Table of Contents Section 1 – Motor and Load Basics.................................................................................................... 9 AC Motors........................................................................................................................................... 11 NEMA Design Types........................................................................................................................ 12 Motor Synchronous Speed............................................................................................................... 12 3-Phase Motor Connections - NEMA ............................................................................................... 13 Rotor Inertia – NEMA....................................................................................................................... 16 3-Phase Motor Connections – IEC Nomenclature............................................................................ 17 Rotor Inertia – IEC ........................................................................................................................... 18 AC Motor Operation above Base Speed .......................................................................................... 19 Synchronous Motors ........................................................................................................................ 20 Wound Rotor.................................................................................................................................... 20 Linear Induction Motors ................................................................................................................... 21 DC Motors........................................................................................................................................... 22 Design Types (typical characteristics).............................................................................................. 22 Operation above Base Speed .......................................................................................................... 23 DC Motor Control Basics ................................................................................................................. 24 Armature-Voltage Control ................................................................................................................... 24 Shunt-Field Control ........................................................................................................................... 24 Combination Control .......................................................................................................................... 24 Operation with Variable Speed Drive ..................................................................................................... 24 Load Types......................................................................................................................................... 25 Constant Torque Load ..................................................................................................................... 25 Variable Torque Load ...................................................................................................................... 25 Constant Horsepower Operation...................................................................................................... 26 Overload Operation.......................................................................................................................... 26 AC Drive Power Structure ................................................................................................................. 27 Regeneration...................................................................................................................................... 29 Stored Energy.................................................................................................................................. 29 Linear........................................................................................................................................... 30 Overhauling Load ........................................................................................................................ 30 Braking ............................................................................................................................................ 30 Line Regeneration............................................................................................................................ 30 Regenerative Brake ..................................................................................................................... 30

Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

Active Converter .......................................................................................................................... 31 Four Quadrants of Operation ....................................................................................................... 31 Section 2 – Basic Physics ................................................................................................................. 33 SI Units (International System of Units) ........................................................................................... 34 Mechanical Quantities...................................................................................................................... 34 Electrical Quantities ......................................................................................................................... 35 Formulas............................................................................................................................................. 36 Mechanical....................................................................................................................................... 36 Linear Motion ............................................................................................................................... 36 Rotational Motion......................................................................................................................... 37 Kinetic energy for Rotational Motion ............................................................................................ 38 Moment of Inertia......................................................................................................................... 39 Power .......................................................................................................................................... 40 Electrical .......................................................................................................................................... 42 Ohms Law ................................................................................................................................... 42 Angular frequency........................................................................................................................ 42 Impedance................................................................................................................................... 42 Power .......................................................................................................................................... 42 Power Factor ............................................................................................................................... 43 3-Phase relationships .................................................................................................................. 43 Imperial Units ..................................................................................................................................... 44 Mechanical....................................................................................................................................... 44 Linear Motion ............................................................................................................................... 44 Rotational Motion......................................................................................................................... 45 Kinetic Energy.............................................................................................................................. 46 Moment of Inertia......................................................................................................................... 47 Electrical .......................................................................................................................................... 48 Power .......................................................................................................................................... 48 Newton’s laws of motion ................................................................................................................... 48 Mass and weight.............................................................................................................................. 48 Lifting.................................................................................................................................................. 49 Friction ............................................................................................................................................... 49 Torque ................................................................................................................................................ 50 Torque and Tension........................................................................................................................... 51 Moment of Inertia ............................................................................................................................... 51 Gearing ............................................................................................................................................... 52 Moment of Inertia Reflected to Motor Shaft...................................................................................... 53 Belts and Sheaves ........................................................................................................................... 53 Acceleration Torque .......................................................................................................................... 54
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Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

Torque and Power.............................................................................................................................. 54 Section 3 – Application Examples .................................................................................................... 55 Application Matrix.............................................................................................................................. 56 Conveyor ............................................................................................................................................ 59 Inclined Conveyor.............................................................................................................................. 65 Gap Conveyor .................................................................................................................................... 71 Centrifugal Fan .................................................................................................................................. 77 Outlet Dampers................................................................................................................................ 78 Variable Inlet Vanes......................................................................................................................... 80 Variable Frequency Drives............................................................................................................... 81 Fan Energy Savings......................................................................................................................... 83 Centrifugal Pump ............................................................................................................................... 87 Throttling System............................................................................................................................. 88 Variable Speed System ................................................................................................................... 90 Lift ....................................................................................................................................................... 93 Calculated Torque Proving............................................................................................................... 98 Brake Permissive......................................................................................................................... 98 Using Drives in Lifting Applications ................................................................................................ 101 Winders ............................................................................................................................................ 103 Center Driven................................................................................................................................. 103 Surface Driven ............................................................................................................................... 109 DC to AC Retrofit ............................................................................................................................. 115 Existing DC equipment installation considerations ....................................................................................... 116 Extruder............................................................................................................................................ 117 Dynamic Braking.............................................................................................................................. 119 How to size the resistor.................................................................................................................. 119 Section - 4 Power Quality ................................................................................................................ 125 Transformers and Grounding ......................................................................................................... 127 Delta / Wye with grounded Wye neutral: ........................................................................................ 127 Delta / Delta with grounded leg: ..................................................................................................... 127 Ungrounded secondary.................................................................................................................. 127 Resistance grounding and ground fault protection: ........................................................................ 128
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...................................................................................... 142 Techniques to Provide Extended Power Loss Ride-Through ........................ 133 Panel Layout..... 137 Input Current Waveforms............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 145 Section – 5 Networks......... 136 THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) and TDD (Total Demand Distortion) ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 143 Logic Ride-through.. 139 Reactors ......... 141 Precharge . 129 Common Mode Noise ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 140 Ride-Through ................................................................... 155 Section – 6 Appendix.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 151 EtherNet / IP ........ 149 Determining Throughput Time ........ 134 Harmonics ........................................................................................................................................................... 128 Sizing transformers for drive applications.................................................................................................................................................................. 147 Basics ........................................................................ 150 General Terms.......... 141 Power Loss Ride-through.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 154 Network Specifications............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 133 Use the best ground point............................................................. 157 Appendix I ..................... 128 Single Phase Connection:............................................................ 129 Cable Charging Current ............................................................................................... 150 DeviceNet .................................................................................................................................................................................. 129 Reflected Wave Phenomenon ............................................................................................. 151 ControlNet ......................................... 149 Network Performance ................................................. 133 Motor Cables ......................................................................................... 128 Installation Considerations for VFDs ................................................................................... 152 Communications Interface .............. 158 Page 4 ................................................................................................................................................................................Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Open Delta:............................................................ 132 Grounding and Bonding ...................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 160 Electric............................. 167 Force .............................................................................. 166 Energy .........Linear .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 168 Mass....................................................................................................................................................................................... 167 Linear Velocity ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 171 Velocity ................................................................................................................................................................................. 163 Acceleration................................................................................................................................................... 159 Couplings............................................... 163 Area.................................... 163 Angular Displacement.......................................................................................................................................................... 175 Nema Designations ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 165 Distance................. 161 Appendix II ................................................. 175 IEC Designations ................................................................... 168 Pressure ......................................................................................................................................... 175 Enclosures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 160 Mechanical ............... 161 Belts.......................................................................................................................................................... 167 Inertia......................................................... 170 Torque ................................................................................. 171 Volume ......................................................................... 159 Mechanical Systems ...................................... 174 Friction Coefficients ................................................................... 166 Flow Rate .................................................................................................................................... 170 Tension / Unit Width............................................................................................ 174 Temperature and Altitude Correction Factors .............Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Appendix I ........................... 164 Density.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 163 Angular Velocity..................................... 163 Angular ....................................................................................................................................................... 169 Power ........................................................................................... 160 Electric...................................................................................................... 159 Gearboxes ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 160 Mechanical .... 176 Page 5 ................................................................................................................................ 163 Acceleration .............. 173 Material Properties.......................................................................................................................... 159 Clutches........ 170 Temperature ................................................................................ 165 Displacement .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 161 Bearings ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 171 Weight ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 163 Conversion Factors.... 160 Brakes ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 175 Heat Dissipation in Electrical Enclosures ..................................................................................................................................

............................. 197 C............................................................ 179 Canadian Standards (CSA).............................................................................................. 185 Solid Cylinder................................................................................................................................................................................. 193 Glossary ..................................................................................................................................................................... 186 Right Circular Cone ....................................................................................................................................................................... 177 Underwriters Laboratory (UL)............................................................................. 179 CE ........................................................................................................................... 186 Frustum of Right Circular Cone............................................................... 204 G............................................................................................................................................................................. 195 B ........................................ 195 A ................................................................................................................... 183 IEEE-519 ..................... 205 J......................................... 198 D.......................................................................................................... 205 H................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 179 National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)............................................................................................................................................ 192 Metric Prefixes .................................................................................................. 180 Nema Frame Dimensions – AC Motors and Generators ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 181 Nema Frame Dimensions – AC Motors and Generators Continued .............................. 179 Nema Frame Dimensions – DC Motors and Generators .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 194 Glossary ................................................................................................................................................................Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Appendix III ................... 189 Greek Letters ............................... 185 Moment of Inertia for a given Body Type .............................. 177 National Electric Code (NEC)........................................................................................................ 202 F .......................................................................................................... 205 I ...................................................... 184 Appendix IV ....................................... 183 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) . 187 Cube .............................. 201 E ................................................................................................. 188 Sphere and Hemisphere ...................................................... 185 Hollow Cylinder............................................................................................................................ 206 K ................... 188 Rotating Object at end of Rod........................................................ 206 Page 6 .............................................. 188 Torus ....... 189 Flywheel with a web....... 187 Pyramid .................................................. 182 IEC Frame Dimensions – Three-Phase Motors....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 192 Section – 7 Glossary..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................................................................. 209 R................................................. 206 N......... 206 M .......................... 215 Page 7 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 214 W ............................................................................................ 209 S ..................................................................................................................................................... 207 O......... 215 Y ........................................................................................................................... 213 U.......................... 211 T ...................................................................... 215 X ...................................................... 214 V .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook L ...... 208 Q................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 207 P .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 215 Z .

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affecting other equipment connected to the same lines. determine the classifications for NEMA design motors.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook AC Motors Generally speaking the following can be said about a speed torque curve when starting across the line. This is when slip is the greatest.) Such a large inrush of current may cause the supply voltage to dip momentarily. (Starting torque is also called Blocked Rotor Torque. Extra protective devices are also required to remove the motor from the supply lines if an excessive load causes a stalled condition. Starting torque is usually around 200% even though current is at 600%. pull-up torque and the percent slip. breakdown torque. Locked Rotor Torque or Breakaway Torque. The speed-torque curve and characteristics of each design are as follows: Page 11 . The locked rotor torque and current.

Design B — motors have a higher impedance rotor producing a slightly higher starting torque and lower current draw. Motor Synchronous Speed N = 120 f P where: N = RPM. high starting torque and low starting current. It is a high efficiency design.Drive Application Engineering NEMA Design Types Engineering Handbook Design A — motors have a low resistance. Design D — motors have the highest resistance rotor creating high slip. The slip of a Design B motor is approximately 3-5% or less. The slip of the Design C motor is 5% or less. most of the current flows in the low inductance outer bars. current flows more in the inner low resistance bars. As the rotor slip decreases. f = Applied Frequency. therefore the slip is usually 3% or less. low inductance rotor producing low starting torque and high breakdown torque. For this reason. During starting. the speed varies dramatically with load. Because of the high amount of slip. high resistance for starting low resistance for running. This creates a high starting torque with a normal starting current and low slip. The Design C motor is usually used where breakaway loads are high at starting. The slip of this type motor is approximately 5 to 8%. The low resistance characteristic causes starting current to be high. Design C — motors use a two-cage rotor design. and are not subject to high overload demands after running speed has been reached. P = Number of Poles Page 12 . but are normally run at rated full load. This high slip characteristic relates to a low efficiency design and a motor that runs hot. design B motors are a general-purpose type motor and account for the largest share of induction motors sold.

Wye Connection Engineering Handbook T1 1 T2 2 T3 3 JOIN 4&5&6 6 Leads.NEMA 6 Leads. Single Voltage. Wye or Delta Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (1. Dual Voltage (1. Single Voltage.Drive Application Engineering 3-Phase Motor Connections . Delta Connection T1 1&6 T2 2&4 T3 3&5 6 Leads.732:1) LOW (1:1) CONN WYE DELTA T1 1 1&6 T2 2 2&4 T3 3 3&5 JOIN 4&5&6 — Page 13 .732:1 Ratio).

5&8. Wye Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (2:1) LOW (1:1) T1 1 1&7 T2 2 2&8 T3 3 3&9 Page 14 JOIN 4&7. 10&11&12 4&5&6. 5&8. Delta Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (2:1) LOW (1:1) T1 1 1&6&7 T2 2 2&4&8 T3 3 3&5&9 JOIN 4&7. 10&11&12 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook 9 Leads. 6&9. 6&9 4&5&6 9 Leads. Dual Voltage. Wye Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (2:1) LOW (1:1) T1 1 1&7 T2 2 2&8 T3 3 3&9 JOIN 4&7. 6&9 — 12 Leads. Dual Voltage. 5&8. Dual Voltage.

6&9.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook 12 Leads.732:1) LOW (1:1) CONN. 10&11&12 4&7. 10&11&12 — Page 15 . 6&9 4&5&6.464:1) HIGH (2:1) LOW (1. WYE DELTA WYE DELTA T1 1 1&12 1&7 1&6&7&12 T2 2 2&10 2&8 2&4&8&10 T3 3 3&11 3&9 3&5&9&11 JOIN 4&7. Wye or Delta Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (3. 5&8. 5&8. Dual Voltage.

99 1.21 0.5 33 57.47 0.015 0.76 0.04 0.05 0.3 3.65 0.2 4.51 1.5 .9 2.6 4.18 0.8 2.6 3.5 56 74.1 3.41 0.37 0.84 0.5 14.3 3.3 4.2 2 2.99 1.16 0.76 0.5 27 61.7 0.23 0.5 TEFC 4-Pole 6-Pole Lbft2 Lbft2 0.22 0.05 0.07 0.25 0.21 0.Drive Application Engineering Rotor Inertia – NEMA 2-Pole Lbft2 0.6 2.91 1.21 0.55 0.8 2.46 0.21 0.018 0.3 3.4 7.62 0.1 3.15 0.04 0.84 0.25 0.017 0.23 0.05 0.68 2.2 3.21 0.1 0.5 136 86 136 95 109 114 Engineering Handbook OPD 8-Pole Lbft2 0.5 12.7 0.035 0.5 85 56 111 74.3 7.9 2.8 2.21 0.017 0.4 6.8 5 6.4 11 14 24 28 39 51 62 68 85 82 86 92 101 101 2-Pole Lbft2 0.5 35 17 40.03 0.3 2.6 11 13 16 20 33 39 43 54 60 4-Pole Lbft2 0.21 0.08 0.1 12 20 24 31 40 40 44.62 0.52 0.5 9 20 10 23.5 4 11 4.2 2.91 1.18 0.57 0.06 0.3 9 17 20 22 25 28 47 59 68 85 106 129 158 181 200 HP .6 4.5 2 3 5 7.62 0.75 1 1.6 11 13 16 20 33 39 43 54 60 82 122 6-Pole Lbft2 0.76 0.3 7.17 0.9 3 4.93 1.4 6.9 6.3 9 13 15 24 27 45 56 56 68 85 98 112 130 149 8-Pole Lbft2 0.19 0.06 0.3 1.4 7.1 0.6 4.6 4.6 0.5 44.13 0.18 0.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 Page 16 .55 0.

W2&W5 U2&V2&W2. Wye or Delta Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (3. U6&V6&W6 U2&U5.464:1) HIGH (2:1) LOW (1. W2&W5. Wye or Delta Connection VOLTAGE HIGH (1.732:1) LOW (1:1) CONN. V2&V5. U6&V6&W6 — Page 17 . Dual Voltage. V2&V5.732:1) LOW (1:1) CONN.Drive Application Engineering 3-Phase Motor Connections – IEC Nomenclature Engineering Handbook 6 Leads. WYE DELTA T1 U1 U1&W2 T2 V1 V1&U2 T3 W1 W1&V2 JOIN U2&V2&W2 — 12 Leads. Dual Voltage (1. WYE DELTA WYE DELTA T1 U1 U1&W6 U1&U5 U1&U5& W2&W6 T2 V1 V1&U6 V1&V5 V1&V5& U2&U6 T3 W1 W1&V6 W1&W5 W1&W5&V2 &V6 JOIN U2&U5.732:1 Ratio).

0015 0.4 17 24 30 Engineering Handbook 8-Pole Kgm2 0.66 1.33 0.3 3 3.4 1.4 7.5 11 15 18.6 4.013 0.007 0.45 0.019 0.79 0.52 0.05 0.7 3.2 0.37 0.4 2.0015 0.1 1.3 13.5 9.2 6 6.21 0.0035 0.2 7.00035 0.29 0.0058 0.1 12.1 1.6 2.16 0.9 16 20 24 30 36 Page 18 .24 0.44 0.5 4.07 0.011 0.3 1.9 3.3 5.4 12 12.025 0.0055 0.088 0.4 1.0038 0.0035 0.65 1.028 0.89 1.0028 0.055 0.077 0.4 6.0063 0.014 0.0053 0.6 2.24 0.15 0.002 0.8 7.2 6 7.02 0.0015 0.57 0.04 0.0035 0.0018 0.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 150 160 200 225 250 280 315 355 373 2-Pole Kgm2 0.5 2.09 3.00085 0.033 0.58 0.033 0.5 1.79 1.2 4.0008 0.011 0.0048 0.5 7.3 1.13 0.2 2.08 0.0028 0.9 4 6.5 2.035 0.0018 0.Drive Application Engineering Rotor Inertia – IEC Rated kW 0.44 6-Pole Kgm2 0.92 1.023 0.028 0.00045 0.3 2.05 0.8 2.8 3.0011 0.065 0.2 5.05 0.5 4-Pole Kgm2 0.37 0.75 1.14 0.3 3.0025 0.9 9.55 0.5 7.2 6.2 3 4 5.

64 % PEAK TORQUE 1 N2 . Below illustrates the peak torque curve for constant voltage operation from base speed to 4 times base speed.662 or 44% of the full voltage torque at 60hz. Below base speed. in reality. Many machine applications are constant horsepower in their load characteristics.67.75 165 3. Recall that torque varies as the square of the applied voltage: where: K = motor torque constant E = applied voltage M = K × E2 As such. In the constant voltage range then. Torque will be 0.095 .83 to 5. torque may be defined in terms of speed.10 . Applied frequency and synchronous speed are equivalent. or 1/N2. As might be expected the effect on torque is the same.25 75 1.83 (460/120). It can be stated then that torque above base speed drops as the square of the frequency – doubling the frequency. the torque drops off as the inverse of speed. The same Volts per Hertz ratio results when a line started motor is operated at 60hz with only 50% voltage applied (for reduced voltage starting). so going one step further. The torque drop-off is not as severe as the motor’s peak torque.25 195 3. motor torque drops off as the inverse of synchronous speed squared. 1.0 240 Since the voltage. By doubling the frequency to 120hz. the volts-per-hertz ratio (460v/60hz) is 7. As speed increases. If AC drive output frequency is reduced from 120hz to 90hz at a constant voltage. This is the same as providing 66% voltage at 60hz to a line-started motor. or 1/N.5 150 2. quarters the available torque. Page 19 .25 135 2.08 .33 . the v/hz ratio is 3.06 Base For 60hz Motor: 60 1.16 .Drive Application Engineering AC Motor Operation above Base Speed Engineering Handbook Constant Voltage Operation The motor is operated in a “reduced flux” region. which satisfies the motor nameplate.0 .20 .5 210 3. the volts-per-hertz ratio improves from 3.75 225 4.0 120 2.0 180 3.07 .1 V/Hz.44 .75 105 2. is not changing above base speed.13 . This is shown in the curves above.5 90 1. it is more appropriate to define torque in terms of frequency change instead of voltage change.25 . maximum torque at 120hz is only 25% of the maximum torque at 60hz. 1/N2.

Therefore. Wound Rotor Some large motors may have a “Wound Rotor”. In a case where replacing a wound rotor motor with a squirrel cage induction motor and an ac drive it is important to note that the wound rotor motor typically has high starting torque (300-400%). or D. When operated from an ac drive they require boost voltage to produce the required torque to synchronize quickly after power application. The two most common types of synchronous motors are reluctance and permanent magnet. In a case where a wound rotor motor is fed by an ac drive. More resistance means higher slip and higher starting torque across the line while using a low value of series resistance results in lower slip and greater efficiency. Page 20 . This can effectively let the user define the motor torque curve as Nema A. B. in some applications it may be necessary to oversize the squirrel cage motor and ac drive to achieve the same level of starting torque.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Synchronous Motors Synchronous motors operate at synchronism with the line frequency and maintain a constant speed regardless of load without sophisticated electronic control. These designs start like an induction motor but quickly accelerate from approximately 90% sync speed to synchronous speed. The synchronous motor typically provides up to a maximum of 140% of rated torque. the wound rotor connections should be permanently jumpered (no series resistance added). This allows the motor characteristics to be altered by adding resistors in series with the rotor. Often the resistors will be present for start up then jumpered out while running. C.

First. induction motor. one can control the speed of the motor. With this configuration. the force can be manipulated by adjustment of the voltage to frequency ratio. squirrel cage. the drive should be configured to operate in volts-per-hertz mode. The secondary usually is some common combination of metal layers. or amusement rides. Linear induction motors are great for extended or unlimited travel applications. such as baggage handling. a linear traveling magnetic field is formed. By applying a voltage across the winding. With the use of an inverter. Like the AC induction motor. The secondary is not locked into any position and therefore will continue to slip throughout the motion. The primary or the static element is the equivalent of the stator. The difference being that the linear motor is laid out flat in a straight line. Slip quantifies the slower speed of the secondary in comparison with the magnetic field. The primary has two effects on the secondary. it induces currents into conductive windings of the secondary. The amount of slip increases proportionally with increases in load. gantries. the linear induction motor has an inherent function called slip. which has windings connected to the supply in one or three phase form. When applying an AC drive to this type of motor. which results in a thrust force being applied to the secondary. Once that is complete. the magnetic field produces forces on the current carrying conductors of the secondary. people movers. Page 21 . The secondary is the equivalent of the rotor.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Linear Induction Motors A linear motor operates on the same principal as a rotary.

Motor shaft rotation and direction are proportional to the magnitude and polarity of adjustable voltage applied to the motor. such as hoists and cranes. offer relatively flat speed-torque characteristics. Combined with inherently controlled no-load speed. Heavier compounding of up to 40 to 50% can be supplied for special high starting torque applications.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook DC Motors The DC motor converts the adjustable voltage DC from the drive controller to a rotating mechanical energy. Compound wound motors utilize a field winding in series with the armature in addition to the shunt field to obtain a compromise in performance between a series and shunt type motor. this provides good speed regulation over wide load ranges. While the starting torque is comparatively lower than other DC winding types. Page 22 . This type offers a combination of good starting torque and speed stability. shunt wound motors offer simplified control for reversing service. The following characteristic curves are shown with a fixed supply start of the motor. Design Types (typical characteristics) Shunt wound motors with the armature shunted across the field. Standard compounding is about 12%.

motor losses are less with better efficiencies. Speed of DC series motors is generally limited to 5000 rpm and below. A regulated field supply is required to operate in this region. the series motor has poor speed regulation. The speed regulation can be improved with various designs. Reversing current can be no higher than the locked armature current. Series motors should be avoided in applications where they are likely to lose their load because of their tendency to “run away” under no-load conditions. This is referred to as “field weakening”.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Series motors have the armature connected in series with the field. Page 23 . This motor has excellent starting torque. Operation above Base Speed The field current must be reduced to allow motor operation above base speed. These motors can be dynamically braked and reversed at some low armature voltage (10%) but should not be plug reversed with full armature voltage. Permanent magnet motors have a conventional wound armature with commutator and brushes and a permanent magnet field. with corresponding lower rated torques for a given frame. While it offers very high starting torque and good torque per ampere. with speed regulation not as good as compound wound motors. Because of the permanent magnet field.

Page 24 . M = KφI a Where: M = torque K = machine constant φ = main pole flux in air gap Ia = armature current Armature-Voltage Control As the name implies. and a machine constant which is a function of the armature winding. The drive operates the motor in constant torque or constant power by regulating both the armature and the field as shown in the diagram below (armature current constant). Therefore. Operation with Variable Speed Drive The shunt wound motor is used in conjunction with a dc drive to provide speed and or torque regulation to a given machine.Drive Application Engineering DC Motor Control Basics Engineering Handbook Commonly used methods of controlling the speed of a direct current motor are armature-voltage control. shunt-field control and a combination of armature-voltage and shunt-field control. with armature-voltage speed control and constant shunt-field excitation. Shunt-Field Control Adjusting the voltage applied to the shunt-field controls the speed. the armature voltage is varied while maintaining constant shunt-field excitation. resulting in constant torque capacity and shunt-field control is used to obtain speed above base speed resulting in a constant power capacity. At rated armature current the torque is constant. Output torque of a d-c motor is proportional to the product of the main pole flux. the torque is dependent upon armature current only. Armature-voltage control is used for speed below base speed. Combination Control Utilizes both armature-voltage and shunt-field control to achieve a very wide speed range. Reducing the shunt field voltage decreases main pole flux and motor speed is increased. armature current.

Speed = RPM 5252 = a proportionality constant Torque × Speed Torque × Speed OR watts = 5252 9. Variable Torque Load With this type of load. The figure below shows the constant torque and its effect on horsepower demanded by the load. horsepower is a function of speed. the torque demand increases with speed. usually speed squared (Speed ).55 = a proportionality constant Examples of this type of load are conveyors and extruders.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Load Types Constant Torque Load The torque demanded by the load is constant throughout the speed range.55 Torque = Nm Speed = RPM 9. Horsepower is typically proportional to speed cubed (Speed ). overloads or high inertia loads are encountered. Constant torque is also used when shock loads. HP = Where: Torque = lb-ft. and torque remains constant in this type of load. Constant Torque Load 100 Torque Demanded by the Load (%) 100 Power Demanded by the Load (%) Speed (%) 100 Speed (%) 100 Since HP is a product of Torque times speed. Loads of these types are essentially friction loads. 3 2 Page 25 .

Overload protection for both the motor and drive must be considered when the machinery has a severe duty cycle. Constant Horsepower Operation This is a function of the motor being operated above base motor speed. Page 26 . The horsepower demanded by the load is constant within the speed range. the I2t of continuous operation may require a larger drive and/or motor. Constant Horsepower Load Overload Operation Many constant torque applications require intermittent operation in overload. This type of load requires much lower torque at low speeds than at high speeds. Acceleration and deceleration torque requirements may be severe to meet a machine “cycle time”. pumps and blowers. The speed and torque are inversely proportional to each other. Though the drive and motor may be able to perform the application for short periods.Drive Application Engineering Variable Torque Load Engineering Handbook Examples of loads that exhibit variable load torque characteristics are centrifugal fans.

In both cases the 360 HZ pulsating DC voltage is filtered smooth by the Capacitor bank. Page 27 . Therefore a second “filter” stage is required. The inverter section requires a stable DC source to operate. A filter is required to create the smooth stable DC power needed to run the IGBT inverter. the inductor is sometimes an option. full wave. Diodes conduct only when they are forward biased and are used in this stage to convert AC to DC.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook AC Drive Power Structure The most common type of drive on the market today is the Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) AC drive. In most cases this stage consists of a three-phase. diode-bridge. Though we now have DC voltage. If this stage were isolated from the rest of the power structure we would see a pulsating 360 HZ DC voltage at the DC bus connection when 3 phase power is applied to the input. While the capacitor bank is always present. The figure above is a diagram of a typical “voltage source” PWM AC drive power structure. though SCR’s are sometimes used in place of diodes. it is not smooth. The first stage is the converter. Primarily this consists of a large capacitor bank. The power structure of the drive can be broken into three distinct sections. The choke when used helps buffer the AC line from the capacitor bank and serves to improve power factor and reduce harmonics. Often an inductor or “link choke” may be added.

460V. kW = 1. 60Hz. kW = 1. Taking advantage of the fact that a motor is basically a large inductor. Only one-phase of the PWM waveform is shown to indicate how the modulated pulse width emulates an AC voltage when applied to an inductive load. Page 28 . 6. The output power is equal to the input power plus any efficiency losses within the drive.25 × 38 × . Varying the width of the pulses in proportion to the frequency creates a volts-per-hertz ratio that satisfies the motor design and allows the motor to produce rated torque at base speed and below without excessive current.732 × I × E × pf 1000 Example: 5HP. but only ~38V (ratio of 460V/60Hz). and that current does not change very fast in an inductor. the DC bus voltage can be applied in pulses of varying width in order to achieve current in the motor that approximates a sine wave.85 1000 = 0.25 FLA motor. rated current is required.7kW).35kW The power consumed from the AC line is ~ 10% of the rated power (5HP = 3.85 solve for power. 5Hz drive output. 4-pole.732 × 6. This section uses high-speed transistors as switches to apply a “Pulse Width Modulated” or PWM waveform to the motor.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook The third stage is the inverter section. To produce rated torque. Assuming a motor pf of .

From this equation we can see that the energy is proportional to the square of the speed. Stored Energy Rotational In the case of a large rotating mass such as a Centrifuge. the motor is transforming electrical energy into mechanical energy at the motor shaft. 1 ⋅ Jω 2 2 Page 29 . but only handle power in the “motoring” direction. This process is referred to as ‘motoring’. the motor is transforming mechanical energy from the motor shaft into electrical energy. This means that if we cut the speed in half we will have only ¼ the kinetic energy. Essentially. For an AC drive and motor in a regenerative condition. Since the laws of physics state that energy is never lost or gained. the AC power from the motor flows backward through the inverter bridge diodes shown below. a reduction in commanded speed or an overhauling load that causes the shaft speed to be greater than the synchronous speed. this energy needs a place to go. When the rotor turns faster than the synchronous speed set by a drive output. For this reason. utility power is first converted into DC by a diode or SCR rectifier bridge These bridges are very cost effective. a uniform “linear” ramp to stop from a given speed results in a linear reduction in the transfer of energy from motor to drive as the load slows. In any case this.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Regeneration When the rotor of an induction motor turns slower than the speed set by the applied frequency. On most AC drives. It may be a ramp to stop. the stored energy is: Where J is the moment of inertia in Kg Meters squared and w is the angular velocity (rotational speed) in radians/second. condition is referred to as ‘regeneration”. mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy.

The weight of the material constantly being loaded on the belt provides a continuous regenerative energy source. It does not attempt to regulate the drive bus voltage. An active bridge uses IGBT’s that allow current to flow from the ac line when the ac line voltage is higher than the dc bus voltage. Braking See Chapter on “Braking” Line Regeneration An “active” converter bridge is required to regenerate power from the drive dc bus to the ac line. 1 ⋅ MV 2 2 Regenerative Brake Like a dynamic brake or chopper. An example would be a decline conveyer where material is being moved from the top to the bottom of the conveyer. the regenerative brake has no voltage regulator or power resistor. a line regenerative brake connects to the dc bus and prevents an overvoltage condition by providing a place for motor and load energy to go when a motor is acting as a generator. Rather. on the other hand. ramping to a stop from a given speed will result in a linear decline in power being absorbed by the brake over the given deceleration time. and the opposite direction when the dc bus voltage is greater than the ac line. Unlike the dynamic brake and chopper. Kinetic energy for this case is: Where M is the mass in Kg and V is the velocity in meters per second. Though the dominant component of stored energy may be in the large mass traveling in a linear motion. usually acts a bit different. The big difference here is that the condition that causes the overhauling can be sustained for extended periods of time. This however is where the similarity ends. Overhauling Load An overhauling load. calculating the stored energy is much the same. The typical VFD uses passive devices (diodes) to convert ac to dc. In the case of the linear and rotational load. it uses a set of IGBT switches synchronized to the line to provide a path for current flow should the DC bus voltage Page 30 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Linear This type of load can generally be characterized by a large mass such as a conveyer belt or transfer car being driven by a motor through a gearbox.

This allows power to flow in and out of the drive with very little harmonic content. The motoring power is supplied by the AC drive. the IGBT bridge connected to the AC line is regulating dc bus voltage by switching at a fast rate. The regenerative brake does not provide motoring power for the load.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook become higher than the line. The active converter supplies motoring power and a path for load power to be returned to the AC line. Four Quadrants of Operation Page 31 . Active Converter In this configuration.

Drive Application Engineering This page intentionally left blank Engineering Handbook Page 32 .

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Section 2 – Basic Physics Page 33 .

81m s Page 34 . Therefore one newton produces unit acceleration of unit mass. Nm rad s2 rad n) kg m3 rad s1 g The SI unit of force is the newton. linear Force Energy Acceleration. angular (2π Mass SI Unit m s2 M N.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook SI Units (International System of Units) Mechanical Quantities Symbol a d F g J l M n p P Q r s t T v w W α ∆ γ η µ ρ ω m Quantity Acceleration Diameter Force Acceleration due to gravity Moment of Inertia Length Torque Speed. Pa W. 2 Acceleration due to gravity 9. Ws. kg m s2 m s2 kg m2 m Nm rev s1 Nm2. rotational (ω/2π) Pressure Power Flow rate Radius Distance Time Temperature Speed (velocity). Nms-1 m3 s 1 m m s K m s1 N Kg m2s2. Js1. One newton-meter = one watt-second = one joule. angular Change in value (delta) Angle (plane) Efficiency Coefficient of friction Density Velocity. J.

Drive Application Engineering Electrical Quantities Symbol C f g G I k L n p P Q R S W U or E Xc Xl Z α ∆ pf cos φ ω Engineering Handbook Quantity Capacitance Frequency Fundamental frequency content Conductance Current Distortion factor Inductance Rotational speed Number of poles Real (active) power Reactive power Resistance Total (apparent) power Energy Potential difference (voltage) Capacitive reactance Inductive reactance Impedance Delay angle Change in value (delta) Power factor Displacement factor. This is illustrated below.3). Ws V Ω Ω Ω deg rad s1 A radian is an angle whose length equals one radius. Since the circumference of a circle is 2* PI *radius and a radian spans an arc of one radius. Page 35 . phase angle between voltage and current SI Unit F Hz S A H rad s1 W var Ω VA J. So 1 radian equals 360/(2*PI) degrees (57. there are 2*PI radians in a complete circle.

⎛1 ⎞ s = v0t + ⎜ at 2 ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ Derived velocity-acceleration-distance equation. Ws Nm. Ws Velocity after time t when under constant acceleration. (v0 = initial velocity) v = v0 + at Distance after time t when under constant acceleration. Ws Page 36 . kg m 2 Nm. s = vt m Linear acceleration a= v t m s2 m s m m s N. kg m 2 N.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Formulas Mechanical Linear Motion Distance after time t at a constant velocity. v 2 − v0 = 2as 2 Accelerating force or mg v F= m • t Kinetic energy at constant velocity F = ma W= 1 2 mv 2 Work done by acceleration force W = Fs or change of kinetic energy at constant acceleration W = 1 2 m v 2 − v0 2 ( ) Nm.

∆ is difference between initial and final values. t in seconds. Rotational speed. n is in rev / min .Drive Application Engineering Rotational Motion Angular velocity (angle measured in radians) Engineering Handbook ω = 2π n or Angular acceleration (n in rev/s) πn 30 (n in rev/min) = 2πn (n in rev/s) t rad s rad s α= or ω t πn 30t rad s2 rad s2 rad rad s (n in rev/min) ⎛1 ⎝2 ⎞ ⎠ Angular displacement after time t under acceleration γ = ω ot + ⎜ α t 2 ⎟ Angular velocity after time t under constant acceleration ω = ωo +α t Derived velocity-acceleration-angle equation ω 2 − ω o 2 = 2α γ Acceleration – (linear accelerating force) Torque rad s2 M = Time Jω t Jω M (where ω = 2π radians) kgm 2 s2 s t= Acceleration torque -(revolutions) Where d in meters. n is in rev / s M= π 4 m d2 ∆n ∆t Page 37 kg m 2 s2 Rotational speed.

n is in rev / min t= π 240 md2 s or t= 2π J∆n 60M s Kinetic energy for Rotational Motion At a constant velocity W = 1 J ω2 2 Nm. Ws or change of kinetic energy Page 38 . Ws W = π 2 J n2 1800 Nm. n is in rev / s W = 2π 2 J n 2 Rotational speed. Ws Rotational speed. Ws Work done by acceleration force W = Mγ r Nm. n is in rev / min Nm. n is in rev / s t= π 4 m d2 t= 2π J∆n M s ∆n M Rotational speed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook M= π 240 m d2 ∆n ∆t ∆n M or kg m 2 s2 s Acceleration time -(revolutions) Rotational speed.

Equivalent moment of inertia referred to the motor shaft through reducer or gearbox. based on the principle of conservation of energy Kinetic Energy linear = Kinetic Energy rotary: Where m is the mass in kg of the total load including equipment. to Radians /sec. Equivalent = J motor Linear ⎡ n ⎤ = J⎢ ⎥ ⎣ nmotor ⎦ 2 2 kgm 2 Equivalent moment of inertia J or WK of linearly moving parts can be directly referred to the motor shaft as follows. v is linear velocity in m/s and n is in rev / min . K is radius of gyration. J = Wk 2 = 9. Ws Rotational speed.5493 is the constant for converting Rev/min.543Mt ∆n kgm 2 Refer to Appendix IV for Moment of Inertia for a given Body Type description and formulas. 9. n is in rev / min. n is in rev / min J= J= 60Mt 2π∆n 60 Mt = Wk 2 2π∆n kgm 2 kgm 2 Where W (not as SI unit) is the total mass in kg. and Rotational speed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook W = Moment of Inertia Rotational 1 2 2 J ω 2 − ω1 2 ( ) Nm. Page 39 .

48(nmotor ) kgm 2 Caution: This linear to rotation equivalent inertia formula does not take into account the influence of coefficient of friction nor windage. JB is for all rotating parts on an intermediate shaft. JC is for all rotating parts on the final shaft 2 2 mv / 39.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook J= mv 2 ω 2 kgm 2 OR 2 J= mv ⎛ 2πnmotor ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 60 sec/ min ⎠ OR kgm 2 Where v is linear velocity in m/min and n is in rev / min mv 2 J= 2 39. to use appropriate formulas that compensate for the additive and subtractive respective effects of friction and windage. Care must be taken when calculating acceleration and/or deceleration torque requirements. This formula is useful and accurate for applications with relatively free moving bodies of mass or for isolating only the moment of inertia.48 n motor is for linearly moving load and parts.48 n motor ⎣ n motor ⎦ ( ) Where JA is for all rotating parts on the same direct drive shaft of the motor. Power Efficiency η= Power delivered Power consumed Page 40 per unit . Total equivalent moment of inertia referred to the motor shaft can be a combination of rotary and linear 2 2 2 ⎡ nC ⎤ ⎡ nB ⎤ mv 2 JT = J A + J B ⎢ + JC ⎢ + kgm ⎥ ⎥ 2 ⎣ n motor ⎦ 39.

W. n is in rev / s P= πMn 30 Mn 9550 Where rotational speed. h = height in meters Time for Motor to Reach Operating Speed 2 Nm J . s s Nm J . n is in rev / min P= Power due to Acceleration of Gravity P= m•g•h t J • ∆ω M ave Where g = 9.8 m/s . W. W. W. s s Nm J .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook P = Fv Power for Linear Motion Nm J . s s Nm J . W. s s Nm J . s s Nm J . W. s s kW P= m v2 t Power for Rotational Motion P = Mω P= Jω 2 t P = 2π M n Where rotational speed. s s t= s Where ∆ ω is the change in speed (rad/s) and Mave is the average accelerating torque Page 41 . W.

Drive Application Engineering Electrical Ohms Law Engineering Handbook E = I•R E I= R E R= I V A Ω or 2π n rad s Ω Angular frequency ω = 2π f Impedance XL =ω L 1 XC = ωC Ω Z= Power DC (R 2 + X2 ) Ω Where X = XL + XC for series circuits P = E•I S = E•I W VA AC Single-Phase P = E • I • pf AC Three-Phase W VA W v ar S = 3E • I P = 3E • I • pf Q = (S 2 − P2 ) Page 42 .

Balanced Systems (where V(THD) <or=5%) True Apparent Power = S = V x Itotal (kVA) Apparent Power = S1 = V x Ifund (kVA) Real Power = P = V x Ireal (kW) True Reactive Power = Qt = V x sqrt(Ireact2 x Iharm2) Reactive Power = Q = V x Ireact (kVAR) Harmonic Power = D = V x Iharm (kVAR) S = sqrt(P2 + Q2 + D2) = sqrt(P2 + Qt2) pf total = true pf = pf disp x pf dist = Ireal / Itotal = P/S pf disp = cosφ = Ireal / Ifund = P/S1 pf dist = cosφ = Ifund / Itotal = S1/S (φ is the phase angle between the sinusoidal voltage and the fundamental current waveforms) 3-Phase relationships Voltage and current in RMS quantities Wye or Star connection Line voltage U L = 3 × phase voltage U P Line current I L = phase current I P Delta connection Line voltage U L = phase voltage U P Line current I L = 3 × phase current I P Power (sinusoidal voltage) S = 3UL IL Page 43 VA . Non-Sinusoidal.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Power Factor For 3-Phase.

in Linear acceleration a= Velocity after time t when under constant acceleration.0001904] or Pwr(HP) = [Trq(ft lbs)] [Spd(RPM)] / [5252] Note: 5252 = [33.000 ft lbs/min / 2πrad/rev] Mechanical Linear Motion Distance after time t at a constant velocity. ⎛1 ⎞ s = v0t + ⎜ at 2 ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ Accelerating force Kinetic energy at constant velocity F = ma or mg v F = m• t 1 2 mv 2 Poundal. lb ft lb W = Page 44 .000 ft lbs/min)] Pwr(HP) = [Trq(ft lbs)] [Spd(RPM)] [0. lb Poundal. s2 s2 ft in . s s ft.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Imperial Units 1 HP = [33. s = vt v t ft. (v0 = initial velocity) v = v0 + at Distance after time t when under constant acceleration.000 ft lbs/min] Pwr(HP) = [Trq(ft lbs)] [Spd(RPM)] [2π rd/rev]/[33.000 ft lbs] x [1 rad/min] Pwr(HP) = [Trq(ft lbs)] [Spd(rad/min)] / [33. in ft in .

Drive Application Engineering Work done by acceleration force Engineering Handbook W = Fs ft lb or change of kinetic energy at constant acceleration W = 1 2 m v 2 − v0 2 ( ) ft lb Rotational Motion Angular velocity (angle measured in radians) ω = 2πn (n in rev/s) 2πn ω= (n in rev/min) 60 OR rad s rad s rad s2 rad s2 rad rad s rad s2 lbft 2 s2 Angular acceleration α= ω t = 2πn t (n in rev/s) OR Angular displacement after time t under acceleration 2πn α= 60t γ = ω 0t + ⎜ αt 2 ⎟ Angular velocity after time t under constant acceleration ⎛1 ⎝2 ⎞ ⎠ ω = ω 0 + αt Derived velocity-acceleration-angle equation ω 2 − ω 0 2 = 2αγ Acceleration – (linear accelerating force) Torque M = WK 2ω (where ω = 2π radians) t Page 45 .

n is in rev/min ft lb ft lb Page 46 W = π 2WK 2 n 2 1800 .Drive Application Engineering Time Engineering Handbook t= Acceleration torque – (revolutions) Where d in feet. n is in rev/s WK 2ω M s ∆n M = md 4 ∆t 2 π Rotational speed. n is in rev/s W = 2π 2WK 2 n 2 Rotational speed. t in seconds. ∆ is difference between initial and final values. n is in rev/min lbft 2 s2 lbft 2 s2 s M = π 240 md 2 Acceleration time – (revolutions) Rotational speed. Rotational speed. n is in rev/min 2πJ∆n M OR s ∆n M s OR π 240 md 2 2πJ∆n 60M s Kinetic Energy At a constant velocity 1 W = WK 2ω 2 2 ft lb Rotational speed. n is in rev/s ∆n ∆t t= t= t= t= π 4 md 2 ∆n M Rotational speed.

based on the principle of conservation of energy Kinetic Energy linear = Kinetic Energy rotary: WK 2 = Wv 2 Where W is the weight in kg (representing mass on earth’s gravitational influence) of the total load including equipment. ω 2 = Wv 2 2πn 2 lbft 2 Page 47 . n is in rev/min lbft 2 Where W is the total weight in lb. K is radius of gyration in ft.Drive Application Engineering Work done by acceleration force Engineering Handbook W = Mγr ft lb Or change of kinetic energy 1 2 2 W = WK 2 ω 2 − ω1 2 Moment of Inertia Rotational ( ) ft lb 308 • Mt WK 2 = ∆n Rotational speed. Refer to Appendix IV for Moment of Inertia for a given Body Type description and formulas. ⎡ n ⎤ Equivalent WK = WK ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ nmotor ⎦ 2 2 2 lbft 2 Linear Equivalent moment of inertia WK2 of linearly moving parts can be directly referred to the motor shaft as follows. and n is in rev/min. n is in rev/min. K is radius of gyration in ft. Equivalent moment of inertia referred to the motor shaft through reducer or gearbox. v is linear velocity in ft/s. 308 is the constant for converting Weight to mass and Rev/min to Radians/sec when Rotational speed.

F = m* a A force F acting on a mass m produces acceleration a. 2.Drive Application Engineering Electrical Power 3-Phase 1-Phase Engineering Handbook DC Kva kW kW kW HP I 3•I•E 1000 HP • 746 Eff • 1000 3 • I • E • pf 1000 I•E 1000 HP • 746 Eff • 1000 I • E • pf 1000 HP • 746 Eff • 1000 I•E 1000 kva • pf kva • pf I • E • Eff • pf 746 HP • 746 E • Eff • pf kva I • E • Eff 746 3 • I • E • Eff • pf 746 HP • 746 3 • E • Eff • pf I I HP • 746 E • Eff kW • 1000 3 • E • pf kW •1000 E • pf kva • 1000 E kW • 1000 E kva • 1000 3•E Newton’s laws of motion 1. Weight is the vertical force exerted by the mass acted upon by the gravitational pull. Action and reaction are equal and opposite. A body continues in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless an external force acts upon it. Page 48 . which determines its resistance to changes in velocity. and the change of momentum occurs in the direction of the action of the force. 3. The rate of change of momentum produced by an impressed force is proportional to that force. Where: And m is measured in kilograms a is measured in meters per second per second Mass and weight Mass is the property of an object.

which is the force pressing the two surfaces together. Therefore the total lifting force is v F = m + mg t ⎛v ⎞ = m⎜ + g ⎟ ⎝t ⎠ Friction N The horizontal force required to overcome friction is found by applying the coefficient of friction. to accelerate a mass from rest to v m s in t -2 seconds requires an average acceleration of v/t m s . Fr = µ • FN OR Fr = m • g • µ • cos α N Page 49 . and therefore a force of F= m • v t N But the acceleration due to gravity must be overcome too.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Lifting The mass to be lifted must be accelerated from rest to the desired speed and must -1 overcome the gravitational effect. The formula for frictional resistance is: Fr = m • g • µ N The frictional resistance on an incline plane must take into account the angle of ascent. to the weight. Example. u.

unit Nm. In practice. expressed as: M = F •r Nm A torque is required to operate a typical conveyor installation. 1 or 2. the only variable in F = m* a is the acceleration a. the value of a will be decided by operational constraints of velocity and time. When F is known. if frictional and other resistance were absent.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Torque A rotational force acting through a lever arm or radius is called a torque or moment. If the mass is known. Torque is the product of a force F and the radius r of the lever through which it acts. Calculation of the torque value begins with the horizontal force F required to accelerate the mass m. A force F is required to accelerate the mass from rest. as it will be. The torque. once the mass m is in motion no force at all would be required to keep it moving. Fig. the required torque input is obtained as shown in Fig. 2. to be applied by the motor at the driving pulley (neglecting friction) is the accelerating force multiplied by the radius of the pulley M = F •r Nm Nm Page 50 =m•a•r . It is important to understand the fact that. 2. Fig. M.

In linear motion the acceleration force is F = ma. Manufacturers’ data for 2 2 moment of inertia may be given in the SI-derived quantity GD (or imperial quantity WK 2 measured in lb-ft ). which is constrained to rotate about an axis. T will be reduced. refer to Appendix IV. Correspondingly. T will be increased. if M2 is a braking torque and therefore negative). exerted by each pulley.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Torque and Tension The diagram Fig. Calculation of moments of inertia is only valid for a few simple shapes. 3 shows how tension is directly related to torque. M1 and M2. For rotating machinery the moment of inertia is measured by test procedures. Moment of Inertia A mass. The conversions are: GD 2 = 4J GD 2 = 4. in rotational motion the accelerating torque is M = Jα Nm Where J is the moment of inertia and α is the angular acceleration in radians per second. The torque of each pulley is equal to the force at its rim multiplied by the pulley radius. If the sense of torque M2 is in the same as M1. Page 51 . is independent of gravity – unless it is not symmetrical about the axis of rotation. Rotational acceleration of a symmetrical mass is directly analogous to horizontal linear acceleration of mass. if the torques are in the opposite sense (that is. The acceleration force may act tangentially upon the mass or may be a shaft torque (as it is in VSD applications).21 WK 2 • 10 -2 kg m 2 kg m 2 To calculate the moment of inertia for a given shape. The tension T is the difference between the torques.

There are 2π radians (rad) in 360 .. so that: 0 (n in revs per second ) (n in revs per minute) ω = 2π n ω = 2π π n = n 60 30 rad s rad s Page 52 . typically stated as: Input Shaft RPM Output Shaft RPM example : 1750 = 25 : 1 gear ratio 70 If there are two or more gearing devices in the transmission system. transmission systems that reduce the speed at the output are torque amplifiers.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Gearing The mechanical transmission system between the motor and the driven load frequently incorporates gearing of one kind or another. The measurement of velocity is more conveniently measured in rev-per-minute or rev-persec. Moment of inertia ratio is the inverse square of the speed ratio. The speed ratio of gearing is the difference between motor and load rotational speed. the overall ratio is the product of: Ratio1 × Ratio 2 × Ratio 3 × . usually to enable the final output shaft to turn slower than the motor shaft.. As shown above.. The relationships on either side of a transmission ratio are as follows: ω1 n1 = ω 2 n2 ω1 M 2 = ω2 M1 ω1 ⎛ J 2 ⎞ 2 ⎟ =⎜ ω 2 ⎜ J1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 where ω is in rad rev and n is in rpm or s s Torque ratio is the inverse of the speed ratio. The transmission of the torque is reduced by the losses of the gearing.

Driven RPM = Motor Pulley Dia. The efficiency. η.Drive Application Engineering Moment of Inertia Reflected to Motor Shaft Engineering Handbook As shown by the earlier formula. the load moment of inertia reflected to the motor shaft. Load inertia reflected to motor shaft calculation J LOAD = J L ω2 2 ω1 2 × 1 η kg m 2 Total inertia reflected to motor shaft calculation ⎛J ω 2 1⎞ J T = J M + ⎜ L 22 × ⎟ ⎜ ω η⎟ 1 ⎝ ⎠ Belts and Sheaves kg m 2 The ratio of the pulley diameters when a belt/sheave transmission system is used determines the speed ratio. • Motor RPM Driven Pulley Dia Page 53 . must also be taken into consideration. is the inverse square of the speed ratio.

Another way of stating this is: to accelerate the motor and connected load.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Acceleration Torque Accelerating torque is the difference between the torque applied to the input shaft and the sum of all the torques demanded by the load. Power P = Torque × Speed = Mω W Page 54 . gearing and motor resistances must first be overcome. Acceleration torque at any moment is - M Accel = M Motor − M Re sis tan ce whe re : M Re sis tan ce = M Load + M Losses N The acceleration torque at the motor is M = J T α1 Nm Where α1 is the angular acceleration of the motor shaft. then additional torque must be applied that allows acceleration to occur. where power is a measure of the torque and the velocity. This is derived from α1 = ω1α 2 ω2 rad s 2 Where α2 is the desired angular acceleration of the input shaft of the driven load. the load. Torque and Power Torque is a measurement of the mass and acceleration.

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Section 3 – Application Examples Page 55 .

Barkers Diverters Dryers Edge Trimmer Elevators Extruders Feeders Floculators Flying Cut Off Gantry type Cranes and Hoists Grinders Hoists HVAC Indexers Injection Molding Kiln Drives Lift applications Line Shaft Mill / Ball Type Mill / Machining Type Friction x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Gravity Fluid Inertia CT x x x x x x Speed / Torque Characteristics VT Speed Range 30:1 10:1 15:1 4:1 10:1 3:1 30:1 4:1 60:1 10:1 10:1 20:1 30:1 40:1 10:1 100:1 20:1 40:1 10:1 15:1 100:1 60:1 4:1 10:1 100:1 100:1 10:1 100:1 3:1 20:1 40:1 10:1 100:1 10:1 10:1 100:1 x x x x Regen/ Braking Reg Type S S S S S S S S/T S/T S S S S S/T S S/P S S S S S/T S/T S S S/P S/T S S/T S S/P S/T S S/T S/T S S/P x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Regulation types: S=Speed. T=Torque. P=Position Page 56 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Application Matrix Load Characteristics Application Agitators Braider Can Making Centrifugal Fans Centrifugal Fans (I D) Centrifugal Pumps Centrifuge Coaters Coilers Compressors / Reciprocating Compressors / Screw Type Conveyors ( Auger) Conveyors ( Belt) Conveyors (Chain Type/Load Share) Conveyors ( Vibratory) Cut to Length De.

Drive Application Engineering Application Mill / Plate Type Mill / Rod Type Mixers ( Rotating Beater) Mixers / Banbury Monorails Packaging Equipment Palletizers Positioning Positive Displacement Blowers / Pumps Press / Blanking Type Press / Punch Type Press / Reciprocating Press Feeders Rolling Mills Rotary Tables Shakers Slitter Sorter Spindles Spray Painting Stackers / Storage & Retrieval Tension Reels Tentoring Test Stands / Chassis (Dynamometer) Test Stands / Engine Test Stands / Generic Test Stands / Transmission Tower type Cranes and Hoists Transfer Line Unwinder (for web / wire) Web Calendaring Web Coating Web Pickling Wind Tunnels Winder ( for web / wire) Wire Drawing Friction Load Characteristics Gravity Fluid Inertia x x x x x x x x x CT x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Engineering Handbook Speed / Torque Characteristics VT Speed Regen/ Range Braking 10:1 x 10:1 x 4:1 10:1 10:1 20:1 10:1 100:1 10:1 30:1 30:1 10:1 60:1 10:1 100:1 10:1 100:1 40:1 100:1 40:1 10:1 100:1 100:1 100:1 100:1 100:1 100:1 100:1 10:1 100:1 100:1 100:1 20:1 4:1 100:1 40:1 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Reg Type S/T S/T S S/T S S/P S/P P S S S S S S S/P S S/T S S S S/P S/T S/T T T T S/T S S/T S/T S/T S/T S S/T S/T x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Regulation types: S=Speed. P=Position Page 57 . T=Torque.

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75m) (99. fully loaded Desired acceleration Data Given 1000 tons per hour 2 kg dm-3 750 mm 325ft 100mm 15 kg per meter 400mm 0. static Coefficient of friction. Procedure 1. Calculations 1. assuming typical 4-pole.06m) (0. values shown in parenthesis Page 59 . Determine the loading and acceleration. 460V AC induction motor to drive the conveyor. Calculate power ratings of the motor and the drive.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Conveyor Sizing a motor for desired operation of the conveyor. 4. and from them the forces to accelerate and to run. moving Breakaway torque.07 5800 lb-ft 4 seconds Converted to SI Units (252 kg/s) (2000 kg/m3) (0. Determine the linear and rotational speeds and gear ratio. 1750RPM at full load. if not already done. Find the rating of a standard 3-phase.1m) (0. 3. 2. 60Hz.4m) (4280Nm) The example application is required to start when fully loaded. Data not in SI units converted. Convert all value to SI units.09 0. Application data Material delivery rate: Density of material: Width of belt: Length of conveyor: Depth of load: Weight of belt: Diameter of belt pulley Coefficient of friction.

126 2.1) = 1.575 m m s s 2. Page 60 .2 = 23 to 1 approximately.2 rpm 2.4 Gearbox ratio will be 1750 / 75. Required delivery rate per hour = volume x density Engineering Handbook Volume delivered = mass delivered density m3 hr Volume per second = 252 2000 m3 m3 s s = 0.575 = 0.1 Volume of required delivery rate.75 x 0 .2 Linear velocity v= volume per second cross .875 rad rad rad s s s RPM = ω x 30 π = 75.section area 0 . ω= linear speed radius 1.2 = 7. Velocity and Gearing 2.3 Rotational speed of driven pulley. 126 = ( 0 .Drive Application Engineering 2.

• Output speeds are determined by the application but input speeds can be varied.1 Load calculations Load = mass of material plus mass of belt = (volume of material x density) + 2(conveyor length x mass of belt per meter) = [(99.8 kg 3.75 x 0.830. 3. a motor with more pole pairs may be a better solution.2 Breakaway torque to start the conveyor from rest in a fully loaded state is given in the data as. torque to accelerate conveyor against rolling friction is force multiplied by the radius of pulley.575 (from step 2. all other factors being known.06 x 15) = 17.4 Determine the linear acceleration.2) Required acceleration time is 4sec (given in data) Linear acceleration = 1.575 = 0. If the gearbox calculated for a particular application is unacceptably high.3 Horizontal force required to accelerate the loaded conveyor against rolling friction after breakaway is. Fa = (load mass x accelerati on ) + (load mass x g x coeff. Force and Torque Note • A factor of 2 is applied to account for the return run of the conveyor belt. 4280 Nm 3.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Notes • This is the ratio appropriate for a standard 4-pole motor as stated earlier.39 4 m s2 Page 61 . 3. of rolling friction = ma + mg µ or m (a + g µ ) N ) and. is n = f x 120 p rpm 3. Calculating Load.1)(2000) ] + 2(99. where p is the number of poles and f is the rated frequency.06 x 0. • The rotational speed n of a motor. Linear velocity = 1.

the speed increases from zero to the running speed and therefore the power demand appears to have no particular value. M s = Fs r = mg µ r = 17 .830 [0 . motor and drive 4.3 Engineering Handbook M a = [m (a + g µ = Fa r )] r Nm Nm M a = 17 .Drive Application Engineering 3. Page 62 . Power ratings. the overload capability may be used for acceleration power. 81 x 0 . 07 )]0 . this appears to present a problem.2 Summarize the known torque demands. The power demand at the belt pulley is the power demand at the motor. Per the data given. At the instant of starting. Breakaway torque = 4280 Nm Accelerating torque (Ma) = 3839 Nm Running torque (Ms) = 2448 Nm Torque and acceleration do not need to be referred to the motor since power is equal on both sides of a gearing mechanism. The accelerating torque at full speed can be used as the accelerating power demand. 07 x 0 . During acceleration. 81 x 0 . 83 x10 3 x 9 .39 + (9 . torque to run the conveyor against rolling friction is force multiplied by the radius of pulley.5 From step 3. the starting and acceleration period is 4 seconds. Since this is well within the intermittent overload time of a typical motor. 2 = 2448 Nm 4. 2 = 3839 3.6 Horizontal force required to run the fully loaded conveyor at full speed against rolling friction. the motor speed is zero. therefore power is also zero. (Assuming wind resistance to be negligible) Nm Fs = (load mass x g x coeff. P = Mω W Since power is proportional to speed. of rolling friction ) = mgµ Nm and.

P = 3 x V L x I L x p. the actual rating is: 1 0.5) x 7.8 kW 4.8 kW and is calculated from.3 Motor power to accelerate the conveyor is the accelerating torque at the conveyor pulley multiplied by the rotational speed of the pulley at full speed. The starting current is based on the motor rating of 31.8kW overload rating for acceleration.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook 4. f . For this example. 0. kW Where the working power factor (p. In order to make full use of the 150% overload rating of the motor. η is 95%. full voltage rated power factor of the motor. ( from 3.3) x = 31823 x 10 .f. taking into account the efficiency (η) of the gearing. but in practice it must be verified for the gearbox installed.4) 4280 3839 Note that the current demand during acceleration must be based on the 31.3 This would be the rating of a motor able to deliver accelerating torque continuously.3 = 31.) is assumed to be the full load.85 (from data). Since current is proportional to torque. Pa = M aωη = 3839 (from 3.875(from 2.2 and 3. find the rating of the drive. the current demand is in the ratio of required acceleration current. 8 x 100 = 21 . not the selected 22kW rating. full speed. 4.95 31 . 2 150 kW A standard 22kW rated motor will work. and having found the starting current demand. 4. The drive must be able to deliver the current required for breakaway torque. Page 63 .4 This rating must now be verified with the drive required to operate the motor.5 Calculate the currents involved.

98 A Note • The overload performance of a given drive may vary in magnitude and time rating. 150% for 60 seconds is assumed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Total I L = P 3 x V L x p. 85 = 47 Starting current = 47 x = 52.4 A 4. The drive efficiency must be taken into account (98% assumed).4 x 100 1 x = 35.f.6 Like the motor. Page 64 .6 150 0. The full load rated current of the drive is 52. the drive will have a short duration overload. For this example. = 31800 3 × 460 4280 3839 x 1 0 .

find the motor power if the conveyor raises the load through a height of 14 meters.1 Calculate the Force required to start the conveyor. (Note . accelerate and run the incline conveyor at constant speed. The additional vertical component is m g multiplied by the sine of the angle of the slope. γ (in this case. Starting torque is 4280 Nm. An inclined plane adds a component of force to the forces required to start. Page 65 .calculator must be in radians mode) F = Fh + (mg sin γ ) 2 [ 1 2 2 ] N Using the torque values from step 4. The total force is the hypotenuse of the vector diagram of which the horizontal component is the force required to start. 1. accelerate and run the conveyor. These torque values were either given in the data or calculated by multiplying the force x the radius of the pulley.1 of the previous “conveyor” example. accelerate or drive the load at constant speed.2 meters. 14 ÷ 99). we can calculate the forces required to start.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Inclined Conveyor From the same conveyor data. These have already been calculated in the “conveyor” application. The total force. The pulley radius is 0. F is calculated from. This component is the force required to raise the load.

Now. m of the load is 17.83 × 10 3 )] 1 2 2 N N = 32.2 Calculate the force required to accelerate the conveyor.81 ⋅ sin 0.4 × 10 [( 3 2 3 ) + (17.1418 ⎝ 99 ⎠ 3 N We can calculate the angle of the slope.2 N N N 1.195 × 10 3 0. The mass. Running torque is 2448 Nm. 2448 = 12.1).1 Starting force is (Note: calculator in radians mode) Fstarting = Fh + (mg sin γ ) 2 [ 1 2 2 ] N ⋅ 9.24 × 10 3 0.2 Accelerating force is (Note: calculator in radians mode) Page 66 .1418 = 21. using these force values (step 1.707 × 10 4. Accel torque is 3839 Nm. 3839 = 19. 4.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook F= M r 4280 = = 21.2 1. 4.83 x 10 kg (from conveyor example step 3. γ = sin −1 ⎜ rad 3.4 × 10 3 0.3).3 Calculate the force required to run the conveyor.1-1. we can calculate the force required to raise (incline) the conveyor 14 meters in a distance of 99 meters. This is determined by taking the incline height (given at 14 meters) and dividing by the length (given at 99 meters).2 ⎛ 14 ⎞ ⎟ = 0.

Now that the torque values have been calculated. Torque required for the forces calculated.24 × 10 3 = 27.2 = 6.707 × 10 3 ⋅ 0.54 × 10 3 5.597 × 10 3 ⋅ 0. 5.81 ⋅ sin 0.1418 )] 1 2 2 N N 4.309 × 10 3 ⋅ 0.3 Running force is (Note: calculator in radians mode) Frun = 12. For this example. we will use 94%.51 × 10 3 ( ) Nm Nm 6.2 = 5.83 × 10 2 1 ⋅ 9. Calculate the power by multiplying the torque at the conveyor pulley by the rotational speed of the pulley at full speed.597 × 10 M =Fr [( = [F 2 h 2 + (mg sin γ ) ]2 2 N 3 ) + (17. the next step is to determine the power required for acceleration.309 × 10 3 [( [ ] N 3 ) + (17.83 × 10 ⋅ 9.2 Accelerating torque is ( ) Nm Nm M = 31.26 × 10 3 5.81 sin 0.195 × 10 3 = 31.1 Starting torque is M = 32. The efficiency of the gearing must also be considered.3 Running torque is ( ) Nm Nm M = 27.1418 )] 1 2 2 N N Nm 3 5. Page 67 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook 1 2 2 Faccel = Fh + (mg sin γ ) 2 = 19.2 = 6.

0. full speed. 6. Page 68 . not the selected 37kW rating. (from 5.2) 6541 6261 Note that the current demand during acceleration must be based on the 54.875 × = 54798 × 10 −3 = 54. kW The working power factor (p.79 1 0.85.3 Calculate the currents involved. Starting current is based on the motor rating of 82. and full voltage rated power factor of the motor.f. so we will make use of the overload capability of the motor (150%) so the actual rating required is: 54. so the current required is in the ratio of breakaway to acceleration torque. having found the starting current demand.2 This rating must now be verified with the drive required to operate the motor.5 100 150 kW kW A standard 37kW rated motor will work. The drive must be able to deliver the current required for breakaway torque.8kW overload rating.) are assumed to be the full load. P = 3 × VL × I L × p.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook P = M aω η = 6261 × 7.1 The power calculated is continuous. Current is proportional to torque. f . find the rating of the drive.3kW.79 × = 36. 6.94 W W kW kW 6.1 and 5.

The drive efficiency must be taken into account (98% assumed). the drive will have a short duration overload.85 A A = 80.98 = 57. = 54.9 × = 84.9 Starting current = 80. 150% for 60 seconds is assumed.5 × 100 1 × 150 0. Page 69 .4 Like the motor.79 × 10 3 3 × 460 × 1 0.5 A A Note • The overload performance of a given drive may vary in magnitude and time rating. The full load rated current of the drive is: 84.5 6541 6261 A A 6. For this example.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Total I L = P 3 ⋅ VL ⋅ p. f .

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219 m) (7. Convert all values to SI units.1 Angular velocity.3 sec 0.0211 0. Determine the rotational speeds and gear ratio. fully loaded: Desired Acceleration: Desired Deceleration: Run Time @ Top Speed: Idle Time: Desired Motor RPM Inertia: Drive pulley: Tail pulley Idler roller: Rotor Inertia: Data Given 325 fpm 4 ft 5 lb/ft 100 lb 0.1 11. 3.440 kg/m) (45.3 0. Application Data Conveyor Speed: Conveyor Length: Belt Mass: Load Mass: Belt Pulley Radius: Coefficient of Friction. if not already done.5 sec 1750 RPM 15. Page 71 .3 sec 0.5 lb*ft^2 lb*ft^2 lb*ft^2 Converted to SI Units (1. Calculations 1. Determine the accelerating.0 lb*ft 0. Convert data not in SI units.0762 m) (47. Calculate the power ratings of the motor. and dynamic braking.25 ft 0. Because of their fast accel and decel times it is necessary to take into account the inertia of the system. drive. SI values shown converted in parenthesis. running. 2.4 sec 0.4762 (0.46 Nm) (0.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Gap Conveyor A gap conveyor is a short conveyor with fast accel/decal times used to load the product onto the longer conveyor when there is an opening.0065 kg*m2) kg*m2) kg*m2) kg*m2 Procedure 1.6363 (0. and decelerating torque. 2. Moving: Breakaway torque.36 kg) (0. 4.07 per unit 35. 2. Determine the rotational speeds and gear ratio.651 m/s) (1.

95 Page 72 Nm Nm Nm .440) = 63.503 + 9.219 × 7. and Torque Breakaway torque to start the conveyor from rest in a fully loaded state is given in the data as 47.1 3. Force.0 × 0.36) + 2(1.46 Nm.9 Load.9 206.67 rad rad rad s s s Now the RPM at the load side of the gear box are calculated. 3.81 * 0.50 3.3 m s2 F = m Load × a + m Load × gµ = m Load (a + gµ) = 63.0 N N N M = Fr = 393.50(5.46 to 1 approximat ely 206.67 × 30 π = 206.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook ω= linear speed radius 1.651 = 0.503 t 0.3 Load Inertia kg kg kg kg Linear Acceleration = v 1.0762 = 21.9 rpm Gearbox Ratio = 3.2 Gearbox ratio will be 30 π = 21.07) = 393. Load Calculations m Load = mass of material + mass of belt = (mass of material) + 2(conveyor length × mass of belt) = (45.651 = = 5.2 Desired Motor RPM 1750 = = 8.0762 = 29. RPM = ω × 2.

50 × 9.3 21.4 Total Inertia J Total = J Load + J Drive Pulley + J Tail Pulley + J Idler Roller + (J Rotor x Gear Ratio 2 ) kg m 2 = 0.95 × 0.07 = 43.7 Decelerating Torque N N N Nm Nm Nm Page 73 .013 3.81 × 0.4146 + 0.6 Running Torque FRun = Load × 9.4146 3.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook J Load = M×t ∆ω = 29.4 Nm Nm Nm 3. 3 = 145.4762 + 0.61 M Run = FRun × Belt Pulley Radius = 43.61 × 0. of rolling friction = 63.67 = 0.67 kg m 2 kg m 2 kg m 2 = 0.4582 ) kg m 2 = 2.0762 = 3.323 3.5 Accelerating Torque kg m 2 M Accel = J Total × ∆ω Accel Time 2.0065 x 8.6363 + 0.013 × 21.0211 + (0.81 × coeff .

We will calculate the required current rating of the drive using the largest of either the PAccel or PDecel above and the formula for 3 phase power.4 Nm Nm Nm 4. Because the motor is accelerating and decelerating 0. Page 74 . W The motor power factor (p. running torque.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook M Decel = J Total × ∆ω Decel Time 2. PAccel = M Accel × ω × η 1 = 145.85. Motor power to accelerate is the acceleration torque multiplied by the rotational speed.4 × 21.67 = 0.6 seconds out of a total cycle time of 1. we will use accelerating torque to calculate the motor size. and decelerating torque. we will not utilize 150% overload capability. In this example η is 95%.013 × 21. but in practice it must be verified with the gearbox installed. 4. PDecel = M Decel × ω = 145. taking into account the efficiency of the gearbox η. 3 = 145.2 W W W Motor power to decelerate. a standard 3. We will not take into account the losses in gearbox efficiency in order to give us some headroom for sizing dynamic braking.) is assumed to be at full speed. the motor power factor is 0. 4.4 Drive size.1 Power Ratings of the Motor.7kW (5 HP) motor will work.f .67 × 0.f.5 second. Drive and Dynamic Braking From step 3. In this example.67 = 3151 4. Therefore. P = 3 × VL × I L × p.4 × 21. since it is the largest torque requirment out of the 4 torques calculated: breakaway torque. full torque. and full voltage.95 = 3317 4.3 W W W Motor size. Next we solve for current. accelerating torque. Motor power to accelerate is the acceleration torque multiplied by the rotational speed.

84 = 2647 PAve = PPeak decel time × 2 cycle time 2647 0.f .3 = × 2 1.85 = 4.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook IL = = P 3 × VL × p. 4.84.7 W W W W W W The dynamic brake chosen. 3317 A A A 3 × 460 × 0.5 Dynamic brake size.5 = 264. and taking into account motor efficiency. 5A drive will be sufficient for this application. must be able to dissipate 2647 W peak and have a continuous rating of at least 265 W. Motor efficiency for the motor is 0.898 A 460V. Page 75 . or other method of regeneration. We calculate the peak power that must be dissipated in the dynamic brake based on power to decelerate. PPeak = PDecel × motor efficiency = 3151 × 0.

Drive Application Engineering This page intentionally left blank Engineering Handbook Page 76 .

The curve is a plot of outlet pressure (in static inches of water) versus the flow of air (in cubic feet per minute). This results in an increase in pressure and produces airflow at the outlet of the fan. It shows how much pressure is required from the fan to overcome system losses and produce airflow. and are required to predict fan operation and other parameters when the fan operation is changed. These are useful for selecting the optimum fan for any application. Standard fan curves will usually show a number of curves for different fan speeds and includes fan efficiency and power requirements.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Centrifugal Fan Fans are designed to be capable of meeting the maximum demand of the system in which they are installed. Quite often the actual demand varies and may be much less than the designed capacity. The system curve shows the requirements of the vent system that the fan is used on. Page 77 . The centrifugal fan imparts energy into air by centrifugal force. Below is an example of what a typical centrifugal fan can produce at its outlet at a given speed.

It is the actual pressure and flow that will occur at the fan outlet when this system is operated. they also may change the fan’s efficiency and power requirements. Variable Frequency Drives – By changing the actual fan speed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook zThe system curve is a plot of “load” requirement independent of the fan. Without external influences. By changing the airflow. To control airflow. Page 78 . There are several methods used to modulate or vary the flow (or CFM) of a system to achieve the optimum points. the fan will operate only at this point. Variable Inlet Vanes – By modifying the physical characteristics of the air inlet. which reduces the airflow. the fans operating curve is modified which changes the airflow. the performance of the fan changes producing a different airflow. The intersection of the fan and the system curve is the natural operating point. These include: Cycling – As done in home heating systems. they are turned to restrict the outlet. or the fan speed. The system curve can be stated as. Outlet Dampers The outlet dampers affect the system curve by increasing the resistance to airflow. Many systems require operation at a wide variety of points. In so doing. This produces erratic airflow and is unacceptable for commercial or industrial uses. the system or fan curves are affected which produces a different natural operating point. Outlet Dampers – Control louvers or dampers are installed at the outlet of the fan.

Outlet Damper – System Curves The power requirements for this type of system decrease gradually as flow is decreased as shown in the following diagram.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook P = K × (CFM ) Where: 2 P is the pressure required to produce a given flow in the system. CFM is the airflow desired. CFM × LbFt 2 HP = 33. The diagram below shows several different system curves indicating different outlet damper positions.000 × Eff Fan HP = CFM × PIW 6356 × Eff Fan Where : CFM = Cubic feet per minute PIW = Inches of water gauge Eff Fan = %/100 CFM × LbIn 2 HP = 229 × Eff Fan Page 79 . K is a function of the system that represents the friction to airflow. The outlet dampers affect the K portion of the formula.

Below is a representation of the changes in the fan curve for different inlet vane settings.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Outlet Damper – Power Requirements Variable Inlet Vanes This method modifies the fan curve so that is intersects the system curve at a different point. Variable Inlet Vane Settings The power requirements for this method decrease as airflow decreases. Page 80 . and to a greater extent than the outlet damper.

Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

Variable Inlet Vane – Power Requirements

Variable Frequency Drives This method takes advantage of the change in the fan curve that occurs when the speed of the fan is changed. These changes can be quantified in a set of formulas called the affinity laws.

Q2 N 2 = Q1 N1
Where:

P2 ⎛ N 2 ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ P1 ⎜ N1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

2

HP2 ⎛ N 2 ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ HP1 ⎜ N 1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

3

N = Fan speed Q = Flow (CFM) P = Pressure (Static Inches of Water) HP = Horsepower Note that when the flow and pressure laws are combined, that the result is a formula that 2 matches the system curve formula – P = K x (CFM) .

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Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

⎛N P2 = P1 × ⎜ 2 ⎜N ⎝ 1 ⎛Q Q2 N 2 = → ⎜ 2 ⎜Q Q1 N 1 ⎝ 1
2

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

2

⎞ ⎛N ⎟ =⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜N ⎠ ⎝ 1

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

2

By substituting (Q2/Q1)2 for (N2/N1)2 in the first equation gives us:

⎛Q P2 = P1 × ⎜ 2 ⎜Q ⎝ 1

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

2

⎡ P ⎤ 2 or P2 = ⎢ 1 2 ⎥ × (Q2 ) ⎣ (Q1 ) ⎦

The quantity P1/(Q1)2 coincides with the system constant, K. This shows that the fan will follow the system curve when its speed is changed. Variable Speed Curves

As the fan speed is reduced, a significant reduction in power requirement is achieved.

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Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook Variable Speed – Power Requirements

The variable speed method achieves flow control in a way that closely matches the system or load curve. This allows the fan to produce the desired results with the minimum of input power. Fan Energy Savings It is possible to estimate the power consumption for reach of these various methods and associate a cost of operation with them. To accomplish this, an actual load profile and fan curve is required as shown below.

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Drive Application Engineering Load Profile

Engineering Handbook

Page 84

Using the fan curve shown previously. Assume the following Load Profile. assume the fan selected is to be run at 300 RPM and 100% CFM is to equal 100.000 CFM as shown on the chart.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Fan Performance As an example. CFM Duty Cycle (% of Time) 100% 10% 80% 40% 60% 40% 40% 10% For each operating point. These calculations are then summed to produce a “weighted horsepower” that represents the average energy consumption of the fan. Page 85 . This horsepower is multiplied by the percent of time (divided by 100%). a simple analysis of the variable speed method compared to the outlet damper method follows. that the fan operates at this point. we can obtain a required horsepower from the fan curve.

6 3.537 X kW / HP 0. Q2 and HP2 will have the following values: Q2 80 60 19 8 HP2 Now sufficient information is available to calculate the weighted horsepower.250.07 $ 0.746 and then multiply the result by the hours the fan will operate in a period of time. Outlet Damper Variable Speed Weighted HP 32. HP2/HP1 = (N2/N1)3 to give us: HP2 ⎛ Q2 ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ HP1 ⎜ Q1 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 3 When Q1 = 100% and HP1 = 35HP.7 32.5 7. We can use the formulas from the affinity laws to overcome this.34 $ 554.746 0. 100% flow equals 100% speed equals 37 HP.55 X Cost $ 0.37 Weighted HP 3. Page 86 .916.16 This example shows a cost saving of more than $700 per month by using a variable speed method.8 Similar calculations are done to obtain a weighted horsepower for variable speed operation.7 14.0 12.Drive Application Engineering CFM 100 80 60 40 Duty Cycle 10 40 40 10 Outlet Damper Method Horsepower 37 35 31 27 Total Engineering Handbook Weighted HP 3.4 2. This would typically be for a month.8 14. The first point is obtained from the fan curve. However.37 Total 40 2. Variable Speed Method CFM Duty Cycle Horsepower 100 10 35 80 40 19 60 40 8 40 10 2. multiply the horsepower by 0.746 X Hours per Month 730 730 = kWH per month 17.07 = Total Cost $ 1. In order to get a dollar value of savings kilowatt-hours used must be known.862 7.2 0.537 Comparing the results of the two methods of control indicates the difference in energy consumption. The flow formula Q2/Q1 = N2/N1 can be substituted into the horsepower formula. To calculate this. the fan curve does not have enough information to read all the horsepower values for our operating points. Note that the example is very basic and does not motor and drive efficiency.237 14.

Centrifugal pumps impart a momentum in the fluid by rotating impellers immersed in the fluid. where centrifugal pumps are variable torque in nature. The dynamic head usually increases proportional to the square of the flow rate. Brake HP = Water HP Pump Efficiency Page 87 . positive displacement pumps and dynamic (centrifugal) pumps. specific gravity = 1. Pump Terms Head – A measurement of pressure.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Centrifugal Pump Pumps are generally grouped into two broad categories. Head = K × Q 2 where K = system constant System Head – The curve of the head required to satisfy both static head and the dynamic head for a range of flows on a given system. usually in feet of water. To get water from the base to a spout at the top of a 10 FT vessel would require a static head of 10 FT. The momentum produces an increase in pressure or flow at the pump outlet. To get water to flow into the vessel at a particular volume may require 10-FT static head plus 1-FT dynamic head. Dynamic Head . Pump Head – The pressure the pump produces at its outlet. This section will discuss only the centrifugal pump. Q. Static Head – The pressure required to overcome an elevation change in the system.0) Head × ( specific gravity ) 3960 Brake Horsepower – The horsepower required to operate the pump at a specific point.(or Friction Head) Pressure losses within the pipe or pipe system due to flow. Positive displacement pumps use a mechanical means to vary the size (or move) of the fluid chamber to cause the fluid to flow. Water Horsepower – The energy output of the pump derived directly from the outlet parameters. Positive displacement pumps have a constant torque characteristic. Water HP = Flow × (For water. Pump Curve – A characteristic curve of a pump showing the head-flow relationship of the pump. A 30 FT head is the pressure equivalent to the pressure found at the base of a column of water 30 feet high.

The other method is to vary the speed of the pump. Throttling System With this method. There are two methods used to accomplish the continuously varying flow objective. The system curve is completely dependent on the size of pipe. Page 88 . Where these two curves intersect is the natural operating point. which modifies the pump curve. A system with two different valve settings is shown below. That is where the pump pressure matches the system losses and everything is balanced. the number and location of elbows. then some method of altering the pump characteristics or the system parameters is necessary. See the following diagram. One method is throttling which changes the system curve by use of a control or throttling valve. and other factors. obstructing flow increases the head pressure.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook The pump curve is solely a function of the physical characteristics of the pump. Pump and System Curves If the system is part of a process that changes often or continuously. the length of pipe.

See Pump Curve Below.200 GPM. then the variable speed system. This pump is to operate a system requiring a 63-FT head at 1. Page 89 . let’s use an example to determine power requirements for the throttling system. A pump (with a 14” impeller) operating at a base speed of 1150 RPM is used.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook For comparison.

A set of formulas that are used to predict the operation of a centrifugal pump at any operating point based on the original pump characteristics is known as the affinity laws.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook From the information shown on the graph. we can obtain the various horsepower requirements at the flow rates shown in the table below for a throttling system. Page 90 .200 100 25 960 80 23 720 60 21 480 40 19 Water HP = Flow x Head 63 = 1200 x = 19 .76 Variable Speed System In comparison. 09 3960 3960 Brake HP = Water HP Pump Efficiency = 19.09 = 25 0. They are: GPM % FLOW BRAKE HP 1. the variable speed method takes advantage of the change in pump characteristics that occur when the impeller speed is changed.

The energy savings will depend on the amount of time the pump is operated at each reduced speed point. To determine the actual power required.8 ⎞ BHP at 960GPM = ⎜ ⎟ × 25 therefore ⎜ ⎟ × 25 = 12.8BHP ⎝ 100% ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎠ 3 3 It is obvious that varying the speed requires much less power. The example also did not have a static head associated with it.200 100 100 25 960 80 80 12.8 720 60 60 5. the efficiency of the drive should be factored in.Drive Application Engineering Affinity laws Engineering Handbook Q2 N2 = Q1 N1 Where: ⎛N ⎞ P2 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ N ⎟ P1 ⎝ 1 ⎠ 2 ⎛N ⎞ HP 2 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ N ⎟ HP 1 ⎝ 1 ⎠ 3 N = Pump speed Q = Flow (CFM) P = Pressure (Feet of Water) HP = Horsepower Using the same pump example as the throttling system.4 480 40 40 1.6 Note: Use 25HP for HP1 and 100% for N1 to fill in the table above. A system with static head does change the system curve and the horsepower requirements. ⎛ 80% ⎞ ⎛ 0. Page 91 . we can calculate the power requirements for the system when the pump speed is varied. GPM % FLOW % SPEED BRAKE HP 1.

Drive Application Engineering This page intentionally left blank Engineering Handbook Page 92 .

Or simply counting the number of pulley wheels in both sheaves will also generate the ratio. a hoist is required to lift material of 3 tons (USA) maximum. (converted data in parenthesis) 1. The load is sensitive and must be gently raised from rest. Determine the lifting force and torque required to accelerate up to full speed. Speed and acceleration of the hook Page 93 . Application Data Diameter of lifting drum Gearbox ratio. 5. 460V 60hz induction motor with a full load speed of 1750rpm. The block-and-tackle arrangement has two pulley sheaves at the top and two at the hook. The data given is shown above.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Lift In this application example. Determine the motor and drive power rating. 4. and has a ratio of 4:1.721 x 103 kg) Procedure First. motor to drum 10:1 Coefficient of hoisting friction 0. 3. 4-pole. The hoist is to be operated by a standard 3-phase. Determine the lifting force and torque required to maintain full speed. The fixed end of the rope is secured at the top sheave block. Determine the pulley ratio of the hoist block-and-tackle arrangement. 2. 2. convert all data to SI units. The pulley ratio is the numerical ratio determined by the number of falls (ropes passing between pulleys). Determine the speed and acceleration of the hook.095 Maximum Load 200mm 3 US tons (2. Calculations 1.

Page 94 . b) Accelerate the load to full speed ma c) Overcome rolling friction mgu = m[a + g (1 + µ )] Fa = mg + ma + mgµ N N 3. An acceleration time of 9 seconds should be adequate. a slow acceleration from rest is required. Fa required at the hook to raise the load from rest up to full speed is the algebraic sum of the forces necessary to: a) Hold or suspend the load mg. diameter of lifting drum. The linear acceleration of the load is derived from the following.4581 s Drum Speed = 2.2π m Hook Speed = × × 10 60 4 s m = 0.2 Since the load to be raised is sensitive.1 The speed of the hook is a function of the motor speed.4581 = = 5.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook 2. Motor Speed 1 rev × Gear Ratio 60 s Drum Circumference Hook Speed = Drum Speed × Lifting Ratio 1750 1 0.1 The linear force. since the calculation is from output to input). gear ratio.2 The equivalent force. and the pulley ratio. Fda at the winding drum is Fa multiplied by the inverse of the lifting ratio (inverse. v = v0 + at a= where v 0 = 0 m s2 m s2 v t 0.09 × 10 − 2 9 Lifting force and torque required to accelerate to full speed 3.

3 The full speed torque at the drum is the sum of the force multiplied by the radius the drum.721 × 10 × 9. m[a + g (1 + µ )] d × Nm 4 2 2.81(1 + µ ) 0.81(1 + 0. mgu = mg (1 + µ ) Fs = mg + mgµ N N 4. Lifting force and torque required to maintain full speed.1 The linear force Fs required at the hook to maintain the load at full speed is the algebraic sum of the forces necessary to: a) Hold or suspend the load.721 × 10 3 5.2 Nm = M da = Fda × drum radius Nm [( ) ] 4.7 = Page 95 M ds = Fds × drum radius Nm Nm Nm Nm .2 = × 4 2 = 730. since the calculation is from output to input). mg (1 + µ ) d × 4 2 3 2.2 = × Nm 4 2 = 734.095) 0. mg b) Overcome rolling friction. 4.2 The equivalent force Fds at the winding drum is Fs multiplied by the inverse of the lifting ratio (inverse.09 × 10 − 2 + 9.3 The acceleration torque at the drum is the force multiplied by the drum radius.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Fda = Fa × 1 m[a + g (1 + µ )] = 4 4 N 3. Fds = Fs × 1 mg (1 + µ ) = 4 4 N 4.

During acceleration. P = Mωη 5. so the torque demand at full speed will be used to calculate the acceleration power required. It does not matter if the calculation is done at the motor or at the winding drum as long as the efficiency. therefore the power has no particular value. η. of the gearbox is considered (power is equal on either side of the gearbox less efficiency losses of the gearbox).163 Accelerating power is: Page 96 . Motor and drive power rating Engineering Handbook Power is the multiple of torque and speed. η. the efficiency. the speed ramps from zero to full speed. Drum Rotational Speed = = motor speed 1 × ×π gear ratio 60 rad s 1 rad s 1 rad s 1 1750 1 × ×π 10 60 = 9. will be assumed at 97%.1 Motor power required for acceleration W 1 Pa = M da × ω d × η W Where : M da = acceleration torque at the drum ω d = rotational speed of the drum in radians per second η = efficiency of the gearbox Note that the inverse of the gearbox efficiency is used since greater torque and power is required from the motor than the calculated torque at the winding drum. For this example. The worst case power demand is at full speed.Drive Application Engineering 5.

The power demand at full lifting speed can be determined from the ratio of full speed torque to accelerating torque.935 5. find the rating of the drive.6 730.62 100 150 kW kW Motor power is directly proportional to torque.7 734. f .85. 4.2 × 9. then the size is calculated as follows. 5. Starting current is based on the motor rating of 5. full voltage rated power factor of the motor. If the overload capability is to be used.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Pa = M da × ω d × 1 0. The acceleration time of 9 seconds is well within the maximum overload time of the motor.935 × = 4. Page 97 .97 1 × 10 −3 0.2 This is the rating of a motor capable of delivering continuous accelerating lifting torque. 6.f.163 × = 6. P = 3 × VL × I L × p.62 × = 4. Standard motors are capable of delivering a short-term overload of 150%.3 Drive power rating Calculate the currents involved.5kW.97 W kW kW = 734.2 kW kW A standard 5. 0.) will be assumed to be the full load.5kW motor will be adequate. having found the starting current demand. kW The working power factor (p. full speed.

in the raising direction. f . nor are necessary to satisfy. The controller and drive or drives can implement a speed profile to put the lifting mechanisms in motion.5 × 10 3 1 3 × 460 0. in the motor. For these applications. A Run command in either direction will initiate flux and torque to be built. Although a viable method of control. The objective is to produce enough lifting torque so a load suspended will not drop or sag when the brake is released. Brake Permissive The brake permissive circuitry will need to take into account the torque proving circuit and any safety circuits that must be satisfied prior to release of the mechanical brake.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Total I L = P 3 ⋅ VL ⋅ p. The torque threshold need only be a momentary condition. In some applications. Motor flux must be at the rated value and the torque component must be at or above the threshold. the drive will have a short duration overload. the setpoints during the rest of the cycle. The value of Torque Reference could swing significantly after the brake releases. but we are not going to take advantage of it in this application. = 5. the overload capability of the motor is not used to reduce the motor rating. gravity. The brake must stay released until the end of the cycle. These values are very likely not to satisfy. the value of torque reference. Once the brake is released and the lift is operating in a controlled fashion. The Brake Output maintains an energized state until a NOT RUN condition occurs. such as a long acceleration time. This logic process controls release of the mechanical brake. regardless of up (forward) or down (reverse) direction by monitoring for a positive torque working against gravity and the brake before release. pressure. etc. This is also necessary because once the motor and drive are in control of the load (including working against the brake for a time). and comparing that value to a setpoint threshold. The plot in Figure 3 represents a profile of a typical “start-lift-stop” cycle without any dwell time after the start and stop commands. Like the motor. will immediately reflect the values dictated by process conditions. the drive may need to be oversized. All conditions must be satisfied before an output signal changes state.12 A drive capable of delivering 8. the motor flux component and all other Permissive Interlocks must stay maintained throughout the cycle. before releasing a mechanical brake.5 amperes continuous is suitable. and as the drive responds to the work profile commanded. this method may cause undue wear and stress on Page 98 . Calculated Torque Proving Principles of Torque Proving focus on monitoring a drive parameter that represents the level of torque produced at the motor shaft.85 × A A = 8.

Figure 3 At the end of the cycle. long enough to insure that the mechanical brake secured the load. When the drive senses “0” speed feedback it turns off the Inverter. Note: The recommended end of cycle sequence (figure 4) is to decel to “0” speed and have the drive/motor hold the load and dwell for a duration. a NOT RUN or Stop command de-energizes the brake coil allowing the brake pads to stop and secure the load. Page 99 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook the equipment. See Figure 4 and explanation for a more equipment friendly method of control using the precise torque regulation capability of the 1336 Impact drive. The physical brake settting delay time needs to be considered.

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Figure 4 Page 100 .

interfacing with our drives to implement "torque proving" and other safety criteria. direction and torque at slow speeds and to hold the load at rated torque at zero speed. This is essential to safely control speed. That is how strongly we feel about doing a lifting application correctly. and if torque proving or the right choice of drives has not been implemented. here in Commercial Application Engineering. we try to alert them of the proper choice of drive and key control criteria they ought to consider designing in.Drive Application Engineering Using Drives in Lifting Applications Engineering Handbook Variable Frequency Drives can be an excellent control solution for lifting applications. There needs to be agreed upon understandings of Rockwell Automation's role or involvement. even zero speed. that if they do not utilize our drives as recommended. sensing information. there is engineering control design work and set up added to properly use the drive. are those that truly regulate TORQUE at any speed. We suggest you do the same. drive". we would rather not sell you or them the drives and walk away from the opportunity. Or there needs to be additional logic control outside the drive with significant safety backup logic and third party monitoring input to compensate. is the use of encoder feedback from the motor shaft back to the drive. Our drives are not typically labeled as a "hoist drive" or a "winder drive" or a ". should something go wrong. will boldly tell you or an inquirer. parameters. The drives do not stand alone to perform a safe control scheme. The whole control picture requires additional logic control outside of the drive. When we become aware that a drive is being purchased for lifting application. The essential features. Our drives do not have "canned features" supporting lifting applications. particularly if we did not engineer the control scheme. Page 101 . but require the additional logic. A second critical criteria that must be promoted. Like with most involved applications of various sophistication levels. We.…. etc. The volts per hertz VFD varieties can safely perform the other non-lifting functions associated with the lifting function like bridge and trolley traversing. Our drive products can be applied to a multitude of applications. Lifting applications have a rather high degree of risk for danger to safety and cost of damage potential. the ONLY PROPER application of a VFD in lifting applications. are there to use in lifting applications. Encoderless operation is neither reliable nor safe for lifting applications and must be avoided in control designs. This is because we strongly feel that the ONLY responsible control design involves a legitimate form of "torque proving" prior to release of a mechanical brake and true control of torque throughout the range of motion. Our drive products have the means to do such applications. or if the customer asks for advice in using our VFDs on lifting applications.

Drive Application Engineering This page intentionally left blank Engineering Handbook Page 102 .

Calculations 1.4 kg/m^3) (1. Tension taper can be applied as the diameter increases Application Data Maximum Line Speed: Density of Material: Width of Material: Core Diameter: Maximum Roll Diameter: Maximum Line Tension: Desired Acceleration: Data Given 400fpm 75 lb/ft^3 60 in 6. Data not in SI units converted. Center driven winders have the benefit of controlling tension via directly controlling the torque of the wound product.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Winders Sizing a motor for a Center Driven Winder Paper product. if not already done.89m) (1067. Calculate ratings of motor and drive. Determine torque required for maximum tension at minimum and maximum diameters. Determine maximum roll speed for minimum roll diameter. values shown in parenthesis Page 103 .57 N) Center Driven Web Procedure Convert units to SI units.17 m) (0.52 m) (0.03 m/s) (1201.6 in 35 in 240 lbf 4 sec Converted to SI Units (2.

3 π = 43. Engineering Handbook ω =⎜ ⎟ ⎛v⎞ ⎝r⎠ ⎛ 2.03 ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 0.Drive Application Engineering 2. is • Page 104 .2 rad s rad s rad s 30 π = 231 Determine RPM at maximum roll diameter ω =⎜ ⎛ 2.08382 ⎠ ω = 24. a motor with more pole pairs may be a better solution.56 Determine gear ratio.03 ⎞ ω =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ . If the gearbox calculated for the particular application is unacceptably high.445 ⎠ rad s 30 ω = 4.98 Using 12:1 Gear ratio which will give 2772 maximum motor RPM.56 RPM = ω * 2. using 3000 RPM maximum safe speed ⎛ 3000 ⎞ Gearing = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 231 ⎠ Gearing = 12. Notes: • Output speeds are determined by the application but input speeds can be varied.1 Determine RPM of core at line speed maximum.2 RPM = ω * 2. where p is the number of poles and f is the rated frequency. Speeds and Gearing 2. The rotational speed n of a motor.

M = Ma + MT M = 670.198 + 0.8 (tension) 1145.1 ⎠ ⎝ M = 670.1(sec rev / min rad ) ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 1094.445 2 − 0.06 / 4) ⎞ M =⎜ ⎟ 19.445) M = 474.48 (accelerating) + 474.52 * (0.28 M = 12 (Gear ratio) M = 95.3 Torque required to hold tension on sheet Nm Nm Nm M = (Tension N * r ) M = (1067 * 0.16764 2 ) m = 1094.46kg 3.44 motor required Page 105 Nm Nm Nm Nm .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook n= 3.2 Torque required to accelerate load to maximum speed ⎛ m(kg ) * (r1 2 + r2 2 ) * (∆RPM / ∆t (sec) ⎞ ⎟ M =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 19.0 Load & Force 3.4 Nm Nm Nm Torque required accelerating to maximum speed at rated tension with maximum roll size.8 3.1 f *120 p rpm Determine mass of material on maximum roll diameter m = πρl (r2 − r1 ) 2 2 m = π * 1201.48 3.007225) * (228.4 * 1.46 * (0.

Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

Notes • Torque for acceleration and tension must be added together for the motor sizing. Tension is required during acceleration on center driven winder systems. 4.0 Motor selection. 4.1 Calculate required torque at minimum diameter to hold tension.

M = (Tension N * r ) M=

M = (1067 * 0.08382 ) 89.43 12 ( gear ratio)

Nm Nm Nm Nm

M = 7.453
4.2 Calculate kW at minimum diameter to hold tension.

kW =

7.453 * 2772 9500 kW = 2.1

4.3

Calculate motor rating. In order to make use of the full 150% overload rating of the motor the actual rating is:

Nm * RPM 9550 95.4 *1750 kW = 9550 Total kW kW = 17.48 100 kW = 17.48 * 150 Continuous kW kW = 11.65 kW =
A standard 15kW motor will be used because a standard 11kW motor would be at 160%.

Page 106

Drive Application Engineering 4.4

Engineering Handbook

Calculate current required. After finding current, determine rating of the drive. The starting point will be with 17.48kW.

P = 3 * VL * I L * p. f .

kW

Where the working power factor (p.f.) is assumed to be the full load, full speed, full voltage rated power factor of the motor. 0.85 (from data).

Total I L =

P 3 * V L * p. f

=

17.48 * 10 3 3 * 460

*

1 0.85

A A

= 25.8
4.5

Like the motor, the drive will have a short duration overload. For this example, 150% for 60 seconds is assumed. The drive efficiency must me taken into account (98% assumed). The full load rated current of the drive is also affected by the difference in motor rating to total kW rating.

25.8 *

1 15 * 17.48 0.98 = 22.59

A A

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Engineering Handbook

Page 108

Drive Application Engineering Surface Driven

Engineering Handbook

Winder drives that are not center driven are surface driven. They may be speed regulated or armature current (torque) regulated. Buildup does not appreciably affect winder horsepower. Taper tension is difficult to provide, and the quality of roll will not be as good as with center driven winders.

Application Data Maximum Line Speed: Density of Material (Driven Drum): Diameter of Driven Drum: Inside Diameter of Driven Drum: Width of Drive Drum: Density of Process Material: Core Diameter: Maximum Material Diameter: Material Width: Maximum Line Tension: Desired Acceleration: Procedure Convert units to SI units, if not already done. Determine mass of driven roll. Determine maximum roll speed. Determine torque required for maximum tension. Calculate ratings of motor and drive.

Data Given 800fpm 495 lb/ft^3 12 in 8 in 192 in 75 lb/ft^3 6.0 in 60 in 192 in 200 lbf 10 sec

Converted to SI Units (4.06 m/s) (7929 kg/m^3) (0.3048 m) (0.2032 m) (4.88 m) (1201.4 kg/m^3) (0.1524 m) (1.52 m) (4.88m) (889.64 N)

Calculations 1. Conversions - Data not in SI units converted, values shown in parenthesis 2. Mass - Determine the mass of the driven roll

m = π * p * l * ( r2 − r1 )
2 2

kg

m = π * 7929 * 4.88 * (0.02322 − 0.0103) kg m = 1555 kg
2.1 Determine mass of maximum material diameter.
Page 109

1524 ⎠ rad s rad s rad s rpm ω = 26. maximum motor speed of 1526.88 * (0. ω =⎜ ⎟ ⎛v⎞ ⎝r⎠ ⎛ 4.06 ⎞ ω =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0. 3.64 rpm = ω * 3.4 ⎠ Gearing = 6.5776 − 0.2 Determine Gear Ratio 30 π rpm = 254.4.1 Determine RPM of Drive Drum at maximum speed.76 ⎠ rad s rad s rad s rpm rpm Page 110 ω = 5.3 Determine ν (velocity) of maximum material roll.342 rpm = ω * rpm = 51 30 π . ω =⎜ ⎟ ⎛v⎞ ⎝r⎠ ⎛ 4.879 Gearbox selected 6:1.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook 2 2 m = π * p * l * (r2 − r1 ) kg m = π * 1201. Speeds and Gearing 3.06 ⎞ ω =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.4 rpm Gearing = ⎜ ⎛ 1750 ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 254.4 * 4.0058) kg m = 10531 kg 3.

Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

4. Torque Requirements 4.1 Torque required to accelerate driven drum.

⎛ m(kg ) * (r1 2 + r2 2 ) * (∆RPM / ∆t (sec) M =⎜ ⎜ 19.1(sec rev / min rad ) ⎝

⎞ ⎟ Nm ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ 1555 * (0.02322 + 0.0103) * (254.4 / 10) ⎞ M =⎜ ⎟ Nm 19.1 ⎝ ⎠ Nm M = 69.4
4.2 Torque required to hold tension.

M = (Tension N * r ) M = (889.64 * .1524) M = 135.6
4.3 Torque required to accelerate maximum material.

Nm Nm Nm

⎛ m(kg ) * (r1 2 + r2 2 ) * (∆RPM / ∆t (sec) ) ⎞ ⎟ M =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 19.1(sec rev / min rad ) ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 10531 * (0.58064 + 0.0058) * (51 / 10) ⎞ M =⎜ ⎟ 19.1 ⎠ ⎝ M = 1649
Notes: ♦

Nm Nm Nm

Torque for acceleration tension, and Maximum material must be added together for the motor sizing. Tension is required during acceleration on winder systems. Maximum material must be used for accelerating and stopping the system, also Emergency Stop considerations must be included in calculations.

Page 111

Drive Application Engineering 5.0 Motor Ratings 5.1 Calculate kW of motor for tension and acceleration. Summarize the known torque demands Accelerating torque (Driven Drum)= 69.4 Nm Accelerating torque (Maximum Material) = 1649 Nm Tension(Running) torque = 135.6 Nm

Engineering Handbook

Torque and acceleration do not need to be referred to the motor since power is equal on both sides of a gearing mechanism. The power demand at the Driven Drum is the power demand at the motor.

P = Mω

W

Per the data given, the starting and acceleration period is 10 seconds. Since this is well within the intermittent overload time of a typical motor, the overload capability may be used for acceleration power.

5.2 Motor power to accelerate the Driven Drum is the accelerating torque plus the tension Torque, multiplied by the rotational speed of the Drum at full speed. Taking into account the efficiency (η) of the gearing. For this example, η is 95%, but it must be verified fot the gearing installed.

Pa = M a ωη = 205 Nm (Sec 4) * 26.64 Nm (Sec 3.1) * = 5748.63 * 10 −3 = 5.75 Driven Drum 1 0.95 = 1649 Nm (Sec 4.3) * 5.342 * = 9272.6 * 10 −3 = 9.3 = 9.3 + 5.75 = 15 System Total
Page 112

W 1 0.95 W W kW W W kW kW kW

Maximum Material

Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

5.3 This would be the rating of a motor able to deliver the total torque continuously. To make use of the 150% overload rating of the motor, the actual rating is:

15 * = 10

100 150

kW kW

A standard 7.5 kW motor will work. 5.4 Calculate the current involved, find the rating of the drive based on the 98.75 kW rating.

P = 3 × V L × I L × p. f .

kW

Where the working power factor (p.f.) is assumed to be full load, full speed, full voltage rated pwer factor of the motor, 0.85 ( from data).

Total I L =

P 3 ⋅ V L ⋅ p. f .

=

7.5 × 10 3 3 × 460

×

1 0.85

A A

= 11.1

Page 113

Drive Application Engineering

Engineering Handbook

Additional application data required in designing winder drives includes the following: Line Speed Range. Tension range. Product Width Range. Product Thickness Range. Core Outside Diameter Maximum Roll Diameter. Product Modulas of Elasticity. Taper Range. Roll Change Procedure. Accelerating and Decelerating times. Dancer loop Active Storage. Static Losses in Dancer Air Loading System. Load Cell Tension Roll Weight, Diameter, Angle of Wrap, Mounting Position and Continue. Inclination of the Pass Line with respect to horizontal. Lineal feet of material between the Driven Roll and the Feedback device. Number of, and inertia of Strip Driven Idler Rolls between the Driven Roll and the feedback device. Turret Rotation Direction and Speed. Type of winder Web Severing and transfer, Bump and Cut or Enveloping Roll or J Arm. Rate of change of position of Hold Down Rolls, Bump and Cut Rolls or Enveloping Rolls. It is usually not possible to determine all the above exactly for any one application. However, going through all of them, step by step will avoid the necessity to make assumptions, and ensure a better winder installation.

Page 114

due to heat from handling too much current for too long a period of time. There are acceptable duration’s of time to operate above the FLA level and are determined by the I2 t algorithm.Full Load Amperes is the nameplate value representing the maximum magnitude of motor current necessary to develop full rated torque at the motor shaft. Typically motors can develop anywhere from 200 to 400% of rated torque but cannot sustain these levels for extended durations of time before self-destroying due to heat. It is the maximum magnitude of output current limited by the Drives current regulator for a specified period of time.e. 250% of rated current for 2 or 3 seconds i.e. Definitions The most critical focus when specifying or sizing drive inverter hardware is the magnitude and duration of the current demanded by the process to be controlled. established to protect the drive components. Any amount above this value is considered harmful to the motor in terms of overheating damage. some may have an additional rating of. The following definitions apply: Maximum Drive current limit is the maximum rated capacity current output from the drive to the motor to develop torque at the shaft. AC drives typically have the following specifications. 100% of rated current continuously 150% of rated current for 1 minute 200% of rated current for 10 seconds and some DC drives may have an additional rating of. and more recently. 100% torque is equal to the maximum rated torque the motor is designed to produce continuously. DC drives typically have the following specifications. Page 115 . Drives are designed to monitor the level of current and time the duration (I2 t current squared times time) before turning off the output to protect the motor and register a “Motor Overload” fault. when converting from existing DC drive installations to an AC Drive solution. I2t (square of the motor current x time) is the protection algorithm implemented by the drive to protect the motor from overload. Particular characteristics and limitations of both types of drives require an understanding before proceeding. i. 100% of rated current continuously 150% of rated current for 1 minute 200% of rated current for 2 or 3 seconds FLA .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook DC to AC Retrofit The following is intended to point out important considerations. It (current x time) is the protection algorithm implemented by the drive to protect itself from component damage. Motor Torque is the mechanical torque produced at the shaft of the motor. Torque development is directly related to the amount of armature current flowing through a DC motor and directly related to the Iq (the torque producing current vector) current flowing through an AC motor.

it becomes critical to determine the specific operating demands of the present installation. back to the AC line. Do Not be Careless! Also make particular note of the motor base speed rating. First. This means that the DC drive has the capacity to channel regenerative current from the motor up to its rating. When possible. or with measurement equipment. Realize that stand-alone AC drives do not have the inherent capability to regenerate back to the AC line. Particularly note the peak levels of torque demand or armature current requirements and the duration of time. There are applications where the existing DC Drive may be operating at/or near the maximum of its capacity. Second. Page 116 . determine regenerative energy handling requirements. Gearbox ratios and pulley sheave ratios dictate the speed and torque range of the equipment and ought not to be taken for granted. assess as much of the existing installation as possible for nameplate information and monitor loading profiles throughout the process cycle by reading drive parameters.Drive Application Engineering Existing DC equipment installation considerations Engineering Handbook For many drive conversions or retrofits. This information is very valuable and necessary in determining the extremes that are being demanded of the existing DC drive and motor. if the natural assumption to specify a one for one match of HP for HP of an AC motor and drive to a DC motor and drive. Caution! Do Not Assume! The current demands may be greater than the rated performance capability of the replacement AC Drive. The AC drive is not likely to be able to absorb significant regenerated energy levels due to decelerating loads and will require some form of dynamic braking. which are not the same as traditional AC 1800 RPM motor installations. measure and capture this information first hand. Some DC drives have regeneration to the AC line capability. Caution! Do Not Make Assumptions! Many DC motor installations have 1200 RPM ratings. (N = 120 * f / # of poles). or request that the Armature current levels and the respective durations of time be monitored and noted. or is being subjected to significant short term loading that must be known and considered.

we should round up to insure a margin for performance. Caution: Even if the calculations may come out marginally close to the capacity limit of the drive. 240 FLA. Page 117 . Extruders require precise control of torque across the whole speed range of operation including at very slow speeds. We should recommend using the next larger size drive. From our measurements we are aware that the DC machine requires 634 Amps (197% of FLA) to develop approximately 197% of the motors rated torque for about 2 seconds. By relative association. 500/300 VDC. The motor is also forced air cooled so it can operate at very low speeds at full rated torque. Considerations: 1st understand what type of control the application requires and what the DC drive provides. This is short of the 471 Amps required to develop 197% of rated torque for 2 seconds. a 250 HP drive with a limit of its current output to (325 Amps x 150%) or 487 Amps for up to1 minute for this application. 1750 RPM / 2100 max. 197% of rated torque will require approximately 197% of FLA (240A x 197%) or 471 Amps. When the extruder is required to start up with material in the barrel. A direct replacement 200 HP AC Field Oriented Control vector drive will limit its current output to (290 Amps x 150%) or 435 Amps for up to1 minute. the armature motor current consistently reaches peaks at/or near 634 Amps (197% of FLA) for about 2 seconds. Some AC drives may have an additional rating of 200% of rated current for 2 or 3 seconds. of torque. because of the need to accurately control torque. 2nd realize that AC Field Oriented Control vector drives are typically rated: 100% of rated current continuously 150% of rated current for 1 minute. 590 ft-lb appears straightforward. From information provided or obtainable we determine the motor can develop 590 ft-lb. The customer confirms that some types of stock require operating at slow speeds to allow the material to cool and solidify before its shape would deform due to gravity. An equivalent type of AC drive appropriate for this application is a Field Oriented Control vector drive. 322 Armature Amps. but not all choices have this capability. Focus on this and the fact that the AC Field Oriented Control vector drives precisely limit current (thus an equivalent limit of torque) to 150% of its rating. Focus on what rating facts are available. It has an existing DC motor with nameplate data of 200 HP.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Extruder DC to AC Retrofit An ABS plastic extruder produces a variety of different stocks. DC drives inherently provide good torque control by regulating armature current. You have been asked to size the appropriate AC Drive and motor for conversion and replacement. RPM. The largest cross section stock is made with the motor producing rated torque right at rated Armature current and running at 15% of base speed. Choosing an AC motor at 200 HP 460VAC 1736 RPM. There is no extra overshoot of current or torque for the required 2 seconds.

must be able to adjust the voltage in order to regulate current. it needs some extra voltage headroom to regulate any instantaneous current demand. This will allow for more than adequate voltage headroom. typically 437V – 445V. That is to say. Large drives are more likely to be fed from a transformer more closely matched to the drive size with little over sizing of the transformer. This results in a higher source impedance and lower peak line voltage. This voltage headroom is roughly responsible for a 3 to 5% reduction in the maximum output voltage when the motor is at full speed and full torque. least it should drop too low. This reduced voltage will result in approximately 3 to 5 % higher output current above FLA rating. Larger drives (300 horsepower and up) tend to show more signs of it than smaller ones. motor current as in any electrical circuit. reluctant to let the motor run at 105% since the cost of this motor failing is much larger than the cost of a small motor failure. therefore. it would be better to suggest a 400 or 415 V rated motor with a corresponding higher FLA. current is determined by the circuit impedance and applied voltage. Page 118 . if the customers incoming line voltage is chronically lower than 460 V. In the case of the current regulated drive (AC Field Oriented Control vector drive). For this reason. the user may be more concerned about the operating condition. Larger drive and motor sets are expensive and may not be oversized in order to save on installation costs. Though this voltage utilization phenomenon exists for all current regulated drives. There are a few reasons for this. The regulator also requires some margin for proper operation. we are left with only the voltage as a means to regulate current. The current regulator. The bus voltage will be lower because of this. Large drives are the main concern. Since the motor speed and load determine the motor impedance. Also. which must be planned for during continuous operation at frequencies 55Hertz and above.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Another consideration has to do with a voltage utilization phenomenon.

If the voltage increases to 750 volts the control circuit will turn on the switching device connecting a resistor across the DC+ and DC. Some variable speed drives have the switching device incorporated into its packaging. The simplest way to connect a resistor to a drive with a switching device is to consider the horsepower of the motor connected to the drive. the nominal DC bus voltage is about 650 volts. How to size the resistor Note: The methods described in the following text apply to decelerating applications. the resistor and the control circuit. This is not usually a good solution for overhauling loads. It is a voltage regulator that attempts to control the DC bus voltage from reaching the overvoltage trip point of the drive. Usually this is 150%. usually called a “chopper”. This resistor must be within the boundaries of the drive specifications. The three major components are the transistor (switching device). a resistor need only be connected to the proper terminals to function. Most drives have the ability to supply more current than the rating of the motor for a short period of time. Connecting a resistance that is smaller than this value will result in damaging the switching device. The figure below is a schematic diagram of a dynamic brake circuit. If this is the case.Bus. In the case of a 460 volt drive.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Dynamic Braking “Dynamic braking” is one of the simplest and most common methods of dealing with regenerative energy that is of a decelerating nature.5 for total worst case wattage dissipation that the drive will be able to handle without going into an internal over current protection mode. If the switching device is not within the drive packaging. Page 119 . Take the motor HP x 746 x 1. a separate electronic package needs to be connected to the DC bus. The control circuit monitors the DC bus voltage level and turns the switching device on and off at the appropriate level. Now check the specifications of the drive for the minimum resistance that can be connected to the drive. The resistor is then connected to the chopper.

kilowatts. or RPM T(t) = The motor shaft torque in Newton. or rps.0 lb.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Select a resistance greater than the minimum allowed with a wattage rating equal to HP x 746 x 1.5. In Figure 2. torque. The preferred method of calculating DB resistors is as follows.ft = 1. ω Rad / s = 2πN RPM 60 N(t) = The motor shaft speed in Revolutions Per Minute. The desired time to decelerate is known or calculable and is within the drive performance limits. or lb-ft2.meters. torque and power profiles of the drive as a function of time for a particular cyclic application that is periodic over t4 seconds.0 HP = 746 Watts -Pb = The motor shaft peak regenerative power in Watts ω (t) 0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t1+ t4 t T(t) 0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t1+ t4 t P(t) 0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t1+ t4 t -Pb Figure 2 Application speed. and power profile Page 120 . or horsepower.355818 N. 1. Figure 2 shows the speed. The nameplate power rating of the motor in watts. 4. The motor shaft speed. GR. The nameplate speed rating of the motor in rpm. and power profile of the drive application. torque. the following variables are defined: ω(t) = The motor shaft speed in Radians/ second. This method will typically result in unnecessary expense in resistors and is not the preferred way to address decelerating regenerative energy. The gear ratio. 3. 1. The motor inertia and load inertia in kilogram-meters2.m P(t) = The motor shaft power in Watts. Gather the following information: 1. if a gear is present between the motor and load. 5. 2.

t 2 = total time of deceleration from ω b to ω o .0 lb .feet 2 .9 × Vd2 Vd = the value of DC Bus voltage that the chopper module regulates at Rdb1 = Pb and will equal 375 Vdc. If the value is greater than the calculated value. Step 3 – Calculating the Maximum Dynamic Brake Resistance Value 0.m2 . Rad / s ω b = rated angular rotational speed.ft 2 = 0. or pound .feet 2 . lb .ft 2 J m = motor inertia.m2 Step 2 – Calculate the Peak Braking Power Pb = J T × ω b (ω b − ω o ) t3 − t2 J T = total inertia reflected to the motor shaft. needs to be increased so that the drive does not go into current limit. Rad / s = N b = rated motor speed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Step 1 – Determine the Total Inertia J T = J m + GR2 × J L J T = total inertia reflected to the motor shaft. then the deceleration time.meters2 . kg . 750 Vdc. or 937.ft 2 1. if the peak braking power is greater than 1. kg . kilogram .04214011 kg . less than rated speed and can be zero. This has been accounted for by an offsetting increase in the manufacturing tolerance of the resistance value and the increase in resistance value due to the temperature coefficient of the resistor element. or pound . RPM t 3 . or pound . kilogram . dimensionless J L = load inertia. (t3-t2). Do not reduce Pb by any ratio because of estimated losses in the motor and inverter.m2 . kg . kilogram. lb .meters2 . kg . the drive can trip on DC Bus overvoltage.0 HP = 746 Watts Compare the peak braking power to that of the rated motor power. Page 121 .meters2 .5 times that of the motor.5 Vdc Pb = the peak braking power calculated in step 2 Rdb1 = the maximum allowable value for the dynamic brake resistor The choice of the Dynamic Brake resistance value should be less than the value calculated in step 3.feet 2 . seconds Pb = peak braking power.m2 2 πN b 60 ω o = angular rotational speed.ft 2 GR = the gear ratio for any gear between motor and load. lb . watts 1.m2 .

If a lower resistance were to be used with the Chopper Module of choice. The power as a function of time is a linearly decreasing function from a value equal to the peak regenerative power to some lesser value after (t3-t2) seconds have elapsed. If (t3-t2) = the time in seconds necessary for deceleration from b speed to o speed. with the preferred values of resistance as close to Rdb1 as possible. When the Chopper Module choice has been made. Step 5 – Calculating the Minimum Dynamic Brake Resistor Value R db2 = Vd Id 2 R db2 = the minimum value of the dynamic brake resistor Vd = the value of DC Bus voltage chosen in step 3 I d2 = the value of the current rating for the chopper module This step calculates the minimum resistance value that the Dynamic Brake Resistor can have. Step 7 – Estimating the Minimum Wattage requirements for the Dynamic Brake Resistor It is assumed that the application exhibits a periodic function of acceleration and deceleration. the IGBT could suffer damage from overcurrent. See Chopper Tables in the back of this booklet. then the average duty cycle is (t3-t2)/t4. and t4 is the time in seconds before the process repeats itself. Step 6 – Choosing the Dynamic Brake Resistance Value Choose a resistor value that lies between Rdb1 (Step 3) and Rdb2 (Step 5). Page 122 . the current rating of the Module Transistor must be greater than or equal to the calculated value for Id1.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Step 4 – Choosing the Chopper Module I d1 = Vd R db1 I d1 = the minimum current flowing through the chopper module transistor Vd = the value of DCBus voltage chosen in step 3 R db1 = the value of the dynamic brake resistor caculated in Step 3 The value of Id1 sets the minimum value of current rating for the Chopper Module.

seconds Pb = peak braking power. watts ω b = rated motor speed. you may experience stress on the resistor bank.t 2 = elapsed time to decelerate from ω b speed to ω o speed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook The average power regenerated over the interval of (t3-t2) seconds is: Pb ⎛ ω b + ω o ⎞ ⎜ ⎟. It should be noted at this point that if the deceleration time is unusually long it is possible that the resistors may become very hot. Rad / s ω o = a lower motor speed. 2 ⎝ ωb ⎠ The average power in watts regenerated over the period t4 is: Pav = ( t 3 − t 2 ) Pb ⎛ ω b + ω o ⎞ × ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ωb ⎠ t4 Pav = average dynamic brake resistor dissipation. Page 123 . Should you have an application that decelerates a huge inertia longer than 50 seconds. Rad / s The Dynamic Brake Resistor power rating in watts that will be chosen should be equal to or greater than the value calculated in step 7. This is because the constant temperature curve may be exceeded. watts t 3 . seconds t 4 = total cycle time or period of process. How much stress depends on the size of the inertia and length of the time the chopper is conducting.

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the grounded neutral may be a path for common mode current caused by the drive output. If the transformer can not be grounded. In many cases this voltage could exceed the rating of the input MOV protection devices of the drive causing a catastrophic failure. In all cases. Delta / Delta with grounded leg: Another common configuration providing voltage re-balancing with no phase shift between input and output. The following is a brief description of some of the more common configurations and a discussion of their virtues and shortcomings. depending on the output connections from the drive to motor. Ungrounded secondary. the input power to the drive should be referenced to ground. then an isolation transformer should be installed with the secondary of the transformer grounded. Page 127 . Depending on the output connections from the drive to motor. Again. Grounding of the transformer secondary is essential to the safety of personnel as well as the safe operation of the drive.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Transformers and Grounding The type of transformer and the connection configuration feeding a drive plays an important role in its performance and safety. It provides re-balancing of unbalanced voltage with a 30degree phase shift. Leaving the secondary floating can permit dangerously high voltages between the chassis of the drive and the internal power structure components. the grounded neutral may be a path for common mode current caused by the drive output. Delta / Wye with grounded Wye neutral: This configuration is one of the most common.

Use the formula below to determine the maximum VA rating of the transformer. Ripple current becomes 120 hertz rather than 360.01 Page 128 . The result is that the drive must be derated to 50% current. When used to power a drive this configuration must be derated to about 70% of the single phase rating of one transformer. Since high frequency ground current can flow through this resistor. Open Delta: This type of configuration is uncommon. In some cases. multiple drives on one transformer can produce a cumulative ground current that can trigger the ground fault interrupt circuit. Sizing transformers for drive applications The transformer supplying power to the drive needs to be sized relative to the drive rating. This system provides poor regulation and it is possible that only the two line connected phases will provide power. Only part of the three phase input bridge is used. Typical Source Leakage is 5-6%. The resistor is often used to detect ground current by monitoring the associated voltage drop. care should be taken to properly connect the drive motor leads using the recommended cables and methods. The technique uses two single phase transformers to derive a third phase. Single phase will not work with an SCR front end drive. From time to time it may be encountered where only single phase power is available and three-phase power is required. any of the output phases to ground will not exceed the normal line to line voltage. Under a short circuit secondary condition. This places a greater demand on the DC filter components (Capacitor bank and DC choke). The transformer VA should be limited to no more than 4-5 times the drive VA rating.Drive Application Engineering Resistance grounding and ground fault protection: Engineering Handbook Connecting the Wye secondary neutral to ground through a resistor is an acceptable method of grounding. In this case the drive must be derated to 50% of its rating. This is within the rating of the MOV input protection devices on the drive. Single Phase Connection: For a small drive with a diode rectifier front end it is possible to run a three phase output with a single phase input. Z Drive = VL− L 3 ×Input Amps VAMax = (VL − L ) 2 × %Source Leakage Z Drive × 0.

A combination of reflected wave voltage magnitude and rise time has a major influence on the dielectric withstand capability of the motor. Reflected wave magnitude is dependent on the extent of the impedance mismatch. it can still reach high peaks. This is probably the least desirable solution. • Limit motor cable length. Waveform (A) shows an the reflected wave voltage for a 450VAC drive. • Attenuate the noise at the drive’s output terminals with a filter such as an eliminator or sine wave filter. Motor Reflected Wave Pulse Amplitude [5us/div:200v/div] (A) Unterminated (B) Reactor at Drive (C) Terminator Line-Line Motor Voltage (VPK) Time (µs) Common Mode Noise Common mode noise is a type of electrical noise induced on signals with respect to a referenced ground. Solutions to Reflected Wave Phenomenon • Select NEMA MG1 Part 31 Inverter Duty Motors. a means of coupling that noise from the source to the ground plane.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Installation Considerations for VFDs Reflected Wave Phenomenon This phenomenon occurs when cable surge impedance does not match load (motor) surge impedance. Although the reactor does reduce the rise time of the reflected wave voltage. Reflected wave rise time is affected by the rise time of the VFD’s output devices. Problems due to common mode noise imply a source of noise. • Attenuate the noise at the drive’s output terminals with a reactor. and equipment sensitive to that noise. Up to 2 per unit (twice) VFD DC bus voltage may exist on line to line motor terminals. Page 129 . • Terminator (RC network) at the motor to absorb the energy.

0-10V I/O. weighing sensors. capacitive proximity or photoelectric sensors. Source of Common Mode Noise: VFD Common Mode Output Current VFDs have abrupt voltage transitions on the drive output that are a source of radiated and conducted noise. so that CM noise is contained. Noise Source: Drive Induced Common Mode Current t rise DC Bus fc tfall fn= .318 / trise VL-L t Iao t Noise Coupling: Conducted Common Mode Current to Ground Common mode current can flow thru the motor cable capacitance to ground and thru the motor stator winding capacitance to ground. This resistor is in the series path of the CM noise current return and significantly reduces peak CM current magnitude to small levels such that potential differences in Page 130 . A high resistance ground system would add typically 150-200 Ω to the T1 secondary neutral circuit that is grounded. and computers. • Equipment sensitive to noise include ultrasonic sensors. 4-20mA current loop sensors.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Signals and Equipment Sensitive to Common Mode Noise • Control signals sensitive to noise include encoder feedback. These voltage transition times are determined by the semiconductor technology used. Whereas a motor grounded to a sub-panel or ground terminal block not located at the VFD allows common mode current to flow through other paths. A solid grounded wye secondary system is a low impedance to the transient CM noise current and completes the return path back to the drive input leads from the ground grid. temperature sensors. Highest CM current magnitude occurs with this system but very little CM noise goes out into the PE grid beyond the transformer neutral connection. The magnitude of these currents is determined by the amount of stray capacitive coupling phase to ground during the fast switching voltage transitions on the drive output. bar code/vision systems. Noise Abatement Solutions • Grounding Practices: Bringing the motor ground directly back to the VFDs ground terminal allows a more direct path for the common mode current to flow back to the VFD. and PLC communication links.

5 to 5 u S I P EA K 2 00 kHz to 6 3 k H z SPE C TR U M 1/3 I P EA K • Shield Noise Away from Equipment Use 3-conductor w/ ground shielded or armored cable. from phase to cable shield and from motor winding to ground. Attenuation of Drive Noise with Common Mode Chokes 70 n S In v erter o u tp ut vo ltage V LL Com mon M ode C u rren t 6 M Hz C u rren t W ith Com mon M ode C h o kes 1 . However. The predominant return path is the shield/armor since it has the lowest impedance to the high frequency noise. CM noise is reduced. the cable shield/armor or the customer ground grid. Also. The shield/armor is isolated from accidental contact with grounds by a PVC outer coating so that the majority of noise current flows in the controlled path of the cable and very little high frequency noise goes into the customer PE ground grid. • Attenuate the Noise Source: The best way to eliminate system noise is to attenuate it at the source (the drive) before it gets out into the system grid and takes multiple high frequency sneak paths which are hard to track down in an installation. Page 131 . These currents have 3 return path options back to the drive. A Common Mode Choke (CMC) is an inductor with output Phase A. CM noise currents are generated from cable phase conductor to the cable green ground wire. a disadvantage is that surge test results show primary to secondary line to ground high voltage transients are passed directly to the secondary side without attenuation. safety concerns must be addressed with this system. B and C conductors all wound in the same direction thru a common magnetic core.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook the plant ground grid caused by CM noise is minimal. the 60 Hz green Safety wire. Surge testing has shown acceptable primary to secondary line to ground transient voltage reduction. Thus. An ungrounded secondary system breaks the CM return current path back to the drive input so that very little CM current in the ground grid exists. Past experience has shown Common Mode Chokes on the drive output and CM cores on the interface equipment are highly effective in ensuring fully operational tripless systems in medium to high risk installations.

The drive switching transition in a given phase output also sources another cable charging current path from line to ground through Cog. drives < 2 hp are more susceptible to overload and overcurrent trips due the additional charging currents. However. a capacitive coupled cable charging current is sourced from the drive. which may be added to Cog . Techniques to mitigate cable charging current • Reducing carrier frequency • Reducing cable lengths to manufacturer recommended values • Over-sizing the drive hp for a smaller motor hp load is also effective to insure cable charging limits are not met • Add a 3 phase inductor on the drive output to reduce the cable charge current magnitude Page 132 . defined by the stator winding capacitance to the motor PE frame ground. This phenomenon is exhibited to a greater degree on 460 V drives than on 230 V drives due to the higher output transition voltage. flows through Co1 and returns through another phase. Cable Charging Current Paths U DRIVE PE V W ILINE IMOTOR Co1 MOTOR PE Cog Capacitively coupled currents could exceed the drive rating. It is recommended that no more than 3 drive output wires be routed in the same conduit to prevent additional drive to drive capacitive currents resulting from tightly bundled output wires in a conduit. Shielded motor cable has higher capacitance line to line and line to ground than wires in a conduit and may increase the charging current magnitude. Cable Charging Current A drive to motor 3 wire plus ground cable consists of Co1 line to line stray distributed capacitance and Cog distributed line to ground cable capacitance. There also exists a motor line to ground capacitance. During each dv/dt transition on the drive output line to line pulse. Co1 = Line to line capacitance path Cog = Capacitance path line to ground This phenomenon exists for all drives. Capacitively coupled currents can also exist between the output wires of different drives that are routed in the same conduit.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Divert Noise from Susceptible Equipment with Proper Cabinet Layout: Grouping the input and output conduit/armor to one side of the cabinet and separating the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and susceptible equipment to the opposite side will eliminate many effects of CM noise currents on PLC operation.

. Article 100B). the incoming supply neutral or ground will be bonded to the building ground. 5. pull and twist the exposed shield after separation from the conductors. the user should understand the voltage potential. Type of soil. well away from sensitive equipment (such as the PLC). Building steel is judged to be the best representation of “ground” or “earth”. 2. do not randomly distribute them. between ground rods in different areas of the installation. Always use shielded cable for encoder signals and route in a separate conduit. 4. make certain that surfaces are scraped and cleaned for solid connection.Drive Application Engineering Grounding and Bonding Engineering Handbook An effectively grounded system or product is one that is “intentionally connected to earth through a ground connection or connections of sufficiently low impedance and having sufficient current-carrying capacity to prevent the buildup of voltages which may result in undue hazard to connected equipment or to persons” (as defined by the US National Electric Code NFPA70. Impedance between the drive and the building system ground must conform to the requirements of national and local industrial safety regulations and/or electrical codes. If conduit is used. 1. If a pigtail must be used. If painted surfaces are involved. shielding or armor can flow into the cabinet bond and most likely exit through the adjacent input conduit/armor bond near the cabinet top. Cables for each drive should be bundled together and anchored to the tray. Common mode current on the return ground wire from the motor will flow to the copper PE bus and back up the input PE ground wire. Avoid or understand the effects of accidental or unrecognized contact between conduit and ground point along the run. Page 133 . Choose conduit entry points that allow any common mode noise to remain away from PLCs and other equipment that may be susceptible to noise. Grounding of a drive or drive system is done for 2 basic reasons: safety as defined above and noise containment or reduction. 3. Panel Layout Plan the cabinet layout so that drives are separated from sensitive equipment. The grounding scheme used can greatly affect the amount of noise and its impact on the system. Because the output of a PWM ac drive can produce high frequency common mode (coupled from output to ground) electrical. Route power and control separately and ground all shields per instructions. When laying cable in cable trays. Use shielded cable with a PVC outer jacket where possible to contain or properly route noise. ground (or earth) potential at power frequencies. if any. also away from sensitive equipment. Do not route more than 3 sets of drive cables in any one conduit. ground water level and other environmental factors can greatly affect the voltage potential between ground points if they are not bonded to each other. Connect the supply transformer secondary neutral / ground directly to the drive PE terminal. The object of safety grounding/bonding is to ensure that all metalwork is at the same. 6. Solder a flying lead to the braid and connect to the proper ground terminal. While the safety ground system and the noise current return circuit may sometimes share the same path and components. Use wire with XLPE insulation with good concentricity and insulation thickness greater than 15 mils. they should be considered as totally different circuits with different requirements. Common mode noise current returning on the output conduit. The structural steel of a building is generally bonded together to provide a consistent ground potential. If other means of grounding are used. Use the best ground point If intentionally bonded at the service entrance. use quality wire inside the conduit. Use shield terminating connectors whenever possible. such as ground rods. care should be taken in those installations where the presence of such noise may cause other sensitive equipment to malfunction.

Wire Insulation Inconsistencies THHN jacket material has a relatively brittle nylon coating that lends itself to damage (i. galvanized steel or box type conduit with individual phase and ground conductors • Metal Clad (MC) armor cables Common cable insulations used are cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC). UL and agency approval listing. the transient reflected wave voltage may appear across the small air void capacitance. It is these nicks that Page 134 . chemical resistance. nicks. as well as past historical experience. the less voltage the wire can withstand. The smaller the insulation thickness. Effect of Reflected Wave on Cable Life of XLPE and PVC Individual Phase Conductor Cable All 600v rated XLPE cables are adequate to handle the 2 per unit reflected wave transient per our test results. Final selection may be based on important non-electrical characteristics such as mechanical rigidity. This issue is of even greater concern when the wire is pulled through multiple 90 degree bends in the conduit. Applications where moisture is prevalent in the environment should refrain from using THHN (PVC insulation) wire with IGBT based drives. A wire with 15 mil specification was observed to have an insulation thickness of 11 mil at some points. cuts) when pulled through conduit on long wire runs.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Motor Cables Commonly Used Cable Types and Insulation Typical cable constructions used in industrial applications are: • Tray Cable (TC) or shielded TC laid in a 12” – 24” tray • PVC. air voids can occur in THHN wire between the nylon jacket and PVC insulation. Many reasons exist for selecting a specific cable construction and insulation type. moisture resistance. Because the dielectric constant of air is much lower than the dielectric of the insulation. The CIV (Corona Inception Voltage) for the air void may be reached.e. Considerations with THHN Wire Due to inconsistencies in manufacturing processes or wire pulling. which attacks the PVC insulation and produces carbon tracking. Asymmetrical construction of the insulation has also been observed for some manufacturers of PVC wire. fire retardency. leading to the susceptibility of insulation breakdown as in the above case. 600v PVC cables will be suspect based on insulation thickness and environment conditions. Nicks reduce the thickness of the installation.

damp and wet applications and can significantly reduce capacitive coupling and common mode noise. Page 135 . PVC jacketed. Engineering Handbook Cable Recommendations A 3 conductor with ground. damp and wet applications and can significantly reduce capacitive coupling and common mode noise. shielded type Tray Cable with XLPE conductor insulation designed to meet NEC code designation XHHW-2 (wet locations) is recommended. It is superior to loose wires in dry. 3 conductor armored cable is also superior to loose wires in dry.Drive Application Engineering may be a starting point for corona that leads to insulation degradation.

The figure below shows the voltage and current waveforms for a linear load with a fundamental frequency of 60 Hz. current is not proportional to voltage.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Harmonics Nonlinear loads cause harmonics. with each waveform having a frequency that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. The figure above shows typical waveforms for a 3-phase AC drive with a DC link choke. Linear Load: in a linear load. The distorted waveforms can be represented as a series of waveforms. Input Line to Neutral Voltage and Current on Phase A of a 6 Pulse AC drive w/ DC Link Choke Current harmonics seen on the AC line side PWM AC drives are a result of the 3-phase converter section. the voltage is proportional to current and the waveforms are undistorted sine waves consisting of one fundamental frequency. Input Line to Neutral Voltage and Input Current on phase A of a Linear Load Nonlinear load: in a nonlinear load. Page 136 . The waveform is distorted.

5-4.0% 2. It is important to note that THD uses the instantaneous fundamental current as the denominator.97-0.0% 1.0% 3.98-0.5-98.98 0.5-2.0-5. IEEE-519 uses a term called TDD (total demand distortion) to express current distortion in terms of the maximum fundamental current that the consumer draws: TDD % = ∑ (I h=2 h=∞ h )2 × 100 % I load Iload is the maximum fundamental current that the consumer draws and it could be measured over a specified time period.0% 0. not voltage distortion.0 97.0-1.5-1.0-2.99 1.0% THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) and TDD (Total Demand Distortion) Harmonic distortion measurements are normally given in “total harmonic distortion” or THD. TDD will most likely less that THD.5% 1. IEEE-519 is a standard that provides guidelines for limits on harmonic distortion.0-7.0-4.5% 0. Typical harmonic current spectrum for a 3-phase.0 97.95-0.0% 4.5% 1. the 5th and 7th harmonics are the dominant harmonics (besides the fundamental).5-9. Therefore.5% 18-Pulse Drive 4.0 2. the THD calculated may be very high.98-0.5-2.5-97.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook In an AC drive.97 3.0% 3.96-0. Keep in mind that TDD is only used to measure current distortion.5% 1.95 0.0% 12-Pulse Drive 6. Refer to IEEE-519 tables in Appendix III. Page 137 .0% 1.5 20-30% 4.0-3.0 96.0-3.5-5% 0.0% 2. PWM AC drive with DC link choke: Category Current THD Power Factor DPF K-Factor Efficiency 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 6-Pulse Drive 30-35% 0.0-2.98 2.0-6.5% 1.0-5.0-98.92-0.0-2.0-2.99 0.0-7.0-2. or estimated. if a consumer’s plant is running at a small percentage of their peak loading.0% 1.0 4.5-1. THD defines the harmonic distortion in terms of the fundamental current drawn by a load: THD % = h=∞ 2 ∑ (M h ) h=2 × 100 % M fund Where Mh is the magnitude of either the voltage or current harmonic component and Mfund is the magnitude of either the fundamental voltage or current.5-5.5% 0. Because TDD uses the maximum fundamental current consumed as the denominator.

Using current sensors this device adds the sine wave complement of the current it measures to the line. Passive Filter A network of capacitors and inductors tuned to reduce mainly the 5th and 7th harmonics. Isc can also be calculated knowing the supply transformer impedance using the following formula: Isc ≈ KVA × 1000 Zxfrm. the higher the ratio Isc/Iload will be. Isc for a supply transformer can usually be obtained from the utility.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook The limits IEEE-519 places on current distortion also depend on the ratio of Isc/Iload where Isc is the short circuit current. pu × V sec ondary × 3 The ratio of Isc/Iload determines the “stiffness” of the supply. Active (Regenerative) Converter This technique uses an active switch arrangement (IGBTs) that looks very much like the inverter side of a drive. 18-Pulse Converter with phase-shifting transformer An 18-pulse converter replaces the standard 6-pulse converter to give a more sinusoidal input current waveform. Techniques for reducing harmonics in PWM AC Drives (in order from least harmonic reduction to most harmonic reduction) • • • • • • • DC Link Choke A DC Link Choke installed right in the drive significantly reduces current peaks. 12-Pulse Converter with phase-shifting transformer A 12-pulse converter replaces the standard 6-pulse converter to give a more sinusoidal input current waveform. Active Filter This technique works by using an active switch arrangement (IGBTs) that looks very much like the inverter side of a drive. AC Line Reactor Especially for drives with no DC Link Choke. Page 138 . this can be an effective means of reducing harmonics and will provide a similar level of harmonic reduction as a DC link choke. This technique has the added benefit of being able to regenerate to the AC line. and the more current TDD allowed. the “stiffer” the supply. Therefore. making the current up stream from the drive look sinusoidal. The active converter takes the place of the diode or SCR converter section of the drive.

Drive Application Engineering Input Current Waveforms Engineering Handbook Page 139 .

To compensate for a low inductance motor and when multiple motors are running on one VFD. To reduce AC line Harmonics. Applications for line reactors on VFDs • • • • • Add line impedance when supply transformer is more than 6 times power rating of the VFD and the VFD has no DC link choke. especially when the VFD has no DC link choke.5uh / m Resonant Frequency f = 1 2π LC 2 Capacitance of known kVar ⎛ k var× 1000 ⎞ ⎛ v ⎞ C =⎜ ⎟ / 2πf × ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 1000 ⎠ uf Page 140 . As part of a filter for reflected wave reduction.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Reactors To calculate the reactance (XL) of a reactor of a given inductance (L in Henries): X L = 2πf • L Ω To calculate the % impedance based on a given VFD rating the following formula can be used: X% = 2πf • L • S • 100 E2 % Where S is the input VA rating of the VFD and E is the line to line voltage rating. (refer to “sizing transformers” section) To provide some light buffering against low magnitude line voltage spikes. Inductance of 1 & 3 Phase reactors L = E 2 × Z • 10 6 / kva × 1000 × 2πf Cable Inductance uh L ≈ 0.

Precharge Precharge is the drives way of protecting itself from current inrush during power up or a power dip or line loss event. • Logic ride-through is keeping the control circuit active and ready to reconnect to the motor when line power is restored.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Ride-Through Types of Ride-through • Power loss ride-through is defined as maintaining output current to the motor. With either method of precharge. precharge is taken care of by phasing up the firing angle (alpha) on the gate of each of the six SCR’s. time weighted average) the drive pre-charge mode is invoked as shown. For a drive with a diode front end. During precharge the drive is de-coupling itself from the line in order to protect itself from potentially excessive inrush. the parallel switch is closed. When precharge is complete. For a drive with an SCR converter bridge. the precharge method may be a series resister in the DC bus with a relay or solid state switch such as an SCR or transistor in parallel with this resistor. alpha is reduced or “ phased back”. Drive Output PWM Stop's Drive Output Drive Logic 100% DC Bus 85% DC Bus Line Loss Fault Minimum% DC Bus Undervoltage Fault (depending on [Low Bus Fault]) T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T5 Page 141 . the inverter section of the drive is disabled since it is not possible to source power through the precharge resistor or through a “phased back” SCR front end. During a line dip or power loss. When the DC voltage level drops low enough (typically 15 to 20% of a rolling.

Example: • • • • 30 horsepower drive and motor running at a 55% load. Page 142 . The equation for stored energy in a capacitor bank is: W= 1 CV 2 2 Where W is in joules or watt-seconds. In any case. DC bus capacitance value of 4. Engineering Handbook T2: the level where the drive goes into precharge. Keep in mind. T2 to T3: the drive is in “Logic ride-through” and the rate of decay on the bus voltage is much slower since the drive is not producing output power to the motor. This minimum DC voltage level may be the lowest safe point to operate the internal control power supply. T4: the DC bus is back above the precharge level and output to the motor resumes. The energy supplied to the motor during a power ride-through is supplied by the internal dc bus capacitors in the drive power structure. at this point the precharge circuit limits the input line current as it charges the DC capacitor bank. Power Loss Ride-through Power loss ride-through is the ability of the drive to maintain power out to the motor with a power line loss at the input to the drive. output to the motor stops. C is DC bus capacitance in Farads V1 and V2 are the DC bus voltage levels at the instant of the input power loss and the DC voltage at the pre-charge point respectively. This prevents large inrush currents and controls the rate of rise in DC bus voltage. C is capacitance in Farads and V is DC bus voltage. DC bus voltage and load level to determine ride-through time. It is then necessary to know the total drive DC bus capacitance. T5 and T6: if we had not restored line power at T3. Pre-charge drop level of 20%. The type of ride-through is in essence dependent on bus voltage level and precharge level. T3: if the AC line power is restored. In some cases the drive will fault if the DC bus voltage falls below a Minimum level. We only get the energy between the starting voltage before the power loss event and the voltage level at the point where the drive goes into pre-charge mode. With some drives this can be a fault or perhaps a configurable fault that may be disabled.700 mfd. the DC bus will begin to climb. Thus the ride-through energy for a drive can be calculated: W= 1 C (V1 − V2 ) 2 2 Where W is in Joules. Nominal DC bus voltage of 640 volts.Drive Application Engineering T1: power into the drive is lost and DC bus voltage begins to drop rapidly. a line loss fault or undervoltage fault could occur at T5 or T6.

380kw.1 milliseconds. This causes a regenerative condition and will maintain the bus voltage at a level determined by the drive’s software. In general. Additional capacitance could be connected to the DC bus of the AC drive. Power ride-through = 38. Page 143 . There are 746 watts per horsepower giving us a motor kw rating of (30X746) or 22.700((640-(640*. the drive responds by slightly decreasing the output frequency.5 Joules (or watt-seconds) / 12.8))2).5 Joules. a very quick and smooth recovery can be seen when line power is restored. Since the drive never stopped producing output power to the motor. This gives us about 38.309Kw. Multiplying 22. We can calculate a maximum time for inertia ride-through. Under a line loss condition when the DC bus voltage begins to drop. bus capacitance can be used to ride-through very short power losses. Techniques to Provide Extended Power Loss Ride-Through • Inertia Ride-through This method of ride-through requires a load with an inherently large moving or spinning mass and relatively little friction.309 watts = about 3. Engineering Handbook The energy available in Joules is = ½C(V1-V2)2 or ½*4.38 by the 55% load level we see that we are running at about 12.Drive Application Engineering Let’s calculate ride-through for this 30 horsepower 460 volt drive.

000 watts we get a ride-through time of 11.500 rpm.2 seconds. Dividing by 22. • Battery Back Up This source of energy might be as simple as a battery or it may be an uninterruptable power supply. For a fan or pump load the power consumption will diminish with the inverse square or inverse cube of the speed. Drive and motor efficiency will also have some small and perhaps varying degree of an effect in reducing the theoretical calculated ride-through time since the motor and drive will run at varying current levels as the inertia ride-through progresses.740 watt – seconds.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook W = J (∆rpm 2π 2 ) 60 Where W is in Joules or (watt-seconds). releasing stored energy from L1 to the DC bus of the drive. During a brown out condition. J is moment of inertia in kilogram-meters squared and rpm is revolutions per minute of the spinning mass. Nominal power consumption 22. the Q1 transistor • turns off.000 watts total. Normal operational speed = 1. Page 144 . W = 10 X ( 1500 ( 6.28 / 60 ) ) 2 W = 246. It works by storing energy in the L1 inductor when the AC line is at normal levels. A battery back up tied to the DC bus through a series diode works well on a common bus type drive or a drive with a simple diode bridge converter. Example: Moment of inertia for motor and coupled load = 10 kgm2. This calculation assumes that the nominal power consumption is a constant 22.000 watts. Boost Converter For Brown Out Conditions A boost converter is wired into the DC bus of an AC drive. In reality the power consumption may not be constant. This method of ride-through can be used as long as some reasonable level of line voltage (roughly 50% or more) is present.

or could be found using another speed search method. could be found using CEMF (counter electro-motive force). In most cases the logic power is supplied by a switch mode power supply tied to the DC bus. One example of where this is used is for remote / unmanned pumping stations where a temporary power loss can occur but it is not practical for someone to go on site and restart the system. Once the output to the motor stops. Reconnecting to the Motor after Logic Ride-through Starting the drive from a 0 Hz output may work. run on power up can be useful in some applications where it is important for the drive to run anytime input line power is applied. Generally the limitation is an Underwriters Laboratory requirement for the drive to have less than 50 volts on any internal component within 1 minute of a power shut down. while maintaining the drive control logic is important. It is possible to boost the DC bus voltage to a desired set point with this device. • “Flying Start” “Flying Start” (available on some drives) allows a drive to connect more quickly to a motor by using motor speed information. if the drive has this input capability. The switch mode power supply can operate under a wide ranging DC bus voltage level. most of the energy in the capacitor bank is available to run logic power. Logic Ride-through For some applications power ride-through may not be critical. typically down to about 250 volts DC for a 460 volt drive. • Page 145 . Run On Power Up Though not technically a ride-through feature. To comply with this requirement. In many cases the logic ride-through can be extended indefinitely by using a separate. In theory this should be able to provide logic power for several minutes on a large drive. but often it will not give the best response/reconnect time. This method of ride-through can be used as long as some reasonable level of line voltage (roughly 50% or more) is present. low voltage logic supply. Motor speed could come from encoder feedback. an active discharge circuit is often used to discharge the capacitor bank in under a minute. The active front end uses energy stored in the input reactor to “boost” the DC bus voltage and keep it at the set point.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook • An Active Front End (also known as a Regenerative Front End) Another method for brown out ride-through is to replace the drive diode or SCR converter front end with an active front end.

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Section – 5 Networks

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Basics
Network Performance The performance of a network is measured in through-put time. Several factors determine the actual time it takes for a signal to be processed and sent to a device which then reacts to the data it receives. The main factors are: Network Model is the most important factor in determining throughput because it determines information flow (the number and how often messages are exchanged). Some Network Models require 10 messages to talk to 10 nodes whereas others only require 1 message to talk to 10 nodes.

The Source/Destination model shown above left is also known as a polled or Master/Slave network. The master communicates to its slave sequentially one at a time. The slaves are passive and respond to the master’s commands. Examples of this are RIO, Profibus, Polled I/O on DeviceNet. The messaqe format is shown below.

A Producer/Consumer model is shown above right. Using this model, a device produces a message on the network and all other devices have the option to consume it. Examples of this are DeviceNet, ControlNet and EtherNet/IP. The message format is shown below.

Protocol Efficiency refers to the percentage of actual data within a given message. The slide shows two examples of equal length messages. The key difference is the first example contains more actual data. It takes the second example 2 messages to transmit the amount of data available in the first example. Additional messages mean lower throughput.

Baud Rate determines the “time on the wire” which is important, but not as significant as Protocol Efficiency (#2) and Network Model (#1). As the number of messages increase on the network, the time on the wire can become a burden on the bandwidth.

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The data field is all data (contents defined by the application) It is also referred to as “Implicit Messaging” since the receiving device already knows what the data is for (implied).A set of Objects that all represent the same kind of system component. processing times and wire times. Communication module to drive 7.An identification value assigned to each node. Processor Scan Time 2. Communication module processing 6. Page 150 . This type of message contains explicit protocol in the data field which includes internal object addressing information (Class.A characteristic of an Object and/or Object Class. Time on the wire 5. Cyclic or Polled production triggers. Scanner update time 4. Class .Data transfers that are run-time in nature which can have COS. Objects – is an abstract representation of a particular component within a product. which distinguishes a node among all other nodes on the same network (node address). I/O Messaging . It can be Connected or Unconnected (with limited services). Attribute . and Attribute). Instance. Processor to Scanner communications 3. Explicit Messaging – Are Request-Response type messages triggered by the device’s application. Drive update or scan time Note: The time on the wire is typically the smallest contributor to the overall throughput time. General Terms Media Access Control Identifier (Mac ID) .The actual representation of a particular Object within a Class. They may be unidirectional or bi-directional.Drive Application Engineering Determining Throughput Time Engineering Handbook The total time for data exchange from the controller to a device on the network must take into account scan times. 1. Instance . The following diagram shows all of the pieces that add to the throughput time.

unscheduled. UCMM / Group 2 Only .DeviceNet is a connection based protocol. Any and all interested consumers can pick data packets off the wire. The complete NUT is the sum of scheduled. The collisions are non-destructive. 64.is a sender of data that transmits data packets on the wire. 2. Deterministic – The ability to predict when data is received from a transmitting device. Bus level 1 = recessive. Cyclic – Is an I/O method where data is transmitted on a user-configured time interval. Network Update Interval (NUI) – Is a single occurrence of the network update time (NUT). Polled – Is a Master / Slave based I/O method where each slave is queried and may or may not respond before the next device is queried.The repetitive time interval in which data can be sent on the network. 32.is a receiver of data. Engineering Handbook Consumer .1. 128 Each node on ControlNet can send at a different rate. and maintenance messages sent. 16. Change Of State (COS) – is an I/O method where data is transmitted when a change of data occurs. 4. DeviceNet Collision Sensing Multiple Access / Non-destructive Bit-wise Arbitration (CSMA/NBA) .All nodes can transmit on the wire and can detect when a collision occurs. Repeatable .The determinism is fixed regardless of nodes entering or leaving the system. Network Update Time (NUT) . There are two ways to do this in DeviceNet: UnConnected Message Manager (UCMM) or Group 2 Unconnected Port. 8. ControlNet Concurrent Time Domain Multiple Access (CTDMA) – Is a time-slice algorithm which regulates a node’s opportunity to transmit in each network interval (NUI). Producer . Bus idle = recessive) The dominant level overrides the recessive level. Binary multiples . Requested Packet Interval (RPI) – The time interval set by the user for a nodes Scheduled data on the network. Page 151 . but connections must be created and configured before they are used. Physical Signaling – (Bus level 0 = dominant. Actual Packet Interval (API) – Is the actual packet interval for Scheduled data on the network. ControlNet will meet or beat the requested time (RPI) or provide feedback that the configuration can not be supported. A UCMM device can speak for itself whereas a Group 2 device requires a scanner to proxy for it.A function supported by an Object and/or Object Class. Rates supported will be binary multiples of the NUT.Drive Application Engineering Service .

Communication used to control I/O and has the highest priority because it is the deterministic and repeatable portion of ControlNet.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Scheduled . there can be more than one keeper capable device on the network. Examples: Logic Command / Reference. pending network change operations. Each node will wait an arbitrary amount of time before retransmitting. Routers use routing tables to route packets. A switch is different than a hub in that a switch has the intelligence to only transmit out the port that the message needs to be transmitted. the single keeper device cannot be node 1. and programming Examples: “Get Single” Parameter read via an explicit message. and then begin to transmit. it is possible that two (or more) devices listen to the network at the same time. the overall signatures. The active keeper is also responding to requests for scanner signatures from nodes with scheduled connections. A hub broadcasts everything it receives on any channel out all other channels. Switch . the transmitting nodes will know they have to retransmit their message. If so.When a node wants to transmit it will listen to the network and if it does not detect that any other node is transmitting (Carrier Sensing).A keeper is a ControlNet node with the capability to store and apply network parameters for a unique network configuration. In a multi-keeper network. Hub . If both single keeper and multi-keeper devices are on the same network. and network management resources to all nodes on the network. It is transparent to the network and protocol independent. The active keeper is a keeper capable node responsible for sending a periodic keeper broadcast every fourth NUT. it will begin transmitting. EtherNet / IP Carrier Sensing Multiple Access / Collision Detection . Bridge . In a single keeper network the active keeper can only be node 1. HMI.is a device that isolates traffic between segments by selectively forwarding packets to their proper destination. The collision will cause both signals to be corrupted.Communication used for event-driven peer-to-peer messaging. This packet contains information about which keeper should be active. determine no one is transmitting. Routers are used extensively on the Internet. Router .is the center component of a star topology that utilizes twisted pair or fiber cable to connect to devices. Keeper .Is the center component of a star topology that utilizes twisted pair or fiber cable to connect to devices.Is a device that connects network segments and routes messages between networks. There is special circuitry in each node that can detect if a collision occurred. “Set Scattered” Parameter writes via an explicit message. The term “Gateway” is sometimes used to refer to a router which also translates data between different formats. Page 152 . “MA” refers to all devices having equal access to the network. Datalinks. A switch is really a multi-port bridge. but the lowest node number keeper capable device will be the only active keeper. Unscheduled . Logic Status / Feedback. Therefore. If two nodes begin transmitting at the same time a “collision” will occur.

we stay on one subnet and construct the network to limit collisions. It is a protocol designed for speed When we are controlling I/O. Gateway Address .When a device that is configured for BootP joins the network. but not at the same time. Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) . 8 .255. Subnet masks are commonly seen as: 255. All nodes on the local network must have the same subnet mask.0. Half-Duplex . TCP is used primarily to make sure the messages arrived correctly. Full-Duplex .Is a communication method where a device may either send or receive data at a given moment. Bootstrap Protocol . IP addresses are 32-bit numbers that are normally grouped into 4 bytes to make them easier to read. If the network portion of the IP address does not match. so UDP is an ideal choice for I/O since it uses less overhead and allows for faster communication than TCP. If a BootP server is on the network. it will look at the hardware address of the device and compare it to its BootP table.The node address of the device which other nodes will use to communicate to the device. and in the case where multiple transmissions are needed for a single message.Used for Implicit. We do not allow you to route I/O messages. For example.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook IP Address . it will send out a broadcast message asking for an IP address. 31 Is actually: 10000001 00001000 10000000 00011111 (binary 129) (binary 8) (binary 128) (binary 31) Subnet masks . it is identifying that the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the network address. an IP address of: 129 .are used to identify which part of an IP address is the network part. then the packet will be sent to the router. If it finds an entry for that hardware address. or it must be routed to a remote network. IP is used primarily for routing the message to its ultimate destination User Datagram Protocol (UDP) . Page 153 . or I/O control messages.Is a communication method where a device may simultaneously send and receive data. Wherever a “1” appears in the subnet mask.0 Subnet masks are 32-bit numbers that are represented as 4 bytes to make them easier to read. it will send a message back to the device with an IP address. and which part is the host part. The subnet mask is used to determine if a message is for a node on the local network.Is the address of the device which all remote packets must be sent in order to be routed. to make sure the message is broken up at the sending station and put together in the receiving device correctly.is one of the most popular protocols used on Ethernet. 128 . The message will be ignored by all other devices except the BootP server.

or CAN.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Communications Interface This is the communications interface between the network and the drive microprocessor. Anybus. CN1) 16-bit only 16-bit only Up to 6 Integer Yes Yes – Port 2 on Drive (using V3. Yes Yes 2 Words In / 2 Words Out No Up to 2 16-bit Integer Peripheral-to-Peripheral Communications Routing Reference/Feedback Size Datalink Size Max # of peripherals Data Types No Yes . Adding a 2nd peripheral increases the I/O update time.xx AnaCANda) 16-bit & 32-bit 16-bit & 32-bit Up to 6 16 & 32-bit Integer. SCANport / DPI / DSI Comparison Feature SCANport Baud Rate 125K Minimum I/O Update 10ms. Typical interfaces use a UART. adding Time peripherals increases time DPI 125K. The PowerFlex Component Class uses DSI. The PowerFlex Architecture Class products interface is referred to as DPI. 500K 5ms DSI 19. The first interface to use this is referred to as SCANport which is used in the 1336 product family.2K The ‘master’ peripheral must continually poll and allocate time for a ‘slave’.DF1 port (GU6. Floating Point. Boolean Page 154 . dual-ported RAM.

8-38.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Network Specifications Network EtherNet IP ControlNet DeviceNet Remote I/O RS485 DF-1 Modbus RTU MetaSys N2 Siemens P1 Profibus DP Interbus – S LonWorks Network Model Producer/Consumer Producer/Consumer Producer/Consumer Master/Slave Master/Slave Master/Slave Master/Slave Master/Slave and Producer/Subscriber Master/Slave Master/Slave Master/Slave Max Nodes Unlimited 99 64 1 scanner. 3km (fiber) 500m 3km 1200m 1200m 1200m 1200m 1200m 12. 32 nodes 254 247 32 32 126 512 32k per domain Baud Rate 100 M bps 5 Mbps 125-500 kbps 57. Fiber Twisted-pairs Twisted-pair Twisted-pair Twisted-pair Twisted-pair Twisted-pair Twisted-pair Twisted-pairs Twisted-pair Redundancy No Yes No No No No No No No No No Max Length World wide 1km (coax).8km 1200m Page 155 .6k -12M bps 500 kbps 78 kbps Data Size Max 1500 bytes 510 bytes 8 bytes 128 bytes 244 bytes 252 bytes 252 bytes 251 bytes 244 bytes 512 bytes 228 bytes Network EtherNet IP ControlNet DeviceNet Remote I/O RS485 DF-1 Modbus RTU MetaSys N2 Siemens P1 Profibus DP Interbus – S LonWorks Deterministic No Yes No No No No No No No No No Media Twisted-pairs Coax.6–230 kbps 4.4 kbps 9600 bps 4800. 9600 bps 9.8-38.4 kbps 4.

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Generally. The larger gear is referred to as the “gear” while the smaller one is called a “pinion”. except in planetary gears. The gear pairs may be on parallel or non-parallel axes and on intersecting or non-intersecting shafts. It’s also the product of individual ratios at each mesh. Some of the common gear designs are shown below. a reducer is almost always used to gear “down”. Gearboxes A gearbox may have one or more gear pairs. rubber block and flexible-sleeve types allow slight misalignment by absorbing torsional shock loads. Flexible couplings such as bellows. shear. Page 159 . Planetary gearing: It is a gear train in which a planet gear rotates about another gear called the sun gear. Other couplings like the helical type are designed to reduce backlash. the setup is called a gear train. Couplings Many types of couplings are available for a variety of applications. the more planet gears. Generally. These components are necessary to transmit and or control power and motion. the greater the torque capacity of the system.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Appendix I Mechanical Systems This section is dedicated to the power transmission section of the machinery being controlled. Series trains: The overall ratio is input speed divided by the output speed. Worm gears generally cannot be back-driven at ratios greater than 20:1. As the name implies. If it has more than two pairs. they permit higher speed ratios than are feasible with a single pair of gears. Speed reducers: Gearboxes usually offer only a single. fixed-reduction ratio. Ratio is most easily found by dividing the product of numbers of teeth of driven gears by the product of numbers of teeth of driving gears.

The hysteresis loss sets up a torque reaction in drag cup as the rotor is turned. Electric Hysteresis clutches use a coil inside the input rotor to generate a magnetic field in the rotor and drag cup. The stopping power or capacity of a brake depends largely on the surface area of frictional surfaces as well as on the actuation force applied. The Eddy Current coil sets up a magnetic field that links the input drum and output rotor. The torque is proportional to the coil current. When the coil is energized. the particles form a rigid bond between the input disk and output housing to transmit torque. Drum clutches are designed so that a set of shoes connected to one shaft travel outward to engage a rim or drum connected to the other shaft. Mechanical Axial clutches can be a simple cone type such as a sheave. A disc type clutch drives the clutch plate into the driven plate to engage. Eddy currents induced in the input drum interact with the magnetic field in the output rotor creating coupling torque proportional to coil current. Mechanical type clutches use friction to couple torque from input to output while electro-magnetic use magnetism to transmit torque.Drive Application Engineering Clutches Engineering Handbook Clutches rely on mechanical or electro-magnetic action for torque transmission. The friction and wear encountered by the working surfaces are severe. Magnetic-particle types use an input disk that is closely fitted within the output housing that contains magnetic particles. The sheaves move axially to engage or disengage a belt. and the durability of a brake depends heavily on the type of material used to line Page 160 . Hysteresis Brakes Magnetic-Particle Eddy Current Mechanical Brakes absorb energy and convert it to heat. Mechanical brakes all act by generating frictional forces as two surfaces rub against each other.

Electric Electric brakes operate according to the same principles as electric clutches. In rotational bearings. are loaded perpendicular to the direction of motion. V-belts wedge in the pulley. the load can be either perpendicular to the axis of rotation (radial load) or coincident with the axis of rotation (thrust load). This type has precise control. but may overheat when used at high slip. They also provide considerable holding torque at zero speed. which is a mechanical brake that is electrically actuated. Bearing dimensions and tolerances are governed by standards for inside/outside diameter. which multiplies the frictional force produced by tension. clutching. and torque limiting. Eddy current brakes have no holding power and are used only for drag load. If the motion is not specified. Magnetic particle brakes require less control current than hysteresis brakes for the same holding torque. Some applications may require retentioning periodically to avoid slippage. and reduces the tension required for an equivalent torque. Hysteresis brakes provide constant torque (braking force) for a given control current. they generate considerable heat and have a limited thermal capacity. width machining precision and radial clearance.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook the shoe or pad which is the “wear” item. They tend to run hotter than other nonfriction brakes and sometimes require special cooling provisions. AFBMA – Anti Friction Bearing Manufacturer Association JIS – Japanese Industrial Standards DIN – Deutsche Industrial Normen Page 161 . The drum or disc is designed to undergo minimum wear and is a permanent part of the brake. high torque applications. called linear bearings. Operating in slip. Torque is independent of speed and is a linear function of control current except at low currents or near magnetic saturation. it is generally assumed to be rotational. The most common is a friction brake. Belts Belts provide an efficient load transfer between shafts as well as tasks such as speed ratio variations. Bearings Bearings accommodate rotational or translation motion. Translation bearings. Not recommended for low speed.

Anti friction bearing types Bearing comparison guide Radial Load Thrust Load Combined Capacity Capacity Load Capacity Single Row 2 3 2 Deep Groove Single Row 1 3 3 Max Capacity Double Row 1 2 2 Deep Groove Angular 2 1 1 Contact Cylindrical 1 4 4 Rating: (1) excellent. (3) fair.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Most bearings are designed to fit into one of four series of standard dimensions for the bore and outside diameter. (4) unacceptable Life Expectancy 1 2 1 1 1 Operating Speed 1 2 3 1 2 Page 162 . (2) good.

745 x 10 3 3.113 x 10 -1 km / hr / sec 2.283 2 rad /sec rad /sec rad /sec rpm rpm rpm 5.7296 x 10 3 radians 3.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Appendix II Conversion Factors To Convert Acceleration 2 m / sec 2 m / sec 2 m / sec Multiply By To Obtain 3.7296 x 10 9.6093 -1 4.214 x 10 Angular degrees degrees degrees 1.281 3.438 x 10 -1 radians 6.778 x 10 -1 km / hr / sec 6.549 -1 1.592 x 10 6 -1 1.467 1.667 x 10 1 deg / sec rpm rps deg / sec rad / sec rps Page 163 .47 x 10 1 ft / sec km / hr / sec mph / sec cm / sec 2 ft / sec km / hr / sec 2 m / sec cm /sec 2 ft / sec 2 m / sec mph / sec quadrants rad sec degrees minutes quadrants seconds degrees quadrants radians 2 2 2 mph /sec mph /sec mph /sec mph /sec Acceleration .778 x 10 -1 km / hr / sec 9.063 x 10 revs revs revs Angular Velocity 3.047 x 10 -2 1.47 x 10 1.237 4.366 x 10 3 radians 2.111 x 10 -2 1.6 x 10 4 6.Linear 1 km / hr / sec 2.6 2.6 x 10 -2 Angular Displacement 1 radians 5.

076 x 10 3 1.076 x 10 -3 1.076 x 10 -1 1.861 x 10 6 1.098 x 10 2 3 Page 164 .55 x 10 -4 1 x 10 2 1 x 10 5.196 x 10 1 x 10 1 1.788 x 10 2.471 x 10 7 1.59 x 10 6 3.44 x 10 -2 9.29 x 10 -1 1.973 x 10 -3 1.076 x 10 2.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Area 2 cm 2 cm 2 cm 2 cm 2 cm Multiply By To Obtain 5 Engineering Handbook 1.973 x 10 -2 1 x 10 -5 1.55 x 10 6.196 4 2 -5 -6 circular mills 2 ft 2 in 2 m 2 mm cm sq mills 2 in acres circular mills 2 cm 2 in 2 m 2 yd acres 2 ft acres 2 ft 2 m sq miles 2 yd cm 2 ft 2 in 2 mm 2 yd circular mills 2 cm 2 ft 2 in acres 2 ft 2 km 2 m 2 yd 2 2 circular mills circular mills circular mills ft 2 ft 2 ft 2 ft 2 ft 2 ft hectares hectares km 2 km 2 km 2 km 2 km m 2 m 2 m 2 m 2 m mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm sq miles sq miles sq miles sq miles sq miles 2 2 2 2 1.833 x 10 2 9.4 x 10 7 2.111 x 10 2.076 x 10 6 1 x 10 -1 3.59 6 2.29 x 10 2 1.471 5 1.296 x 10 8 1.55 x 10 6 1 x 10 1.854 x 10 -7 7.067 x 10 -1 7.854 x 10 2.

578 x 10 3 1 x 10 -2 2.602 x 10 -4 5.54 x 10 1 2.602 x 10 5.787 x 10 1 1.4681 x 10 3.281 1 3.613 x 10 1 x 10 -2 6.243 x 10 -2 3.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Density 3 gm / cm 3 gm / cm Multiply By To Obtain 1 Engineering Handbook 6.937 x 10 -4 6.937 x 10 4 1 x 10 6 2 1 x 10 -2 fathoms hectometers in in in in in in in in m m m m m m m m microns 2.0505 x 10 1 x 10 -1 5.214 x 10 1.54 x 10 -5 1.54 x 10 -3 5.54 -2 2.613 x 10 -10 3.778 x 10 8 2.84 x 10 8.094 -3 1 x 10 2 1 x 10 1 x 10 -6 10 Page 165 .405 x 10 1.345 -2 -2 -3 lb / ft 3 lb / in gm / cm 3 lb / ft 3 lb / in lb / mil-ft 3 3 kg / m 3 kg / m 3 kg / m 3 kg / m lbs / ft 3 lbs / ft 3 lbs / ft parts / million parts / million Displacement cm cm cm 3 3 grms / cm 3 lbs / in 3 kg / m 3 grains / gals lbs / million gals ft mills microns ft meters cm m mm miles mills yds angstrom units rods angstrom units fathoms ft in miles yards km cm meters 3.243 x 10 -5 3.281 x 10 2 3.

336 x 10 1.682 x 10 1.048 x 10 -4 1.055 x 10 2 7.029 1 1.183 x 10 2 4.144 x 10 -1 9.968 3 3.65 x 10 2 1.2 x 10 3 5.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Distance ft ft ft Multiply By To Obtain -1 Engineering Handbook 3.6909 x 10 3 5.928 x 10 9.9 x 10 12 9.52 x 10 -4 3.144 x 10 -4 9.389 x 10 1 3.609 3 1.76 x 10 -13 1.4609 x 10 1.055 x 10 -4 2.7816 x 10 2 2.894 x 10 4 1.125 x 10 9.69 x 10 5 12 m miles mills miles miles km cm ft in km yd light years m ft in miles cm km m miles ergs ft lbs (work) gram-calories hp hours joules = N m kw hours btu ergs ft lbs kg-calories Nm btu ft lbs hp-hrs joules kg-meters kw-hrs Page 166 league light year light year miles miles miles miles miles miles rods rods rods rods yds yds yds yds Energy btu btu btu btu btu btu 5.98 x 10 -3 3.486 x 10 7 1 x 10 -1 7.736 x 10 -4 2.144 x 10 -4 5.163 x 10 -4 10 1 joules joules joules joules joules kg-calories kg-calories kg-calories kg-calories kg-calories kg-calories .269 x 10 -3 1.086 x 10 -3 1.558 x 10 3 4.28 x 10 4 6.927 x 10 3 1.

54723 Force joules / cm joules / cm joules / cm 1 x 10 2 1 x 10 1 2.6 x 10 2 8.4172 x 10 5 4 5 7 N N N N poundals poundals poundals poundals poundals lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs Inertia 2 Kgm 2 Kgm lbft 2 lbin Page 167 2 .5985 x 10 1.228 x 10 -2 6.413 x 10 13 3.448 4.383 x 10 -3 1.886 x 10 -3 4.448 x 10 -2 4.217 x 10 2.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Multiply By To Obtain 3 Engineering Handbook kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs kw-hrs Flow Rate gpm gpm 3.6 x 10 6 2.671 x 10 2.655 x 10 5 8.6 x 10 6 3.248 x 10 1 -1 1.585 x 10 1 -4 -3 btu ergs ft lbs gm-calories hp-hrs joules Nm kg-calories kg-meters ft / sec liters / sec ft / sec gps gpm ft / sec dynes N (newtons) lbs dynes lb joules / meter kg (mass) dynes joules / cm joules / m N (newtons) lbs dynes joules / cm joules / m N (newtons) poundals 1 3 3 3 liters / min liters / min liters / sec million gal / day 1.383 x 10 -2 3.108 x 10 4.308 x 10 5.448 x 10 4.5985 x 10 5 3.373042 x 10 3 3.403 x 10 1.341 6 3.0197 x 10 1.248 x 10 1 x 10 -1 2.383 x 10 -1 1.383 x 10 -1 1.448 1 3.

440 x 10 -3 6.151 1.944 x 10 -4 2.113 x 10 -1 5.136 x 10 2.6093 -2 2.667 x 10 -1 3.527 x 10 1 1 x 10 -6 1 x 10 1.459 x 10 1 3.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Multiply By To Obtain -2 Engineering Handbook Lbft 2 Lbft 2 Lbin 2 Lbin 2 4.214 x 10 6.8 x 10 1.682 x 10 -1 8.667 x 10 -1 6.144 x 10 4.467 1.852 1.217 x 10 Page 168 1 5 1 3 1 -2 fps (ft / sec) m / min mph (milies / hr) cm /sec fpm fps knots m / min miles / hr ft / hr km / hr mph ft / sec cm / sec cm / sec fpm fps km / hr km / min knots meters / min miles / min dynes (force) gm (mass) joules /m (force) N (force /weight) lbs (force / weight) oz (force / weight) hectograms milligrams kg (mass) lb (force) km / hr km / hr km / hr km / hr km / hr km / hr knots knots knots knots knots mph mph mph mph mph mph mph mph Mass kg kg kg kg (mass/weight) kg kg kg kg slugs slugs .807 9.926 x 10 Kgm 2 lbin 2 lbft 2 Kgm 2 Linear Velocity fpm fpm fpm 1.778 x 10 1 5.214 x 10 2 1.048 x 10 -2 1.468 x 10 -1 9.2046 1 3.807 2.688 1 5.076 x 10 1.807 x 10 3 1 x 10 9.682 x 10 -2 1.667 x 10 9.684 x 10 1 2.396 x 10 1 1.47 x 10 1 8.

912 x 10 0 -2 -2 atmospheres in-mercury 2 kg / m 2 lb / in lb / ft 2 in-mercury in-mercury in-mercury in-mercury in-mercury in-water @ 4 C 0 in-water @ 4 C 0 in-water @ 4 C 0 in-water @ 4 C 0 in-water @ 4 C 0 in-water @ 4 C kg / m 2 kg / m 2 kg / m 2 kg / m 2 kg / m 2 kg / m 2 kg / m oz / in 2 oz / in poise lbs / ft 2 lbs / ft 2 lbs / ft 2 2 2 atmospheres ft-water 2 kg / m 2 lb / ft 2 lb / in atmospheres in-mercury 2 kg / cm 2 oz / in 2 lb / ft 2 lb / in atmospheres bars ft-water in-mercury 2 lb / ft 2 lb / in 2 dynes / cm dynes / cm 2 lbs / in gram / cm 2 2 2.0481 3.613 x 10 9.54 x 10 -1 5.725 x 10 -2 1.95 x 10 -1 8.048 x 10 -3 1.869 x 10 atmospheres atmospheres ft-water 2 kg / m 2 lb / in bars cm-mercury cm-mercury cm-mercury cm-mercury dynes / cm ft-water ft-water ft-water ft-water gm / cm 2 2 1.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Pressure bars Multiply By To Obtain -1 Engineering Handbook 9.422 x 10 1 9.309 x 10 -2 6.461 x 10 2 1.316 x 10 -1 4.781 x 10 5.25 x 10 1 4.414 x 10 Page 169 -4 3 -5 -3 atmospheres ft-water in-mercury .678 x 10 -5 9.133 2 3.934 x 10 1 x 10 -6 -2 2.335 x 10 2.355 x 10 2 2.281 x 10 -3 2.048 x 10 -1 4.896 x 10 -1 2.807 x 10 4.602 x 10 -2 1.36 x 10 -1 1.807 x 10 -3 3.826 x 10 2 3.458 x 10 -2 7.453 x 10 1 7.342 x 10 1.204 -2 3.073 x 10 -1 4.

18 0 7 1 Tension / Unit Width kN / m 5.426 x 10 2 7.931 x 10 1.244 x 10 4 3.356 x 10 1 1.3 x 10 2 5.068 x 10 -1 7.03 x 10 -2 6.031 x 10 2 1.036 2 7.341 1 1.457 x 10 -2 1 1 -1 btu / min btu / min btu / min hp hp hp hp hp kg-calories / min 9.307 2.882 -3 6.89 x 10 -2 kg / m 2 lbs / in atmospheres ft-water in-mercury 2 kg / m 2 lbs / ft 2 kg / cm bar ft lbs / sec hp watts ft lbs / sec hp watts btu / min ft lb / min ft lb / sec kg-calories / min kw hp kw btu / min ft lb / min ft lb / sec hp kg-calories / min watts erg / sec hectowatts fahrenheit (degrees) kelvin (degrees) PLI kN / m Page 170 2 2.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Multiply By To Obtain Engineering Handbook lbs / ft 2 lbs / ft lbs / in 2 lbs / in 2 lbs / in 2 lbs / in 2 lbs / in 2 lbs / in 2 lbs / in Power btu / hr btu / hr btu / hr 2 2 4.711 -1 PLI 1.1626 x 10 -4 3.351 x 10 -2 kg-calories / min 6.929 x 10 -1 2.944 x 10 6.434 x 10 3 1 x 10 1 x 10 -2 1 x 10 ( C x 9/5) + 32 0 C + 273.44 x 10 -2 7.692 x 10 4 4.296 x 10 -2 2.5 x 10 1 1.376 x 10 1.972 x 10 kw kw kw kw kw kw watts watts Temperature centigrade centigrade 5.757 x 10 4.751 x 10 .804 x 10 2.

785 x 10 3.281 -2 5.785 -2 3.-liquid) liters pts (u.682 x 10 1 8.281 3.s.24 x 10 -2 3.704 x 10 7.984 x 10 1 2.-liquid) barrels (oil) 3 3 .728 x 10 1.337 x 10 2 2.832 x 10 3 1.48052 1 2.38095 x 10 Page 171 -1 -2 -1 3 drams u.237 2 Nm 2 kg-m / sec ft lbs cm / sec fpm fps km / hr knots mph fpm fps km / hr km / min mph cm / sec ft / sec km / min knots / min mph ounce (u.-fluid) 3 in drams cm 3 mps mps mps mps mps miles / min miles / min miles / min miles / min miles / min Volume centiliters centiliters centiliters 2.705 3.382 x 10 -1 6.667 3.-liquid) ft 3 in 3 m liters barrels (u.-fluid ft 3 ft 3 ft 3 ft 3 ft 3 ft 3 ft gal gal gal gal gal gal (oil) 3 m 3 in 3 yd gal (u.684 x 10 1 6 x 10 3.s.6 -2 6 x 10 2.728 x 10 -2 3.992 x 10 1.356 -1 7.s.-liquid) quarts (u.s.468 x 10 -2 6 x 10 -2 3.6967 2.s.968 x 10 3.6093 -1 8.8 x 10 1.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Torque ft lbs ft lbs Nm Velocity mpm mpm mpm mpm mpm mpm Multiply By To Obtain Engineering Handbook 1.1746 x 10 -2 2.31 x 10 -3 3.s.832 x 10 1 5.376 x 10 1.356 1.103 x 10 2.

-liquid) cm 3 ft 3 in 3 m gal liters barrels (u.646 x 10 1 2.057 3 1 x 10 -2 1 x 10 1 x 10 1 3.464 x 10 -2 1.s.642 x 10 2.-liquid) quarts (u.6418 x 10 1 x 10 -2 3. liquid) qts (u.531 x 10 1 6.s.639 x 10 -2 3.-dry) cm 3 ft 3 m 3 3 3 3 3 Page 172 .787 x 10 -5 1.057 x 10 9.464 x 10 -2 3.417 x 10-4 1 x 10 1.s.s. liquid) cm 3 ft 3 in 3 m 3 yd gal (u.329 x 10 -2 1.639 x 10 -3 4.642 x 10 3 1 x 10 3 2. liquid) pts (u.775 x 10 -4 9.05 x 10 7.s.s.113 1.102 x 10 -3 1 x 10 -3 1.-liquid) quarts (u.308 1 3.646 x 10 5 2 6 2 3 cm 3 ft 3 m gal (u. liquid) milliliters hectoliters cm 3 ft 3 in gal (u.-liquid) barrels (u.732 x 10 1.-dry) liters 3 yd 3 ft gal (u.s.464 x 10 -1 2.531 x 10 4 6.639 x 10 -4 5.342 x 10 1 5.5316 x 10 2 2.s.s.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Multiply By To Obtain 1 Engineering Handbook in 3 in 3 in 3 in 3 in 3 in 3 in in3 kiloliters kiloliters kiloliters kiloliters liters liters liters liters liters liters liters liters liters liters m 3 m 3 m 3 m 3 m 3 m 3 m quarts quarts quarts quarts quarts quarts quarts (dry) yd 3 yd 3 yd 3 3 3 1.7 x 10 -1 7.5 x 10 -1 9.s.s.-liquid) liters pts (u.308 x 10 -1 2.463 x 10 -2 1.1023 x 10 2 2.-liquid) liters pts (u.113 x 10 3 1.s.

25 x 10 1.602 x 10 1 2.887 x 10 -4 4.536 x 10 1 1.0718 x 10 Page 173 2 3 -2 2 kg lb metric ton .1023 9.527 x 10 -3 2.198 x 10 1 x 10 3 2.732 x 10 -2 1.25 x 10 -1 4.56 x 10 3 7 x 10 2 4.Drive Application Engineering To Convert Multiply By To Obtain Engineering Handbook oz (fluid volume) 1.768 x 10 -1 1.732 x 10 -1 1.337 3.41 x 10 1 2 -2 2 1 qts liters cm 3 ft 3 in 3 m gals liters qts lbs-water ounces (avdp) lbs (force) grains grams lbs grama (mass) drams grains grams kg oz tons ft 3 in gal kg lb short ton 3 3 gm gm oz oz oz poundals lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs lbs of water lbs of water lbs of water tons (metric) tons tons tons (short) tons tons 2.6 x 10 -4 5 x 10 1.0718 x 10 3 2 x 10 -1 9.5059 x 10 4.205 x 10 4.205 x 10 1.375 x 10 1 2.957 x 10 pints (dry) pints pints pints (liquid) pints pints pints pints pints pints Weight gal-water in liters in 3 3 3.536 x 10 -1 4.671 x 10 1 2.8349 x 10 -2 6.36 x 10 -1 5 x 10 -1 5.732 x 10 -1 5 x 10 8.805 -2 oz 2.

914 89.21 2.27 1.98 23.065 708.50 1.56 (Feet) with 2500 3000 27.37 2.36 2.43 2.948 74.64 1.14 1.85 1.85 .07 2.318 49.51 2.31395 0.44 1.08 1.09 2.08 2.65 BAROMETRIC PRESSURE (I.0 789.0 49.37 1.00 1.13 1. Methyl Aviation Gasoline Brine Cement Slurry Crude Oil Diesel Fuel Gasoline Hydraulic Fluid Jet Fuel.789 0.460 10460.31 26.92 .0 740.84 25.11 2.95 2.516 1342.428 Solid Material Engineering Handbook Specific Gravity (g/cc) 2.55 2.14 2.03613 Silver Steel cast Steel rolled Tin Zinc 19.412 542.20 1.20 1.77710 0.02818 Nickel 0.91 2.30 1.694 64.39 1.88 1.91 1.09 .87 .0 Temperature and Altitude Correction Factors Use to “fine tune” the horsepower calculation for Fan and Blowers: (HP) x correction factor = Input HP Air Tem p F° -40 0 40 70 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 ALTITUDE 1500 2000 28.52 1.499 556.63 5.48 8000 22.87 2.35 1.03 3.96 2.360 7.38 2.87 .17 2.52 1.910 7.40 1.42 1.61 1.557 108.22 1.74 2.82 1.86 .61 1.58 1.383 509.25 2.0 780.31 2.92 1.69 1.53 1.10 1.09538 0.75 1.96 2.13 3.05 1.75 2.440 0.92 .24 1.0 840.38 500 29.22 1.04 1.68 1.71 2.0 7360.97 1.60 2.82 .80 2.70 1.03071 Iron Cast 0.95 1.07 3.56 2.38 2.18 2.79 1.0 850.301 62.85 2.63 2.21 1.92 1.0 7.81 1.27 2.27 1.86 2.256 49.15 1.08 1.67 1.200 1.13 2.33 2.65 1.17 1.30 1.25 1.84 1.21 2.56 1.37 1.32 1.738 8.19 3.02 2.21 1.69 2.03 1.64 1.74 1.58 1. JP-4 Sea Water Water Specific Gravity (g/cc) 0.64 2.58 1.38 .88 .81 .050 7850.14 1.26590 0.47 1.57 1.47 1.75 1.33 27.825 652.04 2.28 1.84 1.06279 0.20 1.17 2.500 527.12 1.03 .50 2.47 1.32 1.08 1.70 2.82 .03 2.86 2.85 1.69690 0.77 1.79 1.13 2.37 1.930 7.05202 Gold 0.15 1.88 .13 0 29.50 2.40 2.03 3.94 2.0 7770.850 7.32 2.0 1000.28 1.0 8160.31 1.34 1.58 2.290 19290.640 8.19 2.52 2.25 2.53 2.75 1.10 1.02601 Copper cast 0.064 52.46 1.82 2.47 1.10 1.06 1.13 1.29480 0.29 1.01 2.88 1.16 1.81 1.47 1.0 1200.46 2.Hg.23 2.210 7.0 7210.02858 Bronze 0.04 2.56 2.44 1.37 1.16 1.41 1.22 2.94 1.00 1.17 2.22 1.45 1.0 1.790 0.06 2.60 2.0 10.04 1.49 2.17 2.05 2.70 2.0 11.38 2.0 7050.09 1.06 1.36 1.27 1.93 1.22 2.09 2.Drive Application Engineering Material Properties Liquid Material Acetone Alcohol.04 1.42 1.29 1.34 1.99 1.96 1.23 1.45 1.32 1.46 1.99 1.28 2.32 3.44 2.36 24.35 2.94 3.01 1.62 1.79 .32 2.0 720.06 1.04335 Copper rolled 0.59 1.58 1.12 1.56 2.38 1.470 440.37 1.50 2.70 1.32 1.63 1.02850 Brass 0.36 1.0 791.510 21510.07 1.78 1.28649 0.22 1.43 1.98 2.10 1.80 1.03721 Platinum 0.92 .560 8.233 1204.40 2.78 2.19 2.24 1.25 1.76 1.0 8450.0 7930.67 1.20 1.720 1.439 46.54 1.688 48.32189 0.29 2.) 3500 4000 4500 5000 6000 7000 26.25470 0.61 1.55 1.53 1.26 1.10 2.86 3.33 2.43 1.13 1.0 8690.41 1.235 450.42 1000 28.33 10000 20.51 1.08 1.00 2.27 1.0 8560.810 534.117 (lb/cu in) 0.08 1.02 1.32 25.16 1.29 2.56 1.27 2.840 0.381 44.00 21.11 1.41 2.71 1.72 1.38 2.66 1.04 2.99 2.41 1.49 1.98 2.95 .61 2.22 1.27 1.850 0.0 1738.690 8.896 53.18 1.18 1.27 1.24 1.51 1.03035 Iron wrought 0.28071 0.78 1.45 Page 174 .02 1.37789 0.35 1.56 1.15 2.197 53.96 1.18 1.52 1.95 2.450 (kg/m2) 2640.11 1.63 1.25 1.000 (kg/m2) (lb/cu ft) (lb/cu in) 790.63 2.12 1.96 1.18 1.770 1.23 9000 21.33 1.90 .91 1.94 3.13 2.39 1.12 1.02 1.47 2.72 1.03107 Magnesium 0.780 1.19 1.996 490.39 1.06 2.350 11350.106 485.0 860.02854 Aluminum 0.0 (lb/cu ft) 164.42 1.25 1.09 1.20 1.00 2.48 1.22 1.65 1.82 .81 1.72 1.29 1.14 1.26 1.41 1.18 1.90 23.791 0.33 1.00 1.95 .54 1.93 .18 1.34 1.30528 0.26048 0.0 8910.02673 Lead 0.93 3.35 1.17 1.49 1.44 2.160 8.30925 0. Ethyl Alcohol.860 0.70 2.059 495.16 1.58 1.0 1440.22 1.27 2.41004 0.88 1.43 1.67 1.27 2.92 2.44 2.030 1030.31 1.740 0.31 1.04 3.60 1.84 1.28360 0.23 2.054 459.69 1.11 1.9 .36 1.84 .34 2.

25 0. rain and sleet.1 – 0. Page 175 . undamaged by the formation of ice. undamaged by the formation of ice.05 0. Nema Type 3 – Rain Tight Enclosure is designed for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust.5 mm from accidental touch 4 – Protected against solid objects up to 1 mm from accidental touch 5 – Protected against dust 6 – Totally protected against dust Second Numeral 0 – No protection 1 – Protected against vertically falling drops of water 2 – Protected against direct sprays of water up to 15 degrees from vertical 3 – Protected against sprays up to 60 degrees from vertical 4 – Protected against water sprayed from all directions 5 – Protected against low pressure jets of water from all directions 6 – Protected against strong pressure jets of water from all directions 7 – Protected against the effects of immersion between 15cm and 1cm IP20 – General Purpose Enclosure is designed for indoor use. falling dirt.02 – 0. and dripping non-corrosive liquids. primarily to provide a degree of protection against contact with the enclosed equipment. and hose directed water. Nema Type 12 – Industrial Enclosure is designed for indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against dust. The 2nd characteristic numeral (0) identifies the protection against liquids.Drive Application Engineering Friction Coefficients Ball or Roller Slide Dovetail Slide Hydrostatic Ways Rectangle Ways with Gib Chain Drive Belt Drive Enclosures 0. splashing water. IEC Designations Characteristic letters IP 2 0 The 1st characteristic numeral (2) identifies the protection against solid objects.01 0.Water Tight Enclosure is designed for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust and rain.04 Engineering Handbook Nema Designations Nema Type 1 – General Purpose Enclosure is designed for indoor use.04 – 0.20 0. Nema Type 4 . First Numeral 0 – No protection 1 – Protected against solid objects up to 50 mm from accidental touch 2 – Protected against solid objects up to 12 mm from accidental touch 3 – Protected against solid objects up to 2.02 0. primarily to provide a degree of protection against contact with the enclosed equipment (objects up to 12mm).

Rule of Thumb: Figure heat dissipation of 10 watts per square foot with a 40°F ambient with a 10°F rise inside the enclosure.76 × watts Temp Rise (degrees C) Page 176 .) 70 Temperature Rise Above Ambient (F) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 In p u t P o w e r ( W a t t s /S q u a r e f t ) [ ] Determine the input power in watts per square foot by dividing the heat dissipation in the enclosure (in watts) by the enclosure surface area (in square feet). Multiply the results found in the graph by 1. This equation includes all six surfaces. This is the difference between the air inside the enclosure and the ambient temperature. The heat input to the enclosure. the enclosure surface area and the enclosure material all impact the temperature rise. Don’t include any surface that is covered (the bottom. Enclosure heat input is the sum of all the component watts loss values. Airflow requirements are calculated as follows: CFM = 1. Then use the graph to determine the temperature rise inside the enclosure. If any surface is not available for transferring heat (surface mounted against a wall). Aluminum and stainless steel enclosures have a higher temperature rise due to the poor radiant heat transfer of their metallic finishes.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Heat Dissipation in Electrical Enclosures The accumulation of heat in an electrical enclosure is referred to as temperature rise. etc.5 for these enclosure materials. it should not be included in the calculation. Enclosure surface area in square feet is calculated as follows. The graph below illustrates the temperature rise vs. Area = 2 ( A × B ) + ( A × C ) + ( B × C ) ÷ 144 where the enclosure size is A x B x C. input power of a painted steel enclosure.

00 .71 .71 .91 .82 .76 .96 .00 .08 1.88 .33 1.91 .71 .58 .87 .82 .94 .33 1.75 .76 .91 .88 .41 CORRECTION FACTORS Multiply the ampacities above by the appropriate factor below 1.05 1.41 1.75 .96 .82 .58 .08 1.82 .71 .58 .87 .00 .82 .67 .82 .04 1. Page 177 .58 .58 .05 1.00 .Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Appendix III National Electric Code (NEC) Allowable ampacities of not more than three insulated conductors Rated 0-2000V in raceway or cable or earth Size Temperature rating of conductor AWG 60°C 75°C 90°C 60°C 75°C 90°C Copper Aluminum or Copper-Clad Aluminum 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 20 25 30 40 55 70 85 95 110 125 145 165 195 215 240 260 280 320 355 385 400 410 435 20 25 35 50 65 85 100 115 130 150 175 200 230 255 285 310 335 380 420 460 475 490 520 14 18 25 30 40 55 75 95 110 130 150 170 195 225 260 290 320 350 380 430 475 520 535 555 585 20 25 30 40 55 65 75 85 100 115 130 150 170 190 210 225 260 285 310 320 330 355 20 30 40 50 65 75 90 100 120 135 155 180 205 230 250 270 310 340 375 385 395 425 25 35 45 60 75 85 100 115 135 155 175 205 230 255 280 305 350 385 420 435 450 480 Ambient Temp°C 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-70 71-80 1.04 1.91 .67 .41 The wire sizing is minimum for the ampacities listed.94 .00 .41 1. It may be necessary to increase the wire size for long cable runs.58 .00 .

1 5.8 414 552 2.6 5.4 143.6 16.2 30.2 10.6 Rated Motor Voltage Squirrel Cage Induction Type 200 208 230 460 575 2300 2.5 12.8 9.6 11 14 21 27 34 40 52 65 77 96 124 156 180 240 .8 2.8 9.2 4.1 6.8 11.8 6.2 22 28 42 54 68 80 104 130 154 192 248 312 360 480 1 1.2 59.7 24.7 3.1 8.5 177.2 3.6 149.2 6.4 4.1 78.6 2.8 16 27 1.8 88 114.3 3.2 20 29 38 55 72 89 106 140 173 206 255 341 425 506 675 550 13.6 7.3 32.5 10.Drive Application Engineering Full Load Current for 3-Phase AC Motors Rated HP ½ ¾ 1 1½ 2 3 5 7½ 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 Engineering Handbook 115 4 5.8 343.5 25.7 3.7 7.8 46.6 18 27 34 43 51 67 83 99 123 164 205 246 330 12.2 17 25 40 58 76 2.2 92 119.4 13.3 62.2 48.6 3.9 6.6 15.8 285.8 7.3 10.2 358.0 17.0 169.2 272.0 5.4 211.4 74.6 8.4 1.6 9.2 396 528 2 2.6 12.0 7.8 3.7 6.1 9 11 17 22 27 32 41 52 62 77 99 125 144 192 230 Synchronous Type 460 575 2300 16 20 26 31 37 49 53 63 83 104 123 155 202 253 302 400 26 32 41 52 61 78 101 126 151 201 21 26 33 42 49 62 81 101 121 161 12 15 20 25 30 40 Full Load Current for DC Motors Rated Armature Rated Voltage HP 90 120 180 240 500 ¼ ½ ¾ 1 1½ 2 3 5 7½ 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 4.4 4.1 1.8 4.8 1.1 2.1 220.5 13.0 3.4 7.2 3.4 2.2 16 24 31 38 46 61 75 90 111 148 185 222 294 Page 178 .1 4.0 6.

enclosures. time rating. frame designation.2 Inverter rated motors designed to Nema MG1 para.2 “Voltage Spikes” must be capable of 1. 31.40. Page 179 .4.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Underwriters Laboratory (UL) UL50 – Enclosures for Electrical Equipment UL508 – Industrial Control Equipment UL508A – Industrial Control Panels UL508C – Power Conversion Equipment UL840 – Insulation Coordination UL845 – Motor Control Centers Canadian Standards (CSA) CE Low Voltage Directive LV Standards EN 50178 Electronic equipment for use in power installations EN 60664 Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems EN 60204 IEC 61800-5 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems EMC Directive EMC Standards EN61800-3 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems Part 3: EMC product standard National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Nema standards for motors are acceptable in the United States and in many other countries. Insulation Rating of AC Motors for Inverter Duty Application Nema MG1 para. methods of cooling. and power supply type.40. balance. dimensions. 31. These standards include the following specifications: Ambient conditions.4.1µs risetime.600 Vpk At 0.

41 .5 3.25 6.5 5.25 6.25 5.25 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11.25 6.41 .41 .34 .5 7 8.75 2.5 4.5 11.19 1.5 8.25 4.19 BA 4.88 5.94 .25 4.75 3.5 2.41 .41 .66 .41 .5 3.5 2.75 2.5 12.19 1.5 14.25 5.5 8.75 2.5 4.25 4.5 10 11 H .25 6.19 1.12 3.75 4.75 2.19 1.12 3.5 13.34 .5 2.5 3.41 .34 .34 .41 .41 .5 17 17 17 17 17 17 E 5.5 5.41 .25 6.5 3.75 2.62 6.53 .5 4.34 .5 8.5 2.5 3.88 5.19 1.75 3.75 2.94 1.5 14.53 .06 1.5 3.41 .25 6.41 .75 4.5 7.75 4.25 5.75 3.5 6.34 .25 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5.75 4.53 .12 3.94 .53 .25 6.5 4.5 13.94 .25 5.5 5.75 2.06 1.66 .12 2.06 1.25 5.12 3.5 3.5 5 5.5 12.62 3 3.41 .62 6.81 .94 .66 .25 6.5 6.25 7 7 7 7 E 1.25 4.5 7.53 .5 14 16 9 10.25 13.5 3.41 .12 3.75 2.81 .5 3.66 .62 7.5 12.75 2.53 .5 11.12 3.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 11.19 1.75 3.5 8.12 3.81 .41 .41 .5 11.75 3.75 2.88 5.75 2.88 5.5 2F 12.81 .88 6.25 7 8 9 10 11 12.5 4.5 2.5 11.5 8.75 Frame 287AT 288AT 289AT 323AT 324AT 325AT 326AT 327AT 328AT 329AT 363AT 364AT 365AT 366AT 367AT 368AT 369AT 403AT 404AT 405AT 406AT 407AT 408AT 409AT 443AT 444AT 445AT 446AT 447AT 448AT 449AT 502AT 503AT 504AT 505AT 506AT 507AT 508AT 509AT 583A 584A 585A 586A 587A 588A 683A 684A 685A 686A 687A 688A D 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12.81 .25 5.66 .75 3.75 2.25 6.25 6.62 6.5 6.75 2.5 2.5 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 16 18 20 22 25 28 20 22 25 28 32 36 H .62 6.81 .25 6.5 3.5 14.5 5 5.5 13.75 2.81 .5 14.94 .75 2.75 3.5 11.5 8.5 3.19 1.75 2.53 .28 .5 4.25 4.34 .41 .5 5 5.75 2.25 4.06 1.41 .5 13.75 2.62 6.12 3.75 3.5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4.25 7 8 9 10 4.5 3.5 11.41 .19 1.75 2.5 7.5 6.19 1.06 1.5 4.53 .69 2.5 11.5 7.5 3.75 2.19 1.75 3.Drive Application Engineering Nema Frame Dimensions – DC Motors and Generators Engineering Handbook * Dimensions in inches Frame 42 48 56 56H 142AT 143AT 144AT 145AT 146AT 147AT 148AT 149AT 1410AT 1411AT 1412AT 162AT 163AT 164AT 165AT 166AT 167AT 168AT 169AT 1610AT 182AT 183AT 184AT 185AT 186AT 187AT 188AT 189AT 1810AT 213AT 214AT 215AT 216AT 217AT 218AT 219AT 2110AT 253AT 254AT 255AT 256AT 257AT 258AT 259AT 283AT 284AT 285AT 286AT D 2.5 14.25 5.25 5.75 16 18 20 22 12.75 2.66 .19 1.19 1.5 5.5 11.5 3.5 18 20 22 25 12.75 2.12 3.5 11.75 2.53 .25 4.25 6.5 Page 180 .34 .19 1.41 .25 12.75 2.19 1.06 2.5 13.5 4.41 .25 4.44 2.25 5.25 14 16 18 20 11 12.19 1.41 .5 8.34 .5 2.5 3.75 2.25 5.41 .53 .5 3.53 BA 2.25 4.75 2.06 1.34 .25 5.5 14 8 9.5 14.5 11 12 14 16 18 10 11.34 .5 3.06 1.25 4.75 4.75 2.44 2.19 1.53 .62 6.75 4.75 2.5 3.75 3 5 3.5 5.75 5.41 .5 13.34 .41 .75 2.25 7 8 9 10 11 4 4.5 2.75 2.88 5.19 1.75 2.25 5.25 9 10 11 12.5 4.25 5.34 .25 4.5 8.25 4.5 12.75 2.5 7.5 2.66 .19 1.5 2.25 5.5 5.25 7 8 9 10 11 5.25 6.34 .5 6.53 .5 3.88 5.5 4 4.53 .5 7.19 1.5 12.41 .5 15 16.5 2F 1.25 4.94 .5 12.75 3.5 11.5 12.25 4.

875 1.416 1.37 3.66 .375 .88 3.125 1.66 .41 1.5 3.875 1.986 1.25 5.25 12.25 2.416 1.25 5.34 .25 1.75 2.25 11.125 1.62 5.88 5.75 3.75 5.5 3.25 12.5 5.53 2.41 .375 1.416 1.312 .5 4.25 2.34 .875 2.625 1.986 1.75 4.25 H .62 3.25 4.75 3.5 .88 4.75 3.75 3.643 .91 2.75 4.5 4.28 2.88 5.5 3.34 .845 1.41 .25 5.5 5.75 .66 .38 3 3.03 4.771 .25 12.625 2.5 .591 1.91 3.03 S flat .5 5.643 .857 .5 11 11 11 10.38 3 6.25 5.25 2.188 .41 .88 3.375 1.875 1.625 2.66 .5 5.87 5.5 2.25 5.66 .5 .5 .75 2.91 2.125 1.53 .375 .25 2.625 2.75 3.25 .416 1.41 1.5 .53 .25 4.25 6.25 6.62 3.591 2.75 2.625 1.5 5.625 1.78 1.25 6.5 7 7 6.25 6.25 4.25 12.75 2.25 6.5 5.88 5.78 4.986 .25 3.25 .25 10 10 9.75 5.375 1.25 5.625 1.5 5.5 3.845 1.78 1.5 .25 2 2.75 4 4 4.41 .12 3.591 2.5 6.5 5.5 3.25 6.66 .75 2.312 .41 1.34 .28 1.125 1.25 4.03 4.25 2.25 6.25 4.53 .625 .53 .25 2.41 2.5 4.25 4.34 .41 1.38 3 5 3.75 1.12 2.986 1.28 2.188 .5 5.53 .66 .37 3.5 3.53 .5 4.75 .5 10.25 6.5 .375 .78 3.44 2.416 .5 5.5 10.88 5.03 4.25 12.12 3.75 2 2 2.75 4.38 3 6.875 .375 .38 3 4.5 .591 1.75 4.75 2 1.25 5.625 1.875 .5 5 5 5.25 6.845 1.771 .66 .12 3.591 1.375 .88 5.25 12.66 .41 .416 1.25 6.591 1.5 3.66 .91 2.91 5.5 3.5 .66 .771 .66 .5 3.5 9.5 5.62 3.416 1.25 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2F 2.91 3.75 3.25 4.875 1.88 4.591 ESmin 1.28 1.5 3.91 3.5 .66 .41 .188 .62 3.03 2.25 3.375 1.875 1.88 5.591 1.5 8.188 .75 4.62 3.03 2.5 9.5 5.5 .5 4.625 1.845 1.78 2.375 .375 .41 1.03 2.88 5.53 .125 .5 4.75 7.53 .201 .75 3 4 4 5 5 4.25 .53 .75 4.87 5.25 .41 2.5 3.66 .5 12 12 12 12 12 11.416 1.88 5.591 1.75 5.25 2.986 1.25 2.021 1.375 .416 1.25 .375 .625 1.78 2.25 3.25 4.25 6.625 2.375 .41 .75 5.75 3.28 1.986 .25 5.5 10.625 .62 3.875 1.312 .03 4.66 U .12 2.75 2.66 .62 3.5 2 2.28 1.25 .517 .25 6.25 11.66 .5 .62 4.75 4.53 1.25 11.91 2.25 .75 3.62 3.41 1.416 1.5 5.38 3 4.875 1.453 .25 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 E 2.188 .5 5.25 4.25 5.41 .03 2.12 2.5 4.375 .03 2.25 5.12 3.375 .591 1.75 3.25 5.34 .625 .5 2 2 2.25 6.75 4 3.188 .03 3.416 1.75 4 3.5 Page 181 .25 4.25 5.75 3.5 6.03 3.75 Vmin 1.312 .03 2.91 5.25 5.41 .75 2.125 1.125 1.188 .12 3.416 1.5 3.5 1.5 5.5 4.625 1.875 1.5 .188 .5 .53 .25 5.88 N-W 1.875 1.5 10.41 .643 .91 3.188 .66 .5 R .37 3.5 5 5 5 5 5 5.25 8.201 .28 1.201 1.201 1.591 1.875 1.875 2.78 4.88 5.88 5.41 1.25 11.25 6.25 .591 1.41 .38 3 3 3.01 1.75 .5 .75 2.5 4.75 2.25 11.88 5.78 3.62 5.857 .25 6.875 1.03 2.875 BA 2.25 8.Drive Application Engineering Nema Frame Dimensions – AC Motors and Generators Engineering Handbook *Dimensions in inches Frame 48 56 143 143T 145 145T 182 182T 184 184T 203 204 213 213T 215 215T 224 225 254 254U 254T 256U 256T 284 284U 284T 284TS 286U 286T 286TS 324 324U 324S 324T 324TS 326 326U 326S 326T 326TS 364 364S 364U 364US 364T 364TS 365 365S 365U 365US 365T 365TS D 3 3.5 5.75 2.66 .643 .75 5.125 1.5 9.25 5.66 .53 .125 .62 4.375 1.375 1 1 1.66 .53 .88 2 2.66 .5 6.38 3 5 3.5 .25 5.75 4.41 .25 4.28 1.771 .

94 .03 2.845 2.75 .5 7.25 7.75 .78 5.5 8.5 6.5 4.5 4.53 2.5 14.021 2.81 .81 .25 Vmin 6.375 2.81 .62 6.53 2.88 2.62 6.62 7.78 5.78 7.5 7.5 E 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 2F 12.12 4.5 7.021 1.25 4.021 2.81 .25 12.875 .591 2.5 .88 2.5 4.88 4 8.75 13.5 .875 2.5 16.94 .45 1.62 6.875 2.75 13.5 Page 182 .81 .5 14.81 .88 2.75 7.875 2.03 7.25 7.75 13.81 .62 4.65 2.25 4.375 3.5 4.875 2.03 5.845 2.75 7.38 4 8.91 3.125 2.75 14.875 2.5 8.91 3.125 3.625 .75 8.62 8.25 7.37 3.5 16.53 2.03 5.845 ESmin 5.375 2.5 .5 7.625 .25 4.25 12.53 2.81 .81 .81 .5 .5 7.5 N-W 6.94 U 2.81 .845 2.75 .021 1.03 2.5 12.5 8.81 .625 .62 6.65 2.03 6.45 1.12 4.5 16.03 2.5 .25 4.28 7.5 16.62 4.75 .25 8.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Nema Frame Dimensions – AC Motors and Generators Continued * Dimensions in inches Frame 404 404S 404U 404US 404T 404TS 405 405S 405U 405US 405T 405TS 444 444S 444U 444US 444T 444TS 445 445S 445U 445US 445T 445TS 447T 447TS 449T 449TS 504U 505 505S D 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12.75 7.375 2.5 6.375 2.125 2.5 7.38 8.5 7.25 4.62 6.875 .25 12.5 .5 8.37 3.62 6.78 6.125 2.03 6.81 .125 2.81 .81 .5 .88 4 7 4 6.25 12.78 5.12 3.5 16.78 S .28 2.021 2.845 2.5 .91 3.125 2.81 .591 2.625 .81 .625 .81 .5 7.375 2.45 1.845 1.78 5.375 2.81 .81 .62 6.125 1.62 4.625 .88 2.12 4.845 2.845 1.12 3.845 1.875 BA 6.875 2.62 6.625 .375 2.5 7.75 .25 8.5 8.5 8.845 2.81 .5 14.75 8.375 2.875 2.125 2.45 1.78 7.75 13.021 2.03 5.5 .5 6.25 13.03 2.25 4.021 1.62 6.5 20 20 25 25 16 18 18 H .88 4 8.845 2.25 8.38 4 R 1.5 7.5 7.45 1.5 7.81 .78 6.38 4 8.5 16.81 .875 2.81 .5 .5 .62 6.81 .625 .45 2.5 12.81 .12 4.81 .5 7.62 6.5 14.91 3.5 .5 7.375 2.125 1.25 8.125 3.5 14.875 .75 8.25 12.375 2.021 1.375 3.5 7.875 .25 6.75 13.75 .88 4 7 4 6.81 .

8 7 7 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 14.5 18.5 18. IEC standards for motors include specifications for the same items as the Nema standards.5 14.5 14.5 14. Page 183 . motor dimensions.5 24 24 24 24 28 28 28 28 28 35 35 35 * Dimensions in millimeters BA U N-W 36 40 45 50 56 56 63 63 70 70 89 89 108 108 108 121 121 121 133 133 133 149 149 168 168 190 190 216 216 254 254 254 280 280 280 9 11 14 19 24 24 28 28 38 38 20 23 30 40 50 50 60 60 80 80 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) These standards may be specified in countries other than the United States.5 14. and ratings.5 14.Drive Application Engineering IEC Frame Dimensions – Three-Phase Motors Engineering Handbook Frame 56M 63M 71M 80M 90S 90L 100S 100L 112S 112M 132S 132M 160S 160M 160L 180S 180M 180L 200S 200M 200L 225S 225M 250S 250M 280S 280M 315S 315M 355S 355M 355L 400S 400M 400L D 56 63 71 80 90 90 100 100 112 112 132 132 160 160 160 180 180 180 200 200 200 225 225 250 250 280 280 315 315 355 355 355 400 400 400 2E 90 100 112 125 140 140 160 160 190 190 216 216 254 254 254 279 279 279 318 318 318 356 356 406 406 457 457 508 508 610 610 610 686 686 686 2F 71 80 90 100 100 125 112 140 114 140 140 178 178 210 254 203 241 279 228 267 305 286 311 311 349 368 419 406 457 500 560 630 560 630 710 H 5. but differ mainly in frame designation.5 18.5 18.5 18.

0 2.5 1. IL = maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC Table 10.0 50<100 5.0 2.0 1.5 1.3 5. Engineering Handbook Table 10. Current distortions that result in a dc offset.0 50<100 10. where: Isc = maximum short-circuit current at PCC.75 0.7 12.4 Current Distortion Limits for General Sub-transmission Systems (69.000 V) Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in Percent of IL Individual Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonics) Isc/IL <11 35<h TDD 11≤h<17 17≤h<23 23≤h<35 <20* 2.Drive Application Engineering IEEE-519 See tables below also refer to Harmonics in Section 4.5 0.4 20.6 0.0 6.5 3.0 1.0 2. IL = maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC Page 184 .0 2.75 2. half-wave converters.0 1.25 4.75 1.g.0 3. *All power generation equipment is limited to these values of current distortion. regardless of actual Isc/IL.75 0.5 3.5 4. e.25 0.0 0. Current distortions that result in a dc offset.5 0. where: Isc = maximum short-circuit current at PCC.0 2. *All power generation equipment is limited to these values of current distortion.0 20<50 7.5 1.0 >1000 15.3 0.35 6.. are not allowed.5 2.5 20<50 3.5 >1000 7.0 100<1000 6.0 7.3 Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems (120 Through 69.25 0.0 100<1000 12.0 1.0 5.5 0.0 Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd harmonic limits above.5 1.000 V) Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in Percent of IL Individual Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonics) Isc/IL 35<h TDD <11 17≤h<23 23≤h<35 11≤h<17 <20* 4.25 2.0 1.g.5 5.0 4.5 7.0 0. regardless of actual Isc/IL.0 Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd harmonic limits above.7 10. e.5 8. half-wave converters.2 Harmonic Voltage Limits for Low Voltage Systems Application Maximum VTHD Special: Hospitals & Airports 3% General 5% Dedicated to drive 10% Table 10.001 Through 161.0 0.0 0.0 15. are not allowed..15 2.

Solid Cylinder The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). If the system includes several shapes. length l.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Appendix IV Moment of Inertia for a given Body Type Select the appropriate body type shown below and the desired axis of rotation to calculate the moment of inertia for the driven system. of a solid cylinder of mass m. J. J. as shown above right). is 3r 2 + l 2 J =m 12 J= m×l2 3 kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the end-axis. calculate each one of them individually then add them together. radius r. J. radius r. is J= 1 2 mr 2 Or kg m 2 kg m 2 π 32 ρ lr 4 3 Where p is density in (Nm ) The moment of inertia (for rotation about the y-axis). of a solid cylinder of mass m. of a solid cylinder of mass m. is kg m 2 Page 185 . Refer to the “gearing” section to ensure that the inertia reflected to the motor shaft is calculated properly.

is r + ri + l 2 / 3 J =m a 4 Right Circular Cone kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis).Drive Application Engineering Hollow Cylinder Engineering Handbook The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). J. is r + ri J =m a 2 2 2 kg m 2 2 2 π 32 ρ l ra − ri 2 2 2 ( ) Or kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the y-axis). of a hollow cylinder of mass m. J. radius r. radius r. J. radius r. is 3r 2 J =m 10 Page 186 kg m 2 . of a circular cone of mass m. of a hollow cylinder of mass m.

radius r. J. radius r. of a cube of mass m. radius r. is J =m kg m 2 Page 187 . J. is J =m b2 + c2 12 a2 + c2 12 kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the y-axis). of a cube of mass m.Drive Application Engineering Frustum of Right Circular Cone Engineering Handbook The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). of a frustum of cone of mass m. J. is J =m Cube 3(R 5 − r 5 ) 10(R 3 − r 3 ) kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis).

is J =m 2r 2 5 kg m 2 Rotating Object at end of Rod The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). at a length l. radius r. of a sphere of mass m.Drive Application Engineering Pyramid Engineering Handbook The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). J. J. of a pyramid of mass m. radius r. radius r. J. is Page 188 . is J =m Sphere and Hemisphere a2 + b2 20 kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). of a rotating object of mass m.

and the rim of a hollow cylinder (rim). is ⎛ 2 3 2⎞ J = m⎜ R + r ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ kg m 2 Flywheel with a web This should be addressed as the sum of the moments of inertia of a solid cylinder (hub). Calculating the mass for the moment of inertia. of a torus of mass m. Solid Cylinder m = 2π i 2 l Hollow Cylinder ρ g kg 2 m = 2π ra − ri l 2 ( ) ρ g 2 kg Webbed Cylinder m = 2π ra − ri l e + ri li 2 2 2 [( ) ( )] ρ g kg Flywheel GD equivalent – G mass (kg). J.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook ⎛ r2 ⎞ J = m⎜ + l 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Torus kg m 2 The moment of inertia (for rotation about the x-axis). J= GD 2 4 Page 189 kg m 2 . D diameter (m). a hollow cylinder (web). radius r.

12030 0.4 1518.00308 0.9 598.43 45.745 12.4 1893.87 63.000192 0.2 288.2 4621.5 2494. (Inches) 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 WK2 lb ft2 20031 20836 21665 22519 23397 24302 25232 26188 27173 28183 29222 30289 31385 32511 33667 34853 36071 37320 38601 39914 41262 42643 44059 45510 46995 48517 50076 51672 53305 54978 56689 58440 60231 62063 63936 65852 67811 69812 71858 73948 76083 78265 80493 82768 85091 87463 89884 92355 94876 97449 2 Engineering Handbook WK2 lb ft2 100075 102750 105482 108268 111107 114002 116954 119962 123028 126152 129336 132579 135883 139249 142676 146166 149720 153339 157022 160772 164588 168472 172424 176446 180537 184699 188933 193239 197618 202071 206599 211203 215883 220640 225476 230391 235386 240461 245619 250858 256182 261589 267081 272660 278325 284078 289920 295852 301874 307988 Dia.2494 0.049278 0.497 7.01559 0.889 lb per cubic foot.86 75.924 2.96 102.5 3436.7 2665. WK2 = PI/32 * (487.3 445.8 228.79 37.Drive Application Engineering WK of Solid Steel Cylinders One Inch Long Dia.8 323.395 9.3 861.7 4363.14 155.5 3879.07 20.3 3229.7 4891.8 939. (Inches) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 WK2 lb ft2 0.2 360.1 3652.7 1761.889 sp gravity) * (1/12' length) * [ (d/12’)4] = Inertia in lb-ft2 Moving the decimal point one place in diameter shifts the decimal point four places in the same direction in WK2.7 401.3 2332.8 1109. (Inches) 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 WK2 lb ft2 1302.61 16. Based on the specific gravity of steel at 487.0 4115.08 30.2 1407.262 1.5 5172 5466 5772 6090 6422 6767 7125 7498 7885 8286 8703 9135 9584 10048 10529 11028 11544 12077 12629 13200 13790 14399 15029 15679 16349 17041 17755 18490 19249 Dia.9 2178.6 1203.77 201.21 25.1 2031. (Inches) 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 WK2 is given in lb-ft2. multiply WK2 from the table by actual cylinder length in inches.1 721.2 257.92 177. For materials other than steel.78814 1.8 658.2 2844.31 136.4 789.8 1636. multiply WK2 from the table by the specific gravity in (lb per cu ft of material / 487.3 3032.30 118.07 Dia.3 492.78 543.46217 0.818 3.3 1021.09 53. For cylinders longer or shorter than 1 inch.889). Page 190 .19 87.991 5.

79249 7.47954 Dia.81523207 sp gravity) * (1cm.94973 2.6798 110.8228 95.00018422 0.83048 11.06214795 0.87544 15.05426674 0.00000621 0.1836 86.4845 26.05720 10. (cm) 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 J kgm2 7.84001 2.86827 0. Moving the decimal point one place in diameter shifts the decimal point four places in the same direction in J.3069 77.1116 104.19641821 0.64050 1.7614 J is given in kgm2.1194 62.02147104 0.73915 1.9907 33.8265 28.06233 1.1544 44.0076 24.1515 68.99036 6.1396 18.0443 43. For cylinders longer or shorter than 1 centimeter.17888 2.0286 27.89229 14.60540 0.6771 61.3245 122. (cm) 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 J kgm2 39.04716001 0.03506188 0.00219137 0.6166 47.70209 0.07695 7.1617 55.55974 2.12886998 0.80992 0.11513675 0.8447 54.99437 1.9973 17.14269 3.81395 5.8425 Engineering Handbook Dia.9380 113.02997104 0.19697 4.20866 1.67259 Dia.5598 117.40729 0.815).3486 84.00805437 0.21681 0.9167 34.6034 67.4469 16.00050340 0.9137 22.5959 21.2312 115.00999899 0.8693 58.30505 8.0000001Kgm2/gcm2) = Inertia in kgm2.0232 78.37026 7.60121 4.51907 0.5958 23.9559 42.31462 0.30075 2.03398 5.9241 120.8621 35.00388425 0.00514 4.2862 45.28725 1.9605 73.98412 8.13373 1.65240 0.56099 0.4402 46.6418 29.01227614 0.92971 0.00159099 0.63556 8.8887 40.00001964 0.5031 56.8170 38.26231 0.75456 0.00031427 0.2670 106.8271 36.73949 5.23875 0.15998386 0.8157 49.8458 97.41940 13.8119 37.34354 0.2936 24.32608 9.4562 108.5520 52.50995 12.54611 1.98848 3. For materials other than steel.3262 31. J =PI/32 * (7.45585 1.14379662 0.64753 12.4750 30.5615 18.84219 1.44231 0. length) * ( dia)4 * (0.81523207 grams per cubic centimeter.24937 6.2605 59.30280 3.37440 0.90987 16.38614 15.7268 70.10253153 0.64128 3. (cm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 J kgm2 0.43847 10.7687 80.7319 19.0377 50.09099081 0.2831 51. Page 191 .00004795 0.95869 13. multiply J from the table by the specific gravity in (grams per cubic centimeter / 7.9598 20.5876 64.17750075 0.9899 102.37756 14.6194 75.9014 99.68646 10.00076726 0.0838 32.00502831 0.8729 91. (cm) 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 J kgm2 0.26147 5.49659 5.5437 82. multiply J from the table by the actual cylinder length in cm.2471 21.00000008 0.00009944 0.97584 9.36960 1.23343 11. Based on the specific gravity of steel at 7.28758 0.06192 2.1957 32.0491 87.46894 3.Drive Application Engineering J of Solid Steel Cylinders One centimeter Long Dia.81996 4.8319 93.01492172 0.3297 71.0822 65.51668 6.2481 27.00294750 0.01797349 0.00000123 0.69715 2.07296 12.39561 4.00112334 0.00640822 0.42765 2.08045290 0.02545580 0.04077527 0.7378 25.3386 19.9454 89.07085794 0.

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Greek Letters Name Alpha Beta Chi Delta Epsilon Eta Gamma Iota Kappa Lambda Mu Nu Omega Omicron Phi Pi Psi Rho Sigma Tau Theta Upsilon Xi zeta Metric Prefixes Uppercase Α Β Χ ∆ Ε Η Γ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ω Ο Φ Π Ψ Ρ Σ Τ Θ Υ Ξ Ζ Lowercase α β χ δ ε η γ ι κ λ µ ν ω ο φ π ψ ρ σ τ θ υ ξ ζ Prefix Yotta Zetta Exa Peta Tera Giga Mega Kilo Hecto Deca Value 1024 1021 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 101 Prefix Deci Centi Milli Micro Nano Pico Femto Atto Zepto yocto Page 192 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-24 Value .

Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Section – 7 Glossary Page 193 .

Drive Application Engineering This page intentionally left blank Engineering Handbook Page 194 .

inverter. (NEMA has dimension tables which offer standard frame measurements. The desired operating speed (set speed) is relatively constant regardless of load. either manually or automatically. A flow of electricity that continually changes in amplitude and periodically changes in direction. AC current changes its direction of flow (cycles). No load to full load step change 2.. An alternating current (AC) contactor is designed for the specific purpose of establishing or interrupting an AC power circuit. Connected inertia = 1 x motor inertia 3. The space between the rotating (rotor) and stationary (stator) members in an electric motor. “P” base “T” frame “U” frame A Absolute position AC (alternating current) A position referenced to a fixed zero position. and direction of an AC motor with a rectifier. The adjustable-speed drive is comprised of the motor. By implication. 1. A circuit on an I/O module that converts AC signals from a machine/process switching device to backplane logic level DC signals. it usually has a discrete relationship with the data table (i. Current NEMA designation identifying AC induction motor frames. A data table bit reflects its state). A previously used NEMA designation indicating frame size and dimension (prior to 1965 the standard frame sizes per horsepower rating). AC contactor AC drive AC input circuit AC motor Acceleration torque Adaptive control Address Adjustable speed Adjustable-speed drive (electrical) Air gap Page 195 . The commonly available electric power supplied by an AC generator and is distributed in single. The concept of varying the speed of a motor. It is primarily used for mounting the motor to gear boxes or bulkheads.or three-phase forms. torque. and inverter control. A special mounting similar to “D” flange except with a machined fit tenon recessed instead of protruding. horsepower.) Replaced the previous standard “U” frame in 1965. By definition. They are available in frame sizes 143t through 445t. Total inertia = 2x motor inertia A technique to allow control to automatically compensate for changes in system parameters such as load variations. drive controller. it is always a digital circuit (on/off). and operator’s controls (either manual or automatic). A general term used to describe an electronic device that converts a fixed frequency and voltage to an adjustable frequency and AC voltage.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook Glossary “D” flange A special end shield with untapped holes for through bolts in the flange. measured from 5%-100% of full load speed. Assumptions: 1. It controls the speed. % of motor rated torque that can be produced. A character string that uniquely identifies the physical location of an input or output circuit. 2. There are two general types: induction and synchronous. A character string that uniquely identifies a memory location. Usually found on pumps. A motor operating on AC current that flows in either direction (AC current).e.

or the movable iron part of a relay. Abbreviated term for armature voltage control of a DC motor. A collection of wire coils in a DC motor that are free to rotate about the center line axis within the magnetic field created by the field poles. and for short periods of time. continuous current is stamped on the motor nameplate. and short periods of time. DC motors require special brushes for operation at high altitudes. The moving part of a magnetic circuit. A standard system used for designating the size of electrical conductors. higher grades of insulation or motor derating are required. larger numbers have a smaller crosssectional area. which comes into contact with the heated parts of the motor. Armature-voltage feedback is used where the expense of a tachometer-generator for velocity feedback is not justified and a regulation accuracy of 2-5% is adequate. The atmospheric altitude (height above sea level) at which the motor will be operating. the air’s ability to cool the motor decreases. Highly magnetic material (usually iron) upon which the armature coil is wound to assist in creating a magnetic field in a DC motor. it as the torque demand rises and falls.000 meters (3. A coil of insulated wire within a DC motor that provides electromagnetic properties when rotated. The temperature of the surrounding cooling medium. Armature voltage can be used as the velocity feedback signal to an electronic speed regulator. This voltage is approximately directly proportional to motor velocity. assuming a constant motor field and ignoring IR drop. Ambient temperature American wire gauge (AWG) Analog-to-digital con-version Anode ANSI Armature Armature coil Armature control Armature core Armature current Armature-voltage feedback Page 196 . Gauge numbers have an inverse relation-ship to size. Armature current is proportional to the amount of torque being rises and falls produced. The temperature of the medium (air. The terminal of an electronic device through which electrons exit onto the line.300 feet) and the air density decreases.000 meters (3. American national standards institute. Production of a digital value whose magnitude is proportional to the instantaneous magnitude of an analog signal. For higher altitudes. The standard NEMA rating for ambient temperature is not to exceed 40 degrees C. As the altitude increases above 1.300 feet). This can only be exceeded for initial for acceleration. NEMA standards call for an altitude not exceeding 1. such as the rotating part of a motor or generator.Drive Application Engineering Algorithm Altitude Engineering Handbook A set of procedures used for solving a problem in a finite number of steps. The maximum safe. water. However. Armature current is proportional to the amount of torque being produced. The current required by a DC motor to produce torque and drive a load. The cooling medium is usually the air surrounding the motor. earth) into which the heat of the equipment is dissipated. which describes the usual method of changing the speed of a DC motor by controlling the magnitude of applied armature voltage. Armature current is the current required by a motor to produce torque and to drive a load. An organization that develops and publishes voluntary industry standards in the united states. It should only be exceeded for initial motor acceleration. such as gas or liquid. a single-strand conductor has a larger cross-sectional area than a multi-strand conductor of the same gauge so that they have the same currentcarrying specification.

The minimum radius to which a cable can be bent without damage.E. This is sometimes called the drive end (D. The speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) which a DC motor develops at rated armature and field voltage with rated load applied. Dynamic braking (DC drives) . It is a 7-bit code with an optional parity bit used to represent alphanumerics.) etc.Drive Application Engineering ASCII Engineering Handbook American standards code for information interchange.a method which produces electromagnetic braking forces in the motor by dissipating generated power from armature/shunt field reaction into a Page 197 Base speed. accomplished in several ways: DC-injection braking (AC drives) . B Back end of a motor Bandwidth Base frequency Base speed The back end of a normal motor is the end that carries the coupling or driving pulley (NEMA). The manufacturer's nameplate rating where the motor will develop rated power at rated load and voltage. An external device or accessory that brings a running motor to a standstill and/or holds a load. A load resistor that is used to absorb the energy produced by an overhauling mechanical load. With DC drives.a method which produces electromagnetic braking forces in the motor by removing two AC motor (stator) phases and injecting DC current. l10 (b10). Can be added to a motor or incorporated as part of it. The manufacturer’s nameplate rated frequency. punctuation marks.E.a method which produces electromagnetic braking forces in the motor by Dissipating generated power into the DC bus through a resistive load. rpm Baud Bearing life Bearing RTD Bending radius Boost Brake Resistor Brakes Braking Braking (cont'd 1) . is the life in hours or revolutions in which 50% of the bearings selected will obtain or exceed. it is commonly the point where full armature voltage is applied with full-rated field excitation. the number of baud is the same as the number of bits. With AC systems. Where one bit is en-coded on each signaling event. The result is a linear braking characteristic that (ramp) does not diminish with motor speed. The bandwidth is expressed in hertz between the highest and lowest frequencies. A voltage adjustment made to an AC motor to produce enough torque to start an application. l50 (b50). and control-code characters. The range of frequencies over which a system is designed to operate. Median life (average life). it is the motor shaft speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) with the rated field current and commonly the point where full armature voltage is applied with full-rated current. Refer to Dynamic Braking. The result is a linear braking characteristic (ramp) that does not diminish with motor speed. The RTD’s resistance varies with the temperature of the bearings. A probe used to measure bearing temperature to detect an overheating condition. Application is normally limited to 10-20% of rated motor speed due to increased heating in the rotor. Dynamic braking (AC drives) .). equal to the number of discrete conditions or signal events per second. Rating life. A method of stopping or reducing the time required to stop an AC or DC motor. Braking force remains constant and is only limited by the thermal capacity of the resistors. is the life in hours or revolutions in which 90% of the bearings selected will obtain or exceed. it is commonly the point where 60Hz is applied to the induction motor. pulley end (P. See dibit. A unit of signaling speed. With DC motors.

It is always greater than the torque needed to maintain motion. No load to full load step change 2. this type can be reversed at rest. A carbon-based conductor in a DC motor that provides contact between the power supply and the commutator allowing current to flow through to the commutator. when connected in an alternating-current circuit. Regenerative braking . and thermal capacity of the resistors. The addition of the capacitor provides better phase relation and results in greater starting torque with much less power input. in which there are different values of capacitance for starting and running. and an auxiliary winding connected in series with a capacitor. The term is also used to describe the torque developed by a motor during dynamic braking conditions. A single-phase induction motor with a main winding arranged for direct connection to the power source. An SCR bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier with a DC output that can be controlled by switching on the gate control element. the brake is set. SCR) Brush C Capacitor A device which.” Pairs of brushes are equally spaced around the circumference of the commutator. When properly equipped for reversing while running. DC voltage.a positive-action mechanical friction device. serving to maintain an electrical connection between stationary and moving parts of a machine (commutator of a DC motor). Connected inertia = 1 x motor inertia 3. A non-controlled. the motor is much more suitable for this service than the split phase start since it provides greater reversing ability at less Page 198 Capacitor motor Capacitor start . rectified. except that it has a capacitor in series with the starting winding. Braking force is deter-mined by the field strength.a method which produces electromagnetic braking forces in the motor by electronically controlling the return of generated power to the AC supply. There are three types of capacitor motors: capacitor start. A piece of current conducting material (usually carbon or graphite) which rides directly on the commutator of a com-mutated motor and conducts current from the power supply to the armature windings.) The torque required to bring a motor down to a standstill. Assumptions: 1. A conductor. causes the current to lead the voltage in time phase. This brush is mounted in a spring-loaded holder and positioned tangent to the commutator segments against which it “brushes. permanent-split capacitor. armature voltage. The torque required to start a machine from standstill. The result is a logarithmic braking Braking (cont'd 2) Characteristic (curve) that diminishes with motor speed. The capacitor start single-phase motor is basically the same as the split phase start. The peak of the current wave is reached ahead of the peak of the voltage wave. Motormounted or separately mounted holding brake . The result is a controllable linear braking characteristic (ramp) that does not diminish with motor speed. % of motor rated torque that can be produced. Braking torque Breakaway torque Breakdown torque Bridge rectifier (diode. two-value capacitor motor. or in three-phase motors for power factor correction. As in the case of the split phase motor. full-wave rectifier that produces a constant. is located on some part of the mechanical drive train other than the motor. but not while running unless special starting and reversing switches are used. This can be used as a holding brake. measured from 0-5% of full load speed. which has the same capacitor and capacitor phase in the circuit for both starting and running. This is the result of the successive storage and discharge of electric energy used in single-phase motors to start. in which the capacitor phase is in the circuit only during starting. Total inertia = 2x motor inertia The maximum torque a motor will develop at rated voltage without a relatively abrupt drop or loss in speed. (Note: a separately mounted brake is not one which. Normal configuration is such that when the power is removed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook resistive load. An electronic device with the ability to store and electric charge. usually composed of some element of carbon.

It refers to rotation occurring in jerks or increments rather than smooth motion. The minimum voltage amount that begins the process of ionization (corona) of motor windings.atmospheres containing ethyl or ether vapors. starch. to keep stable the relationships between the two. it tends to speed up and slow down when leaving it. magnesium. available with or without feet. Cartesian coordinate system Engineering Handbook A coordinate system in two or three dimensions made by using two or three axes (x and y. This type of motor mounting is used to close-couple pumps and similar applications where the mounting holes in the face are threaded to receive bolts from the pump. The electrical conductors wound into the core slot. Group f. This effect becomes apparent at low speeds. However. Cogging is most pronounced at low speeds and can cause objectionable vibrations in the driven machine. natural gas. etc. Counter electromotive force. A condition in which a motor does not rotate smoothly. char-coal. Group e atmospheres containing metal dust. enabling any point to be identified by the distance from the origin along an axis. coal or coke dust. A control system involving one or more feedback control loops. Under stable motoring conditions. The terminal of an electronic device through which electrons enter from the line. grain or combustible plastics or chemical dusts.atmospheres containing carbon black. A term used to describe non-uniform angular velocity. A CE mark is required for products used in most European countries. and z. the product of a motor armature rotating in a magnetic field. acetone. When an armature coil enters the magnetic field produced by the field coils. respectively) that intersect each other at right angles at an origin. A path in which output feedback is compared with desired values to regulate drive system operation. or x.atmospheres containing gasoline. 1. propane. This designation shows that a product such as a motor or control meets European standards for safety and environ-mental protection. the polarity of the CEMF is opposite to that of the power being supplied to the armature. This generating action takes place whenever a motor is rotating. This type of mounting is a NEMA standard design. butane. including aluminum.atmospheres containing flour. which carry independent current. the generated voltage (CEMF) is equal to the voltage supplied to the motor minus small losses. the more noticeable it can be. It is these coils that carry and produce the magnetic field when the current Page 199 Cathode CE CEMF Central processing unit (CPU) C-face (motor mounting) CIV (corona inception voltage) Class I Class II Closed loop Closed-loop system Cogging Coil (stator or armature) . The portion of a computer or programmable controller that controls the interpretation and execution of the user pro-gram stored in memory. lacquer solvent vapors. Group d . y. The fewer the number of coils. or their commercial alloys. C-face is used where a pump or similar item is to be over-hung on the motor. The PLC or SLC™ processor. Those in which flammable gasses or vapors are or may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to product explosive or ignitable mixtures. Group g . 2. electrically insulated from the iron core. Normally. but “steps” or “jerks” from one position to another during shaft revolution. Those which are hazardous because of the presence of combustible dust. Group c . benzol.Drive Application Engineering watts input. benzene. hexane. which combine functions of controlled signals and commands. alcohol. These coils are connected into circuits or windings.

Adjustable frequency drive). the compound motor is used where the primary load requirement is heavy starting torque and variable speed is not required. Reversing the current in an armature coil when the coil (ends) moves from one side of the brush to the other side of the same brush. 2. The condition where the commutator segments of a DC motor pass each brush so quickly that current cannot switch polarity in the time allotted. A designation for variable speed motors used for loads requiring the same amount of horsepower regardless of their motor speed during a normal operation. It consists of segments of “bars” that are electrically connected to two ends of one (or more) armature coils. Commutation limit Commutator Commutator bars Compound wound Constant HP (horsepower) Constant or variable torque Constant-horsepower range Constant-torque range Continuous duty Converter Page 200 . A speed range in which the motor is capable of delivering a constant torque subject to cooling limitations of the motor. through the armature coils. The arrangement of commutator segments is such that the magnetic polarity of each coil changes as the armature rotates.DC bus terminals Unwanted electrical signals between grounding conductors and signal conductors or line conductors. This is accomplished through use of a diode rectifier or thyristor rectifier circuit.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook passes through them. A device for changing AC to DC. 1. round wire found in smaller and medium motors where coils are randomly laid in slot of stator core. parallel metal bars or segments that provide contact between the armature of a DC motor and one or more brushes. the value of horsepower developed by the motor in this range is constant. The motor brushes ride on the periphery of the commutator and electrically connect and switch the armature coils to the power source. A range of motor operation where motor speed is controlled by field weakening in this range. consists of a rectifier. A number of separated. Designed with both a series and shunt field winding. A cylindrically shaped assembly fastened to the motor shaft and considered part of the armature assembly. There are two major types: “mush” or “random” wound. and formed coils of square wire individually laid in. Common DC bus Common mode Common mode choke Common mode noise Communication rate (data transmission rate) Commutation (DC motor) Several drives that are connected together by the +/. an inverter. a DC intermediate circuit. A motor that can continue to operate without stopping and remain within the insulation temperature limits after it has reached normal operating (equilibrium) temperature. to the commutator and. The switching in polarity between the armature and the brushes in a DC motor that allows current to flow through. The load must tolerate a speed variation from full load to no-load. The rate at which data is transmitted across a link (in bits). A cylindrical device mounted on the armature shaft and consisting of a number of wedge-shaped copper segments arranged around the shaft (insulated from it and each other). to give an evenly stacked layered appearance. Also used for parallel operation. A device for changing AC to DC to AC (e. one on top of the other.g. motor torque decreases as speed increases. and a control unit. Current is from the power supply through the brushes. A “frequency converter. Since horsepower is speed times torque (divided by a constant).. hence.” such as that found in an adjustable-frequency drive.

B. The flow of electricity. A sequence of operations that is repeated regularly. Dead band Delta connection Demagnetization Design A. A controller that automatically adjusts the output current according to the current feedback and reference signals. C. the junctions (contrasted with star or y connection). Circuits that filter the DC voltage to create a smooth flow when voltage enters the power section from the rectifier. Contrasted with a star configuration or a trunkline/dropline configuration. resulting in a lower torque constant. When a permanent-magnet DC motor is subjected to high current pulses. The design “B” is the most common design.Drive Application Engineering Corona Counter electromotive force (cemf) Engineering Handbook This is the electrical discharge breakdown of a winding through the application of excessive voltage. The induced voltage in a motor armature caused by conductors moving through or “cutting” field magnetic flux. D – for AC motors D-flange (motor mounting) DI/DT Page 201 . This induced voltage opposes the armature current and tends to reduce it. Damping The reduction in amplitude of an oscillation. and the harmful effects it can have. or taken from. This time rate of flow of electrical charge and is measured in amps (amperes). Current Current limiting Current regulator Cycle D Daisy-chain configuration (for parallel connection) 1. The bolts protrude through the flange from the motor side. Line reactors and isolation transformers can be used to pro-vide the impedance necessary to reduce high DI/DT. the magnets may become slightly demagnetized. a physical configuration such that each device is connected on the bus at the junction of two conductor segments. In a linear arrangement of parallel (bus) connections. The time it takes for one sequence of operations to occur. It may be continuous or discontinuous and it may be constant or varying. DC (direct current) DC bus A current that flows only in one direction in an electric circuit. Normally. The mounting holes of the flange are not threaded. This type of motor mounting is used when the motor is to be built as part of the machine. with no dropline between the device and the junction of the conductor segments. 2. The instantaneous rate of change in current over time. A drive’s power structure that transmits a rectified AC line power from the bridge rectifier to the output transistors. The range of values through which a system input can be changed without causing a corresponding change in system output. 2. This is adjustable so that the motor’s max-maximum current can be controlled. 1. NEMA has standard motor designs with various torque characteristics to meet specific requirements posed by different application loads. An electronic method of limiting the maximum current available to the motor. d-flange motors are supplied without feet since the motor is mounted directly to the driven machine. It can also be preset as a protective device to protect both the motor and control from extended overloads. A 3-phase connection where windings are connected in series with the power applied to.

line disturbances. For a drive. cannot enter either directly or by striking and running along a horizontal or inwardly inclined surface. Normally. it is the deviation from the initial set speed with no load change over a specific time period. A slow change in some characteristic of a device. An electronic device that allows current flow in only one direction. A magnetic field resulting from the flow of an electric current through a coil. it is the effectiveness with which the motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. A time delay of programmed or established duration. NEMA has set up codes. the drive must be operated for a specified warm-up time at a specified ambient temperature before drift specifications apply. The stop mode that slows the motor by dissipating generated power from a set of resistors after disconnection from the DC supply. In a power supply. In a motor. a magnetic field is created around that conductor.Drive Application Engineering Digital-to-analog conversion (d/a conversion) Diode Dither Engineering Handbook Production of an analog signal whose instantaneous magnitude is proportional to the magnitude of a digital value. and circuit configurations with extreme forward-conducting or reverse blocking requirements. Electromagnetism Page 202 . Without a dither. torque. It represents the effectiveness with which the motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. horsepower. Braking force is determined by the field strength. Each nominal efficiency has a corresponding minimum efficiency number. and direction of a motor. A solid-state. The stop mode that slows the motor by dissipating generated power onto the DC bus through a set of external resistors. at any angle not greater than 15 degrees from the vertical. A small oscillation signal. The instantaneous rate of change in voltage over time. The efficiency of a motor is the ratio of electrical input to mechanical output. it is the effectiveness with which the power supply converts AC power into DC power. Drift Drip-proof motor Drive DV/DT Dwell Dynamic braking (AC drives) Dynamic braking (DC drives) Dynamometer E Efficiency Ratio of output to input indicated by a percentage. and thermal capacity of the resistors. A device which places a load on the motor to accurately measure its output torque and speed by providing a calibrated dynamic load. armature voltage. when an electrical current is passed through a conductor such as iron. a low-velocity signal may be unable to overcome the static friction. A decrease in losses (the elements keeping the motor from being 100% efficient) of 10% constitutes an upward improvement of the motor of one code on the NEMA table. An electronic device used to control the speed. Braking force is constant and only limited by the thermal capacity of the resistors. which correlate to specific nominal efficiencies. For example. not an interlock or hold. An open motor in which the ventilating openings are so constructed that drops of liquid or solid particles falling on it. Specifically designed resistorcapacitor networks can help protect the SCRs from excessive DV/DT which can result from line voltage spikes. to overcome the effect of static friction that would other-wise occur at zero velocity. Drift is normally caused by random changes in operating characteristics of various control components. superimposed on a velocity signal. unidirectional conductor. Helpful in testing motors for nameplate information and an effective device in measuring efficiency.

Enclosure Encoder Encoder bandwidth Encoder marker Encoder resolution End ring EPROM Explosion-proof enclosure Explosion-proof-hazardous locations Externally ventilated Page 203 . A motor using an external cooling system. Also known as zero reference signal. A measure of the smallest positional change that can be detected by the encoder. Should such an explosion occur. the enclosure would prevent the ignition or explosion of the gas or vapor which may surround the motor enclosure. The housing in which equipment is mounted. Division II – locations in which ignitable concentrations of flammable or combustible material exist but are contained within closed systems or containers and normally would not come in contact with the motor. usually restricted to generated voltage. Refer to the ESD precautions found in this manual to guard against damage to drive components. See PROM. Electromagnetic interference. These cooling systems are used in certain duty cycle applications. An expression for maximum encoder speed. A static-electricity discharge that may damage drive components. Refer to NEMA standard for specifications of different types of enclosures. The actual bandwidth of the encoder and the capability of the controller to process encoder signals may not be the same. A totally enclosed enclosure. Any feedback element that converts linear or rotary position (absolute or incremental) to a digital signal. obstructs. A type of prom that can be erased and reprogrammed by electrical signals. it is non-volatile. or in environments with extreme dirt. This is required in applications where the motor’s own fan will not provide sufficient cooling. A chip mounted on a circuit board within the drive that stores data so that information is not lost wen power is removed. Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts. A digital de-vice that translates the angular position of a rotating shaft into a corresponding series of digital pulses. They are available in designs for various environmental conditions. The number of lines per revolution times the encoder multiplier.Drive Application Engineering Electromotive force (EMF) Electrostatic discharge (ESD) EMI Encapsulated winding Engineering Handbook A synonym for voltage. Often a duct with an external blower is used to bring clean air into the motor’s airintake. These motors are listed with underwriter’s laboratories. A solid aluminum or copper conductor in an AC motor that connects all of the rotor bars at each end of the rotor to form a closed-loop for current flow. or otherwise impairs the performance of electronic equipment. This construction type is designed for exposure to more severe atmospheric conditions than the normal varnished winding. may occur within it. Electrically-erasable programmable read-only memory. random-access memory. May also refer to the maximum rate at which the control loop can accept encoder signals. which is constructed to withstand an explosion of a specified gas. Division I – locations in which ignitable concentrations of flammable or combustible material exist and come in contact with the motor. vapor or dust which. A once-per-revolution signal provided by some incremental encoders to specify a reference point within that revolution. A motor which has its winding structure completely coated with an insulating resin (such as epoxy). with slow speed motors. in Hz. As with all proms.

A voltage difference can exist between the floating ground and earth ground.. The current flowing through the line when the motor is operating at full-load torque and full-load speed with rated frequency and voltage applied to the motor terminals. the four combinations of forward and reverse rotation and forward and reverse torque. A fieldeconomy circuit serves to reduce standby power consumption and prolong the insulation life of the motor field windings. An electrical-circuit common which is not at earth ground potential or the same ground potential as circuitry with which it interfaces. In the U. The introduction of resistance in series with the shunt wound field of DC motor to reduce the voltage and current which weakens the strength of the magnetic field and thereby increases the motor speed. Temporarily over-exciting a motor shunt field to overcome the l/r time constant. On many field supplies. The invisible magnetic lines of force that travel between north and south poles. The magnetic field which is established around an energized conductor or permanent magnet. A circuit-design feature of a DC motor shunt field supply that reduces the supply voltage output after a predetermined period of time. They are drawn to the conductor placed between the two magnetic poles. The rate at which alternating current makes a complete cycle of reversals. Calculated as: (hertz = 1 cycle per second). allowing motor speed to increase under proper conditions. The field is represented by flux lines creating a flux pattern between opposite poles. The action of reducing the current applied to a DC-motor shunt field. this means a 50% reduction in output voltage two to three minutes after ma-chine shutdown (idle). It is accomplished by changing the direction of current through the motor field. Control action in which information concerning upstream conditions is converted into corrective commands to minimize the deviations of the controlled variable.S. It is expressed in cycles per second. The number of periodic cycles per unit of time. That torque of a motor necessary to produce its rated horsepower at full-load speed. The number of cycles generated by the drive each second. One method for producing regeneration. The four combinations are: forward rotation/forward torque (motoring) forward rotation/reverse torque (regeneration) reverse rotation/reverse torque (motoring) reverse rotation/forward torque (regeneration). A method of controlling DC motor speed by varying the field current in the shunt field windings. In reference to a regenerative drive. which reverses the polarity of the motor CEMF to account for generator action. The density of the flux lines is a measure of the strength of the magnetic field. Field flux Field forcing Field reversing Field weakening Floating ground Flux Four-quadrant operation Frequency Full-load current Full-load torque Page 204 . The frequency of the AC cur-rent will affect the speed of a motor.Drive Application Engineering F Feedback loop Feedforward control action Field control Field economy Engineering Handbook A closed signal path from the motor or machine back to the controlling device that transmits either current or voltage readings in order to obtain a corrective error signal. 60 cycles (Hz) is the standard while in other countries 50 Hz (cycles) is common. This action weakens the magnetic field. sometimes referred to as running torque. increase the rate of flux change and rapidly reverse the direction of shunt motor field current.

Gain error is expressed in percent of the input or output value. The measure of rate of work. Wk2 is usually expressed in units of lb-ft2. such alternative intervals being definitely specified. A coil of wire in a motor that induces a voltage when the current within its magnetic filed varies. Ft. And rpm = revolutions per minute. A load (flywheel. H Harmonics Horsepower (HP) Additional frequencies produced in multiples of the fundamental frequency that when added together create a distortion in the output. The “gain” of an analog input or output is the scale factor that provides the nominal conversion relationship. (3) load. The rate at which work is produced per unit of time. A requirement of service that demands operation for alternate intervals of (1) load and no load. Page 205 Inductor Inertia Inertial load Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) Insulation class Intermittent duty . motor insulation is classified by the temperature ranges at which it can operate for a sustained period of time. When a motor insulation class is labeled on the name-plate.000 ft-lb/min. = 746 watts. The moment of inertia (wk2) is the product of the weight (w) of an object and the square of the radius of gyration (k2). no load and rest. If this continued rotation cannot be tolerated. Hunting I Induction motor An induction motor is an alternating current motor in which the primary winding on one member (usually the stator) is connected to the power source and a secondary winding or a squirrel-cage secondary winding on the other member (usually the rotor) carries the induced current.Drive Application Engineering G Gain Gain error Engineering Handbook The ratio of the magnitude of the output signal with respect to that of the input signal.) Which tends to cause the motor shaft to continue to rotate after the power has been re-moved (stored kinetic energy). This application may require a special motor due to the energy required to accelerate the inertia. Typically. Since there are various ambient temperature conditions a motor might encounter and different temperature ranges within which motors run and insulation is sensitive to temperature. A measure of a body’s resistance to changes in velocity. t = torque (in. some mechanical or electrical braking means must be applied. fan. Lb. The radius of gyration is a measure of how the mass of the object is distributed about the axis of rotation.000 pounds to a height of one foot in one minute. For motors the following approximate formula may be used: where hp = horsepower. or (2) load and rest. A unit of power: 1hp = 33. The velocity can be either linear or rotational.). whether the body is at rest or moving at a constant velocity. There is no physical electrical connection to the secondary winding. Calculated as: (horsepower = torque x speed / 5252). The horsepower of a motor is expressed as a function of torque and speed. this is the slope of the line when analog voltage or current is plotted versus the corresponding digital values. Gain error is the deviation of the scale factor or slope of the line from the ideal or nominal gain value. One horsepower is equivalent to lifting 33. A type of transistor commonly used in drive-control devices. the total insulation system is capable of sustained operation at the above temperature. Undesirable fluctuations in motor speed that can occur after a step change in speed reference (either acceleration or deceleration) or load. its current is induced. etc.

2. A transformer that provides DC isolation from other equipment not connected to that transformer secondary. Steady state current taken from the line with the rotor at standstill (at rated voltage and frequency). LEM Line reactor Locked rotor current M Magnetic flux Multiplexing The lines of force that extend in all direction from a magnetic pole. K Kilowatt (kw) Kinetic energy Since the watt is a relatively small unit power. A transformer that provides noise isolation between the primary and secondary by such means as a faraday shield. 1.Drive Application Engineering Inverter Engineering Handbook An AC adjustable-frequency drive. Drives that use a tachometer generator for speed feedback generally do not require an IR compensation circuit because the tachometer will inherently compensate for the loss in speed. especially at low speeds. An electronic device that converts fixed frequency and fixed voltages to variable frequency and voltage. IR compensation Isolation transformer J Joule 1. The energy of motion of a moving body.and four-speeds are sometimes available. A motor wound in such a way that varying connections at the starter can change the speed to a predetermined speed. The time-shared scanning of a number of data lines into a single channel. L Laminations The steel portion of the rotor and stator cores make up a series of thin laminations (sheets) which are stacked and fastened together by cleats. This section uses the DC voltage from a previous circuit stage (intermediate DC circuit) to produce a pulse-width-modulated or stepped AC current or voltage waveform that has characteristics similar to the desired sine-wave frequency. A way to compensate for the voltage drop across resistance of the AC or DC motor circuit and the resultant reduction in speed. This is the current seen when starting the motor and load. The incorporation of two or more signals into a single wave from which the individual signals can be recovered. Only one data line is enabled at any time. Laminations are used instead of a solid piece in order to reduce eddy-current losses. A set of coils that electrically separates a device from the AC power line. This compensation also provides a way to improve the speed regulation characteristics of the motor. A device within the drive that reduces the amount of electrical noise and line notches caused by the switching of power conversion devices. rivets or welds. A circuit whose output signal is the inverse of its input (a positive-going pulse is inverted to a negative-going pulse. Enables the user to electrically adjust the speed of an AC motor. the kilowatt – (kw) 1. The energy required to transport 1 coulomb between two points having a potential difference of 1 volt. The most common multispeed motor is a two-speed although three. and vise versa).000 watts – is used where larger units of power measurement are desirable. 3. A particular section of an AC drive. The work done by the force of 1 newton acting through a distance of 1 meter. They are also available with constant Page 206 Multi-speed motors . Multi-speed motors can be wound with two sets of windings or one winding. A hall-effect current transducer that senses drive output current and generates a signal for the control logic. 2. 2. 1.

The term “open machine. or other means to prevent accidental contact with hazardous parts. Guarded machine . established by the National Fire Protection Association and suitable for mandatory application by governing bodies exercising legal jurisdiction. standard voltages and frequencies with allowable variations. torque. Unwanted electrical disturbances imposed upon a signal that tend to obscure its data content.. NEMA NEMA standards Noise (Electrical) Noise immunity O Open (protected) motor A motor having ventilating openings which permit passage of external cooling air over and around the windings. A set of regulations governing the construction and installation of electrical wiring and apparatus.an open machine in which the ventilating openings are so constructed that successful operation is not interfered with when drops of liquid or solid particles strike or enter the enclosure at any angle not greater than 100 degrees downward from vertical. seal or guard on either of the two sides of the bearing casing. normally in the top half. A machine which is ventilated with external air by means of a separate motor-driven blower mounted on machine enclosure.basically an open machine except that openings . Openings giving direct access to such live or rotating parts shall not permit the passage of a cylindrical rod 0.. Splashproof .an open machine in which all openings giving direct access to live metal or rotating parts (except smooth rotating surfaces) are limited in size by .an open machine in which part of the ventilating openings in the machine. baffles.” when applied to large apparatus without qualification. frame sizes and dimensions. for admission of ventilating air are so arranged that inlet ducts or pipes can be connected to them. grills. Drip-proof machine .. Page 207 Open bearing Open externally-ventilated machine Open machine (motors) Open machine (motors) Open machine (motors) . as in the case of a “guarded machine. The measure of a product’s ability to function in the presence of noise. A ball bearing that does not have a shield. Open externally ventilated machine .. . Open pipeventilated machine . It is widely used by state and local authorities within the United States.” but the others are left open. are guarded. speeds. Semi-guarded . This machine is sometimes known as a blower-ventilated or a force-ventilated machine. the structural parts or by the screens. N NEC National electrical code.an opentype machine in which the ventilating openings are so constructed that successful operation is not interfered with when drops of liquid or solid particles strike or enter the en-closure at any angle from 1 to 15 degrees downward from vertical.a machine ventilated by means of a separate motor driven blower mounted on the machine enclosure..75-inch in diameter. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association is a non-profit organization organized and supported by manufacturers of electric equipment and supplies. Air may be circulated by means integral with the machine or by means external to the machine (separately forced ventilated). A machine with ventilating openings that permit passage of external cooling air over and around the windings of the machine (NEMA standard).Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook torque. variable torque or constant horsepower. starting current & KVA. Consensus standards in the United States for electrical equipment approved by the members of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). designates a machine having no restriction to ventilation other than that necessitated by mechanical construction. enclosures.. .. NEMA has set standards for: horsepower ratings. service factors.. expanded metal.

Each current will lead or lag another current in time. Reconnecting a motor’s winding in reverse to apply a reverse braking torque to its normal direction of rotation while running. the easier it becomes to parallel motors successfully. Two or three-phase induction motors have their windings. Compound motors. Due to the positioning (or the phase relationship) of the windings. The most common power supplies are either single.75-inch diameter cylindrical rod. Operating speed range Overload capacity Overshoot P Parallel operation Paralleling 1. The passages are so arranged that wind and airborne particles blown into the machine can be discharged without entering directly into the electrical parts of the machine. In an AC motor. evenly Page 208 Phase Plug reversal Plugging Poles Polyphase motor . to drive a common load while sharing the load equally among all motors – they should have speed-torque characteristics which are identical. Indicates the space relationships of windings and changing values of the recurring cycles of AC voltages and cur-rents. It is normally specified as a percentage of full load current for a specified time period.Drive Application Engineering Open machine (motors) Engineering Handbook Weather-protected machine . The number of poles determines the motor’s speed. Each voltage will lead or lag another voltage in time. Ratio of full load speed to the lowest speed at which rated torque can be delivered.” The amount by which a controlled variable exceeds the desired value after a change of input. Additional baffling is provided to minimize the possibility of moisture or dirt being carried inside the machine. snow. plugging produces more heat than other methods and should be used with caution. Each winding will lead or lag another in position. the various voltages and currents will not be similar in all aspects at any given instant.an open enclosure divided into two types: type 1 . In a DC motor. or words. refers to the number of magnetic poles in the motor. refers to the number of magnetic poles in the stator winding. The ability of the drive to withstand currents beyond the system’s continuous rating. which also have drooping speed characteristics (high regulation). They create the magnetic field in which the armature operates (speed is not determined by the number of poles). The motor cannot be stalled. one for each phase.or three-phase (with 120 electrical degrees between the three-phases). Modifications to the motor control must sometimes be made before these motors will parallel within satisfactory limits. It may be difficult to operate shunt or stabilized-shunt motors in parallel because of their nearly constant speed characteristics. airborne particles and prevent passage of a 0. Contrasted with serial operation. A type of information transfer where all bits within bytes. A type of motor braking provided by reversing either line voltage polarity or phase sequence so that the motor develops a counter torque that exerts a retarding force to brake the motor. are handled simultaneously. 2. Overload capacity is defined by NEMA as 150% of rated full load current for one minute for “standard industrial DC motors. It follows that series motors will operate in parallel easier than any other type. The greater the speed droop with load.provide additional protection through the design of their intake and exhaust ventilating passages. Type 2 . will generally parallel without special circuits or equalization. Although it is an effective dynamic braking means in many applications. When two or more DC motors are required to operate in parallel – that is.have ventilating passages constructed to minimize the entrance of rain.

the currents are balanced. Power factor A measurement of the time phase difference between the voltage and current in an AC circuit. The type of memory in which each storage location is by x/y coordinates.causes an output signal to change as a function of the rate of change of the error signal. Reversal of a three-phase motor is accomplished by interchanging any two of its connections to the line. as in core or semiconductor memory. unlike the capacitor motor. this module or instruction can perform proportional control and optionally integral control. but also to overcome the inertia of the machine. For each loop. and certain machine tools. Reversal of the two-phase motor is accomplished by reversing the current through either winding. bits or words are read on demand but not changed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook divided by the same number of electrical degrees. A chip mounted on a circuit board within the drive that contains memory locations that can be accessed by Page 209 .causes an output signal to change as a function of the integral of the error signal over the time duration. Programmable read-only memory. In use.) Thus. and product loading. Starting and reversing torque characteristics of polyphase motors are exceptionally good. It is the torque required not only to overcome friction. Unless stated otherwise. (tape or bubble memory cannot be random access. A type of rom that requires an electrical operation to store data. Pulse-width modulation. It is represented by the cosine of the angle of this phase difference. integral. random-access memory. This load type is characteristic of fans. it is non-volatile. Modulating the pulse width control the average voltage to the output. As with all ROMs. This is due to the fact that the different windings are identical and. Used on signal channels of feedback devices. expressed in percent of running torque. centrifugal pumps. The torque required by a machine may not be constant after the machine has started to turn. or both: proportional control . For motors. such as encoders and resolvers. PROM Proportional. the data access time is independent of the location of the data. An intelligent I/O module or ladder diagram instruction providing automatic closed-loop operation of continuous process control loops. derivative control (PID) Pull-in torque Pull-out torque Pull-up torque PWM Q Quadrature Separation in phase by 90°. The maximum constant torque at which a synchronous motor will accelerate into synchronism at rated voltage and frequency. which do not have a definite breakdown torque. to detect the direction of motion. Integral control . the power factor is 100% and the volt/ amperes of the circuit are equal to the watts (this is the ideal and an unrealistic situation). The minimum torque developed by an AC motor during the period of acceleration from zero to the speed at which breakdown occurs. ram usually implies read/write and volatile. Polyphase motors are used where a polyphase (threephase) power supply is available and is limited primarily to industrial applications. windage. Power factor is the ratio of real power-kw to total kva or the ratio of actual power (watts) to apparent power (volt amperes). the pull-up torque is the minimum torque developed during the process of achieving rated speed. which results in a true rotating field over the full range of operation from locked rotor to full speed.causes an output signal to change as a direct ratio of the error signal variation. A technique used to eliminate or reduce unwanted harmonic frequencies when inverting DC voltage to sine wave ac. derivative control. They have an ideal phase relation. The torque required to accelerate the load from standstill to full speed (where breakdown torque occurs). For an angle of 0 degrees. The maximum running torque of a synchronous motor. Derivative control . R RAM Random access memory.

thereby transforming alternating current to direct current. Also see braking. Regulation is given in percentages of either base speed or set speed. For rotary encoders. it is the number of unique. a signal of a condition such as the acknowledgment of a message being received. It is the component of impedance to alternating cur-rent that is not resistance. The ability of a control system to hold a speed once it has been set. allowing for no slip under load.. expressed in ohms.the percentage of speed change with a defined change in load. to protect the motor and control. 2. A rugged device used in especially harsh environments.. assuming all other parameters to be constant. The smallest distinguishable increment into which a quantity can be devised (e. (DC) field reversing .. The technique of slowing or stopping a motor by regeneration. electrically identified positions occurring in 360 degrees of input shaft rotation.01% is possible using digital regulator schemes. Speed regulation values of 2% are possible in drives utilizing armature voltage feedback. It requires an analog signal interface and special conditioning electronics. Reflective waves can occur in variable-speed motor applications when the drive and motor are placed a considerable distance apart. This type of reversing can be accomplished with DC-rated contactors or by means of an electronically controlled solid-state field supply.g. power factors and torques than their permanent magnet counterparts. the characteristic of a motor to act as a generator when the counter EMF is larger than the drive’s applied voltage. The current wave reaches its peak later than the voltage wave reaches its peak. A device that conducts current in only one direction. For DC drives. For AC drives. The characteristic of a coil when connected to alternating current. the point at which rotor synchronous frequency is greater than the applied frequency. Reluctance motors have lower efficiencies. A quantitative expression of the output of a device or system as a function of the input.the percentage of speed change with a given line voltage change. These spikes can cause the motor’s insulation to deteriorate.accomplished by changing the DC polarity to the motor shunt field. Reactance Reactance (inductive) Pure inductance or capacitance. The generated power is dissipated in the power source through a regenerative bridge circuit in the drive. may be expressed as the number of bits in the digital value that corresponds to a full-scale analog value. in a circuit. A transducer using magnetic coupling to measure absolute rotary position. . while regulation of 0. The stop mode that uses the motor as a generator by converting mechanical power of the motor into electrical power. Unlike BRAM. On a communication link. For D/A or A/D conversion. Page 210 Rectifier Reflective wave Regenerative Regenerative braking Regulation Reluctance synchronous motor Resolution Resolver Response Reversing . A synchronous motor with a special rotor design which directly lines the rotor up with the rotating magnetic field of the stator. Regulation is rated upon two separate sets of conditions: load regulation (speed regulation) . 1. Position or shaft speed). It is also the degree to which nearly equal values of a quantity can be discriminated.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook the microprocessor in random order to execute the software functions of the drive. ram information is usually lost when power is removed. which causes the current to lag the voltage in time phase. assuming all other parameters to be constant. Line regulation . The combination of long lead (cable) lengths and the fast switching semi-conductors in the drive can cause voltage spikes at the motor’s terminals.

15 SF can produce 15% greater torque than the 1. measured loads are multiplied by service factors (experience factors) and the result in an “equivalent required torque” rating of a motor or gearmotor. ROM Rotor RTD (resistance thermal detectors) winding RTD A resistance device used to measure temperature change in the motor windings to detect a possible over heating condition. the condition of a device or system in which a further increase in input no longer results in an appreciable change in output. Limit switches and remote stations cannot be used with this system. 2) more generally. The load must tolerate wide speed variations from full load to light load.the act of reversing the DC polarity to the motor armature by changing the position of a single switch. This is accomplished electronically with solid-state devices. The load seen by a clutch. A solid-state. A device within the drive that conducts in one direction and requires a trigger to turn on. The rotating part of an AC motor that is made of an aluminum or copper conductor. Measured peak-to-peak of the AC component. Read only memory. A 1. The RMS value is computed as the square root of the average of the squares of the instantaneous amplitude for one complete cycle. which is used to “adjust”. These detectors are embedded into the winding slot and their resistance varies with temperature.e. or motor in a system that transmits high peak loads. and act as a conductor for the induced magnetic field.0 SF rating of the same motor). When the module receives more messages than it can process. which holds the laminations together. Page 211 SCR Series DC motors Service factor (SF) Shock load . 1. bits and words are read on demand. A type of memory with data content that cannot be changed in normal mode of operation. The rotating member of an induction motor made up of stacked laminations. Root-mean-square. It uses small electrical currents to control high electrical loads. hoists. In use. The squirrel cage is made by casting molten aluminum into the slots cut into each lamination. A shaft running through the center and a squirrel cage made in most cases of aluminum. Ripple % Rise time RMS The percentage of AC left on a DC signal after rectifying. Solid-state antiplugging circuitry is generally a part of the design. the RMS value is 0. The load must be solidly connected to the motor and never decrease to zero to prevent excessive motor speeds. unidirectional latching switch. corresponding to the DC value that produces the same heating effect. Typically.707 times the peak value. cranes and traction duty. Dynamic braking is recommended. but not changed. Typical areas of application are industrial trucks. (AC or DC) static reversing the act of reversing the DC polarity of the DC motor armature or phase rotation of an AC motor with no mechanical switching. The time it takes to raise an analog voltage or current output level from 10% to 90% of maximum. When used on a motor nameplate. a figure of merit.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook (DC) manual reversing .. When used in applying motors or gearmotors. brake. Silicon controlled rectifier. the series motor is used. a number which indicates how much above the nameplate rating a motor can be loaded without causing serious degradation (i. 2. measured loads in an attempt to compensate for conditions which are difficult to measure or define. it inhibits message entry. Where high starting torques are required for a DC motor. The switch is usually detented to give a degree of mechanical anti-plugging protection. The effective value of an alternating current. For a sine wave. S Saturation 1) an operational state in which a communication module is sending and/or receiving at maximum capacity.

The numerical measure (percent) of how accurately the motor speed can be maintained. This frequently results in reducing the resistance or impedance to such an extent as to cause overheating of the winding and subsequent burn-out. This pattern helps to eliminate low speed cogging effects in an armature and minimize induced vibration in a rotor as well as reduce associated noise. Monitors motor current and compensates for speed lost due to increased motor slip. The stationary part of an AC motor that contains a set of electromagnets. Typical applications include individual drives for machine tools such as drills and lathes. The amount of slip is proportional to the motor load. Contrasted with delta connection. Slotted steel disks that are stacked and aligned to form channels in which rotor bars are set. (no load speed – full load speed)/full load speed x 100 expressed as a percentage of full load speed and restricted to the specified speed range. The arrangement of phase windings. Integral-horsepower shunt motors are used where the primary load requirements are for minimum speed variation from full-load to no-load and/or constant horsepower over an adjustable speed range at constant potential. grinders. in which one end of each phase winding is connected to a common junction. without “hunting” (alternately speeding up and slowing down). 2. in a poly-phase circuit. Short-circuit A defect in a winding which causes part of the normal electrical circuit to be bypassed. In a 3-phase circuit. the arrangement of laminations on a rotor or armature to provide a slight angular pattern of their slots with respect to the shaft axis. near the surface of the core assembly of an AC motor. The difference between the speed of the rotating magnetic field (which is always synchronous) and the rotor in a non-synchronous induction motor is known as slip. Shunt wound DC motors Skew Slip Slip compensation Speed regulation Speed regulation Star connection Stator Steel laminations Surge protection Page 212 . Speeds are at steady state. It is related to both the characteristics of the load being driven and electrical time constants in the drive regulator circuits. In a motor. It is the percentage of change in speed between full load and no load. as well as reduce associated noise. This pattern helps reduce low-speed cogging in an armature and minimize induced vibration in a rotor. averaged over an extended period of time to eliminate speed ripple. it is sometimes called a y connection. winches. A capacitor device usually mounted in the conduit box to flatten the voltage surges that may occur as a result of lighting or a power supply surge (short-period peak). conveyors. These surges can result in more than twice the rated voltage going to the windings and in turn cause winding damage. separators. The ability of a drive to operate a motor at constant speed (under varying load). Slip generally increases with an increase in torque. It is expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook This type of load is present in crushers. It usually contains the primary winding. Arrangement of laminations on a rotor or armature to provide a slight angular pattern of their slots with respect to the shaft axis. and cranes. The stator is made up of laminations with a large hole in the center in which the rotor can turn. there are slots in the stator in which the windings for the coils are inserted. and centrifugal fans and blowers which are regulated by means of the discharge opening. 1. That part of an AC induction motor’s magnetic structure which does not rotate. Shunt motors are suitable for average starting torque loads. It can also help to increase starting torque.

The heated parts are at a higher temperature than the air surrounding them which causes a rise above room (ambient) temperature. This is called hot spot allowance. The rotor speed is equal to the speed of the rotating magnetic field of the stator – there is no slip. Approximately the speed of the motor with no load on it. Thermocouples can be attached to a meter or alarm to detect overheating of motor windings or bearings. tending to cause rotation. the actual insulation thermal capability usually is higher than the motor’s operating temperature to allow for any excessive heat areas. cathode. % regulation = (cold torque – hot torque)/full load torque x 100 expressed as a percentage of rated torque and restricted to the specified speed range. A synchronous motor is often used where the exact speed of a motor must be maintained. In a synchronous motor. A precision. If a motor has been built with greater than 1. It is made up of an anode. A motor which operates at a constant speed up to full load. A turning force applied to a shaft. the rotor locks into step with the rotating magnetic field and the motor is said to run at synchronous speed. A semi-conductor that is used as an electronic switch to control current flow in the drive. DC generator used to provide velocity feedback. averaged over an extended period of time to eliminate torque ripple. Codes) to the expected ambient temperature.a totally Page 213 Temperature rise Thermistor – thermally sensitive resistor Thermocouple – thermal detection device Thyristor Torque Torque regulation Totally enclosed machine (motor) . times the radius through which it acts. Synchronous motor Synchronous speed T Tachometer A small generator normally used as a rotational speed sensing device. and a gate. Some of the electrical energy losses inherent in motors are converted to heat causing some of the motor parts to heat up when the motor is running. Torques are at steady state. The speed of the rotating magnetic field set up by the stator winding of an induction motor.) Each temperature code has an associated temperature rise which when added to the ambient and hot spot should not exceed the temperature handling of the insulation system. This is equal to 120 x frequency (frequency measured in hertz) # of poles. A totally enclosed machine is one so enclosed as to prevent the free exchange of air between the inside and the outside of the case. Torque is equal to the force applied. but not sufficiently enclosed to be termed airtight (NEMA standard): totally enclosed fan cooled machine -a totally enclosed machine equipped for exterior cooling by means of a fan or fans integral with the machine but external to the enclosing parts.Drive Application Engineering Surge suppression Engineering Handbook The process of absorbing and clipping voltage transients on an incoming AC line or control circuit. (see insulation systems for NEMA standard temperature codes. linear. A device used to measure angular velocity by producing a signal proportional to speed. MOVS (metal-oxide varistors) and specially designed r-c networks are usually used to accomplish this. A semiconductor used to measure temperature that can be attached to an alarm or meter to detect motor overheating. A temperature detecting device made of two dissimilar metals which generates a voltage as a function of temperature. In all cases. Tachometers are typically attached to the out-put shaft of DC or AC variable-speed motors requiring close speed regulation. The tachometer feeds its signal to a control which adjusts its output to the DC or AC motor accordingly (called “closed loop feedback” control). Explosion-proof machine . then it can operate at a temperature somewhat higher than the motor’s rated operating temperature. It is important to match the proper motor and insulation system (NEMA temp. There are two major synchronous motor types: reluctance and permanent magnet.0 service factor.

a totally enclosed machine that is cooled by circulating air that. or expanded metal. fire and casualty hazards. The means for automatic draining may be a check valve or a tapped hole at the lowest part of the frame that will serve for application of a drain pipe.L. Totally enclosed. Totally enclosed machine (motor) . An active solid-state. Such openings shall not permit the pasSage of a cylindrical rod 0. to prevent accidental contact with the fan. direction.. and constructed to not permit arcs.a totally enclosed fancooled machine in which all openings with direct access to the fan are limited in size by design of the structural parts or by screens. the water or water conductors coming in direct contact with the machine .. except that leakage may occur around the shaft. The maximum system deviation between a transient value of a controlled variable and the steady-state value of that variable. sparks.a totally enclosed machine whose enclosure is constructed to exclude ignitable amounts of dust or amounts that might affect performance or rating. A quantity that has magnitude. label. parts. V Variable torque A multi-speed motor used on loads with torque requirements.a totally enclosed machine that is cooled by circulating water. Totally enclosed water-cooled machine . prevent the ignition by sparks. or heat otherwise generated or liberated inside the enclosure to cause ignition or exterior accumulations or atmospheric suspensions of a specific dust on or in the vicinity of the enclosure. and a probe shall not contact the blades. which examines and tests devices. Velocity regulator frequency response measured as the 3db frequency response point. This is a small signal response and the drive should never reach current limit. and sense. systems and materials with particular reference to life. spokes. Totally enclosed water-air-cooled machine . enlosed machine so constructed that it will exclude a stream of water from a hose.. in turn. Dust-ignition-proof machine .75 inch in diameter.a totally ... . which must be met and passed before application of the U. The horsepower varies as the square of the speed.. This quantity is commonly represented by a directed line segment whose length represents the magnitude and whose orientation in space represents the direction. It develops standards for motors and controls used in hazardous locations through cooperation with manufacturers. and to ... Waterproof machine .. (underwriter’s laboratory) An independent testing organization. Vector Velocity bandwidth Page 214 . three-terminal device that controls current and can be used for switching and control of the drive... Totally enclosed air-over machine .. has standards and tests for explosion-proof and dust ignition-proof motors. U. fan-cooled guarded machine . or other irregular surfaces of the fan. provided it is prevented from entering the oil reservoir and provision is made for automatically draining the machine. which vary with speed as with some centrifugal pumps and blowers.a totally enclosed machine cooled only by a ventilating means external to the machine. is cooled by circulating water. It is provided with a water-cooled heat exchanger for cooling the internal air and a fan or fans for circulating internal air. grills. . A momentary deviation in an electrical or mechanical system.L.L. Totally enclosed machine (motor) Totally enclosed machine (motor) Totally enclosed machine (motor) Transient Transient overshoot Transistor U U.Drive Application Engineering Engineering Handbook enclosed machine whose enclosure is designed and constructed to withstand an explosion of a specified gas or vapor that may occur within it. flashes or explosions of the specified gas or vapor that may occur near or within the ma-chine casing.

The force that causes a current to flow in an electrical circuit. One horsepower is equal to 746 watts. The frequency control is accomplished by an output bridge circuit that switches the variable voltage to the motor at the desired frequency. Analogous to pressure in hydraulics. The VVI-type drive controls the voltage in a section. A type of AC adjustable-frequency drive that controls the voltage and frequency to the motor to produce variable-speed operation. VVI W Watt The amount of power required to maintain a current of one ampere at a pressure of one volt. NEMA requires that motor be able to carry its rated horsepower at nameplate voltage plus or minus 10% although not necessarily at the rated temperature rise.Drive Application Engineering Velocity loop Volatile memory Voltage Engineering Handbook A feedback control loop in which the controlled parameter is motor velocity. The voltage of a motor is usually determined by the supply to which it is attached. Wye connection X Y Z Page 215 . where frequency generation takes place. Most motors are rated in kwatt equal to 1. Usually uses a tachometer for a feedback device. other than the output section. Refer to “Start Connection”.000 watts. A memory that loses its information if the power is removed. voltage is often referred to as electrical pressure. Electrical pressure applied to the drive.

Drive Application Engineering This page intentionally left blank Engineering Handbook Page 216 .

. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.April 2004 © 2004 Rockwell International Corporation.Publication 1300-DEH-10 .

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