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URBAN AND RURAL

Urban Area

An urban area is the region surrounding a city. Most inhabitants of urban areas have nonagricultural jobs.
Urban areas are very developed, meaning there is a density of human structures such as
houses, commercial buildings, roads, bridges, and railways.

"Urban area" can refer to towns, cities, and suburbs. An urban area includes the city itself, as well as the
surrounding areas. Many urban areas are called metropolitan areas, or "greater," as in Greater New York
or Greater London.

When two or more metropolitan areas grow until they combine, the result may be known as
a megalopolis. In the United States, the urban area of Boston, Massachusetts, eventually spread as far
south as Washington, D.C., creating the megalopolis of BosWash, or the Northeast Corridor.

Rural areas are the opposite of urban areas. Rural areas, often called "the country," have low population
density and large amounts of undeveloped land. Usually, the difference between a rural area and an
urban area is clear. But in developed countries with large populations, such as Japan, the difference is
becoming less clear. In the United States, settlements with 2,500 inhabitants or more are defined as
urban. In Japan, which is far more densely populated than the U.S., only settlements with 30,000 people
or more are considered urban.

Throughout the world, the dominant pattern of migration within countries has been from rural to urban
areas. This is partly because improved technology has decreased the need for agricultural workers and
partly because cities are seen as offering greater economic opportunities. Most of the world’s people,
however, still live in rural areas.

Towns

One type of urban area is a town. A town is generally larger than a village, but smaller than a city. Some
geographers further define a town as having 2,500 to 20,000 residents.

Towns usually have local self-government, and they may grow around specialized economic activities,
such as mining or railroading.

The western part of the United States, for instance, is dotted with "ghost towns." Ghost towns no longer
have any human population. They are full of abandoned buildings and roads that have been overtaken by
shrubs and natural vegetation.

Many ghost towns in the western U.S. are the remains of "boom towns," which developed
after gold and silver were discovered in the area in the 19th century. Economic activity boomed in these
towns, most of it centered on mining. When all the gold and silver was mined, economic activity stopped
and people moved away, leaving ghost towns of empty homes and businesses.

Growth of Suburbs

Suburbs are smaller urban areas that surround cities. Most suburbs are less densely populated than cities.
They serve as the residential area for much of the citys work force. The suburbs are made up of mostly
single-family homes, stores, and services.

Many city residents move to suburbs, a situation known as suburban migration. Homes in suburbs are
usually larger than homes in cities, and suburbs usually have more parks and open spaces. Residents may
move to escape the traffic, noise, or to enjoy a larger residence.

Large groups of Americans began to move to suburbs in the late 1800s. The invention of
the streetcar made it possible for residents to commute from their homes to their city jobs.

At the end of World War II, the U.S. government enacted a program that gave home loans to returning
war veterans. This created an explosion of single-family homes and increased the growth of suburbs
across America.

The establishment of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 also contributed to the growth of suburbs and
urban areas. The Highway Act created 66,000 kilometers (41,000 miles) of interstate roadway systems.
The original plan for the highway system was for the evacuation of large cities in case of a nuclear or
military attack. What the Highway Act created instead was suburban sprawl.

Suburban sprawl continues to be a phenomenon in the U.S. First, outlying areas of a city widen. Slowly,
these outlying areas become more crowded, pushing the suburbs farther into rural areas.

Housing and businesses that serve suburban communities eat up farmlandand wilderness. More than
809,000 hectares (2 million acres) of farmland and wilderness are lost to development every year in the
U.S.

Smart Growth

Recently, experts have tried to curb the spread of suburban sprawl, or at least create urban areas that are
developed more purposefully. This is known as "smart growth." City planners create communities that are
designed for more walking and less dependency on cars. Some developers recover old communities in
downtown urban areas, rather than develop the next piece of farmland or wilderness.

States such as Oregon are passing laws to prevent unplanned urban sprawl. They have created boundaries
around cities that limit the growth of development. Officials have created laws stating that the minimum
size of a plot of land is 32 hectares (80 acres). This is to prevent developers from creating suburban
communities. An 80-acre plot of land is too costly for a single-family home!

Other smart-growth communities are creating new types of development. Some have large amounts of
undeveloped "green space," organic farms, and lakes.

Urban areas typically drain the water from rain and snow, which cannot collect in the paved-over ground.
Rather than use drainage pipes and ditches, smart-growth communities create wetlands designed to
filter storm runoff.

There is also a move toward preserving and maintaining more green areas and planting more trees in urban areas. As the Indian economy develops. In Asia. Developing countries often have resource-based economies. Most people live or work on farms or ranches. This has been changing rapidly. This decreased need for farm employment drives many farmworkers into cities in search of jobs. Landscape designers often consult with city planners to incorporate parks with development. Industrial technology has created many jobs unique to urban areas. towns. and the hope of changing ones economic circumstances. In fact. for instance. for example. and other small settlements are in or surrounded by rural areas. and not very many people. Rural Area A rural area is an open swath of land that has few homes or other buildings. is a country where many people practice agriculture in rural areas. villages. the United Nations estimates that the urban population will increase by almost 2 billion by 2050. Agricultural technology has decreased the need for agricultural workers. and the island communities of Greece create homes and businesses with white plaster or tile roofs for this reason. or other harvesting of natural resources. Homebuilders in urban areas as diverse as Los Angeles. Throughout the world. White roofs. or urban area. more people migrateto urban areas like Bangalore to work in the technology industry. tools. including agricultural technology. however. California. These natural resources are most often located in rural areas. In a rural area. India. industrial technology. Shift to Cities People are migrating to urban areas for many reasons. meaning most people make their living from agriculture. fertilizer. Wildlife is more frequently found in rural areas than in cities because of the absence of people and buildings.More city planners are developing urban areas by considering their geography. reflect the sun’s rays and lower the cost of air conditioning. A rural areas population density is very low. rural areas are often called the country because residents can see and interact with the countrys native wildlife. timber. Many people live in a city. for example. more people live in rural areas than in urban areas. Service-based economies use industrial technology to provide finished goods and services to people inside and outside their countries. Improved transportation. Engineers build structures that blend with their natural surroundings and use natural resources. they often shift their focus to a service- based economy. Hamlets. Instead of providing the raw materials (metals) for computer chips to nations like . Urbanization is happening all over the world. there are fewer people. mining. Their homes and businesses are located very close to one another. As developing countries expand the use of industrial technology. and their homes and businesses are located far away from one another. Agriculture is the primary industry in most rural areas. and genetically modified crops mean fewer farmworkers harvest more food. however.

from the Latin root civitas.) The governments may be based on heredity. military power. A variety of definitions. In Ethiopia. Centers of learning. Many rural residents travel to cities to take advantage of economic opportunities there. Indian companies now manufacture the computer chips themselves. and infrastructure. finance. via Old French. 87 percent of the people live in rural areas. Cities serve as administrative. or a combination of these. wages are usually higher in urban areas. and can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. Common population definitions for a city range between 1. A typical city has professional administrators. The presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. originally meaning citizenship or community member and eventually coming to correspond with urbs. commerce. manufacturing. or through leadership of a chief. some jurisdictions set no such minimums. – National Geographic CITY Meaning A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its relatively great size. rural areas take up about 98 percent of the country but are home to only 25 percent of the population. but also by the role it plays within a larger political context.the United States. food distribution. In the United States. The search for higher wages is another reason people migrate from rural areas. population density. religion. invoking population. It costs more to rent a house. number of dwellings. such as universities. The term can also refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there. with most states using a minimum between 1. . and some form of taxation (food and other necessities or means to trade for them) to feed the government workers. and use transportation. The cost of living in urban areas is usually much higher than in rural areas. are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban.500 and 5000 inhabitants. which may be conferred by a central authority. meaning city in a more physical sense. a less-developed country where agricultural jobs are much more common. commercial. buy food. For this reason. regulations.000 people. agriculture. Geography Urban geography deals both with cities in their larger context and with their internal structure. and regional government. and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone. land ownership. The word city and the related civilization come. hospitals. but also by its functions and its special symbolic status. The Roman civitas was closely linked with the Greek "polis" – another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. are usually located in urban areas. Societies that live in cities are often called civilizations. (This arrangement contrasts with the more typically horizontal relationships in a tribe or village accomplishing common goals through informal agreements between neighbors. However. economic function.500 and 50. religious. work projects such as canal building.

technological. are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. In more recent history.Thus. known as the s. main roads converge on a central point. Public space Cities typically have public spaces where anyone can go. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade. concentric. These spaces historically reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence. agriculture or fishing). political. and curvilinear. Physical environment generally constrains the form in which a city is built. In cities such as and also Moscow. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. If located on a mountainside.[28] Center The vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic. with concentric traces of town walls and citadels marking older city boundaries. This form could evolve from successive growth over a long time. Beyond these "geomorphic" features. and military contexts. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. using ancient principles described by Kautilya. It may be adapted to its means of subsistence (e. Europe.g. through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. sometimes coincident with a central business district. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos or if fortified as a citadel. Internal structure Urban structure generally follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic. economic. such forms were supplemented by ring roads moving traffic around the outskirts of a town. Public art adorns (or disfigures) public spaces. it may rely on terraces and winding roads. due to natural growth or to city planning. and despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century. rectilinear. These include privately owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. A system of rectilinear city streets and land plots. and the Americas. cities can develop internal patterns. The Indus Valley Civilisation built Mohenjo-Daro. and aligned with the compass points. The . radical. as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations. this pattern is still clearly visible. Dutch cities such as Amsterdam and Haarlem are structured as a central square surrounded by concentric canals marking every expansion. In a radial structure. and religious significance. has been used for millennia in Asia. centrality within a productive region influences siting. Today cities have a city center or downtown.Site Town siting has varied through history according to natural. Harappa and other cities on a grid pattern.

dense populations.) History Cities. politics. have existed for thousands of years. cultural. the civilization of Sumer. India. governed by kings and fostering multiple languages written in cuneiform. complex civilizations flourished in the river valleys of Mesopotamia. Cities played a crucial role in the establishment of political power over an area. conurbation. Metropolitan areas include suburbs and exurbs organized around the needs of commuters. China's planned cities were constructed according to sacred principles to act as celestial microcosms. dated to the eighth millennium BC. Mohenjo-daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan. but others carried out urban activities in the realms of politics or religion without having large associated populations. to use as communal seasonal shelters. The Ancient Egyptian cities known physically by archaeologists are not extensive. to their value as bases for defensive and offensive military organization. Among the early Old World cities. Some had large. or to their inherent economic function. which enabled production of surplus food. existing from about 2600 BC. industrial. The Phoenician trading empire. due to alternate means of subsistence (fishing). and the religious city Amarna built by Akhenaten and abandoned. symbolic function. political) has transformed the very meaning of the term and has challenged geographers seeking to classify territories according to an urban-rural binary. are among the earliest cities known to archaeologists. and urban planning. and Egypt. In the fourth and third millennium BC.000 or more and a sophisticated sanitation system. and sometimes edge cities characterized by a degree of economic and political independence. sometimes within a temple. A minority viewpoint considers that cities may have arisen without agriculture. (In the USA these are grouped into metropolitan statistical areas for purposes of demography and marketing. a workers' town associated with the pyramid of Senusret II. Excavations in these areas have found the ruins of cities geared variously towards trade. They include (known by their Arab names) El Lahun.) Some cities are now part of a continuous urban landscape called urban agglomeration. with a minimalistic grid of rooms for the workers and increasingly more elaborate housing available for higher classes.ancient Greek city of Priene exemplifies a grid plan with specialized districts used across the Hellenistic Mediterranean. residential. Urban areas Urban-type settlement extends far beyond the traditional boundaries of the city proper in a form of development sometimes described critically as urban sprawl. . civilization and the city both followed from the development of agriculture. China. Decentralization and dispersal of city functions (commercial. Ancient times Jericho and Çatalhöyük. Early cities often featured granaries. or religion. In Mesopotamia. and ancient leaders such as Alexander the Great founded and created them with zeal. characterized by population density. with a population of 50. or megalopolis (exemplified by the BosWash corridor of the Northeastern United States. followed by Assyria and Babylon. was one of the largest. In the conventional view. gave rise to numerous cities. These sites appear planned in a highly regimented and stratified fashion. and thus a social division of labour (with concomitant social stratification) and trade.

early urban traditions developed in the Andes and Mesoamerica. Middle Ages The Ming Dynasty of China oversaw the creation of the Forbidden City and the expansion of Beijing to become the largest city in the world. dated to around 500 AD. Other early urban centers in sub-Saharan Africa. Ypres. design. encompassed numerous cities extending from Tyre.flourishing around the turn of the first millennium BC. include Awdaghust. Rome transformed and founded many cities (coloniae). Jenné-Jeno. Pre-Arabic trade contacts probably existed between Jenné-Jeno and North Africa. By the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Later cultures such as the Aztec drew on these earlier urban traditions. and Maranda a center located on a trade route between Egypt and Gao. was the center of athletic. an association of male landowning citizens who collectively constituted the city. cities including Lübeck and Bruges formed the Hanseatic League for collective defense and commerce. spiritual and political life of the polis. In the following centuries. and Amsterdam. the first urban centers developed in the Norte Chico civilization. Kumbi-Saleh the ancient capital of Ghana. In Italy medieval communes developed into city-states including the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Genoa. Similar phenomena existed elsewhere. cities of late antiquity gained independence but soon lost population and importance. The agora. In the remnants of the Roman Empire. independent city-states of Greece developed the polis. taking surrounding areas under their control or establishing extensive maritime empires. followed by major cities in the Huari. Cairo. lacked monumental architecture and a distinctive elite social class—but nevertheless had specialized production and relations with a hinterland. including Constantinople in 1453. was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe. Cydon. some cities become powerful states. artistic. the Zapotec of Oaxaca. which enjoyed a considerable autonomy in late medieval Japan. The locus of power in the West shifted to Constantinople and to the ascendant Islamic civilization with its major cities Baghdad. Angkor in the Khmer Empire grew into one of the most extensive cities in the world and may have supported up to one million people. with a population approaching 1 million. as in the case of Sakai. Their power was later challenged and eclipsed by the Dutch commercial cities of Ghent. Rome's rise to power brought its population to one million. In the ancient Americas. located in present-day Mali and dating to the third century BC. Mesoamerica saw the rise of early urbanism in several cultural regions. . Under the authority of its empire. meaning "gathering place" or "assembly". flourishing between the 30th century BC and the 18th century BC. Chavin and Moche cultures. and Córdoba. From the 9th through the end of the 12th century. In the first millennium AD. Constantinople. It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas. Chimu and Inca cultures. and with them brought its principles of urban architecture. capital of the Byzantine Empire. In Northern Europe. The Norte Chico civilization included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. In the Andes. and society. beginning with the Olmec and spreading to the Preclassic Maya. The Ottoman Empire gradually gained control over many cities in the Mediterranean area. and Byblos to Carthage and Cádiz. and Teotihuacan in central Mexico.

data analysis. Under the Great Leap Forward and subsequent five-year plans continuing today. most towns remained small. contaminated water and air. Such cities have shifted with varying success into the service economy and public-private partnerships. occupational hazards of industry. fueling migration from rural to city areas. and large manufacturing centers began to emerge. homelessness. 19th-century London as capital of the world. Post-industrial age In the second half of the twentieth century. contrary to the global trend of massive urban expansion. Some companies are building brand new master planned cities from scratch on greenfield sites. America's "Steel Belt" became a "Rust Belt" and cities such as Detroit. as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas. and Gary. A new smart city paradigm. England led the way as London became the capital of a world empire and cities across the country grew in locations strategic for manufacturing. due to health problems resulting from overcrowding. Urbanization . nation-states became the dominant unit of political organization following the Peace of Westphalia in the seventeenth century. is bringing computerized surveillance. In the United States from 1860 to 1910. supported by institutions such as the RAND Corporation and IBM. deindustrialization (or "economic restructuring") in the West led to poverty. However. the introduction of railroads reduced transportation costs. and urban decay in formerly prosperous cities. Western Europe's larger capitals (London and Paris) benefited from the growth of commerce following the emergence of an Atlantic trade. Amidst these economic changes. crowded and thick with its own variety of smog. and selective cultural development. poor sanitation. Factories and slums emerged as regular features of the urban landscape. with concomitant gentrification.Early modern In the West. Industrialized cities became deadly places to live. and communicable diseases such as typhoid and cholera. and were bound to several laws regarding administration. Indiana began to shrink. Industrial age The growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led to massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities. and governance to bear on cities and city-dwellers. Cities were founded in the middle of the newly conquered territories. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas the old Roman city concept was extensively used. uneven revitalization efforts. first in Europe and then in other regions. finances and urbanism. Michigan. the People's Republic of China has undergone concomitant urbanization and industrialization and to become the world's leading manufacturer. high technology and instantaneous telecommunication enable select cities to become centers of the knowledge economy.

municipio in Spain and in Portugal. Xiamen. with increases in their surface extent. In England the proportion of the population living in cities jumped from 17% in 1801 to 72% in 1891. In 1900. Megacities. Economic globalization fuels the growth of these cities. Until the 18th century. Cities around the world have expanded physically as they grow in population. are considered among the world's fastest-growing cities. etc. as well as relocation of major businesses from Europe and North America. Latin America is the most urban continent. The chief official of the city has the title of mayor. Indonesia. Government Local government of cities takes different forms including prominently the municipality (especially in England. as formerly good sources of freshwater become overused and polluted. in the United States. the mayor typically acts as the figurehead or personification of his city. The UN predicts an additional 2. economic. an equilibrium existed between the rural agricultural population and towns featuring markets and small-scale manufacturing. Urbanization can create rapid demand for water resources management. Whatever his true degree of political authority. cities with population in the multi-millions. arising especially in Asia. The Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. including one fifth of the population said to live in shantytowns (favelas. A deep gulf divides rich and poor in these cities. and Latin America. Mogadishu. attracting immigrants from near and far.Urbanization is the process of migration from rural into urban areas. and. villas miserias. both through migration and through demographic expansion. 15% of the world population lived in cities. in most former parts of the Spanish and Portuguese empires) and the commune (in France and in Chile. With the agricultural and industrial revolutions urban population began its unprecedented growth. as new torrents of foreign capital arrange for rapid industrialization. Niger. or comune in Italy). reported in 2014 that for the first time more than half of the world population lives in cities. with 90% of urban population expansion occurring in Asia and Africa. legally. have proliferated into the dozens. and the volume of sewage begins to exceed manageable levels.[95] In general.5 billion city dwellers (and 300 million fewer country-dwellers) worldwide by 2050. The cultural appeal of cities also plays a role in attracting residents. Urbanization rapidly spread across the Europe and the Americas and since the 1950s has taken hold in Asia and Africa as well. the more developed countries of the “Global North” remain more urbanized than the less developed countries of the “Global South”—but the difference continues to shrink because urbanization is happening faster in the latter group. with usually contain a super-wealthy elite living in gated communities and large masses of people living in substandard housing with inadequate infrastructure and otherwise poor conditions. Africa. in India. and cultural factors. and in other British colonies. .) Batam. driven by various political. Somalia. along with municipalidad. with four fifths of its population living in cities. China and Niamey. with the creation of high-rise buildings for residential and commercial use. the municipal corporation. and with development underground. Asia is home to by far the greatest absolute number of city-dwellers: over two billion and counting. with annual growth rates of 5–8%.

which cities address through appeals to higher governments. has led to a shift in perspective on urban governance. public utilities are privatized. and laws governing these areas—developed in cities—have become ubiquitous in many areas. Under these circumstances. Finance The traditional basis for municipal finance is local property tax levied on real estate within the city. Municipal officials may be appointed from a higher level of government or elected locally. through fire departments. arrangements with the private sector. away from the "urban regime theory" in which a coalition of local interests functionally govern. The impact of globalization and the role of multinational corporations in local governments worldwide. recreation. techniques. City governments have also begun to use tax increment financing. Municipal services Cities typically provide municipal services such as education. in which a development project is financed by loans based on future tax revenues which it is expected to yield. This situation has become acute in deindustrialized cities and in cases where businesses and wealthier citizens have moved outside of city limits and therefore beyond the reach of taxation. Modern city governments thoroughly regulate everyday life in many dimensions. resource use and extraction. corporatization (formation of quasi-private municipally-owned corporations). as well as the city's basic infrastructure. through police departments. and the nature and use of buildings. and corporations gain the status of governing actors—as indicated by the power they wield in public-private partnerships and over business improvement districts. and in the expectation of self- . transport. In the neoliberal model of governance.City governments have authority to make laws governing activity within cities. as well as urban renewal and other development projects. in a more or less equal fashion. Governance Governance includes government but refers to a wider domain of social control functions implemented by many actors including nongovernmental organizations. industry is deregulated. However. Cities in search of ready cash increasingly resort to the municipal bond. creditors and consequently city governments place a high importance on city credit ratings. and perhaps international law. This hierarchy of law is not enforced rigidly in practice—for example in conflicts between municipal regulations and national principles such as constitutional rights and property rights. burial. national. and firefighting. and techniques such as privatization (selling services to into the private sector). toward a theory of outside economic control. is a perennial problem. or by leasing land that it owns. though some services may be operated by a higher level of government. Armies may assume responsibility for policing cities in states of domestic turmoil such as America's King assassination riots of 1968. and financialization (packaging city assets into tradable financial instruments and derivatives). while its jurisdiction is generally considered subordinate (in ascending order) to state/provincial. Responsibility for administration usually falls on the city government. financing municipal services. including public and personal health. Legal conflicts and issues arise more frequently in cities than elsewhere due to the bare fact of their greater density. Technologies. These are provided more or less routinely. widely associated in academics with the philosophy of neoliberalism. while others may be privately run. Local government can also collect revenue for services. through school systems. essentially a loan with interest and a repayment date. policing.

transportation. The legal principle of eminent domain is used by government to divest citizens of their property in cases where its use is required for a project. The effects of planning. Society Social structure Urban society is typically stratified. utilities. Planning tools. form a growing stratum of society in the age of urbanization. and other basic systems. where international organizations consider existing governments inadequate for their large populations. which built their cities on grids and apparently zoned different areas for different purposes. The related concept of good governance places more emphasis on the state. the application of forethought to city design. in separate areas. include public capital investment in infrastructure and land-use controls such as zoning. beyond the original design of the city itself. contrasted with peasants and known as the proletariat.regulation through corporate social responsibility. The global urban proletariat of today. and. Meanwhile. Landless urban workers. In Marxist doctrine. While in the USA and elsewhere poverty became associated with the inner city. in France it has become associated with the banlieues. and associate with different people. cities are formally or informally segregated along ethnic. involves optimizing land use. ghettoes. People living relatively close together may live. . increasingly. areas of urban development which surround the city proper. Government. the racially white majority is empirically the most segregated group. and play. economic. work. gated communities and other forms of "privatopia" around the world. as the ultimate wielder of force is legally the final authority on planning but in practice the process involves both public and private elements. Planning often involves tradeoffs—decisions in which some stand to gain and some to lose—and thus is closely connected to the prevailing political situation. often with consideration for interlocking physical. with the purpose of assessing urban governments for their suitability for development assistance. the proletariat will inevitably revolt against the bourgeoisie as their ranks swell with disenfranchised and disaffected people lacking all stake in the status quo. ubiquitous in today's world. The concepts of governance and good governance are especially invoked in the emergent megacities. in order to achieve certain objectives. The biggest investors and real estate developers act as the city's de facto urban planners. The history of urban planning dates to some of the earliest known cities. Urban planners and scholars have proposed overlapping theories as ideals for how plans should be formed. fully designed prior to construction. Urban planning Urban planning. in areas of concentrated poverty. especially in the Indus Valley and Mesoamerican civilizations. The continuous process of comprehensive planning involves identifying general objectives as well as collecting data to evaluate progress and inform future decisions. generally lacks the status as factory workers which in the nineteenth century provided access to the means of production. however. can be seen most clearly in the layout of planned communities. allow local elites to self-segregate into secure and exclusive neighborhoods. forming ethnic or lifestyle enclaves or. economic and racial lines. and cultural systems. Spatially. Suburbs in the west. across Europe and North America.

temples. Mecca. Patriotic tourists visit Agra to see the Taj Mahal. newspapers. Although manufacturing fueled the growth of cities. however in very dense cities. and administration. supporting universities. Density makes for effective mass communication and transmission of news. Culture and communications Cities are typically hubs for education and the arts. through heralds. Today. Cultural elites tend to live in cities. skyscrapers. though still using cities as hubs. a city's promotion of its cultural activities dovetails with place branding and city marketing. and other cultural institutions. bound together by shared cultural capital. stretching beyond city limits. have become iconic urban features. and monuments on display physically transmit a historical context for urban places. The services in question range from tourism. entertainment. and themselves playing some role in governance. residents. Elvis lovers visit Memphis to pay their respects at Graceland. and to create a shared identity and sense of place within the metropolitan area. in order to reach a more complete understanding of the local labor market. political administration. increased crowding and waiting times may lead to some negative effects. and tourists. manufactured goods. and digital media. finance. providing thousands of offices or homes within a small footprint. museums. Some cities. public diplomacy techniques used to inform development strategy. in exchange for which they provide money. cities rely on rural areas for intensive farming to yield surplus crops. At the same time hallmarks of rural life may appear in the midst of the city. Physical inscriptions. These communication networks. and social change. In the 20th century. In general. and Rome have indelible religious status and for hundreds of years have attracted pilgrims. many now rely on a tertiary or service economy. penetrate extensively into all populated areas. the density of cities expedites commerce and facilitates knowledge spillovers. commentators have described urban culture as nearly ubiquitous or as no longer meaningful. investors. to attract businesses. housekeeping and prostitution to grey-collar work in law. world history. As hubs of trade cities have long been home to retail commerce and consumption through the interface of shopping. decoration. cities can be described as the locus of civilization. printed proclamations. such as Jerusalem. and design. hospitality. helping people and firms exchange information and generate new ideas. Place brands (which include place satisfaction and place loyalty) have great economic value (comparable to the value of commodity brands) . In the age of rapid communication and transportation. By virtue of their status as centers of culture and literacy. A thicker labor market allows for better skill matching between firms and individuals. plaques. and culture. Urban economics tends to analyze larger agglomerations. transformed urban shopping areas into fantasy worlds encouraging self- expression and escape through consumerism. as in the case of urban agriculture.Economics Historically. They feature impressive displays of architecture ranging from small to enormous and ornate to brutal. public relations. department stores using new techniques of advertising. or New York City to visit Ground Zero. and visible from miles away. Population density enables also sharing of common infrastructure and production facilities.

While occupying the Philippines. which already uses concepts such as defensible space. they are targets in asymmetric warfare. Many cities throughout history were founded under military auspices. etc. involves techniques of surveillance and psychological warfare as well as close combat. Bread and circuses among other forms of cultural appeal. as in the case of garrison towns. commercial. so that the system as a whole continue . a great many have incorporated fortifications. in the Battle of Stalingrad. Warfare Cities play a crucial strategic role in warfare due to their economic. In an era of low-intensity conflict and rapid urbanization. war may have served as the social rationale and economic basis for the very earliest cities. and social activities. Indeed. Powers engaged in geopolitical conflict have established fortified settlements as part of military strategies. energy. many infrastructure systems take the form of networks with redundant links and multiple pathways. cities have become sites of long-term conflict waged both by foreign occupiers and by local governments against insurgency. Sports also play a major role in city branding and local identity formation. For the same reasons. national governments on occasion declared certain cities open. symbolic. warfare has in some cases spelt complete destruction for a city. vehicles. Mesopotamian tablets and ruins attest to such destruction. Because of the higher barriers to entry. functionally extends modern urban crime prevention. public or private. attract and entertain the masses. and political centrality. and Israeli settlements in Palestine. wires. America's Strategic Hamlet Program during the Vietnam War. underpinning the very survival of the city’s inhabitants. in order to isolate committed insurgents and battle freely against them in the countryside. and public functions. Infrastructure Urban infrastructure involves various physical networks and spaces necessary for transportation. Cities go to considerable lengths in competing to host the Olympic Games. meaning that economic logic favors control of each network by a single organization. Such warfare. water use. these networks have been classified as natural monopolies.) but lower marginal costs and thus positive economies of scale.because of their influence on the decision-making process of people thinking about doing business in— "purchasing" (the brand of)—a city. however. recreation. During World War II. Infrastructure in general (if not every infrastructure project) plays a vital role in a city's capacity for economic activity and expansion. which bring global attention and tourism. known as counterinsurgency. as does the Latin motto Carthago delenda est. where Soviet forces repulsed German occupiers. and military principles continue to influence urban design. effectively surrendering them to an advancing enemy in order to avoid damage and bloodshed. nuclear strategists continued to contemplate the use of "counter value" targeting: crippling an enemy by annihilating its valuable cities. Urban warfare proved decisive. as well as technological. rather than aiming primarily at its military forces. Structurally. with extreme casualties and destruction. industrial. Although capture is the more common objective. Infrastructure carries a high initial cost in fixed capital (pipes. plants. Since the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and throughout the Cold War. the US Army ordered local people concentrated into cities and towns. demographic.

Telecommunications infrastructure such as telephone lines and coaxial cables also traverse cities. Transportation Because cities rely on specialization and an economic system based on wage labour. heating. power plants. and cooking. said to hold 70% of all water contracts worldwide. In the west. their inhabitants must have the ability to regularly travel between home. either local governments or private companies have administered urban water supply. In western cities. useful things with general availability) include basic and essential infrastructure networks. Modern urban life relies heavily on the energy transmitted through electricity for the operation of electric machines (from household appliances to industrial machines to now-ubiquitous electronic systems used in communications. industrializing. . Cities also rely on long-distance transportation (truck. Veolia Water (formerly Vivendi) and Engie (formerly Suez). Privatization may also extend to all levels of infrastructure construction and maintenance. and railways require large upfront investments and thus tend to require funding from national government or the private sector. business. City dwellers travel foot or by wheel on roads and walkways. expanding. clear first-class and second-class alternatives. The particulars of a city’s infrastructure systems have historical path dependence because new development must build from what exists already. or use special rapid transit systems based on underground.to operate even if parts of it fail. with a tendency toward government water supply in the 20th century and a tendency toward private operation at the turn of the twenty-first.[185] enjoyed a period of popularity at the beginning of the twentieth century before the rise of automobiles. and airplane) for economic connections with other cities and rural areas. forming dense networks for mass and point-to-point communications. requires water supply and waste management as well as individual hygiene. Utilities Public utilities (literally. streetlights and indoor lighting. Urban infrastructure ideally serves all residents equally but in practice may prove uneven—with. necessary for good health in crowded conditions. The market for private water services is dominated by two French companies. Cities rely to a lesser extent on hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline and natural gas for transportation. and government) and for traffic lights. they gained a more lasting foothold in Asian and African cities under European influence. chiefly concerned with the supply of water. and electrifying at this time. over ground. who only sometimes had sidewalks and special walking areas reserved for them. rail. Urban water systems include principally a water supply network and a network for wastewater including sewage and stormwater. and telecommunications capability to the populace Sanitation. Soon after. in some cities. electricity. Historically. work. bicycles or (velocipedes). Megaprojects such as the construction of airports. and entertainment.and medium-distance travel. Historically. efficient human-powered machines for short. and elevated rail. city streets were the domain of horses and their riders and pedestrians. public transit systems and especially streetcars enabled urban expansion as new residential neighborhoods sprung up along transit lines and workers rode to and from work downtown. commerce.

as exemplified by the ever-popular New York City Subway system. urban ecosystems are less complex and productive than others. . Ecology Urban ecosystems. Many big American cities still operate conventional public transit by rail. Economic function itself also became more decentralized as concentration became impractical and employers relocated to more car-friendly locations (including edge cities). However. Large predators are scarce. with major implications for their layout. compared to renting which may consume much of the income of low-wage urban workers. uses a network of scheduled routes to move people through the city. On the whole. cities have relied heavily on motor vehicle transportation. the world's most common form of public transport. They introduce frequent disturbances (construction. Homelessness. Walking and cycling ("non-motorized transport") enjoy increasing favor (more pedestrian zones and bike lanes) in American and Asian urban transportation planning. alongside cars. (This transformation occurred most dramatically in the USA—where corporate and governmental policies favored automobile transport systems—and to a lesser extent in Europe. bringing about interactions between species which never previously encountered each other. and birds. Adequate housing entails not only physical shelters but also the physical systems necessary to sustain life and economic activity. Typical urban fauna includes insects (especially ants). and the idea of a carefree city. Anthropogenic buildings and waste. as private car ownership and urbanization continue to increase. creating opportunities for recolonization and thus favoring young ecosystems with r-selected species dominant. on the roads. The urban bus system. Housing Housing of residents presents one of the major challenges every city must face. influenced as they are by the density of human buildings and activities differ considerably from those of their rural surroundings. and aesthetics. the drive for sustainable development. Some cities have introduced bus rapid transit systems which include exclusive bus lanes and other methods for prioritizing bus traffic over private cars. create physical and chemical environments which have no equivalents in wilderness. overwhelming existing urban street networks. environment.Since the mid-twentieth century. walking) to plant and animal habitats. Techniques such as road space rationing and road use charges have been introduced to limit urban car traffic. as well as cats and dogs (domesticated and feral). rats). or lack of housing. as well as cultivation in gardens.) The rise of personal cars accompanied the expansion of urban economic areas into much larger metropolises. They provide homes not only for immigrant humans but also for immigrant plants. is a challenged currently faced by millions of people in countries rich and poor. in some cases enabling exceptional biodiversity. wider streets. rodents (mice. under the influence of such trends as the Healthy Cities movement. Home ownership represents status and a modicum of economic security. severe traffic jams still occur regularly in cities around the world. due to the diminished absolute amount of biological interactions. and alternative walkways for pedestrians. Rapid transit is widely used in Europe and has increased in Latin America and Asia. subsequently creating ubiquitous traffic issues with accompanying construction of new highways.

also known as a world city.Cities generate considerable ecological footprints. For example. less-vegetated poor neighborhoods bear more of the heat (but have fewer means of coping with it). including fireplaces. within the urban microclimate. Following this view of cities. Critics of the notion point to the different realms of power and interchange. innovation. and internal combustion engines. Poor and working-class people face disproportionate exposure to environmental risks (known as environmental racism when intersecting also with racial segregation). cities are not ecologically sustainable due to their resource needs. Saskia Sassen used the term "global city" in 1991 to refer to a city's power. proper management may be able to ameliorate a city's ill effects. effectively eliminating the distance between cities for the purposes of stock markets and other high-level elements of the world economy. New York City. Today the information economy based on high-speed internet infrastructure enables instantaneous telecommunication around the world. Modern cities are known for creating their own microclimates. This type of ranking exemplifies an emerging discourse in which cities. locally and at longer distances. considered variations on the same ideal type. London. and cosmopolitanism. Aerial particulates increase rainfall by 5–10%. due to concrete. through the Hanseatic League and other alliances of cities. and nickel) and has lower pH than soil in comparable wilderness. other heating systems. Air pollution arises from various forms of combustion. and other artificial surfaces. and markets. must compete with each other globally to achieve prosperity. technology. can be traced back to the Silk Road. From one perspective. wood or coal-burning stoves. Paris. World city system As the world becomes more closely linked through economics. Phoenicia. This effect varies nonlinearly with population changes (independently of the city's physical size). Industrialized cities. which heat up in sunlight and channel rainwater into underground ducts. with earlier flowering and later leaf dropping than in nearby country. The temperature in New York City exceeds nearby rural temperatures by an average of 2–3°C and at times 5– 10°C differences have been recorded. This phenomenon. From another. as well as personal communications and mass media. Global city A global city. and today third-world megacities. asphalt. banking. and culture (a process called globalization). Global cities may have reached their status due to early transition to post-industrialism or through inertia which has enabled them to maintain their dominance from the industrial era. posing a chronic threat to the health of their millions of inhabitants. The term "global city" is heavily influenced by economic factors and. may not account for places that are otherwise . thus. due to concentrated populations and technological activities. finance. exerting command and control through their economic and political influence. are notorious for veils of smog (industrial haze) which envelop them. and Tokyo form the capstone of the global hierarchy. politics. is a prominent centre of trade. resurgent today. Thus. and the Greek city-states. urban areas experience unique climates. status. cities have come to play a leading role in transnational affairs. it is possible to rank the world's cities hierarchically. rather than to its size. Urban soil contains higher concentrations of heavy metals (especially lead. copper. exceeding the limitations of international relations conducted by national governments.

They are consequently also sites for symbolic protest.Local Governments for Sustainability. Paul James. Early examples of this phenomenon are the sister city relationship and the promotion of multi-level governance within the European Union as a technique for European integration. intelligence agencies. military contractors. Environmental city networks include the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group. a program for cultural policies promoting sustainable development. United Nations System . the United Nations Global Compact Cities Programme. information technology firms. and City of London maintain their own embassies to the European Union at Brussels. keeping one foot each (through telecommunications if not travel) in their old and their new homes. which functionally defines the supply side of the labor market) to recruit low. More and more cities today draw on this globally available labor force. Their economies are lubricated by their capacity (limited by the national government's immigration policy. World Association of Major Metropolises ("Metropolis"). Cities including Hamburg. Modern global cities. for example argues that the term is "reductive and skewed" in its focus on financial systems. educational institutions. global level. At the general. ICLEI . Multinational corporations and banks make their headquarters in global cities and conduct much of their business within this context. Amsterdam. and the United States Conference of Mayors play similar roles. the Covenant of Mayors and the Compact of Mayors. the Federation of Canadian Municipalities the National League of Cities. Cities with world political status as meeting places for advocacy groups.significant. Networks have become especially prevalent in the arena of environmentalism and specifically climate change following the adoption of Agenda 21. The Hague. often include large central business districts that serve as hubs for economic activity. Global cities feature concentrations of extremely wealthy and extremely poor people. United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) is a significant umbrella organization for cities. Global governance Cities participate in global governance by various means including membership in global networks which transmit norms and regulations. and has organized various conferences and reports for its furtherance. Eurocities. lobbyists. American firms dominate the international markets for law and engineering and maintain branches in the biggest foreign global cities. the Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance (CNCA). and other groups with a stake in world policymaking. New urban dwellers may increasingly not simply as immigrants but as transmigrants.and high-skilled immigrant workers from poorer areas. and the Transition Towns network. Transnational activity Cities increasingly participate in world political activities independently of their enclosing nation-states. Prague. Asian Network of Major Cities 21. non-governmental organizations. UCLG took responsibility for creating Agenda 21 for culture. like New York City. regionally and nationally.

 The Habitat III conference of 2016 focused on implementing these goals under the banner of a "New Urban Agenda". a member of the United Nations Development Group. Cain and Nimrod are the first city builders in the Book of Genesis.  The Habitat I conference in 1976 adopted the "Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements" which identifies urban management as a fundamental aspect of development and establishes various principles for maintaining urban habitats. has been a primary force in promoting the Habitat conferences. and since the first Habitat conference has used their declarations as a framework for issuing loans for urban infrastructure The bank's structural adjustment programs contributed to urbanization in the Third World by creating incentives to move to cities. (UN-Habitat plays an advisory role in evaluating the quality of a locality's governance. D. the European Union concurrently approved an "Urban Agenda for the European Union" known as the Pact of Amsterdam. working with the UN Environmental Programme. the UN Development Programme. The four mechanisms envisio 14ned for effecting the New Urban Agenda are (1) national policies promoting integrated sustainable development. Representation in culture Cities figure prominently in traditional Western mythology. the World Health Organization. The World Bank. and grant distribution around the issue of urban poverty. and (4) effective financing frameworks. appearing in the Bible in both evil and holy forms.  The Habitat II conference in 1996 called for cities to play a leading role in this program. UN-Habitat coordinates the UN urban agenda. intended to coordinate UN activities related to housing and settlements. The United Nations Educational.  The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro resulted in a set of international agreements including Agenda 21 which establishes principles and plans for sustainable development. UNESCO's capacity to select World Heritage Sites and maintain them through Public/social/private partnerships gives the organization significant influence over cultural capital. In Sumerian mythology Gilgamesh built the walls of Uruk. (3) long-term integrated urban and territorial planning.) The Bank's policies have tended to focus on bolstering real estate markets through credit and technical assistance. . and the World Bank. the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. symbolized by Babylon and Jerusalem. (2) stronger urban governance. knowledge sharing. Just before this conference. which subsequently advanced the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals  In January 2002 the UN Commission on Human Settlements became an umbrella agency called the United Nations Human Settlements Programme or UN-Habitat.The United Nations System has been involved in a series of events and declarations dealing with the development of cities during this period of rapid urbanization.) to guide policymaking. UNESCO has increasingly focused on cities as key sites for influencing cultural governance.C. the UN General Assembly in December 1977 authorized the United Nations Commission Human Settlements and the HABITAT Centre for Human Settlements. Scientific and Cultural Organization.  Citing the Vancouver Declaration. and historic preservation funding. It has developed various city networks including the International Coalition of Cities against Racism and the Creative Cities Network. a United Nations specialized agency. The World Bank and UN-Habitat in 1999 jointly established the Cities Alliance (based at the World Bank headquarters in Washington. tourism.

and Trip Advisor are examples of innovations in this context. Tokyo. communicating. The name anti-urbanism refers to various types of ideological opposition to cities. or even a regulatory authority or an entrenched service business. This and other political ideologies strongly influence narratives and themes in discourse about cities. TYPES OF CITIES The prospect of urban innovation excites the imagination. Elites live in these cities. Implications for city leaders: Leaders should try to establish a setting where entrepreneurs can create solutions that improve quality of life — without added government expense. London. private entrepreneurs and civic entrepreneurs need to match projects to specific circumstances. wealthy and poor.Cities can be perceived in terms of extremes or opposites: at once liberating and oppressive. Legacy City Examples: London. however. cities symbolize their home societies. and developed vs. An effective starting point is to break cities into four segments across two distinctions: legacy vs. Airbnb is an example of a win-win quality improvement: landlords realize more cash flow from their assets. and other forms of popular culture have supplied visions of future cities both utopian and dystopian. traffic congestion began to appear in such films as The Fast Lady (1962) and Playtime (1967) Literature. painters. Detroit. a utopian exercise. Other early cinematic representations of cities in the twentieth century generally depicted them as technologically efficient spaces with smoothly functioning systems of automobile transport. organized and chaotic. and filmmakers have produced innumerable works of art concerning the urban experience. In turn. What’s appealing for intellectuals in Copenhagen or Amsterdam is unlikely to help millions of workers in Jakarta or Lagos. But dreaming up what a “smart city” will look like in some gleaming future is. To really make a difference. and even the most innovative approach can never achieve universal impact. film. Fritz Lang conceived the idea for his influential 1927 film Metropolis (film) while visiting Times Square and marveling at the nighttime neon lighting. Writers. Segment 1: Developed Economy. By the 1960s. Classical and medieval literature includes a genre of descriptions which treat of city features and history. Such opposition may result from identification of cities with oppression and the ruling elite. Singapore Characteristics: Any intervention in a legacy city has to dismantle something that existed before — a road or building. Yelp. The prospect of expanding. and increasingly interdependent world cities has given rise to images such as Nylonkong (NY. emerging economies. Modern authors such as Charles Dickens and James Joyce are famous for evocative descriptions of their home cities. Slow demographic growth in developed economies creates a zero-sum situation (which is part of why the licensed cabs vs Uber/Lyft contest is so heated). Zillow. Hong Kong) and visions of a single world- encompassing ecumenopolis. The messy truth is that cities are not the same. so solutions arise that primarily help users spend their excess cash. by its nature. and customers gain both . new cities. whether because of their culture or their political relationship with the country. The opportunities to innovate will differ greatly by segment.

Kazakhstan. . water. The urban areas have few existing physical or social structures to dismantle as they grow. demographic and economic tailwinds that help to boost returns. The downside? If this chance is missed. There is also immediate ROI for investments in basic services as population moves in. They should also encourage sources of repayment for such investments beyond just user fees. Large-scale examples include Hong Kong’s historic real estate subsidy for MTR rail from the airport to downtown. notably with respect to the roads. Waze.better choice and lower costs in their travel lodging options. bridges. Compelling solutions that focus on the usefulness of existing infrastructure — for example. there is an opportunity to create value by improving efficiency and livability. Similarly. Bay Area Bikeshare. and they can be location specific. new urban agglomerations will be characterized by informal sprawl and new settlements will be hard to reach after the fact with power. in these cities there is an important chance to build it right the first time. or the per-liter subsidies for private urban water and sanitation providers in Algiers and many other cities. traffic-route optimization or ride sharing or more effective trash pickup — also can be essentially self-funded when subsides are not available. because they capture new revenues from new users. Singapore (historically) Characteristics: These cities tend to have high population growth and high growth rates in GDP per capita. and others). hence fewer entrenched obstacles to new offerings. education. roads. New City Examples: Phu My Hung. Implications for entrepreneurs: Denizens of developed legacy cities have discretionary income. but with fast-growing populations and severe congestion. Solutions should trend toward entertainment. Jakarta Characteristics: Most physical and institutional structures are already in place in these megacities. Motivate (the operator of CitiBike. China. This means that entrepreneurs should focus on highly targeted solutions that work for defined segments of the population. to better use what already exists. Implications for entrepreneurs: Focus on public-private partnerships (PPP). city leaders should encourage enterprises that create jobs directly (Lyft or Uber) or that indirectly facilitate expansion of work (Angie’s List or Handy). Legacy City Examples: Mumbai. Vietnam. and power that will determine both economic competitiveness and quality of life for decades. and Luxe (a web-based valet parking service) are examples. Suzhou. Segment 3: Emerging Economy. and social networking. São Paolo. Turo (formerly RelayRides). and sanitation. Implications for city leaders: Leaders should loosen restrictions so that private finance can invest in improvements to physical infrastructure. and Waste Zero are examples. OpenTable (a restaurant reservations service). Astana. Finally. and there is a market of customers with cash to pay for these benefits. There are opportunities to combine creative financing with thoughtful use of new sensor and big-data technologies to create projects that contribute to building sustainable cities. Segment 2: Emerging Economy.

Next. but that’s not the whole story.Implications for city leaders: Leaders should first focus on building hard infrastructure that will support services such as schools. usually in close proximity to a true municipality. Global urban innovators will do well to consider the different situations and approaches across the four segments and to match goals and financing appropriately. These factors include easy transit. hospitals. New City Examples and characteristics: Such cities are very rare. and insurance. This helps to facilitate commerce among trusted parties in a situation where some institutions and business norms. it’s too soon to think about optimizing existing infrastructure or establishing amusing ways for wealthy people to spend their disposable income. so innovation in many situations has to be led also by private capital with a focus on interventions that pay for themselves. Examples of these initiatives include New Songdo City in South Korea. such as courts and contracts. Segment 4: Developed Economy. For example. clean air and water. integrated real-estate developments with an urban theme. real-time video interaction) to developments including New Songdo City in Korea and Lavasa in India to improve both the delivery of civic services and to attract employers. banking. Implications for city leaders: These satellites of existing metropolises compete for jobs and to attract talented participants in the creative economy. almost all self-proclaimed “new cities” in the developed world are in fact large. So are solutions. . All the moment. Implications for entrepreneurs: Align with city leaders on services that are important to knowledge workers. Entrepreneurs should focus on applications and services that address likely “institutional voids” ranging from inconsistent electric power to the slow enforcement of contracts. Most cities can’t pay directly for “smartness. Elites can be distracted by cool technology and tourist-friendly innovations. Masdar City in Abu Dhabi. and parks. and then releases the cash to the seller. and support for arts and recreation. Cisco has deployed telepresence technologies (high-quality. Cities are different. they can encourage commercial platforms for entrepreneurs to create services including data connectivity. green space. ranging from political leaders to academic writing to vendor enthusiasm.” and often they can’t even finance basic infrastructure. The current buzz around “smart cities” is driven by many forces. holds buyer payments for B2B transactions until goods are received satisfactorily. This also might be done through PPP arrangements. are not fully developed to Western expectations. and Hafen City Hamburg in Germany. a unit of Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba. Implications for entrepreneurs: In these cities. Leaders should focus on hard infrastructure that reduces costs for companies and on the soft infrastructure that positions the city high on the quality-of-life metrics that appeal to creative-economy workers. and help build the cities’ brand. Alibaba Escrow.

Visualisation of development purposes. their interests. issues. performance criteria. Confrontational process. the management of the urban environment. policies and and defining clear regulate land use for the defining growth issues methods for the desired outcomes Form administrative area. existing urban areas and local authority boundaries. political process. economically and decisions. indicators to monitor process to achieve progress. areas. development issues decision rules to (eg. Continuous process Some information of plan review and Discrete process leading Discrete process leading sharing. change(s)). driven by adjustment. sector policies and Purpose development and renewable resources. objectives. and Some regulation of land culturally while Considers economic. Context. policies and methods. environmental protection. roads. application of use and development safeguarding resources social and performance criteria. their own and mutual goals. not be involved and/or models as part of a negotiation. option of plan changes. alternative Process consultation on draft consultation on draft Key stakeholders may development plans and political plans. Methods are regulatory Strategy identifying means of critical spatial Schedule of policies and implementation Schedule of issues. structure plans objectives. spatial goals and key Base map showing main areas of change. LGA Regional Attribute Land-use planning RMA planning Growth/Urban Spatial planning Development Strategy Growth/urban Promoting the development strategies sustainable management have emerged in Shaping spatial of natural and physical recognition of the need development resources – controlling to sustainably manage through the Regulating land use and adverse environmental growth/development so coordination of the development through effects from the use and that communities can spatial impacts of designation of areas of development of benefit socially. . that relate to particular administrative area. of areas and sites for addressed in a plan residential zones). to adoption of final to adoption of final plan – debate on alternative Mutual learning and blueprint plan. Confrontational process. Maps are schematic. through zoning and for future generations. and Their aim is to provide effects of application of long-term guidance for development. part of a collaborative driven by debate on instigated through instigated through process. development models as information sharing. across functional Mapping of designation areas that need to be Mapping of areas (eg. Stakeholders use the have marginal collaborative Stakeholders use the legal processes to involvement. process to protect and protect and promote Development of Stakeholders use the promote their interests. protection.

whilst of change through land-use regulation via implementation and other mitigating local prescriptive regulation local level mechanisms. market and collection of residential. through visioning Checking of proposals are assessed. Sets out a vision and development. externalities through and development plans/development including land-use conditions and planning contributions. Environmental effects council documents. mitigation of partnerships and environmental effects. commercial demands and needs. appraisal/strategic addressing these so that Generation of environment the vision may be alternatives and assessment. whole) plan subject to whole plan. policies and (ie. NGOs. District critical spatial Profile). assessment. regulating development. how it fits with other Analysis of options principles. May change determined by Final plan determined Environment through adversarial inquisitorial Procedural through adversarial Court/appeals process Environment examination of the safeguards inquiry on parts of plan on parts of (or the whole) Court/appeals process soundness and subject to objections. stakeholders. submissions. options assisted by Sets out council’s sustainability philosophy for growth. contributions. Methods by broad planning Criteria-based approach. and industrial areas. which is Final plan through adversarial notified. sectoral policy demands. Seeks to influence decisions in other Seeks to direct change sectors by building and control investment Seeks to Seeks to manage joint ownership of activity in land use manage/mitigate growth/development the strategy and a through prescriptive environmental impacts through influencing Delivery and range of incentives regulation. and the social. land-use zones). informed methods. regulation and agreements. planning agreements. A corporate A document of the document of the A document of the planning authority A corporate document local authority in planning authority providing guidance to Ownership and of the local shared ownership providing guidance to applicants on the policy authority/some shared with communities other professional regulation of community ownership with and other planners promoting and development and territorial authorities. Examines the development trends Mapping of constraints current capacity of and drivers. plan subject to on parts of (or the coherence of the submissions. Sets the scene and Building makes predictions for understanding of the future (ie. Final plan incorporated Final plan determined into RPS. Identifies issues and and strategic choice through sustainability provides means of approaches. impacts of stakeholders. Bargaining and Looks at possible new economic and negotiation with Sets out issues. . achieved. appraisal/strategic proposes objectives. environmental policies and methods. areas for development environmental objectors and other objectives.

of the strategy. monitoring. Measures performance of the Measures conformance plan in influencing of the plan’s policies and Formal evaluation may sector policy and proposals with planning be commissioned/little decision-making. control outcomes. proposals. of components of review of whole plan. spatial development context for and testing of strategic and the application implementation of choice options. Data informs Data provides portrait of Data beginning to Monitoring and Periodic but infrequent understanding of plan area as general inform development review review of whole plan. Periodic but infrequent Regular adjustment Periodic but infrequent review of whole plan. plan around consistent vision. .