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Original Research Article

Health Prospect
Open Access
Journal of Public Health
Bleeding time and Clotting Time in Healthy Male and
Female College Students of Karukutty Village, Kerala
Kumar SS1, VK JM2, George J2, Mukkadan JK3
2
Jasira Mohamed VK, Jissa George: PG Student, Department of Physiology, LIMSAR, Kerala
3
Joseph Kurian Mukkadan: Research Director & Ph.D Guide in Medical Physiology, Little Flower Medical Research Centre, Kerala
Abstract

Background
It was reported that females are having high Bleeding time and clotting time than males. The reason for prolonged
bleeding and clotting time in females is not clear. The studies on Bleeding time and Clotting time in healthy male and
female college students of Kerala are inadequate. Therefore the present study was undertaken to measure and com-
pare bleeding time and clotting time in male and female college students.

Methodology
Two hundred and twenty two healthy male and female college students, were enrolled in the present study. Bleeding
time was estimated by Duke Method and clotting time was estimated by capillary tube method.

Results
Mean age of the participants of present study is 19±1. We have observed higher bleeding time (BT) and clotting
time (CT) in females (155.45±34.91 seconds and 318.18±64.40 seconds) than males (96.06±55.05 seconds and
223.01±50.74 seconds) which is statistically significant (p value <0.001). Minimum and Maximum bleeding time ob-
served in females is 2minutes and 4 minutes respectively while in males, it is 30 seconds and 3 minutes 30 seconds
respectively. Minimum and maximum clotting time observed in females is 3minutes 30 seconds and 10 minutes re-
spectively while in males, it is 2 minutes 30 seconds and 5 minutes respsectively.

Conclusion
Our study suggests that bleeding and clotting time are slightly higher in females. We recommend further detailed study
in this area.

Keywords: bleeding time; blood coagulation; Kerala.

Introduction platelets contain defective or low levels of glycoprotein
Spontaneous arrest of bleeding from injured capillar- IIb/IIIa (GpIIb/IIIa), which is a receptor for fibrinogen. (10-
ies and venules is called as hemostasis, which includes 11) Clotting time (CT) is the time interval from onset of
vasoconstriction, platelet plug formation, clot formation, bleeding to formation of first fibrin thread. Normal value
clot retraction and clot lysis. (1-4) Test for hemostasis is of clotting time is 5 to 8 minutes. (12) CT is affected by
performed before surgeries. Bleeding time (BT) can be clotting factors. Defect or absence of one or more clotting
defined as the time interval between the movement when factors can cause prolonged CT. (13)
bleeding starts and the movement when the bleeding
stops due to formation of temporary platelet plug. Bleed- It was reported that females had high clotting time than
ing ordinarily lasts for 3 to 4 minutes. (5) BT and CT are males. (14) This might be due to presence of more
performed during blood transfusion, diagnosis of platelet amounts of estrogen in females which increases CT
disorders and a variety of forms of treatment in hospitals. and decreases plasma fibrinogen levels. (15) Presence
(6) Bleeding time is affected by platelet function and acti- of more amounts of estrogen in females may suppress
vation as well as interactions between endothelial cells in
the artery, aggregation and coagulation pathways. (7-9) Correspondence:
Bleeding time is prolonged in thrombocytopenia, dissemi- 1
Sai Sailesh Kumar
nated intravascular coagulation (DIC), Bernard-Soulier
disease, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder
Asst. Professor, Department of Physiology
that causes deficiency of the receptor for von willebrand Travancore Medical College, Kollam, Kerala.
factor and Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia in which the E-mail: saisailesh.kumar@gmail.com
Health Prospect: Journal of Public Health | Vol 12 | Issue I | May-Aug, 2013

We recommend further detailed study Data Collection in this area. which is statistically significant (p value <0. of estrogen which prolongs clotting time by decreasing ed when bleeding stops.74 cles related to bleeding time and clotting time in male and seconds and in females is.91 <0. Hence. a puncture is made on finger tip and nitric oxide synthesis. (30) Presence of more amounts of estrogen in of physiology in Little Flower Medical Research Centre. However. The timer is started when the blood first enters one acetate (NETA) induced significantly lower plasma the tube. (38) In the present study we have ob- to each subject. partment of Physiology.40 seconds.0. (23) Thrombocytosis is associated with an increased CT (seconds) 223.J. Study protocol was approved by In- stitutional Ethics Committee of Little Flower Medical Re- search Centre. and hormonal effect on blood This retrospective study was carried out in the department vessels. 12 (I): 7-9 Online Access available from: http://www. which is statistically significant (p value <0.18±64.05 155. antithrombin and plasmi- every 30 seconds a piece of the tube is broken. (24) In contrast fibrinogen levels in the plasma increases with age which shortens clotting time in The mean value of bleeding time in males is 96. (29) However.45±34.74 318. indi- boembolism. Discussion Materials and Methods Prolonged bleeding time in females may be due to the Study Design and Participants differences of soft tissue. testosterone does not adversely affect blood The purpose and procedure of the study were explained coagulation status. (16-17) Data Analysis Short BT in male may be due to enhanced number of The analysis of data was done by SPSS 20.001). while Male Female p-value thrombocytosis was more frequent among younger peo. Angamaly.org. Antony. The mean value of clotting time in males is 223. The Capillary Tube method involves col. (18-22) ent sample t-test is used for data analysis. JHProspect 2013. in- female college students of Kerala. Kerala platelet function and prolongs bleeding time.np/jhprospect . De- and collected data from the student at the same time.45±34. lecting blood in a capillary tube that does not contain anti. data about the difference of the BT between sexes. Written informed consent was taken from served lower clotting time in males than females. Independ- platelet reactivity and aggregation. (3) the time recorded when blood first appears. Table: 1 Mean values of BT and CT in male and female college students. the present dicates that females are having more clotting time than study was undertaken to compare bleeding time and clot.001). (28) have observed higher clotting time in females than males.01±50. The blood is carefully blotted every 30 seconds. of thromboxane A2 and facilitates platelet aggregation. Even after thorough review of literature.40 <0. (16-17) We agree with these studies as total of two hundred and twenty two healthy male and fe. which makes them more prone to throm. ed. with care begin taken Higher clotting time in females may be due to presence that the wound site is not touched. (36) Low doses of 17beta-estradio (E2) and norethister- coagulant. seconds and in females is 155. Kerala.06±55. BT (seconds) 96. Conclusion Our study suggests that bleeding and clotting time are higher in females. The preset study was conducted at 9 am in the morning for the convenience of students. (35) Researchers found signifi- bleeding to stoppage of bleeding should be reported as cantly lower concentration of fibrinogen in women taking bleeding time. Kerala for his valu- able suggestions. Karukutty. The time is record. (25-27) cates that females are having higher bleeding time than males. we have observed higher bleeding time in females than male college students were participated voluntarily in the males. Bleeding Time was estimated by Duke method (28) (34) We agree with this study as we have observed short- whereas Clotting Time was estimated by Capillary Tube er bleeding time in males when compared with females. A bleeding time. males. Angamaly. (31- 33) It was reported that testosterone increases synthesis Students with any hematological disorder were exclud. oral hormone replacement therapy vs.01±50.18±64. it was reported that testosterone inhibits platelet aggregation and this effect was dependent on endothelial In Duke method. Professor. N. many reports demonstrated conflicting medical camp comprising 110 males and 112 females. 318. The time nogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). which disagree with our study.001 risk of thrombosis. 8 Bleeding time and Clotting Time in Healthy Male and Female College Students of Karukutty Village.06±55. with the consequence that throm. It was reported that platelet count were shown to decrease Results progressively with age. (37) We agree with these studies as we two pieces of capillary tube. The outside of the tube is carefully wiped and levels of factor VII. compared with pla- is recorded when a strand of fibrin appears between the cebo treatment. However. The time interval from onset of plasma fibrinogen levels. ting time in male and female college students. method. we didn’t find arti. fibrinogen.05 elderly people.91 seconds. all the participants.nphss. the control group. females may suppress platelet function and prolongs Angamaly and Kristu Raja Church. Two investigators of our study performed the tests for bleeding and clotting time Acknowledgement We hereby acknowledge Dr. bocytopenia was more common among the elderly.001 ple. Little Flower Institute of Medical Sciences and Research.

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