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# Composite Materials

Design, Analysis & Applications

Dr. S. Kamran Afaq

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application

Composite Materials

OUTLINE
Mechanical Behavior

• Unidirectional Composite
• Longitudinal Strength and Modulus
• Transverse Strength and Modulus
• Shear Modulus

• Mechanical Characterization
• Lamina Properties
• Stress Strain Relationship

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application

Composite Materials

Revision

• Weight and Volume Fraction
Relation b/w Weight and Volume Fraction

m
Wm  Vm
c

f
Wf  Vf
c
Composite Density

c   f V f  mVm

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application

Composite Materials
Mechanical Behavior
Unidirectional Composite

A unidirectional composite consists of parallel fibers embedded in a matrix

 L , EL
Longitudinal

T

L Transverse
T
 T , ET

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Longitudinal (Parallel to fibers) Transverse (Perpendicular to fibers) .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness Assumptions • Fibers are uniform in properties and diameter • Fibers are continuous and parallel through out the Composite • Perfect bonding and no slippage Strain experienced by fiber. matrix and composite are equal  f  m  c T Fm T Ff L Fc .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness Fm Fc  Fm  F f Ff Fc  c Ac   m Am   f A f T T Am Af c  m  f L Ac Ac .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness Fm For the parallel fibers. the volume fraction are equal to the area fraction Ff Fc Af Am Vf  and Vm  T Ac Ac T L  L   c   mVm   f V f .

t strain (which is same Fm for composite.Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness Differentiate w. fiber and matrix Ff Fc d c d f d m T  Vf  Vm T d d d L  d  EL  E f V f  EmVm E    d  .r.

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness Rule of Mixtures  c   mVm   f V f EL  E f V f  EmVm .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness f Ef m Em Vf Vf 0 100 0 100  c   mVm   f V f EL  E f V f  EmVm .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness  Fiber f Composite c Matrix m c   c   mVm   f V f .

t=5 mm).A carbon composite and glass composite each have fiber mass fraction of 60%.1 1. ρm = 1200 kg/m3) 2. (Data as above) .For a composite plate ( l=200 mm. E = 72 GPa.Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Exercise 2.00 GPa. matrix and Composite at its ultimate fracture. b=100. ρf = 2550 kg/m3) Carbon fiber (σ= 4. Calculate its ultimate strength and modulus. ρf = 1790 kg/m3) For the same matrix (σ=60 MPa.00 GPa. E= 228 GPa.45 GPa. E=3. Calculate Force in fiber. Glass fiber (σ= 3.

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Exercise 2.2 .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Transverse Strength and Stiffness σc Assumptions Fiber • Fibers are uniform in properties and diameter • Continuous and Parallel • Composite is stressed in Transverse direction Each layer will carry the same load and stress Matrix  f  m  c T L T .

 f  m  c Gives. Matrix 1 T ET  Vf Vm L  T E f Em .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Transverse Stiffness σc Fiber Total deformation of composite.

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Comparison b/w Longitudinal and Transverse Stiffness Fibers are much less effective in raising the ET than EL EL  E f V f  EmVm Ef 1 ET  Vf Vm Em  Ef Em 0 100 Vf .

which depends on relative properties of the constituents and their volume fraction S  1  V f 1  Em E f    1  4V f   1  Em E f  12  .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Transverse Strength • Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness are improve by fibers volume fraction • Fibers geometry is unable to sustain transverse load • Transverse Strength is controlled by the Matrix ultimate strength  mu  TU  S S is the strength reduction factor.

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior T Unidirectional Composite L Shear Stiffness T Shear loading Fiber τ  f m c Total Shear deformation  f   m  c Matrix m  f Gives. G f Gm f GLT  GmV f  G f Vm m .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior T Unidirectional Composite L Poisson’s Ratio T vLT : Relate σL to εT (Major) vTL : Relate σT to εL (Minor) Total deformation f c  f  m  c (1) m  f  t f  T  f  t f  f  L  f .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior T Unidirectional Composite L Poisson’s Ratio T  f  t f  T  f  t f  f  L  f Fiber  m  tm  T m  tmm  L m f c  c  tc  T c  tcLT  L c m Since Matrix  L m   L  f   L c So from equation (1). tc LT  t f  f  tmm  LT TL  LT  V f  f  Vmm and  EL ET .

00 GPa. Glass fiber (E = 72 GPa. .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Exercise 2.35) Assume fiber are istropic. ET. vLT). 50%). Calculate its mechanical properties (EL. GLT. v=.3 1. v=0.2) Matrix (E=3.A carbon composite have fiber volume fraction of (25%.

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite σ11 . EL L T Longitudinal Transverse x2  T . E11 T  L . E22 x1 x3 . ET σ22 .

v12 E22 G12 .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Characterization E11.

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Characterization E11. v12 ε1 ε2 .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Characterization E11. v12  Composite 1 1  E11 = 1 /1 n12 = -2 /1 .

n21 E11 /E22 .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Characterization E22 ε2 E22 = 2 / 2 n12= .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Characterization G12 Ex  12 T 4 G12  4 1 1 212 G12 = 12 / 12    E x E1 E2 E1 .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Lamina Properties A single layer of a laminated composite material is known as Lamina x3 x1 x2 .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Lamina Properties Stress Tensor σ33 σ31 σ32  11  12  13  σ13  ij   21  22  23  σ23 σ11  31  32  33  σ21 σ12 σ22 x3 x1 x2 .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Lamina Properties Stress Tensor  11  12  13   1  6  5   ij   21  22  23   ij   6  2  4   31  32  33   5  4  3  .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Lamina Properties Isotropic Properties Anisotropic Properties By Applying Tensile Load • Same modulus in all directions • No change in angles of sides • Deformation is direction independent COMPOSITE • Directional Modulus • Changes in angles • Deformation is direction dependent .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Lamina Properties Orthotropic Properties Deformation response of Orthotropic Material is same as Anisotropic But. if load is applied in a specific direction. they behave as Isotropic This specific direction is same as the Axes of Symmetry of Material .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Stress-Strain Relationships Isotropic Materials   E (Hooks Law) 1   E  1   0 0 0   1   E E E   1      1  0 0 0      2 E E E  2   3    E   E 1 E 0 0 0   3       4   0 0 0 1 0 0   4  G  5   0 0 0 0 1 0   5     G    6   1   6  0 0 0 0 0  G .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Stress-Strain Relationships Orthotropic Materials Nine independent Material Constants .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Stress-Strain Relationships Orthotropic Materials For Plane Stress State 3  4  5  0 Compliance Matrix    S   .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Stress-Strain Relationships Orthotropic Materials For Plane Stress State    S      Q  Rigidity Matrix [Q] = [S]-1 .

t the fibre or 1-2 system 1 y θ 2 x .r. that is at an angle ‘θ’ w.Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Stress-Strain Relationships Transformation Coordinates Consider x-y system.

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Stress-Strain Relationships Transformation Coordinates Stresses in 1-2 system  12  T  x y Transformation Matrix  c2 s2 2cs  T    s 2 c 2  2cs  y 1  sc sc c 2  s 2    θ c  cos  . s  sin  2 x .

Q   T QT  1 .  x y  T 1  12 x  x y  T 1 Q 12  12  T  x y  x y  T 1 QT  x y  x y  Q  x y Where.Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Stress-Strain Relationships 1 Transformation Coordinates y Stress-Strain θ  12  Q 12  12  T  x y 2 So.

Q   T QT  1 Similarly for Compliance Matrix S   T S T  1 .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Stress-Strain Relationships Transformation Coordinates  x y  Q  x y Stress-Strain Where.

[Q]60° . [Q]90° .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Stress-Strain Relationships Example Find [Q]0° .

[Q]45° Solution .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Stress-Strain Relationships Example Find [Q]0° .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Stress-Strain Relationships Example .

E11=130. S90 . Q45.Q30.28. Vf = 60% . Q90 3.2 v12=. S45. 2.Carbon-Epoxy Composite.S30. Find [Q] and [S].1 1. E22=1. G12=7 .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Assignment 3.

Composite Materials Thank you .