. liquid) qts (u.308 x 10 -1 2.329 x 10 -2 1.342 x 10 1 5.s.s.531 x 10 4 6.5316 x 10 2 2.s.5 x 10 -1 9.113 x 10 3 1.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Multiply By To Obtain 1 Engineering Handbook in 3 in 3 in 3 in 3 in 3 in 3 in in3 kiloliters kiloliters kiloliters kiloliters liters liters liters liters liters liters liters liters liters liters m 3 m 3 m 3 m 3 m 3 m 3 m quarts quarts quarts quarts quarts quarts quarts (dry) yd 3 yd 3 yd 3 3 3 1.417 x 10-4 1 x 10 1. liquid) pts (u.s.113 1.-liquid) quarts (u.-liquid) liters pts (u.

0718 x 10 Page 173 2 3 -2 2 kg lb metric ton .337 3.6 x 10 -4 5 x 10 1.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Multiply By To Obtain Engineering Handbook oz (fluid volume) 1.805 -2 oz 2.198 x 10 1 x 10 3 2.768 x 10 -1 1.536 x 10 -1 4.205 x 10 4.732 x 10 -1 5 x 10 8.375 x 10 1 2.527 x 10 -3 2.5059 x 10 4.56 x 10 3 7 x 10 2 4.671 x 10 1 2.732 x 10 -2 1.41 x 10 1 2 -2 2 1 qts liters cm 3 ft 3 in 3 m gals liters qts lbs-water ounces (avdp) lbs (force) grains grams lbs grama (mass) drams grains grams kg oz tons ft 3 in gal kg lb short ton 3 3 gm gm oz oz oz poundals lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs of water lbs of water lbs of water tons (metric) tons tons tons (short) tons tons 2.8349 x 10 -2 6.25 x 10 1.0718 x 10 3 2 x 10 -1 9.205 x 10 1.1023 9.25 x 10 -1 4.602 x 10 1 2.536 x 10 1 1.36 x 10 -1 5 x 10 -1 5.957 x 10 pints (dry) pints pints pints (liquid) pints pints pints pints pints pints Weight gal-water in liters in 3 3 3.887 x 10 -4 4.732 x 10 -1 1.

92 2.63 5.81 .27 2.27 2.25 1.0 49.0 850.91 2.77710 0.49 1.0 8690.10 1.41 1.50 2.96 2.41 1.69 1.) 3500 4000 4500 5000 6000 7000 26.36 1.94 2.28 1.160 8.0 789. Methyl Aviation Gasoline Brine Cement Slurry Crude Oil Diesel Fuel Gasoline Hydraulic Fluid Jet Fuel.34 1.79 1.58 1.41 2.22 1.08 1.06 1.00 2.51 1.94 1.95 .20 1.84 1.49 2.065 708.560 8.17 2.996 490.06 2.25 1.55 1.06 1.03 1.05 1.450 (kg/m2) 2640.01 1.25470 0.18 1.37 1.200 1.30528 0.46 1.29 1.640 8.86 .41 1.42 1000 28. Ethyl Alcohol.29 2.96 1.36 2.80 2.0 10.81 1.52 1.0 7050.19 1.04 3.20 1.86 3.510 21510.64 1.10 1.13 1.0 1200.106 485.0 780.04335 Copper rolled 0.95 1.26048 0.34 1.054 459.55 2.23 9000 21.88 1.50 2.03721 Platinum 0.82 1.84 1.19 2.235 450.38 500 29.53 1.88 1.77 1.96 2.42 1.470 440.56 2.18 1.92 .33 27.23 2.68 1.28649 0.72 1.13 1.87 .516 1342.22 1.34 1.00 21.33 2.23 2.02854 Aluminum 0.738 8.860 0.52 1.0 860.01 2.94 3.47 1. JP-4 Sea Water Water Specific Gravity (g/cc) 0.85 1.14 1.0 7.15 2.31 1.47 1.61 1.688 48.33 1.11 1.56 2.82 2.0 (lb/cu ft) 164.88 .90 23.780 1.0 8160.34 2.301 62.86 2.38 2.11 2.17 2.95 2.17 1.14 1.63 1.22 2.45 1.27 1.16 1.06 2.28 2.10 2.499 556.44 1.78 2.13 2.117 (lb/cu in) 0.43 1.28360 0.06 1.03035 Iron wrought 0.51 2.43 2.65 1.96 1.050 7850.500 527.82 .914 89.84 1.32189 0.45 1.75 1.22 1.690 8.850 7.20 1.27 1.64 2.88 .40 1.32 1.41004 0.43 1.36 1.02601 Copper cast 0.36 24.71 2.67 1.0 7360.90 .21 1.13 2.38 1.61 1.02850 Brass 0.78 1.61 1.29 1.840 0.62 1.27 1.030 1030.256 49.47 1.810 534.98 23.99 2.93 1.13 1.12 1.16 1.98 2.350 11350.95 2.20 1.35 1.74 1.18 1.58 1.12 1.02 1.32 25.33 2.04 1.74 2.233 1204.0 791.770 1.67 1.19 3.09538 0.15 1.02818 Nickel 0.81 1.03071 Iron Cast 0.694 64.11 1.37789 0.0 Temperature and Altitude Correction Factors Use to “fine tune” the horsepower calculation for Fan and Blowers: (HP) x correction factor = Input HP Air Tem p F° -40 0 40 70 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 ALTITUDE 1500 2000 28.70 1.39 1.50 2.85 .09 1.14 1.56 1.0 11.11 1.30 1.39 1.04 2.16 1.81 1.39 1.31 1.84 25.50 1.29 1.25 2.000 (kg/m2) (lb/cu ft) (lb/cu in) 790.58 1.Hg.38 .65 BAROMETRIC PRESSURE (I.88 1.33 1.40 2.69 2.92 1.43 1.47 1.35 1.0 8450.69690 0.0 1738.36 1.790 0.32 1.08 1.24 1.44 2.0 1000.21 1.56 1.02858 Bronze 0.38 2.27 2.98 2.57 1.059 495.07 2.52 2.60 1.32 1.28071 0.10 1.22 1.9 .70 2.60 2.54 1.47 2.58 1.82 .03613 Silver Steel cast Steel rolled Tin Zinc 19.197 53.75 1.0 740.37 1.67 1.25 1.85 2.27 1.440 0.85 1.08 1.08 2.63 2.91 1.00 2.65 1.70 2.87 2.92 .32 3.31 26.210 7.70 1.22 1.22 2.95 .79 1.51 1.21 2.42 1.0 7930.18 1.53 1.42 1.35 2.71 1.18 2.58 1.14 2.49 1.12 1.61 2.948 74.32 1.29 2.791 0.29480 0.44 2.04 1.09 2.66 1.0 7210.22 1.00 1.428 Solid Material Engineering Handbook Specific Gravity (g/cc) 2.54 1.06279 0.72 1.0 840.31395 0.02 2.02 1.0 7770.47 1.24 1.58 2.72 1.32 2.45 Page 174 .0 8910.30 1.91 1.70 2.80 1.53 2.38 2.00 1.18 1.18 1.75 1.33 10000 20.37 2.27 2.64 1.318 49.22 1.10 1.37 1.381 44.0 1440.44 2.93 .17 2.05202 Gold 0.07 3.03 3.30925 0.75 2.28 1.0 8560.09 1.09 .23 1.99 1.08 1.03 .63 2.32 2.13 0 29.930 7.56 (Feet) with 2500 3000 27.24 1.740 0.04 2.76 1.850 0.84 .03 3.92 .97 1.94 3.35 1.16 1.789 0.56 1.48 8000 22.17 2.92 1.07 1.26 1.79 .52 1.63 1.290 19290.460 10460.46 1.20 1.05 2.15 1.40 2.896 53.08 1.69 1.825 652.27 1.19 2.03107 Magnesium 0.48 1.25 1.0 1.910 7.720 1.17 1.87 .04 2.00 1.46 2.26590 0.99 1.59 1.13 3.37 1.82 .557 108.96 1.38 2.25 2.02673 Lead 0.360 7.86 2.412 542.93 3.02 1.26 1.439 46.13 2.31 2.03 2.31 1.04 1.60 2.Drive Application Engineering Material Properties Liquid Material Acetone Alcohol.21 2.0 720.78 1.09 2.44 1.41 1.37 1.27 1.12 1.56 2.383 509.064 52.

02 0.04 Engineering Handbook Nema Designations Nema Type 1 – General Purpose Enclosure is designed for indoor use. undamaged by the formation of ice. Page 175 . and hose directed water. Nema Type 3 – Rain Tight Enclosure is designed for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust.Water Tight Enclosure is designed for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust and rain.04 – 0.1 – 0. First Numeral 0 – No protection 1 – Protected against solid objects up to 50 mm from accidental touch 2 – Protected against solid objects up to 12 mm from accidental touch 3 – Protected against solid objects up to 2. undamaged by the formation of ice.05 0.25 0. primarily to provide a degree of protection against contact with the enclosed equipment (objects up to 12mm). Nema Type 4 .01 0. IEC Designations Characteristic letters IP 2 0 The 1st characteristic numeral (2) identifies the protection against solid objects. rain and sleet. splashing water.Drive Application Engineering Friction Coefficients Ball or Roller Slide Dovetail Slide Hydrostatic Ways Rectangle Ways with Gib Chain Drive Belt Drive Enclosures 0. The 2nd characteristic numeral (0) identifies the protection against liquids. and dripping non-corrosive liquids.02 – 0. falling dirt.20 0. primarily to provide a degree of protection against contact with the enclosed equipment. Nema Type 12 – Industrial Enclosure is designed for indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against dust.5 mm from accidental touch 4 – Protected against solid objects up to 1 mm from accidental touch 5 – Protected against dust 6 – Totally protected against dust Second Numeral 0 – No protection 1 – Protected against vertically falling drops of water 2 – Protected against direct sprays of water up to 15 degrees from vertical 3 – Protected against sprays up to 60 degrees from vertical 4 – Protected against water sprayed from all directions 5 – Protected against low pressure jets of water from all directions 6 – Protected against strong pressure jets of water from all directions 7 – Protected against the effects of immersion between 15cm and 1cm IP20 – General Purpose Enclosure is designed for indoor use.

Enclosure surface area in square feet is calculated as follows. Aluminum and stainless steel enclosures have a higher temperature rise due to the poor radiant heat transfer of their metallic finishes. Enclosure heat input is the sum of all the component watts loss values. the enclosure surface area and the enclosure material all impact the temperature rise. Then use the graph to determine the temperature rise inside the enclosure. input power of a painted steel enclosure. This is the difference between the air inside the enclosure and the ambient temperature. The graph below illustrates the temperature rise vs.76 × watts Temp Rise (degrees C) Page 176 . Area = 2 ( A × B ) + ( A × C ) + ( B × C ) ÷ 144 where the enclosure size is A x B x C. Rule of Thumb: Figure heat dissipation of 10 watts per square foot with a 40°F ambient with a 10°F rise inside the enclosure. Don’t include any surface that is covered (the bottom. it should not be included in the calculation.) 70 Temperature Rise Above Ambient (F) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 In p u t P o w e r ( W a t t s /S q u a r e f t ) [ ] Determine the input power in watts per square foot by dividing the heat dissipation in the enclosure (in watts) by the enclosure surface area (in square feet). If any surface is not available for transferring heat (surface mounted against a wall). Airflow requirements are calculated as follows: CFM = 1. This equation includes all six surfaces.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Heat Dissipation in Electrical Enclosures The accumulation of heat in an electrical enclosure is referred to as temperature rise. etc.5 for these enclosure materials. Multiply the results found in the graph by 1. The heat input to the enclosure.

33 1.00 .91 .71 .00 .00 .88 .71 .91 .76 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Appendix III National Electric Code (NEC) Allowable ampacities of not more than three insulated conductors Rated 0-2000V in raceway or cable or earth Size Temperature rating of conductor AWG 60°C 75°C 90°C 60°C 75°C 90°C Copper Aluminum or Copper-Clad Aluminum 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 20 25 30 40 55 70 85 95 110 125 145 165 195 215 240 260 280 320 355 385 400 410 435 20 25 35 50 65 85 100 115 130 150 175 200 230 255 285 310 335 380 420 460 475 490 520 14 18 25 30 40 55 75 95 110 130 150 170 195 225 260 290 320 350 380 430 475 520 535 555 585 20 25 30 40 55 65 75 85 100 115 130 150 170 190 210 225 260 285 310 320 330 355 20 30 40 50 65 75 90 100 120 135 155 180 205 230 250 270 310 340 375 385 395 425 25 35 45 60 75 85 100 115 135 155 175 205 230 255 280 305 350 385 420 435 450 480 Ambient Temp°C 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-70 71-80 1.82 .41 The wire sizing is minimum for the ampacities listed.00 .58 .00 .67 .75 .05 1.71 .41 1.08 1.33 1.04 1.87 .41 1.91 .67 .04 1.82 .82 .82 .88 .00 .71 .94 .05 1.87 .82 .58 .08 1.76 . Page 177 .75 .58 . It may be necessary to increase the wire size for long cable runs.58 .58 .58 .41 CORRECTION FACTORS Multiply the ampacities above by the appropriate factor below 1.91 .96 .94 .82 .96 .

5 13.6 149.6 11 14 21 27 34 40 52 65 77 96 124 156 180 240 .2 272.0 6.8 1.2 3.6 Rated Motor Voltage Squirrel Cage Induction Type 200 208 230 460 575 2300 2.1 1.5 10.8 3.4 2.1 9 11 17 22 27 32 41 52 62 77 99 125 144 192 230 Synchronous Type 460 575 2300 16 20 26 31 37 49 53 63 83 104 123 155 202 253 302 400 26 32 41 52 61 78 101 126 151 201 21 26 33 42 49 62 81 101 121 161 12 15 20 25 30 40 Full Load Current for DC Motors Rated Armature Rated Voltage HP 90 120 180 240 500 ¼ ½ ¾ 1 1½ 2 3 5 7½ 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 4.6 8.2 48.6 3.3 10.0 5.9 6.8 46.5 25.8 88 114.8 9.8 343.0 17.8 11.2 10.1 8.4 211.5 177.2 4.8 9.1 5.1 4.2 17 25 40 58 76 2.0 3.6 18 27 34 43 51 67 83 99 123 164 205 246 330 12.2 59.2 396 528 2 2.8 414 552 2.1 78.0 7.4 4.4 74.8 2.6 2.0 169.1 6.7 24.4 7.6 9.8 4.2 22 28 42 54 68 80 104 130 154 192 248 312 360 480 1 1.5 12.2 16 24 31 38 46 61 75 90 111 148 185 222 294 Page 178 .7 3.4 143.8 7.6 7.3 3.7 6.Drive Application Engineering Full Load Current for 3-Phase AC Motors Rated HP ½ ¾ 1 1½ 2 3 5 7½ 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 Engineering Handbook 115 4 5.4 13.2 20 29 38 55 72 89 106 140 173 206 255 341 425 506 675 550 13.2 6.7 3.2 3.7 7.6 5.2 30.2 358.4 1.8 6.8 285.6 12.6 16.3 62.6 15.2 92 119.1 2.1 220.4 4.3 32.8 16 27 1.

Insulation Rating of AC Motors for Inverter Duty Application Nema MG1 para. Page 179 . 31. frame designation.600 Vpk At 0. time rating. methods of cooling.40.40. balance. These standards include the following specifications: Ambient conditions.4. dimensions. enclosures.2 Inverter rated motors designed to Nema MG1 para.1µs risetime. 31. and power supply type.4.2 “Voltage Spikes” must be capable of 1.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Underwriters Laboratory (UL) UL50 – Enclosures for Electrical Equipment UL508 – Industrial Control Equipment UL508A – Industrial Control Panels UL508C – Power Conversion Equipment UL840 – Insulation Coordination UL845 – Motor Control Centers Canadian Standards (CSA) CE Low Voltage Directive LV Standards EN 50178 Electronic equipment for use in power installations EN 60664 Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems EN 60204 IEC 61800-5 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems EMC Directive EMC Standards EN61800-3 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems Part 3: EMC product standard National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Nema standards for motors are acceptable in the United States and in many other countries.

75 2.5 7.75 2.41 .62 6.06 1.5 14.06 1.5 14.75 2.5 3.25 6.19 1.5 5.5 3.25 4.41 .5 2.25 6.75 2.25 6.06 1.41 .5 2F 12.5 14 16 9 10.25 5.5 13.25 6.5 6.88 5.25 7 8 9 10 11 5.75 2.53 .25 14 16 18 20 11 12.34 .41 .5 6.5 11.41 .25 6.75 3.5 2.5 11 12 14 16 18 10 11.5 3.5 5.5 11.41 .75 2.5 14.5 8.34 .5 11.34 .5 3.94 .25 5.25 4.53 .81 .5 2.75 2.5 13.88 6.5 4.34 .41 .75 2.5 12.41 .19 1.25 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11.75 2.19 1.5 3.75 3.75 4.62 3 3.75 2.34 .5 10 11 H .41 .5 6.75 2.25 7 8 9 10 11 4 4.19 1.19 1.25 5.44 2.25 5.81 .19 1.25 4.12 3.5 3.25 4.44 2.81 .5 11.88 5.5 7.75 2.75 2.34 .62 7.94 .06 1.53 BA 2.25 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5.75 2.25 4.34 .5 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 16 18 20 22 25 28 20 22 25 28 32 36 H .19 1.25 5.34 .53 .53 .34 .53 .19 BA 4.5 4.41 .12 3.34 .5 5.5 13.94 .19 1.19 1.25 6.06 2.5 5 5.75 2.41 .25 4.5 3.75 2.5 12.81 .5 13.75 3.19 1.66 .25 9 10 11 12.5 3.12 3.5 11.5 5.25 6.5 6.12 3.34 .75 3.25 5.25 5.25 4.94 .5 3.5 3.19 1.5 11.94 1.12 3.88 5.5 15 16.75 2.5 8.41 .75 3.5 8.5 7 8.75 4.25 7 8 9 10 11 12.75 2.75 4.75 3.Drive Application Engineering Nema Frame Dimensions – DC Motors and Generators Engineering Handbook * Dimensions in inches Frame 42 48 56 56H 142AT 143AT 144AT 145AT 146AT 147AT 148AT 149AT 1410AT 1411AT 1412AT 162AT 163AT 164AT 165AT 166AT 167AT 168AT 169AT 1610AT 182AT 183AT 184AT 185AT 186AT 187AT 188AT 189AT 1810AT 213AT 214AT 215AT 216AT 217AT 218AT 219AT 2110AT 253AT 254AT 255AT 256AT 257AT 258AT 259AT 283AT 284AT 285AT 286AT D 2.41 .19 1.5 3.5 14.25 5.25 4.19 1.25 4.25 4.19 1.5 18 20 22 25 12.5 3.19 1.62 6.66 .25 6.41 .5 8.53 .41 .5 12.5 14.53 .62 6.66 .5 2.75 2.5 7.5 17 17 17 17 17 17 E 5.25 12.75 5.81 .75 4.88 5.5 13.75 2.19 1.25 5.5 4.62 6.75 2.81 .41 .66 .75 2.5 14 8 9.06 1.75 2.75 2.75 2.62 6.5 3.06 1.5 2.75 3 5 3.5 5.28 .12 3.75 3.12 3.5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4.34 .19 1.5 4.5 8.25 5.75 3.5 2.12 3.5 8.5 8.5 11.5 13.41 .53 .5 3.66 .41 .25 4.19 1.5 3.53 .41 .5 10 10 10 10 10 10 11.5 11.75 2.75 16 18 20 22 12.12 3.5 7.5 2.25 7 7 7 7 E 1.75 3.12 2.94 .5 12.75 4.06 1.41 .25 4.5 11.5 14.25 6.62 6.5 11.5 12.53 .41 .34 .41 .75 4.25 6.88 5.94 .5 6.66 .5 Page 180 .75 2.34 .53 .5 12.88 5.5 4.66 .5 2.5 3.25 6.81 .5 12.25 13.41 .5 5 5.5 3.5 2.25 4.25 5.5 4.41 .5 4 4.41 .75 2.5 5 5.5 7.25 7 8 9 10 4.5 4.25 5.75 2.69 2.5 4.75 Frame 287AT 288AT 289AT 323AT 324AT 325AT 326AT 327AT 328AT 329AT 363AT 364AT 365AT 366AT 367AT 368AT 369AT 403AT 404AT 405AT 406AT 407AT 408AT 409AT 443AT 444AT 445AT 446AT 447AT 448AT 449AT 502AT 503AT 504AT 505AT 506AT 507AT 508AT 509AT 583A 584A 585A 586A 587A 588A 683A 684A 685A 686A 687A 688A D 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12.5 3.25 5.5 2F 1.19 1.25 6.53 .25 5.5 4.5 7.75 2.53 .25 4.5 2.75 3.5 8.25 6.75 2.5 3.75 2.5 5.41 .

75 Vmin 1.12 3.75 3.25 6.66 U .625 1.5 5.41 .5 3.12 2.12 2.66 .201 1.625 1.75 5.875 1.75 4.66 .91 3.591 1.771 .375 .03 2.75 3.03 3.375 1 1 1.643 .5 3.986 1.75 5.25 5.25 5.66 .312 .875 1.53 .75 4.25 4.25 5.03 2.188 .75 4.41 1.125 .38 3 5 3.53 .188 .41 .25 5.125 1.5 .875 .25 2.375 .03 4.986 1.25 4.25 12.25 4.78 2.25 4.375 .87 5.41 1.91 2.875 1.5 5.88 5.75 4.25 2.5 4.53 .66 .12 2.5 11 11 11 10.66 .66 .28 2.25 11.41 2.5 4.5 3.375 .375 .75 3.25 5.5 4.625 .25 H .5 4.88 5.25 6.78 4.5 5.75 2.03 2.25 4.875 1.591 1.771 .88 2 2.125 1.5 3.5 9.62 4.25 5.75 4 4 4.75 .625 .5 3.875 1.25 5.34 .5 .91 5.25 4.41 1.5 9.416 1.28 2.845 1.62 4.5 3.188 .88 5.41 2.75 4.03 2.25 12.12 3.75 2.75 2 2 2.625 2.91 2.875 2.25 12.87 5.25 5.375 1.38 3 3 3.25 4.62 3.416 1.5 .5 R .857 .591 1.88 4.78 1.44 2.88 5.625 .25 5.25 5.75 5.845 1.88 3.03 S flat .625 2.37 3.25 6.25 3.643 .5 2 2 2.12 3.41 .25 5.5 12 12 12 12 12 11.25 4.5 4.41 .62 5.75 5.41 .88 5.25 .5 2.25 .875 .25 4.591 1.453 .75 4.25 12.53 .591 2.625 1.88 5.375 1.62 5.75 2.53 .625 1.66 .75 4.5 9.78 3.5 1.66 .12 3.75 2.66 .03 2.125 1.375 .25 5.875 1.25 11.5 5 5 5 5 5 5.25 6.25 .5 4.5 6.66 .5 10.312 .25 .66 .25 .25 2 2.62 3.5 5 5 5.28 1.591 1.625 2.88 5.78 4.66 .25 2.201 .25 8.Drive Application Engineering Nema Frame Dimensions – AC Motors and Generators Engineering Handbook *Dimensions in inches Frame 48 56 143 143T 145 145T 182 182T 184 184T 203 204 213 213T 215 215T 224 225 254 254U 254T 256U 256T 284 284U 284T 284TS 286U 286T 286TS 324 324U 324S 324T 324TS 326 326U 326S 326T 326TS 364 364S 364U 364US 364T 364TS 365 365S 365U 365US 365T 365TS D 3 3.857 .25 11.53 2.75 2.5 6.25 5.5 5.5 5.125 1.75 3.125 1.188 .5 .25 6.591 2.5 3.41 .25 2.25 6.625 2.5 .5 .75 4 3.41 1.53 .66 .5 .75 3 4 4 5 5 4.41 1.5 .38 3 3.845 1.25 6.88 5.25 6.5 5.75 3.03 3.188 .25 6.91 3.5 10.5 5.25 3.5 2 2.416 1.75 3.875 1.5 10.03 4.37 3.12 3.25 8.201 .53 .416 .5 5.25 6.5 3.416 1.875 1.78 1.38 3 5 3.34 .41 1.91 5.5 5.41 .34 .91 2.375 1.66 .5 4.75 3.62 3.375 .25 6.25 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2F 2.5 5.75 7.25 6.28 1.25 2.66 .5 8.41 .591 1.5 .416 1.416 1.91 2.53 .62 3.38 3 4.53 .75 .416 1.5 .5 6.375 1.625 1.34 .5 5.25 12.03 2.771 .88 3.375 .34 .021 1.125 1.25 4.625 1.88 N-W 1.91 3.25 12.643 .25 10 10 9.25 5.416 1.591 1.75 .625 1.416 1.25 2.5 10.875 1.28 1.78 3.5 .986 1.5 5.25 11.875 BA 2.66 .53 .875 1.416 1.66 .201 1.375 1.875 1.88 5.5 .75 2.41 .188 .25 6.625 1.5 .38 3 6.62 3.25 2.375 .75 4 3.66 .591 ESmin 1.5 3.771 .88 5.75 2.75 2.25 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 E 2.25 6.28 1.53 .75 3.25 3.5 5.375 .5 5.25 5.38 3 6.38 3 4.34 .5 3.75 4.25 .53 .312 .5 4.5 7 7 6.75 3.66 .986 .66 .188 .25 2.25 1.25 4.517 .91 3.75 2 1.62 3.75 1.25 11.25 5.5 .25 .37 3.986 .28 1.75 3.5 4.62 3.28 1.03 4.75 2.66 .62 3.03 2.416 1.5 3.591 1.125 .125 1.312 .5 3.375 .41 1.03 4.01 1.78 2.643 .188 .25 6.375 .41 .5 5.88 4.591 1.75 5.5 .41 .986 1.875 2.53 1.5 .88 5.188 .5 5.845 1.25 .5 Page 181 .75 2.41 .

625 .25 4.25 4.875 2.12 4.03 6.5 16.5 14.5 16.75 13.845 1.845 1.81 .81 .62 7.625 .845 ESmin 5.5 .12 3.88 4 7 4 6.62 6.5 .5 4.125 3.75 7.875 2.81 .81 .5 14.65 2.62 6.62 6.81 .62 6.5 7.94 .625 .03 2.81 .45 1.5 8.75 .25 13.375 2.75 .03 5.62 4.78 7.875 .5 7.5 8.5 7.03 7.5 6.81 .125 2.5 .25 4.375 2.5 7.62 6.81 .81 .5 .5 6.5 .5 7.62 4.5 6.5 7.91 3.875 2.845 2.28 2.81 .875 BA 6.38 4 R 1.53 2.5 .5 12.25 7.37 3.5 16.25 12.375 2.75 .5 20 20 25 25 16 18 18 H .78 6.75 .75 8.88 4 8.5 7.375 3.125 2.25 12.81 .125 2.81 .03 5.25 4.875 2.845 2.91 3.5 7.5 16.875 2.875 2.021 2.875 .5 8.88 2.021 1.5 7.81 .375 2.375 2.125 1.38 8.125 3.5 16.5 N-W 6.75 8.5 7.5 4.625 .25 8.25 8.845 1.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Nema Frame Dimensions – AC Motors and Generators Continued * Dimensions in inches Frame 404 404S 404U 404US 404T 404TS 405 405S 405U 405US 405T 405TS 444 444S 444U 444US 444T 444TS 445 445S 445U 445US 445T 445TS 447T 447TS 449T 449TS 504U 505 505S D 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12.845 2.5 .625 .375 3.625 .78 5.88 4 8.81 .375 2.03 5.12 4.125 2.5 .875 2.78 S .875 2.81 .25 8.021 1.88 4 7 4 6.021 2.25 Vmin 6.5 14.5 7.94 U 2.81 .53 2.021 2.5 12.5 7.25 4.45 2.375 2.5 4.5 7.78 6.81 .75 14.81 .78 7.62 6.03 6.81 .94 .81 .45 1.845 2.62 6.78 5.5 7.88 2.37 3.845 2.75 13.5 8.81 .5 .38 4 8.125 2.5 14.5 .375 2.125 2.62 4.5 .5 E 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 2F 12.875 .62 6.75 8.88 2.5 .75 13.25 8.625 .81 .625 .81 .25 12.81 .03 2.53 2.845 2.25 4.25 7.021 2.5 4.021 1.78 5.5 Page 182 .28 7.91 3.81 .021 1.03 2.12 3.845 2.75 13.25 6.25 12.53 2.45 1.62 6.25 12.12 4.591 2.75 7.78 5.81 .5 8.875 .38 4 8.12 4.62 6.591 2.88 2.03 2.45 1.81 .91 3.75 .62 8.81 .5 7.65 2.5 16.75 13.375 2.75 7.125 1.45 1.75 .5 8.5 14.62 6.375 2.25 7.

motor dimensions. Page 183 .5 18.5 18.5 24 24 24 24 28 28 28 28 28 35 35 35 * Dimensions in millimeters BA U N-W 36 40 45 50 56 56 63 63 70 70 89 89 108 108 108 121 121 121 133 133 133 149 149 168 168 190 190 216 216 254 254 254 280 280 280 9 11 14 19 24 24 28 28 38 38 20 23 30 40 50 50 60 60 80 80 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) These standards may be specified in countries other than the United States.5 18.Drive Application Engineering IEC Frame Dimensions – Three-Phase Motors Engineering Handbook Frame 56M 63M 71M 80M 90S 90L 100S 100L 112S 112M 132S 132M 160S 160M 160L 180S 180M 180L 200S 200M 200L 225S 225M 250S 250M 280S 280M 315S 315M 355S 355M 355L 400S 400M 400L D 56 63 71 80 90 90 100 100 112 112 132 132 160 160 160 180 180 180 200 200 200 225 225 250 250 280 280 315 315 355 355 355 400 400 400 2E 90 100 112 125 140 140 160 160 190 190 216 216 254 254 254 279 279 279 318 318 318 356 356 406 406 457 457 508 508 610 610 610 686 686 686 2F 71 80 90 100 100 125 112 140 114 140 140 178 178 210 254 203 241 279 228 267 305 286 311 311 349 368 419 406 457 500 560 630 560 630 710 H 5.5 14.5 14.8 7 7 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 14.5 18. and ratings.5 18.5 14. but differ mainly in frame designation.5 14. IEC standards for motors include specifications for the same items as the Nema standards.5 14.

Current distortions that result in a dc offset.0 2.0 0.0 2.0 1.0 >1000 15.3 Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems (120 Through 69.0 100<1000 6.4 20. half-wave converters.5 0.0 0.5 2. are not allowed.0 2.0 1.5 4.5 3.75 1.15 2.5 >1000 7.0 1.0 2. where: Isc = maximum short-circuit current at PCC.5 8.0 Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd harmonic limits above.7 10.2 Harmonic Voltage Limits for Low Voltage Systems Application Maximum VTHD Special: Hospitals & Airports 3% General 5% Dedicated to drive 10% Table 10. IL = maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC Table 10.0 50<100 5.35 6.0 20<50 7.3 5.5 3.0 1. regardless of actual Isc/IL.5 5.25 0..0 4.0 6.25 4.0 0.0 Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd harmonic limits above. IL = maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC Page 184 .g.g.0 0.7 12.Drive Application Engineering IEEE-519 See tables below also refer to Harmonics in Section 4.0 2.0 1.5 0.75 0.4 Current Distortion Limits for General Sub-transmission Systems (69.5 1. where: Isc = maximum short-circuit current at PCC. *All power generation equipment is limited to these values of current distortion. half-wave converters.5 1.0 5.0 50<100 10.000 V) Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in Percent of IL Individual Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonics) Isc/IL 35<h TDD <11 17≤h<23 23≤h<35 11≤h<17 <20* 4.000 V) Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in Percent of IL Individual Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonics) Isc/IL <11 35<h TDD 11≤h<17 17≤h<23 23≤h<35 <20* 2.75 0. are not allowed.5 20<50 3.5 1.25 0. e.5 1.001 Through 161.5 7.0 3..75 2. e. *All power generation equipment is limited to these values of current distortion.6 0.0 100<1000 12. regardless of actual Isc/IL. Engineering Handbook Table 10.0 15. Current distortions that result in a dc offset.3 0.5 0.25 2.0 7.

calculate each one of them individually then add them together. of a solid cylinder of mass m. If the system includes several shapes. radius r. is kg m 2 Page 185 . length l. is J= 1 2 mr 2 Or kg m 2 kg m 2 π 32 ρ lr 4 3 Where p is density in (Nm ) The moment of inertia (for rotation about the y-axis). J.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Appendix IV Moment of Inertia for a given Body Type Select the appropriate body type shown below and the desired axis of rotation to calculate the moment of inertia for the driven system. J. of a solid cylinder of mass m. Refer to the “gearing” section to ensure that the inertia reflected to the motor shaft is calculated properly. of a solid cylinder of mass m. is 3r 2 + l 2 J =m 12 J= m×l2 3 kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the end-axis. as shown above right). radius r. J. Solid Cylinder The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis).

radius r. J. J. of a hollow cylinder of mass m. is r + ri J =m a 2 2 2 kg m 2 2 2 π 32 ρ l ra − ri 2 2 2 ( ) Or kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the y-axis). is r + ri + l 2 / 3 J =m a 4 Right Circular Cone kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). J. radius r. is 3r 2 J =m 10 Page 186 kg m 2 .Drive Application Engineering Hollow Cylinder Engineering Handbook The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). radius r. of a circular cone of mass m. of a hollow cylinder of mass m.

radius r. J. of a cube of mass m. of a frustum of cone of mass m.Drive Application Engineering Frustum of Right Circular Cone Engineering Handbook The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). J. of a cube of mass m. is J =m Cube 3(R 5 − r 5 ) 10(R 3 − r 3 ) kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). is J =m b2 + c2 12 a2 + c2 12 kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the y-axis). J. radius r. is J =m kg m 2 Page 187 . radius r.

radius r.Drive Application Engineering Pyramid Engineering Handbook The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). is J =m 2r 2 5 kg m 2 Rotating Object at end of Rod The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). of a sphere of mass m. of a rotating object of mass m. of a pyramid of mass m. J. radius r. J. is Page 188 . radius r. J. is J =m Sphere and Hemisphere a2 + b2 20 kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). at a length l.

J. radius r. J= GD 2 4 Page 189 kg m 2 . and the rim of a hollow cylinder (rim). a hollow cylinder (web). is ⎛ 2 3 2⎞ J = m⎜ R + r ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ kg m 2 Flywheel with a web This should be addressed as the sum of the moments of inertia of a solid cylinder (hub). Calculating the mass for the moment of inertia. D diameter (m). Solid Cylinder m = 2π i 2 l Hollow Cylinder ρ g kg 2 m = 2π ra − ri l 2 ( ) ρ g 2 kg Webbed Cylinder m = 2π ra − ri l e + ri li 2 2 2 [( ) ( )] ρ g kg Flywheel GD equivalent – G mass (kg). of a torus of mass m.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook ⎛ r2 ⎞ J = m⎜ + l 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Torus kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis).

31 136.8 658.3 861. Page 190 .2 1407.889).79 37.4 1893. (Inches) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 WK2 lb ft2 0.8 939.818 3. Based on the specific gravity of steel at 487.2 288.46217 0. For materials other than steel.4 789.8 323.2 2844.07 20.77 201.7 4891.4 1518.43 45.9 2178.395 9.262 1.3 445.5 3879.09 53.3 1021.78814 1. (Inches) 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 WK2 lb ft2 20031 20836 21665 22519 23397 24302 25232 26188 27173 28183 29222 30289 31385 32511 33667 34853 36071 37320 38601 39914 41262 42643 44059 45510 46995 48517 50076 51672 53305 54978 56689 58440 60231 62063 63936 65852 67811 69812 71858 73948 76083 78265 80493 82768 85091 87463 89884 92355 94876 97449 2 Engineering Handbook WK2 lb ft2 100075 102750 105482 108268 111107 114002 116954 119962 123028 126152 129336 132579 135883 139249 142676 146166 149720 153339 157022 160772 164588 168472 172424 176446 180537 184699 188933 193239 197618 202071 206599 211203 215883 220640 225476 230391 235386 240461 245619 250858 256182 261589 267081 272660 278325 284078 289920 295852 301874 307988 Dia.5 3436. (Inches) 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 WK2 is given in lb-ft2.Drive Application Engineering WK of Solid Steel Cylinders One Inch Long Dia.991 5.745 12.049278 0.1 721.7 401. WK2 = PI/32 * (487.61 16. multiply WK2 from the table by actual cylinder length in inches.889 lb per cubic foot.8 1636.3 492.96 102.1 2031.3 3032.5 5172 5466 5772 6090 6422 6767 7125 7498 7885 8286 8703 9135 9584 10048 10529 11028 11544 12077 12629 13200 13790 14399 15029 15679 16349 17041 17755 18490 19249 Dia.8 1109.14 155.7 4363.78 543.3 2332.2494 0.1 3652.8 228.21 25.01559 0.08 30.30 118. (Inches) 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 WK2 lb ft2 1302. For cylinders longer or shorter than 1 inch.86 75.7 1761.87 63.000192 0.9 598.889 sp gravity) * (1/12' length) * [ (d/12’)4] = Inertia in lb-ft2 Moving the decimal point one place in diameter shifts the decimal point four places in the same direction in WK2.497 7.0 4115.2 257.00308 0.19 87.7 2665.2 360.92 177.12030 0.3 3229.5 2494.6 1203.924 2. multiply WK2 from the table by the specific gravity in (lb per cu ft of material / 487.07 Dia.2 4621.

8621 35.4845 26. Based on the specific gravity of steel at 7. For cylinders longer or shorter than 1 centimeter. length) * ( dia)4 * (0.2670 106.19697 4.30505 8.64753 12.08045290 0.9167 34.21681 0.00009944 0.32608 9.5520 52.60540 0.5959 21.81523207 sp gravity) * (1cm.31462 0.56099 0.00999899 0.8729 91.5876 64.1836 86.00514 4.1396 18.00018422 0.00004795 0.98412 8.7378 25.75456 0.9014 99.8887 40.00112334 0.5598 117.13373 1.69715 2.0232 78.00050340 0.4469 16.47954 Dia.04716001 0.00159099 0.11513675 0. multiply J from the table by the specific gravity in (grams per cubic centimeter / 7.6166 47.84001 2.38614 15.49659 5.03398 5.04077527 0.00640822 0. (cm) 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 J kgm2 39.30280 3.28725 1.23875 0. Moving the decimal point one place in diameter shifts the decimal point four places in the same direction in J.8447 54.6771 61.9598 20. multiply J from the table by the actual cylinder length in cm.1116 104.00502831 0.3069 77.06192 2.0822 65.5615 18.0377 50.02147104 0.17888 2.81395 5.26147 5.99437 1. For materials other than steel.4562 108.00076726 0.8271 36.Drive Application Engineering J of Solid Steel Cylinders One centimeter Long Dia.00000621 0.79249 7.37756 14.8228 95.07695 7.01227614 0.07085794 0.9454 89.8157 49.07296 12.0491 87.7268 70.2862 45.67259 Dia.01797349 0.43847 10.73915 1.06233 1.60121 4.9559 42.8119 37.00388425 0.2471 21.39561 4.19641821 0. Page 191 .23343 11.14379662 0.41940 13.3245 122.9605 73.3386 19.4402 46.2605 59.37440 0.8425 Engineering Handbook Dia.70209 0.14269 3.2936 24.01492172 0.81523207 grams per cubic centimeter.05426674 0.98848 3. J =PI/32 * (7.8693 58.2831 51.45585 1.44231 0.9899 102. (cm) 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 J kgm2 0.7614 J is given in kgm2.6194 75.00000123 0.65240 0.99036 6.95869 13.89229 14.00219137 0.80992 0.40729 0.50995 12.68646 10.46894 3.00805437 0.02997104 0. (cm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 J kgm2 0.0838 32.3262 31.2481 27.6798 110.54611 1.36960 1.9907 33.8265 28.7319 19.92971 0.97584 9.6418 29.9380 113.84219 1.28758 0.5958 23.42765 2.1617 55.64128 3.63556 8.815).55974 2.8319 93.05720 10.2312 115.17750075 0.00031427 0.00001964 0.00000008 0.64050 1.26231 0.06214795 0.51907 0.0000001Kgm2/gcm2) = Inertia in kgm2.4750 30.7687 80.0286 27.10253153 0.3486 84.9137 22.0443 43.83048 11.12886998 0.8458 97.1544 44. (cm) 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 J kgm2 7.51668 6.37026 7.81996 4.1515 68.5437 82.15998386 0.1194 62.87544 15.00294750 0.8170 38.30075 2.6034 67.9973 17.0076 24.03506188 0.3297 71.20866 1.24937 6.02545580 0.34354 0.94973 2.9241 120.90987 16.73949 5.09099081 0.1957 32.86827 0.5031 56.

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Greek Letters Name Alpha Beta Chi Delta Epsilon Eta Gamma Iota Kappa Lambda Mu Nu Omega Omicron Phi Pi Psi Rho Sigma Tau Theta Upsilon Xi zeta Metric Prefixes Uppercase Α Β Χ ∆ Ε Η Γ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ω Ο Φ Π Ψ Ρ Σ Τ Θ Υ Ξ Ζ Lowercase α β χ δ ε η γ ι κ λ µ ν ω ο φ π ψ ρ σ τ θ υ ξ ζ Prefix Yotta Zetta Exa Peta Tera Giga Mega Kilo Hecto Deca Value 1024 1021 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 101 Prefix Deci Centi Milli Micro Nano Pico Femto Atto Zepto yocto Page 192 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-24 Value .

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Section – 7 Glossary Page 193 .

Drive Application Engineering This page intentionally left blank Engineering Handbook Page 194 .

By implication. either manually or automatically.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Glossary “D” flange A special end shield with untapped holes for through bolts in the flange. No load to full load step change 2. Total inertia = 2x motor inertia A technique to allow control to automatically compensate for changes in system parameters such as load variations. and inverter control. The adjustable-speed drive is comprised of the motor. Usually found on pumps. A circuit on an I/O module that converts AC signals from a machine/process switching device to backplane logic level DC signals. % of motor rated torque that can be produced. Current NEMA designation identifying AC induction motor frames. 2. A flow of electricity that continually changes in amplitude and periodically changes in direction. drive controller. “P” base “T” frame “U” frame A Absolute position AC (alternating current) A position referenced to a fixed zero position. A character string that uniquely identifies the physical location of an input or output circuit. There are two general types: induction and synchronous.. A previously used NEMA designation indicating frame size and dimension (prior to 1965 the standard frame sizes per horsepower rating). Connected inertia = 1 x motor inertia 3. AC contactor AC drive AC input circuit AC motor Acceleration torque Adaptive control Address Adjustable speed Adjustable-speed drive (electrical) Air gap Page 195 . It controls the speed. measured from 5%-100% of full load speed. A special mounting similar to “D” flange except with a machined fit tenon recessed instead of protruding. (NEMA has dimension tables which offer standard frame measurements. Assumptions: 1. The commonly available electric power supplied by an AC generator and is distributed in single. inverter.or three-phase forms. A motor operating on AC current that flows in either direction (AC current). They are available in frame sizes 143t through 445t. The desired operating speed (set speed) is relatively constant regardless of load. By definition.e. It is primarily used for mounting the motor to gear boxes or bulkheads. and operator’s controls (either manual or automatic). The concept of varying the speed of a motor. and direction of an AC motor with a rectifier. An alternating current (AC) contactor is designed for the specific purpose of establishing or interrupting an AC power circuit. torque. The space between the rotating (rotor) and stationary (stator) members in an electric motor. A general term used to describe an electronic device that converts a fixed frequency and voltage to an adjustable frequency and AC voltage. 1. A data table bit reflects its state).) Replaced the previous standard “U” frame in 1965. it is always a digital circuit (on/off). A character string that uniquely identifies a memory location. AC current changes its direction of flow (cycles). horsepower. it usually has a discrete relationship with the data table (i.

The temperature of the surrounding cooling medium. Armature current is the current required by a motor to produce torque and to drive a load. The moving part of a magnetic circuit. As the altitude increases above 1. Abbreviated term for armature voltage control of a DC motor. DC motors require special brushes for operation at high altitudes. which describes the usual method of changing the speed of a DC motor by controlling the magnitude of applied armature voltage. This voltage is approximately directly proportional to motor velocity. higher grades of insulation or motor derating are required. Armature current is proportional to the amount of torque being rises and falls produced. and for short periods of time. or the movable iron part of a relay. The atmospheric altitude (height above sea level) at which the motor will be operating. earth) into which the heat of the equipment is dissipated. The cooling medium is usually the air surrounding the motor. Armature current is proportional to the amount of torque being produced.300 feet) and the air density decreases. larger numbers have a smaller crosssectional area. and short periods of time.Drive Application Engineering Algorithm Altitude Engineering Handbook A set of procedures used for solving a problem in a finite number of steps. Armature-voltage feedback is used where the expense of a tachometer-generator for velocity feedback is not justified and a regulation accuracy of 2-5% is adequate. An organization that develops and publishes voluntary industry standards in the united states. the air’s ability to cool the motor decreases. A standard system used for designating the size of electrical conductors. It should only be exceeded for initial motor acceleration. Highly magnetic material (usually iron) upon which the armature coil is wound to assist in creating a magnetic field in a DC motor. For higher altitudes. The terminal of an electronic device through which electrons exit onto the line. Armature voltage can be used as the velocity feedback signal to an electronic speed regulator.000 meters (3. However.300 feet). such as gas or liquid. The standard NEMA rating for ambient temperature is not to exceed 40 degrees C. A coil of insulated wire within a DC motor that provides electromagnetic properties when rotated. a single-strand conductor has a larger cross-sectional area than a multi-strand conductor of the same gauge so that they have the same currentcarrying specification. The current required by a DC motor to produce torque and drive a load. The maximum safe.000 meters (3. NEMA standards call for an altitude not exceeding 1. such as the rotating part of a motor or generator. A collection of wire coils in a DC motor that are free to rotate about the center line axis within the magnetic field created by the field poles. which comes into contact with the heated parts of the motor. assuming a constant motor field and ignoring IR drop. Ambient temperature American wire gauge (AWG) Analog-to-digital con-version Anode ANSI Armature Armature coil Armature control Armature core Armature current Armature-voltage feedback Page 196 . Production of a digital value whose magnitude is proportional to the instantaneous magnitude of an analog signal. water. This can only be exceeded for initial for acceleration. it as the torque demand rises and falls. Gauge numbers have an inverse relation-ship to size. American national standards institute. The temperature of the medium (air. continuous current is stamped on the motor nameplate.

accomplished in several ways: DC-injection braking (AC drives) . pulley end (P. B Back end of a motor Bandwidth Base frequency Base speed The back end of a normal motor is the end that carries the coupling or driving pulley (NEMA). it is commonly the point where 60Hz is applied to the induction motor. The speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) which a DC motor develops at rated armature and field voltage with rated load applied. Dynamic braking (DC drives) . the number of baud is the same as the number of bits. With AC systems. With DC drives. is the life in hours or revolutions in which 50% of the bearings selected will obtain or exceed. Application is normally limited to 10-20% of rated motor speed due to increased heating in the rotor. l50 (b50). it is the motor shaft speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) with the rated field current and commonly the point where full armature voltage is applied with full-rated current. It is a 7-bit code with an optional parity bit used to represent alphanumerics. A method of stopping or reducing the time required to stop an AC or DC motor. Median life (average life). This is sometimes called the drive end (D. A load resistor that is used to absorb the energy produced by an overhauling mechanical load.) etc. Dynamic braking (AC drives) . Refer to Dynamic Braking. An external device or accessory that brings a running motor to a standstill and/or holds a load. The manufacturer's nameplate rating where the motor will develop rated power at rated load and voltage. and control-code characters. The range of frequencies over which a system is designed to operate. With DC motors. The result is a linear braking characteristic (ramp) that does not diminish with motor speed. A voltage adjustment made to an AC motor to produce enough torque to start an application. is the life in hours or revolutions in which 90% of the bearings selected will obtain or exceed.E.). it is commonly the point where full armature voltage is applied with full-rated field excitation.a method which produces electromagnetic braking forces in the motor by Dissipating generated power into the DC bus through a resistive load. The manufacturer’s nameplate rated frequency.a method which produces electromagnetic braking forces in the motor by removing two AC motor (stator) phases and injecting DC current. Rating life. The RTD’s resistance varies with the temperature of the bearings. Where one bit is en-coded on each signaling event. The result is a linear braking characteristic that (ramp) does not diminish with motor speed.a method which produces electromagnetic braking forces in the motor by dissipating generated power from armature/shunt field reaction into a Page 197 Base speed. l10 (b10). equal to the number of discrete conditions or signal events per second. rpm Baud Bearing life Bearing RTD Bending radius Boost Brake Resistor Brakes Braking Braking (cont'd 1) .Drive Application Engineering ASCII Engineering Handbook American standards code for information interchange. A probe used to measure bearing temperature to detect an overheating condition. punctuation marks. The minimum radius to which a cable can be bent without damage. See dibit. Braking force remains constant and is only limited by the thermal capacity of the resistors. Can be added to a motor or incorporated as part of it.E. The bandwidth is expressed in hertz between the highest and lowest frequencies. A unit of signaling speed.

Regenerative braking . except that it has a capacitor in series with the starting winding. Braking force is deter-mined by the field strength. A non-controlled. The torque required to start a machine from standstill. Braking torque Breakaway torque Breakdown torque Bridge rectifier (diode. in which the capacitor phase is in the circuit only during starting.a method which produces electromagnetic braking forces in the motor by electronically controlling the return of generated power to the AC supply. The peak of the current wave is reached ahead of the peak of the voltage wave. measured from 0-5% of full load speed. or in three-phase motors for power factor correction. which has the same capacitor and capacitor phase in the circuit for both starting and running. and an auxiliary winding connected in series with a capacitor.a positive-action mechanical friction device. It is always greater than the torque needed to maintain motion. The addition of the capacitor provides better phase relation and results in greater starting torque with much less power input. % of motor rated torque that can be produced. the brake is set. This is the result of the successive storage and discharge of electric energy used in single-phase motors to start. The capacitor start single-phase motor is basically the same as the split phase start. Connected inertia = 1 x motor inertia 3. The term is also used to describe the torque developed by a motor during dynamic braking conditions. This brush is mounted in a spring-loaded holder and positioned tangent to the commutator segments against which it “brushes. When properly equipped for reversing while running. No load to full load step change 2. Motormounted or separately mounted holding brake . An electronic device with the ability to store and electric charge. A conductor. A carbon-based conductor in a DC motor that provides contact between the power supply and the commutator allowing current to flow through to the commutator. Assumptions: 1. A single-phase induction motor with a main winding arranged for direct connection to the power source. two-value capacitor motor.) The torque required to bring a motor down to a standstill. causes the current to lead the voltage in time phase. the motor is much more suitable for this service than the split phase start since it provides greater reversing ability at less Page 198 Capacitor motor Capacitor start . and thermal capacity of the resistors. DC voltage. (Note: a separately mounted brake is not one which. There are three types of capacitor motors: capacitor start. Total inertia = 2x motor inertia The maximum torque a motor will develop at rated voltage without a relatively abrupt drop or loss in speed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook resistive load. armature voltage. rectified. Normal configuration is such that when the power is removed. when connected in an alternating-current circuit. serving to maintain an electrical connection between stationary and moving parts of a machine (commutator of a DC motor). A piece of current conducting material (usually carbon or graphite) which rides directly on the commutator of a com-mutated motor and conducts current from the power supply to the armature windings. SCR) Brush C Capacitor A device which. usually composed of some element of carbon. As in the case of the split phase motor. this type can be reversed at rest.” Pairs of brushes are equally spaced around the circumference of the commutator. full-wave rectifier that produces a constant. but not while running unless special starting and reversing switches are used. The result is a controllable linear braking characteristic (ramp) that does not diminish with motor speed. This can be used as a holding brake. permanent-split capacitor. is located on some part of the mechanical drive train other than the motor. in which there are different values of capacitance for starting and running. The result is a logarithmic braking Braking (cont'd 2) Characteristic (curve) that diminishes with motor speed. An SCR bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier with a DC output that can be controlled by switching on the gate control element.

Normally.atmospheres containing ethyl or ether vapors. lacquer solvent vapors. electrically insulated from the iron core. 2. A control system involving one or more feedback control loops. benzene. 1. The minimum voltage amount that begins the process of ionization (corona) of motor windings. Those in which flammable gasses or vapors are or may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to product explosive or ignitable mixtures. enabling any point to be identified by the distance from the origin along an axis. available with or without feet. The portion of a computer or programmable controller that controls the interpretation and execution of the user pro-gram stored in memory. A CE mark is required for products used in most European countries. Group e atmospheres containing metal dust. coal or coke dust. The electrical conductors wound into the core slot. the polarity of the CEMF is opposite to that of the power being supplied to the armature. etc. grain or combustible plastics or chemical dusts. Those which are hazardous because of the presence of combustible dust. it tends to speed up and slow down when leaving it. the more noticeable it can be.atmospheres containing carbon black. It refers to rotation occurring in jerks or increments rather than smooth motion. y. Group c . butane. This designation shows that a product such as a motor or control meets European standards for safety and environ-mental protection. or x. Under stable motoring conditions. A condition in which a motor does not rotate smoothly. A term used to describe non-uniform angular velocity. Group g . Group d . A path in which output feedback is compared with desired values to regulate drive system operation. including aluminum. to keep stable the relationships between the two. This effect becomes apparent at low speeds. The fewer the number of coils. but “steps” or “jerks” from one position to another during shaft revolution. which combine functions of controlled signals and commands. C-face is used where a pump or similar item is to be over-hung on the motor. acetone. Group f. or their commercial alloys. The terminal of an electronic device through which electrons enter from the line. The PLC or SLC™ processor. This generating action takes place whenever a motor is rotating. alcohol. These coils are connected into circuits or windings. This type of mounting is a NEMA standard design. hexane. magnesium. Cogging is most pronounced at low speeds and can cause objectionable vibrations in the driven machine. starch. However. Cartesian coordinate system Engineering Handbook A coordinate system in two or three dimensions made by using two or three axes (x and y.atmospheres containing flour.Drive Application Engineering watts input. It is these coils that carry and produce the magnetic field when the current Page 199 Cathode CE CEMF Central processing unit (CPU) C-face (motor mounting) CIV (corona inception voltage) Class I Class II Closed loop Closed-loop system Cogging Coil (stator or armature) . respectively) that intersect each other at right angles at an origin. propane. the product of a motor armature rotating in a magnetic field.atmospheres containing gasoline. char-coal. and z. natural gas. This type of motor mounting is used to close-couple pumps and similar applications where the mounting holes in the face are threaded to receive bolts from the pump. the generated voltage (CEMF) is equal to the voltage supplied to the motor minus small losses. which carry independent current. benzol. When an armature coil enters the magnetic field produced by the field coils. Counter electromotive force.

A range of motor operation where motor speed is controlled by field weakening in this range. Current is from the power supply through the brushes.DC bus terminals Unwanted electrical signals between grounding conductors and signal conductors or line conductors..g. 2. a DC intermediate circuit. an inverter. Designed with both a series and shunt field winding. Also used for parallel operation. to give an evenly stacked layered appearance. The switching in polarity between the armature and the brushes in a DC motor that allows current to flow through. consists of a rectifier. Common DC bus Common mode Common mode choke Common mode noise Communication rate (data transmission rate) Commutation (DC motor) Several drives that are connected together by the +/. Adjustable frequency drive).Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook passes through them.” such as that found in an adjustable-frequency drive. The arrangement of commutator segments is such that the magnetic polarity of each coil changes as the armature rotates. It consists of segments of “bars” that are electrically connected to two ends of one (or more) armature coils. Reversing the current in an armature coil when the coil (ends) moves from one side of the brush to the other side of the same brush. A designation for variable speed motors used for loads requiring the same amount of horsepower regardless of their motor speed during a normal operation. to the commutator and. the compound motor is used where the primary load requirement is heavy starting torque and variable speed is not required. hence. and formed coils of square wire individually laid in. The motor brushes ride on the periphery of the commutator and electrically connect and switch the armature coils to the power source. The rate at which data is transmitted across a link (in bits). the value of horsepower developed by the motor in this range is constant. round wire found in smaller and medium motors where coils are randomly laid in slot of stator core. There are two major types: “mush” or “random” wound. and a control unit. A “frequency converter. This is accomplished through use of a diode rectifier or thyristor rectifier circuit. Since horsepower is speed times torque (divided by a constant). A device for changing AC to DC to AC (e. The condition where the commutator segments of a DC motor pass each brush so quickly that current cannot switch polarity in the time allotted. 1. A cylindrically shaped assembly fastened to the motor shaft and considered part of the armature assembly. A device for changing AC to DC. motor torque decreases as speed increases. A speed range in which the motor is capable of delivering a constant torque subject to cooling limitations of the motor. A motor that can continue to operate without stopping and remain within the insulation temperature limits after it has reached normal operating (equilibrium) temperature. through the armature coils. The load must tolerate a speed variation from full load to no-load. parallel metal bars or segments that provide contact between the armature of a DC motor and one or more brushes. one on top of the other. A number of separated. A cylindrical device mounted on the armature shaft and consisting of a number of wedge-shaped copper segments arranged around the shaft (insulated from it and each other). Commutation limit Commutator Commutator bars Compound wound Constant HP (horsepower) Constant or variable torque Constant-horsepower range Constant-torque range Continuous duty Converter Page 200 .

DC (direct current) DC bus A current that flows only in one direction in an electric circuit. The range of values through which a system input can be changed without causing a corresponding change in system output. D – for AC motors D-flange (motor mounting) DI/DT Page 201 . This time rate of flow of electrical charge and is measured in amps (amperes). Normally. or taken from. resulting in a lower torque constant. B. 1. A controller that automatically adjusts the output current according to the current feedback and reference signals. 2. the magnets may become slightly demagnetized. Current Current limiting Current regulator Cycle D Daisy-chain configuration (for parallel connection) 1. This induced voltage opposes the armature current and tends to reduce it. When a permanent-magnet DC motor is subjected to high current pulses. An electronic method of limiting the maximum current available to the motor. NEMA has standard motor designs with various torque characteristics to meet specific requirements posed by different application loads. It may be continuous or discontinuous and it may be constant or varying. the junctions (contrasted with star or y connection). The design “B” is the most common design. a physical configuration such that each device is connected on the bus at the junction of two conductor segments. The instantaneous rate of change in current over time. C. Dead band Delta connection Demagnetization Design A. d-flange motors are supplied without feet since the motor is mounted directly to the driven machine.Drive Application Engineering Corona Counter electromotive force (cemf) Engineering Handbook This is the electrical discharge breakdown of a winding through the application of excessive voltage. This type of motor mounting is used when the motor is to be built as part of the machine. Circuits that filter the DC voltage to create a smooth flow when voltage enters the power section from the rectifier. The time it takes for one sequence of operations to occur. A sequence of operations that is repeated regularly. A drive’s power structure that transmits a rectified AC line power from the bridge rectifier to the output transistors. The induced voltage in a motor armature caused by conductors moving through or “cutting” field magnetic flux. A 3-phase connection where windings are connected in series with the power applied to. and the harmful effects it can have. In a linear arrangement of parallel (bus) connections. Damping The reduction in amplitude of an oscillation. Contrasted with a star configuration or a trunkline/dropline configuration. This is adjustable so that the motor’s max-maximum current can be controlled. 2. with no dropline between the device and the junction of the conductor segments. It can also be preset as a protective device to protect both the motor and control from extended overloads. The mounting holes of the flange are not threaded. Line reactors and isolation transformers can be used to pro-vide the impedance necessary to reduce high DI/DT. The flow of electricity. The bolts protrude through the flange from the motor side.

and thermal capacity of the resistors. a magnetic field is created around that conductor. A decrease in losses (the elements keeping the motor from being 100% efficient) of 10% constitutes an upward improvement of the motor of one code on the NEMA table. The instantaneous rate of change in voltage over time. An electronic device used to control the speed. at any angle not greater than 15 degrees from the vertical. It represents the effectiveness with which the motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. An electronic device that allows current flow in only one direction. NEMA has set up codes. it is the deviation from the initial set speed with no load change over a specific time period. when an electrical current is passed through a conductor such as iron. unidirectional conductor. Braking force is determined by the field strength. line disturbances. Specifically designed resistorcapacitor networks can help protect the SCRs from excessive DV/DT which can result from line voltage spikes. not an interlock or hold.Drive Application Engineering Digital-to-analog conversion (d/a conversion) Diode Dither Engineering Handbook Production of an analog signal whose instantaneous magnitude is proportional to the magnitude of a digital value. A solid-state. A time delay of programmed or established duration. Helpful in testing motors for nameplate information and an effective device in measuring efficiency. a low-velocity signal may be unable to overcome the static friction. horsepower. the drive must be operated for a specified warm-up time at a specified ambient temperature before drift specifications apply. and circuit configurations with extreme forward-conducting or reverse blocking requirements. An open motor in which the ventilating openings are so constructed that drops of liquid or solid particles falling on it. cannot enter either directly or by striking and running along a horizontal or inwardly inclined surface. Drift is normally caused by random changes in operating characteristics of various control components. it is the effectiveness with which the power supply converts AC power into DC power. armature voltage. Without a dither. and direction of a motor. Each nominal efficiency has a corresponding minimum efficiency number. Normally. In a power supply. The stop mode that slows the motor by dissipating generated power from a set of resistors after disconnection from the DC supply. torque. which correlate to specific nominal efficiencies. For example. The stop mode that slows the motor by dissipating generated power onto the DC bus through a set of external resistors. A device which places a load on the motor to accurately measure its output torque and speed by providing a calibrated dynamic load. Electromagnetism Page 202 . superimposed on a velocity signal. The efficiency of a motor is the ratio of electrical input to mechanical output. it is the effectiveness with which the motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. to overcome the effect of static friction that would other-wise occur at zero velocity. Drift Drip-proof motor Drive DV/DT Dwell Dynamic braking (AC drives) Dynamic braking (DC drives) Dynamometer E Efficiency Ratio of output to input indicated by a percentage. In a motor. For a drive. A magnetic field resulting from the flow of an electric current through a coil. Braking force is constant and only limited by the thermal capacity of the resistors. A small oscillation signal. A slow change in some characteristic of a device.

A measure of the smallest positional change that can be detected by the encoder. A motor which has its winding structure completely coated with an insulating resin (such as epoxy). Electromagnetic interference. The number of lines per revolution times the encoder multiplier. As with all proms. Often a duct with an external blower is used to bring clean air into the motor’s airintake. Electrically-erasable programmable read-only memory. or otherwise impairs the performance of electronic equipment. the enclosure would prevent the ignition or explosion of the gas or vapor which may surround the motor enclosure. usually restricted to generated voltage. See PROM. random-access memory. A solid aluminum or copper conductor in an AC motor that connects all of the rotor bars at each end of the rotor to form a closed-loop for current flow. vapor or dust which. may occur within it. in Hz. or in environments with extreme dirt. Should such an explosion occur. May also refer to the maximum rate at which the control loop can accept encoder signals. The actual bandwidth of the encoder and the capability of the controller to process encoder signals may not be the same. A digital de-vice that translates the angular position of a rotating shaft into a corresponding series of digital pulses. it is non-volatile. The housing in which equipment is mounted. This construction type is designed for exposure to more severe atmospheric conditions than the normal varnished winding. These motors are listed with underwriter’s laboratories. Any feedback element that converts linear or rotary position (absolute or incremental) to a digital signal. A chip mounted on a circuit board within the drive that stores data so that information is not lost wen power is removed. with slow speed motors. Enclosure Encoder Encoder bandwidth Encoder marker Encoder resolution End ring EPROM Explosion-proof enclosure Explosion-proof-hazardous locations Externally ventilated Page 203 . obstructs. A once-per-revolution signal provided by some incremental encoders to specify a reference point within that revolution. Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts. Division II – locations in which ignitable concentrations of flammable or combustible material exist but are contained within closed systems or containers and normally would not come in contact with the motor. Refer to the ESD precautions found in this manual to guard against damage to drive components. These cooling systems are used in certain duty cycle applications. Division I – locations in which ignitable concentrations of flammable or combustible material exist and come in contact with the motor.Drive Application Engineering Electromotive force (EMF) Electrostatic discharge (ESD) EMI Encapsulated winding Engineering Handbook A synonym for voltage. Also known as zero reference signal. They are available in designs for various environmental conditions. A totally enclosed enclosure. which is constructed to withstand an explosion of a specified gas. A type of prom that can be erased and reprogrammed by electrical signals. A motor using an external cooling system. Refer to NEMA standard for specifications of different types of enclosures. This is required in applications where the motor’s own fan will not provide sufficient cooling. A static-electricity discharge that may damage drive components. An expression for maximum encoder speed.

That torque of a motor necessary to produce its rated horsepower at full-load speed. A voltage difference can exist between the floating ground and earth ground. In reference to a regenerative drive. 60 cycles (Hz) is the standard while in other countries 50 Hz (cycles) is common. The four combinations are: forward rotation/forward torque (motoring) forward rotation/reverse torque (regeneration) reverse rotation/reverse torque (motoring) reverse rotation/forward torque (regeneration). The rate at which alternating current makes a complete cycle of reversals.. Calculated as: (hertz = 1 cycle per second). An electrical-circuit common which is not at earth ground potential or the same ground potential as circuitry with which it interfaces.Drive Application Engineering F Feedback loop Feedforward control action Field control Field economy Engineering Handbook A closed signal path from the motor or machine back to the controlling device that transmits either current or voltage readings in order to obtain a corrective error signal. On many field supplies. One method for producing regeneration. The current flowing through the line when the motor is operating at full-load torque and full-load speed with rated frequency and voltage applied to the motor terminals. The invisible magnetic lines of force that travel between north and south poles. This action weakens the magnetic field. this means a 50% reduction in output voltage two to three minutes after ma-chine shutdown (idle). They are drawn to the conductor placed between the two magnetic poles. increase the rate of flux change and rapidly reverse the direction of shunt motor field current. It is accomplished by changing the direction of current through the motor field. sometimes referred to as running torque. A fieldeconomy circuit serves to reduce standby power consumption and prolong the insulation life of the motor field windings. The number of cycles generated by the drive each second. The number of periodic cycles per unit of time. A circuit-design feature of a DC motor shunt field supply that reduces the supply voltage output after a predetermined period of time. the four combinations of forward and reverse rotation and forward and reverse torque. In the U. The frequency of the AC cur-rent will affect the speed of a motor. The density of the flux lines is a measure of the strength of the magnetic field. allowing motor speed to increase under proper conditions. A method of controlling DC motor speed by varying the field current in the shunt field windings. which reverses the polarity of the motor CEMF to account for generator action. The magnetic field which is established around an energized conductor or permanent magnet. Temporarily over-exciting a motor shunt field to overcome the l/r time constant. Field flux Field forcing Field reversing Field weakening Floating ground Flux Four-quadrant operation Frequency Full-load current Full-load torque Page 204 . It is expressed in cycles per second. Control action in which information concerning upstream conditions is converted into corrective commands to minimize the deviations of the controlled variable. The introduction of resistance in series with the shunt wound field of DC motor to reduce the voltage and current which weakens the strength of the magnetic field and thereby increases the motor speed.S. The field is represented by flux lines creating a flux pattern between opposite poles. The action of reducing the current applied to a DC-motor shunt field.

The velocity can be either linear or rotational. Calculated as: (horsepower = torque x speed / 5252). Hunting I Induction motor An induction motor is an alternating current motor in which the primary winding on one member (usually the stator) is connected to the power source and a secondary winding or a squirrel-cage secondary winding on the other member (usually the rotor) carries the induced current. motor insulation is classified by the temperature ranges at which it can operate for a sustained period of time. its current is induced. For motors the following approximate formula may be used: where hp = horsepower. Typically. Since there are various ambient temperature conditions a motor might encounter and different temperature ranges within which motors run and insulation is sensitive to temperature. The horsepower of a motor is expressed as a function of torque and speed. Page 205 Inductor Inertia Inertial load Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) Insulation class Intermittent duty .). H Harmonics Horsepower (HP) Additional frequencies produced in multiples of the fundamental frequency that when added together create a distortion in the output. or (2) load and rest. = 746 watts. fan. (3) load. Gain error is expressed in percent of the input or output value. Undesirable fluctuations in motor speed that can occur after a step change in speed reference (either acceleration or deceleration) or load. Ft. the total insulation system is capable of sustained operation at the above temperature. t = torque (in. The radius of gyration is a measure of how the mass of the object is distributed about the axis of rotation. A requirement of service that demands operation for alternate intervals of (1) load and no load. One horsepower is equivalent to lifting 33. The moment of inertia (wk2) is the product of the weight (w) of an object and the square of the radius of gyration (k2). If this continued rotation cannot be tolerated. Gain error is the deviation of the scale factor or slope of the line from the ideal or nominal gain value. There is no physical electrical connection to the secondary winding.000 ft-lb/min. When a motor insulation class is labeled on the name-plate. And rpm = revolutions per minute. A measure of a body’s resistance to changes in velocity. The measure of rate of work. Lb. this is the slope of the line when analog voltage or current is plotted versus the corresponding digital values.) Which tends to cause the motor shaft to continue to rotate after the power has been re-moved (stored kinetic energy). some mechanical or electrical braking means must be applied. A unit of power: 1hp = 33. A type of transistor commonly used in drive-control devices. The rate at which work is produced per unit of time. A load (flywheel. no load and rest. whether the body is at rest or moving at a constant velocity. Wk2 is usually expressed in units of lb-ft2. such alternative intervals being definitely specified. A coil of wire in a motor that induces a voltage when the current within its magnetic filed varies. etc. The “gain” of an analog input or output is the scale factor that provides the nominal conversion relationship.000 pounds to a height of one foot in one minute.Drive Application Engineering G Gain Gain error Engineering Handbook The ratio of the magnitude of the output signal with respect to that of the input signal. This application may require a special motor due to the energy required to accelerate the inertia.

This section uses the DC voltage from a previous circuit stage (intermediate DC circuit) to produce a pulse-width-modulated or stepped AC current or voltage waveform that has characteristics similar to the desired sine-wave frequency. Multi-speed motors can be wound with two sets of windings or one winding. 1. 3. A motor wound in such a way that varying connections at the starter can change the speed to a predetermined speed. The energy of motion of a moving body. L Laminations The steel portion of the rotor and stator cores make up a series of thin laminations (sheets) which are stacked and fastened together by cleats. 2. Enables the user to electrically adjust the speed of an AC motor. A device within the drive that reduces the amount of electrical noise and line notches caused by the switching of power conversion devices. Steady state current taken from the line with the rotor at standstill (at rated voltage and frequency). A circuit whose output signal is the inverse of its input (a positive-going pulse is inverted to a negative-going pulse. The time-shared scanning of a number of data lines into a single channel. Only one data line is enabled at any time.Drive Application Engineering Inverter Engineering Handbook An AC adjustable-frequency drive. The incorporation of two or more signals into a single wave from which the individual signals can be recovered. A transformer that provides noise isolation between the primary and secondary by such means as a faraday shield. A set of coils that electrically separates a device from the AC power line. This compensation also provides a way to improve the speed regulation characteristics of the motor. 1. 2. Laminations are used instead of a solid piece in order to reduce eddy-current losses. and vise versa). IR compensation Isolation transformer J Joule 1. the kilowatt – (kw) 1. They are also available with constant Page 206 Multi-speed motors .000 watts – is used where larger units of power measurement are desirable. A transformer that provides DC isolation from other equipment not connected to that transformer secondary.and four-speeds are sometimes available. especially at low speeds. A way to compensate for the voltage drop across resistance of the AC or DC motor circuit and the resultant reduction in speed. 2. A hall-effect current transducer that senses drive output current and generates a signal for the control logic. A particular section of an AC drive. This is the current seen when starting the motor and load. K Kilowatt (kw) Kinetic energy Since the watt is a relatively small unit power. The most common multispeed motor is a two-speed although three. Drives that use a tachometer generator for speed feedback generally do not require an IR compensation circuit because the tachometer will inherently compensate for the loss in speed. The energy required to transport 1 coulomb between two points having a potential difference of 1 volt. rivets or welds. The work done by the force of 1 newton acting through a distance of 1 meter. LEM Line reactor Locked rotor current M Magnetic flux Multiplexing The lines of force that extend in all direction from a magnetic pole. An electronic device that converts fixed frequency and fixed voltages to variable frequency and voltage.

. . A machine with ventilating openings that permit passage of external cooling air over and around the windings of the machine (NEMA standard). Drip-proof machine .an open machine in which all openings giving direct access to live metal or rotating parts (except smooth rotating surfaces) are limited in size by . grills.. Guarded machine . torque. Unwanted electrical disturbances imposed upon a signal that tend to obscure its data content. baffles. A set of regulations governing the construction and installation of electrical wiring and apparatus. The term “open machine.. NEMA NEMA standards Noise (Electrical) Noise immunity O Open (protected) motor A motor having ventilating openings which permit passage of external cooling air over and around the windings. Page 207 Open bearing Open externally-ventilated machine Open machine (motors) Open machine (motors) Open machine (motors) . are guarded. Splashproof . Semi-guarded . enclosures. The measure of a product’s ability to function in the presence of noise.an open machine in which part of the ventilating openings in the machine.a machine ventilated by means of a separate motor driven blower mounted on the machine enclosure. N NEC National electrical code. or other means to prevent accidental contact with hazardous parts. Consensus standards in the United States for electrical equipment approved by the members of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). variable torque or constant horsepower. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association is a non-profit organization organized and supported by manufacturers of electric equipment and supplies.an opentype machine in which the ventilating openings are so constructed that successful operation is not interfered with when drops of liquid or solid particles strike or enter the en-closure at any angle from 1 to 15 degrees downward from vertical.an open machine in which the ventilating openings are so constructed that successful operation is not interfered with when drops of liquid or solid particles strike or enter the enclosure at any angle not greater than 100 degrees downward from vertical. A machine which is ventilated with external air by means of a separate motor-driven blower mounted on machine enclosure. established by the National Fire Protection Association and suitable for mandatory application by governing bodies exercising legal jurisdiction.. Open pipeventilated machine . Open externally ventilated machine . It is widely used by state and local authorities within the United States. This machine is sometimes known as a blower-ventilated or a force-ventilated machine. NEMA has set standards for: horsepower ratings. Air may be circulated by means integral with the machine or by means external to the machine (separately forced ventilated). expanded metal. for admission of ventilating air are so arranged that inlet ducts or pipes can be connected to them.basically an open machine except that openings . designates a machine having no restriction to ventilation other than that necessitated by mechanical construction. A ball bearing that does not have a shield.. frame sizes and dimensions. as in the case of a “guarded machine. standard voltages and frequencies with allowable variations. service factors.” when applied to large apparatus without qualification.75-inch in diameter. starting current & KVA...” but the others are left open. normally in the top half.. speeds. Openings giving direct access to such live or rotating parts shall not permit the passage of a cylindrical rod 0.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook torque. the structural parts or by the screens. seal or guard on either of the two sides of the bearing casing..

In a DC motor. In an AC motor. refers to the number of magnetic poles in the motor.Drive Application Engineering Open machine (motors) Engineering Handbook Weather-protected machine . one for each phase. A type of information transfer where all bits within bytes. the various voltages and currents will not be similar in all aspects at any given instant. evenly Page 208 Phase Plug reversal Plugging Poles Polyphase motor . plugging produces more heat than other methods and should be used with caution. Two or three-phase induction motors have their windings. are handled simultaneously.or three-phase (with 120 electrical degrees between the three-phases). A type of motor braking provided by reversing either line voltage polarity or phase sequence so that the motor develops a counter torque that exerts a retarding force to brake the motor. It follows that series motors will operate in parallel easier than any other type. The number of poles determines the motor’s speed. 2. It is normally specified as a percentage of full load current for a specified time period. The passages are so arranged that wind and airborne particles blown into the machine can be discharged without entering directly into the electrical parts of the machine. The motor cannot be stalled. The greater the speed droop with load. Compound motors. to drive a common load while sharing the load equally among all motors – they should have speed-torque characteristics which are identical. Indicates the space relationships of windings and changing values of the recurring cycles of AC voltages and cur-rents. Each current will lead or lag another current in time.75-inch diameter cylindrical rod. Each voltage will lead or lag another voltage in time. the easier it becomes to parallel motors successfully. They create the magnetic field in which the armature operates (speed is not determined by the number of poles).an open enclosure divided into two types: type 1 . It may be difficult to operate shunt or stabilized-shunt motors in parallel because of their nearly constant speed characteristics. Operating speed range Overload capacity Overshoot P Parallel operation Paralleling 1. Reconnecting a motor’s winding in reverse to apply a reverse braking torque to its normal direction of rotation while running. which also have drooping speed characteristics (high regulation). airborne particles and prevent passage of a 0.have ventilating passages constructed to minimize the entrance of rain. Overload capacity is defined by NEMA as 150% of rated full load current for one minute for “standard industrial DC motors. Modifications to the motor control must sometimes be made before these motors will parallel within satisfactory limits. Additional baffling is provided to minimize the possibility of moisture or dirt being carried inside the machine. Contrasted with serial operation. The most common power supplies are either single. Although it is an effective dynamic braking means in many applications. The ability of the drive to withstand currents beyond the system’s continuous rating. snow. When two or more DC motors are required to operate in parallel – that is. Type 2 . will generally parallel without special circuits or equalization. or words. Each winding will lead or lag another in position. Ratio of full load speed to the lowest speed at which rated torque can be delivered. Due to the positioning (or the phase relationship) of the windings.provide additional protection through the design of their intake and exhaust ventilating passages.” The amount by which a controlled variable exceeds the desired value after a change of input. refers to the number of magnetic poles in the stator winding.

Integral control . centrifugal pumps. It is represented by the cosine of the angle of this phase difference. A chip mounted on a circuit board within the drive that contains memory locations that can be accessed by Page 209 . this module or instruction can perform proportional control and optionally integral control. A technique used to eliminate or reduce unwanted harmonic frequencies when inverting DC voltage to sine wave ac. or both: proportional control . A type of rom that requires an electrical operation to store data. but also to overcome the inertia of the machine. expressed in percent of running torque. For each loop. Power factor A measurement of the time phase difference between the voltage and current in an AC circuit. random-access memory. as in core or semiconductor memory. ram usually implies read/write and volatile. The type of memory in which each storage location is by x/y coordinates. such as encoders and resolvers.causes an output signal to change as a function of the integral of the error signal over the time duration. An intelligent I/O module or ladder diagram instruction providing automatic closed-loop operation of continuous process control loops. Starting and reversing torque characteristics of polyphase motors are exceptionally good. the power factor is 100% and the volt/ amperes of the circuit are equal to the watts (this is the ideal and an unrealistic situation). windage. unlike the capacitor motor. Polyphase motors are used where a polyphase (threephase) power supply is available and is limited primarily to industrial applications. The maximum running torque of a synchronous motor. Used on signal channels of feedback devices.causes an output signal to change as a function of the rate of change of the error signal. which results in a true rotating field over the full range of operation from locked rotor to full speed. Pulse-width modulation. derivative control. The maximum constant torque at which a synchronous motor will accelerate into synchronism at rated voltage and frequency. derivative control (PID) Pull-in torque Pull-out torque Pull-up torque PWM Q Quadrature Separation in phase by 90°. Derivative control . In use. it is non-volatile. (tape or bubble memory cannot be random access. Programmable read-only memory.) Thus. Modulating the pulse width control the average voltage to the output. The torque required by a machine may not be constant after the machine has started to turn. the data access time is independent of the location of the data. and certain machine tools. Reversal of the two-phase motor is accomplished by reversing the current through either winding. and product loading. Power factor is the ratio of real power-kw to total kva or the ratio of actual power (watts) to apparent power (volt amperes). the pull-up torque is the minimum torque developed during the process of achieving rated speed. Unless stated otherwise. The torque required to accelerate the load from standstill to full speed (where breakdown torque occurs). For motors. For an angle of 0 degrees. It is the torque required not only to overcome friction. They have an ideal phase relation. to detect the direction of motion. integral. Reversal of a three-phase motor is accomplished by interchanging any two of its connections to the line. This is due to the fact that the different windings are identical and.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook divided by the same number of electrical degrees. the currents are balanced. As with all ROMs. bits or words are read on demand but not changed. This load type is characteristic of fans. R RAM Random access memory. PROM Proportional. which do not have a definite breakdown torque. The minimum torque developed by an AC motor during the period of acceleration from zero to the speed at which breakdown occurs.causes an output signal to change as a direct ratio of the error signal variation.

For D/A or A/D conversion. Unlike BRAM. The current wave reaches its peak later than the voltage wave reaches its peak.the percentage of speed change with a defined change in load. Speed regulation values of 2% are possible in drives utilizing armature voltage feedback. For DC drives. On a communication link. thereby transforming alternating current to direct current. The characteristic of a coil when connected to alternating current. This type of reversing can be accomplished with DC-rated contactors or by means of an electronically controlled solid-state field supply. The technique of slowing or stopping a motor by regeneration. may be expressed as the number of bits in the digital value that corresponds to a full-scale analog value.the percentage of speed change with a given line voltage change. It is also the degree to which nearly equal values of a quantity can be discriminated. The smallest distinguishable increment into which a quantity can be devised (e. allowing for no slip under load. A rugged device used in especially harsh environments. ram information is usually lost when power is removed. The generated power is dissipated in the power source through a regenerative bridge circuit in the drive. the point at which rotor synchronous frequency is greater than the applied frequency.. The ability of a control system to hold a speed once it has been set. 1. assuming all other parameters to be constant. For AC drives. in a circuit.. For rotary encoders. to protect the motor and control. a signal of a condition such as the acknowledgment of a message being received. The stop mode that uses the motor as a generator by converting mechanical power of the motor into electrical power.accomplished by changing the DC polarity to the motor shunt field. Position or shaft speed). A synchronous motor with a special rotor design which directly lines the rotor up with the rotating magnetic field of the stator. It is the component of impedance to alternating cur-rent that is not resistance. expressed in ohms.g.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook the microprocessor in random order to execute the software functions of the drive. A quantitative expression of the output of a device or system as a function of the input. . It requires an analog signal interface and special conditioning electronics. it is the number of unique. A transducer using magnetic coupling to measure absolute rotary position. The combination of long lead (cable) lengths and the fast switching semi-conductors in the drive can cause voltage spikes at the motor’s terminals. A device that conducts current in only one direction. Also see braking. 2. (DC) field reversing . These spikes can cause the motor’s insulation to deteriorate. the characteristic of a motor to act as a generator when the counter EMF is larger than the drive’s applied voltage. Reactance Reactance (inductive) Pure inductance or capacitance. Reflective waves can occur in variable-speed motor applications when the drive and motor are placed a considerable distance apart. Line regulation .01% is possible using digital regulator schemes. while regulation of 0. electrically identified positions occurring in 360 degrees of input shaft rotation. which causes the current to lag the voltage in time phase. assuming all other parameters to be constant.. Reluctance motors have lower efficiencies. Regulation is given in percentages of either base speed or set speed. power factors and torques than their permanent magnet counterparts. Regulation is rated upon two separate sets of conditions: load regulation (speed regulation) . Page 210 Rectifier Reflective wave Regenerative Regenerative braking Regulation Reluctance synchronous motor Resolution Resolver Response Reversing .

the RMS value is 0. In use. a figure of merit. it inhibits message entry. The load seen by a clutch.15 SF can produce 15% greater torque than the 1. A 1. or motor in a system that transmits high peak loads. hoists. These detectors are embedded into the winding slot and their resistance varies with temperature. The rotating part of an AC motor that is made of an aluminum or copper conductor. For a sine wave. unidirectional latching switch. 2. Solid-state antiplugging circuitry is generally a part of the design. A device within the drive that conducts in one direction and requires a trigger to turn on. When used in applying motors or gearmotors. but not changed. which holds the laminations together. Where high starting torques are required for a DC motor. A shaft running through the center and a squirrel cage made in most cases of aluminum. corresponding to the DC value that produces the same heating effect. A solid-state. The load must tolerate wide speed variations from full load to light load. Page 211 SCR Series DC motors Service factor (SF) Shock load . S Saturation 1) an operational state in which a communication module is sending and/or receiving at maximum capacity. the series motor is used. 2) more generally. measured loads are multiplied by service factors (experience factors) and the result in an “equivalent required torque” rating of a motor or gearmotor. which is used to “adjust”. The effective value of an alternating current.707 times the peak value. (AC or DC) static reversing the act of reversing the DC polarity of the DC motor armature or phase rotation of an AC motor with no mechanical switching. and act as a conductor for the induced magnetic field. The switch is usually detented to give a degree of mechanical anti-plugging protection. The rotating member of an induction motor made up of stacked laminations. The load must be solidly connected to the motor and never decrease to zero to prevent excessive motor speeds. bits and words are read on demand. Ripple % Rise time RMS The percentage of AC left on a DC signal after rectifying. When used on a motor nameplate. This is accomplished electronically with solid-state devices. It uses small electrical currents to control high electrical loads. Dynamic braking is recommended.the act of reversing the DC polarity to the motor armature by changing the position of a single switch. Typically. The RMS value is computed as the square root of the average of the squares of the instantaneous amplitude for one complete cycle.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook (DC) manual reversing . Typical areas of application are industrial trucks.e. Silicon controlled rectifier. A type of memory with data content that cannot be changed in normal mode of operation. the condition of a device or system in which a further increase in input no longer results in an appreciable change in output. The time it takes to raise an analog voltage or current output level from 10% to 90% of maximum. Limit switches and remote stations cannot be used with this system. Read only memory. Measured peak-to-peak of the AC component. When the module receives more messages than it can process.. brake.0 SF rating of the same motor). The squirrel cage is made by casting molten aluminum into the slots cut into each lamination. Root-mean-square. a number which indicates how much above the nameplate rating a motor can be loaded without causing serious degradation (i. measured loads in an attempt to compensate for conditions which are difficult to measure or define. 1. ROM Rotor RTD (resistance thermal detectors) winding RTD A resistance device used to measure temperature change in the motor windings to detect a possible over heating condition. cranes and traction duty.

This frequently results in reducing the resistance or impedance to such an extent as to cause overheating of the winding and subsequent burn-out. Short-circuit A defect in a winding which causes part of the normal electrical circuit to be bypassed. (no load speed – full load speed)/full load speed x 100 expressed as a percentage of full load speed and restricted to the specified speed range. 1. The difference between the speed of the rotating magnetic field (which is always synchronous) and the rotor in a non-synchronous induction motor is known as slip. as well as reduce associated noise. It is expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed. It can also help to increase starting torque. Monitors motor current and compensates for speed lost due to increased motor slip. in a poly-phase circuit. The ability of a drive to operate a motor at constant speed (under varying load). Arrangement of laminations on a rotor or armature to provide a slight angular pattern of their slots with respect to the shaft axis. That part of an AC induction motor’s magnetic structure which does not rotate. winches. Typical applications include individual drives for machine tools such as drills and lathes. conveyors. Integral-horsepower shunt motors are used where the primary load requirements are for minimum speed variation from full-load to no-load and/or constant horsepower over an adjustable speed range at constant potential. A capacitor device usually mounted in the conduit box to flatten the voltage surges that may occur as a result of lighting or a power supply surge (short-period peak). Slotted steel disks that are stacked and aligned to form channels in which rotor bars are set. in which one end of each phase winding is connected to a common junction. it is sometimes called a y connection. separators. near the surface of the core assembly of an AC motor. Contrasted with delta connection. The stationary part of an AC motor that contains a set of electromagnets. without “hunting” (alternately speeding up and slowing down). It is related to both the characteristics of the load being driven and electrical time constants in the drive regulator circuits. Speeds are at steady state. Shunt motors are suitable for average starting torque loads. the arrangement of laminations on a rotor or armature to provide a slight angular pattern of their slots with respect to the shaft axis. and centrifugal fans and blowers which are regulated by means of the discharge opening. The stator is made up of laminations with a large hole in the center in which the rotor can turn. there are slots in the stator in which the windings for the coils are inserted. The arrangement of phase windings. The amount of slip is proportional to the motor load. It usually contains the primary winding. Shunt wound DC motors Skew Slip Slip compensation Speed regulation Speed regulation Star connection Stator Steel laminations Surge protection Page 212 . In a motor. averaged over an extended period of time to eliminate speed ripple. These surges can result in more than twice the rated voltage going to the windings and in turn cause winding damage.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook This type of load is present in crushers. In a 3-phase circuit. grinders. Slip generally increases with an increase in torque. 2. This pattern helps reduce low-speed cogging in an armature and minimize induced vibration in a rotor. It is the percentage of change in speed between full load and no load. The numerical measure (percent) of how accurately the motor speed can be maintained. and cranes. This pattern helps to eliminate low speed cogging effects in an armature and minimize induced vibration in a rotor as well as reduce associated noise.

Thermocouples can be attached to a meter or alarm to detect overheating of motor windings or bearings. A totally enclosed machine is one so enclosed as to prevent the free exchange of air between the inside and the outside of the case. % regulation = (cold torque – hot torque)/full load torque x 100 expressed as a percentage of rated torque and restricted to the specified speed range. If a motor has been built with greater than 1. and a gate. but not sufficiently enclosed to be termed airtight (NEMA standard): totally enclosed fan cooled machine -a totally enclosed machine equipped for exterior cooling by means of a fan or fans integral with the machine but external to the enclosing parts. A motor which operates at a constant speed up to full load. Tachometers are typically attached to the out-put shaft of DC or AC variable-speed motors requiring close speed regulation. A semi-conductor that is used as an electronic switch to control current flow in the drive. It is made up of an anode. A semiconductor used to measure temperature that can be attached to an alarm or meter to detect motor overheating. There are two major synchronous motor types: reluctance and permanent magnet. (see insulation systems for NEMA standard temperature codes. linear. In all cases. Torque is equal to the force applied. A precision. The tachometer feeds its signal to a control which adjusts its output to the DC or AC motor accordingly (called “closed loop feedback” control).) Each temperature code has an associated temperature rise which when added to the ambient and hot spot should not exceed the temperature handling of the insulation system. averaged over an extended period of time to eliminate torque ripple. then it can operate at a temperature somewhat higher than the motor’s rated operating temperature. The speed of the rotating magnetic field set up by the stator winding of an induction motor. cathode. Some of the electrical energy losses inherent in motors are converted to heat causing some of the motor parts to heat up when the motor is running. Explosion-proof machine . A temperature detecting device made of two dissimilar metals which generates a voltage as a function of temperature. A synchronous motor is often used where the exact speed of a motor must be maintained. The heated parts are at a higher temperature than the air surrounding them which causes a rise above room (ambient) temperature. the actual insulation thermal capability usually is higher than the motor’s operating temperature to allow for any excessive heat areas. Torques are at steady state. MOVS (metal-oxide varistors) and specially designed r-c networks are usually used to accomplish this. A turning force applied to a shaft. Codes) to the expected ambient temperature. the rotor locks into step with the rotating magnetic field and the motor is said to run at synchronous speed. A device used to measure angular velocity by producing a signal proportional to speed. DC generator used to provide velocity feedback. tending to cause rotation. Synchronous motor Synchronous speed T Tachometer A small generator normally used as a rotational speed sensing device.0 service factor.Drive Application Engineering Surge suppression Engineering Handbook The process of absorbing and clipping voltage transients on an incoming AC line or control circuit. This is equal to 120 x frequency (frequency measured in hertz) # of poles. In a synchronous motor. Approximately the speed of the motor with no load on it. The rotor speed is equal to the speed of the rotating magnetic field of the stator – there is no slip. times the radius through which it acts. It is important to match the proper motor and insulation system (NEMA temp. This is called hot spot allowance.a totally Page 213 Temperature rise Thermistor – thermally sensitive resistor Thermocouple – thermal detection device Thyristor Torque Torque regulation Totally enclosed machine (motor) .

parts. The horsepower varies as the square of the speed. .a totally enclosed machine that is cooled by circulating water. Waterproof machine . V Variable torque A multi-speed motor used on loads with torque requirements. The means for automatic draining may be a check valve or a tapped hole at the lowest part of the frame that will serve for application of a drain pipe. to prevent accidental contact with the fan. Totally enclosed water-air-cooled machine . The maximum system deviation between a transient value of a controlled variable and the steady-state value of that variable. direction.a totally enclosed machine that is cooled by circulating air that. or heat otherwise generated or liberated inside the enclosure to cause ignition or exterior accumulations or atmospheric suspensions of a specific dust on or in the vicinity of the enclosure..L.. Such openings shall not permit the pasSage of a cylindrical rod 0. label.. Totally enclosed. is cooled by circulating water. fire and casualty hazards.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook enclosed machine whose enclosure is designed and constructed to withstand an explosion of a specified gas or vapor that may occur within it. Dust-ignition-proof machine . Vector Velocity bandwidth Page 214 . prevent the ignition by sparks. Velocity regulator frequency response measured as the 3db frequency response point..75 inch in diameter. A momentary deviation in an electrical or mechanical system. or expanded metal. grills. It is provided with a water-cooled heat exchanger for cooling the internal air and a fan or fans for circulating internal air. and sense. U. and to . enlosed machine so constructed that it will exclude a stream of water from a hose. Totally enclosed machine (motor) Totally enclosed machine (motor) Totally enclosed machine (motor) Transient Transient overshoot Transistor U U.. in turn. except that leakage may occur around the shaft. This quantity is commonly represented by a directed line segment whose length represents the magnitude and whose orientation in space represents the direction. (underwriter’s laboratory) An independent testing organization. has standards and tests for explosion-proof and dust ignition-proof motors. flashes or explosions of the specified gas or vapor that may occur near or within the ma-chine casing. Totally enclosed water-cooled machine . sparks.a totally .a totally enclosed machine whose enclosure is constructed to exclude ignitable amounts of dust or amounts that might affect performance or rating.. fan-cooled guarded machine . provided it is prevented from entering the oil reservoir and provision is made for automatically draining the machine.L.a totally enclosed fancooled machine in which all openings with direct access to the fan are limited in size by design of the structural parts or by screens. three-terminal device that controls current and can be used for switching and control of the drive. which must be met and passed before application of the U. An active solid-state. . which vary with speed as with some centrifugal pumps and blowers. A quantity that has magnitude. Totally enclosed air-over machine . and constructed to not permit arcs.. Totally enclosed machine (motor) . This is a small signal response and the drive should never reach current limit.. or other irregular surfaces of the fan.. which examines and tests devices... It develops standards for motors and controls used in hazardous locations through cooperation with manufacturers..L. the water or water conductors coming in direct contact with the machine . and a probe shall not contact the blades. systems and materials with particular reference to life. spokes.a totally enclosed machine cooled only by a ventilating means external to the machine.

Usually uses a tachometer for a feedback device. other than the output section. NEMA requires that motor be able to carry its rated horsepower at nameplate voltage plus or minus 10% although not necessarily at the rated temperature rise. The force that causes a current to flow in an electrical circuit. One horsepower is equal to 746 watts. A type of AC adjustable-frequency drive that controls the voltage and frequency to the motor to produce variable-speed operation. Analogous to pressure in hydraulics.000 watts. where frequency generation takes place. voltage is often referred to as electrical pressure. Refer to “Start Connection”.Drive Application Engineering Velocity loop Volatile memory Voltage Engineering Handbook A feedback control loop in which the controlled parameter is motor velocity. Wye connection X Y Z Page 215 . Electrical pressure applied to the drive. The VVI-type drive controls the voltage in a section. A memory that loses its information if the power is removed. Most motors are rated in kwatt equal to 1. VVI W Watt The amount of power required to maintain a current of one ampere at a pressure of one volt. The frequency control is accomplished by an output bridge circuit that switches the variable voltage to the motor at the desired frequency. The voltage of a motor is usually determined by the supply to which it is attached.

Drive Application Engineering This page intentionally left blank Engineering Handbook Page 216 .

April 2004 © 2004 Rockwell International Corporation. Printed in USA. All rights reserved. .Publication 1300-DEH-10 .

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