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Composite Materials

Design, Analysis & Applications

Dr. S. Kamran Afaq

Composite Materials

OUTLINE
• Introduction Week-1

• Mechanical Behavior
Week-2,3
• Laminated Composite Materials

• Sandwich Structures Week-4

• Analysis and Design Week-5

• Manufacturing Processes
Week-6
• Applications

Composite Materials OUTLINE Mechanical Behavior • Unidirectional Composite (Revision) • Off-Axis Stiffness/Compliance Matrix • Off-Axis Engineering Constants • Failure Criteria • Laminate Theory • Classical Laminate Theory .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory .

• The strength of bonding is as strong as it needs to be (the laminate acts as a single lamina with special integrated properties). . • The bonding is non-shear-deformable (no lamina can slip relative to another).Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory Kirchhoff Hypothesis • Normal remain straight (they do not bend) • Normal remain un-stretched (they keep the same length) • Normal remain normal (they always make a right angle to the neutral plane) Perfect Bonding • The bonding itself is infinitesimally small (there is no flaw or gap between layers).

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory Displacement Equation (A) .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory Strain tensor  u   u  dx   u x  u x    dx x v u v y  .  xy   y y x .

t.Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory (A) Differentiate equation (A) w.r.’x’ and ‘y’  uo    2 wo     2    x    x    x   x o   2 x     o     vo    wo    y    y   z y      z 2  (B)    o     y   y   xy   xy   xy   uo vo    2 wo   y  x  2 xy      .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory  k  S k  k   x   S 11 S 12 S 16    x          y    S 21 S 22 S 26    y     S 61 S 62 S 66   xy   xy k  k k .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory  k  Q k  k   x  Q11 Q12 Q16    x        Stresses in ‘k’th   y   Q 21 Q 22 Q 26    y  layer   Q Q Q     xy k  61 62 66   xy  k k .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory Force and Moment Resultants h/2 h/2 Nx    x dz . Mx    x zdz h / 2 h / 2  N x  h / 2  x   x  N z k 1        y   y N   dz      y  dz  N  h / 2   k 1 z k     xy   xy   xy  k  M x  h / 2  x   x  N z k 1        y   y M   zdz      y  zdz M  h / 2   k 1 z k     xy   xy  xy k .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory h/2 h/2 Nx    x dz . Force Resultants  Nx   x  N z k 1      N y     Q k   y  dz  N  k 1 zk    xy  xy   Nx    xo   x    N  o N    N y    z Q k   y  dz   z Q k   y  zdz z k 1 z k 1 (C)  N  k 1 k  o  k 1 k    xy   xy   xy  . Mx    x zdz h / 2 h / 2 N   h / 2 Q  xy dz M   h/ 2 Q εxy zdz h/2 h/ 2 . Now. from equation (B).

Now.Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory h/2 h/2 Nx    x dz . Mx    x zdz h / 2 h / 2 N   h / 2 Q  xy dz M   h/ 2 Q εxy zdz h/2 h/ 2 . from equation (B). Moment Resultants Mx   x  N z k 1      M y     Q k   y  zdz M  k 1 zk    xy   xy  Mx    xo   x    N  o N   2  M y    z Q k   y  zdz   z Q k   y  z dz z k 1 z k 1 (D) M  k 1 k  o  k 1 k    xy   xy   xy  .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory By Integration z k 1  zk dz  z k 1  z k z k 1 z z 2 2 zk zdz  2 k 1 k z k 1 z k 1  z k 3 3 zk  2 z dz 3 .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory By defining N A   Q k zk 1  zk  k 1 B   Q k N z 2 k 1 z 2 k  k 1 2 D   Q k N z 3 k 1 z 3 k  k 1 3 .

 N x   A11 A12 A16    xo   B11 B12 B16    x          Ny    A22 A26    yo    B22 B26    y   N   sym A66   xyo   sym B66   xy   xy    M x   B11 B12 B16    xo   D11 D12 D16    x          y M B22 B26    yo    D22 B26    y  M   sym B66   xyo   sym B66   xy   xy   Finally  N   A B   o      M   B D     .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory Equation (C) & (D) can be write as.

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory B : Coupling  N   A B   o  Stiffness Matrix A : Extensional     Stiffness Matrix    M B D     N x   A11 A12 A16 B11 B12 B16    xo  N      y   A12 A22 A26 B12 B22 B26    yo   N xy   A16 A26 A66 B16 B26 B66   xyo       M x   B11 B12 B16 D11 D12 D16    x   M y   B12 B22 B26 D12 D22 D26    y       M xy   B16 B26 B66 D16 D26 D66   xy  D :Bending Stiffness Matrix .

D26 : Bending and Twisting Coupling .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Classical Laminate Theory  N x   A11 A12 A16 B11 B12 B16    xo  N      y   A12 A22 A26 B12 B22 B26    yo   N xy   A16 A26 A66 B16 B26 B66   xyo      M  x   B11 B12 B16 D11 D12 D16    x   M y   B12 B22 B26 D12 D22 D26    y        xy   B16 M B26 B66 D16 D26 D66   xy  • The presence of ‘B’ shows a coupling b/w stretching and bending • For a symmetric laminate (B=0) • A16. A26 : Tension and Shear Coupling • D16.

The stiffness matrix for both layer is define as. The stiffness matrix for each layer is same as example 1. Top and bottom layers are each 3 mm thick and middle layer is of 5 mm. .7 Example Calculate A.  20 0. of 5 mm and 3 mm thicknesses.0 0 GPa  0 0 0.B and D Matrices for two ply laminate [0/45].Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Example Calculate A.7 0  Q  0.7 2.B and D Matrices for three ply laminate [45/0/45].

.7 2.  20 0.2 Discuss the effect of stacking sequences for a eight ply laminate having equal thicknesses (different type of coupling terms).B and D Matrices for four ply laminate [±45]s. The stiffness matrix for both layer is define as.0 0 GPa  0 0 0.7 Exercise-6. (a) [+458] (b) [452/-452]s (c) [±452]s The stiffness matrix for each layer is same as example 1.1 Calculate A.7 0  Q  0.Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Assignment 6 Laminate Analysis Excercise-6. Each layer is of 3 mm thickness.

Laminate = [15/-30/-15/30].32 Nx = 2000 N/mm Ny = 1000 N/mm Nxy = 500 N/mm Example Find the principal stresses and strains in each layer .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Laminate Analysis Example The loads are applied to a laminate. ET = 9 GPa. [1.6. GLT = 3.0/1. vLT = 0. Find plane strain and curvatures.5/1.5/1.0 ] mm EL= 38 GPa.

Thank You .