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# Formulas and Tables

for Elementary Statistics, Ninth Edition, by Mario F. Triola

Ch. 2: Descriptive Statistics Ch. 6: Confidence Intervals (one population)
Sx
x Mean p̂  E  p  p̂  E Proportion
n
p̂q̂
Å n
Sf . x where E 5 za>2
x Mean (frequency table)
Sf
x2E,m,x1E Mean
S(x 2 x) 2 s
s
Å
Standard deviation
!n
where E 5 za>2 (s known )
n21
n(Sx2 ) 2 (Sx) 2 Standard deviation s
!n
or E 5 ta>2 (s unknown)
s
Å n(n 2 1)
(shortcut)

n3S(f . x2 )4 2 3S(f . x)4 2 Standard deviation (n 2 1)s2 (n 2 1)s2
s , s2 , Variance
Å n(n 2 1)
(frequency table) xR2 x L2

variance  s2 Ch. 6: Sample Size Determination

Ch. 3: Probability 3za>24 2 . 0.25
n5 Proportion
P(A or B) 5 P(A) 1 P(B) if A, B are mutually exclusive E2
P(A or B) 5 P(A) 1 P(B) 2 P(A and B) 3za>24 2p̂q̂
if A, B are not mutually exclusive n5 Proportion (p̂ and q̂ are known)
E2
P(A and B) 5 P(A) . P(B) if A, B are independent
P(A and B) 5 P(A) . P(B 0A) if A, B are dependent
za>2s 2
n 5  B R Mean
E
P(A) 5 1 2 P(A) Rule of complements
n!
nPr 5 Permutations (no elements alike) Ch. 8: Confidence Intervals (two populations)
(n 2 r)!
n!
Permutations (n1 alike, ...) (p̂1 2 p̂2 ) 2 E , (p1 2 p2 ) , (p̂1 2 p̂2 ) 1 E
n1! n2! . . . nk!
n! p̂1q̂1 p̂2q̂2
nCr 5 Combinations
Å n1
(n 2 r)! r! where E 5 za>2 1
n2
Ch. 4: Probability Distributions (x1 2 x2 ) 2 E , (m1 2 m2 ) , (x1 2 x2 ) 1 E (Indep.) 

 x . P(x) Mean (prob. dist.) s21 s22 (df  smaller of 
 [x2 . P(x)]  2 Standard deviation (prob. dist.)
where E 5 ta>2
Å n1
1n
2
n1  1, n2  1) ‹
n! . px . qnx Binomial probability
P(x)  (s1 and s2 unknown and not assumed equal)
(n  x)! x! 
n.p 
2  n . p . q
Mean (binomial)
Variance (binomial) E 5 ta>2
sp2
Å n1
sp2
1   (df 5 n1 1 n2 2 2)
n2
‹ 
 n . p . q Standard deviation (binomial) (n 1 2 1)s21 1 (n2 2 1)s22
sp2 5
 .e
x  Poisson Distribution (n1 2 1) 1 (n2 2 1)
P(x)  where e  2.71828
x! (s1 and s2 unknown but assumed equal)

s 12 s 22
Ch. 5: Normal Distribution E 5 za>2
Å n1
1
n2 ‹
xx x
z or Standard score (s1, s2 known)
s  
x   Central limit theorem d 2 E , md , d 1 E (Matched Pairs)
 Central limit theorem sd 
x  (df  n  1)
!n
where E 5 ta>2
n (Standard error)

df  k(n  1)) t5 (df  n1  n2  2) sp2 sp2 ‹ MS(treatment) ← df  k  1 Å n1 1 F5 n2 MS(error) (n1 2 1)s21 1 (n2 2 1)s22 where sp2 5 SS(treatment) n1 1 n2 2 2 MS(treatment) 5 k21 Two means—independent. ns 2x2 k samples each of size n F5 (x1 2 x2 ) 2 (m1 2 m2 ) sp2 (num. . Inc. . but assumed equal. s1 and s2 unknown. Formulas and Tables for Elementary Statistics. den. 8: Test Statistics (two populations) S(y 2 ŷ) 2 Sy2 2 b0Sy 2 b1Sxy Å Å (p̂1 2 p̂2 ) 2 (p1 2 p2 ) se 5 or z5 Two proportions n22 n22 pq pq ŷ  E  y  ŷ  E Å n1 1 n 2 t5 (x1 2 x2 ) 2 (m1 2 m2 ) df  smaller of n1  1. s1 and s2 unknown. Pearson Education. 11: One-Way Analysis of a Variance Two means—independent. Ch. 9: Linear Correlation/Regression p̂ 2 p nSxy 2 (Sx) (Sy) z5 Proportion—one population Correlation r 5 pq "n(Sx2 ) 2 (Sx) 2"n(Sy2 ) 2 (Sy) 2 Å n nSxy 2 (Sx) (Sy) x2m Mean—one population b1 5 n(Sx2 ) 2 (Sx) 2 s> !n z5 ( known) (Sy) (Sx2 ) 2 (Sx) (Sxy) x2m Mean—one population b0 5 y 2 b1x or b0 5 n(Sx2 ) 2 (Sx) 2 s> !n t5 ( unknown) ŷ 5 b0 1 b1x Estimated eq. Inc. 2 known. by Mario F. 1 nk (xk 2 x ) 2 2 Å 1 n 1 n SS(error) 5 (n1 2 1)s21 1 . 7: Test Statistics (one population) Ch. Triola Copyright 2004 Pearson Education. 11: Two-Way Analysis of Variance F5 Standard deviation or variance— s22 two populations (where s 21 s 22) MS(interaction) Interaction: F 5 MS(error) Ch. . 1 (nk 2 1)s2k 2 SS(total) 5 S(x 2 x ) 2 d 2 md Two means—matched pairs SS(total) 5 SS(treatment) 1 SS(error) sd> !n t5 (df  n  1) s21 Ch. SS(error) SS(total) MS(error) 5 MS(total) 5 N2k N21 (x1 2 x2 ) 2 (m1 2 m2 ) Two means—independent. . Ninth Edition. Copyright © 2004. df  k  1. SS(treatment) 5 n1 (x1 2 x ) 1 . of regression line (n 2 1)s2 Standard deviation or variance— x2 5 one population s2 explained variation r2 5 total variation Ch. . z5 s 12 s 22 1. 10: Multinomial and Contingency Tables MS(row factor) Row Factor: F 5 (O 2 E) 2 Multinomial MS(error) x2 5 g (df  k  1) E MS(column factor) (O 2 E) 2 Contingency table Column Factor: F 5 MS(error) x 5 g 2 [df  (r  1)(c  1)] E (row total) (column total) where E 5 (grand total) An Addison-Wesley product. and not assumed equal. n2  1 where E  t 2se 1 1 n  n(x 0  x)2 n(x 2)  (x)2 s21 s22 ‹ Å n1 1 n2 Ch.

5) 2 (n>2) Critical Values of the Pearson Sign test for n . Ch. Formulas and Tables for Elementary Statistics. by Mario F. Triola Copyright 2004 Pearson Education. Inc. Ninth Edition. 12: Nonparametric Tests TABLE A-6 (x 1 0.

01 n(n 1 1) (2n 1 1) (matched pairs and n .05  . 25 !n>2 z5 Correlation Coefficient r T 2 n(n 1 1)>4 Wilcoxon signed ranks z5 n  .

735 H5 1 1.798 10 .514 .684 14 .834 Å 12 9 .754 .959 n1 (n1 1 n2 1 1) 6 .707 .497 .576 .666 .661 6Sd2 15 .602 .641 rs 5 1 2 Rank correlation n(n2 2 1) 16 .917 R2 Wilcoxon rank-sum R2 mR 2 (two independent 7 . 30) Å 24 4 .505 sG (2n1n2 ) (2n1n2 2 n1 2 n2 ) for n .444 .875 z5 5 sR n1n2 (n1 1 n2 1 1) samples) 8 .606 18 .396 .999 5 .575 G2a 2n1n2 1 1b 20 .482 .561 G 2 mG n1 1 n2 Runs test z5 5 25 .456 .532 ..811 .632 .590 19 .708 Kruskal-Wallis (chi-square df  k  1) 13 .468 .553 .1 N(N 1 1) n1 n2 nk 12 .950 .623 acritical value for n .765 R21 R 22 R 2k a b 2 3(N 1 1) 12 11 .878 . 30: b 6z !n 2 1 17 ..

430 40 .207 .282 pq 5 0. Pearson Education.378 50 .577 0.463 Å (n1 1 n2 ) 2 (n1 1 n2 2 1) 35 .023 0.335 .076 1.402 Ch.254 .267 Centerline: p 3 1.312 .361 . 20 30 . .220 . Copyright © 2004.361 R chart: Plot sample ranges 60 .000 2.294 .004 7 0.880 0.000 2.236 .729 0.256 LCL: D3R x chart: Plot sample means NOTE: To test H0:  0 against H1:  0.279 . reject H0 if the absolute value of r is greater UCL: x 1 A 2R than the critical value in the table.286 Centerline: R 90 .196 .574 4 0.000 3. Inc.269 100 .305 UCL: D4R 80 .483 0.000 2.419 0.330 70 .114 Å n LCL: p 2 3 6 0.000 2.924 An Addison-Wesley product. 13: Control Charts 45 . Centerline: x LCL: x 2 A 2R Control Chart Constants p chart: Plot sample proportions Subgroup Size pq n A2 D3 D4 UCL: p 1 3 Å n 2 1.

. . .” equality and becomes H 1) (This is the Do Yes “The sample data only case in you reject support the claim  which the H0 ? (Reject H 0 ) that . Pearson Education. Copyright © 2004. FINDING P-VALUES Start Left . (original claim).value P . .value is P . . Test statistic Test statistic Test statistic Test statistic Start HYPOTHESIS TEST: WORDING OF FINAL CONCLUSION Wording of final conclusion Does the “There is sufficient (This is the Yes Do Yes evidence to warrant only case in original claim contain you reject which the the condition of (Original claim H0 ? (Reject H 0 ) rejection of the claim original claim equality? contains equality) that . . .tailed What Right-tailed type of test ? Two -tailed Is Left the test statistic Right to the right or left of center ? P .value twice this area.) No “There is not sufficient (Fail to reject H 0 ) sample evidence to  support the claim that .value  area to the left of the the area to the the area to the to the right of the test statistic left of the test right of the test test statistic statistic statistic P . .) No (Fail to reject H 0 ) “There is not sufficient No evidence to warrant (Original claim rejection of the claim does not contain that . .value  twice P . (original claim).value  twice P .” is rejected. Inc. twice this area.” original claim is supported.value is P . (original claim).” An Addison-Wesley product. (original claim).value  area P .

4325 .0212 .1151 .2578 .0239 .0465 .2389 .0217 .02 .09 3.1841 .0735 .0116 .0 .0004 .1587 .0268 .0582 .1469 .2327 .8 .0197 .2033 .1446 .0594 .0113 .0274 .0051 * .0778 .0885 .0401 .3594 .645 0.0571 .0064 2.4641 NOTE: For values of z below 3.0003 .0006 .0384 . Inc.0485 .0314 .0146 .0037 .4 . Pearson Education.0084 2.0475 . NEGATIVE z Scores z 0 TABLE A-2 Standard Normal (z) Distribution: Cumulative Area from the LEFT z .9 .0301 .0526 .0721 .0022 .1762 .05 .0021 .0050 An Addison-Wesley product.06 .0013 .00 .0011 .0008 .2 .3156 .0003 .0080 .0017 .0901 .5 .0003 .0028 .0119 .0004 .0009 .3336 .4522 .0869 .5 .4443 .0059 .0154 .0694 .2643 .0040 .2420 .1131 .0708 .3632 .2119 .0436 .3192 .0009 .0250 .0003 .2236 .2296 .0025 .0150 .0052 .1170 1.0006 .0003 .1314 .2946 .1492 .0003 .5000 .0409 .0001 for the area.0985 1.4840 .0537 .0228 .2514 .0020 .0007 .0934 .0336 .7 .1038 .0132 .0066 .0078 .0446 .49.0024 .0838 .3974 .3 .2483 .4960 .0202 .0002 3.0183 1.0 .0329 .2451 0.0125 .3409 .2358 .1949 .2546 .07 .0143 2.0019 .1711 .4920 .0060 .0495 . Copyright © 2004.4013 .2148 0.0018 .4483 .0008 .2061 .0057 .0170 .0013 .2843 .1 .3897 .3 .0455 1.0367 1.0071 .0918 .0655 .0003 .3 .0281 .1 .0035 .4 .0500 2.2 .2743 .0091 .0139 .0793 .0016 .0244 .0968 .0009 .0041 .0036 2.0808 .1977 .1539 .0129 .0007 .0010 .0099 .0 .0007 .1635 .3859 0.0951 .0096 .0014 .0054 .0047 . *Use these common values that result from interpolation: z score Area 1.4090 .4681 .0630 .6 .0018 .1401 .0559 1.4602 .3 .3707 .0162 .1379 0.0027 .0104 .2206 .0256 .3557 .0294 1.0749 .2776 0.0618 .575 0.0034 .0005 3.0026 .0005 .0262 .0853 .6 .0012 .0681 1.2090 .1814 .1894 .4 .2676 .3821 .0606 .2611 .1 .4286 .4364 .1230 .0516 .0005 .0823 1.2177 .1020 .0069 .4 .0094 .3936 .0188 .0233 1.1335 .0023 .0003 .0344 .0005 .3745 .7 .2981 .0087 .0351 .3085 .0427 .3669 .03 .0010 .04 .1423 .4761 .0006 .1867 0.7 .0004 .0287 .1922 .0322 .0006 .0075 .4562 .3372 .3121 0.0003 .9 .8 .6 .1292 .1685 .08 .1003 .0013 .4880 .1210 .0158 .0038 .1271 .0107 .0029 .2810 .0008 .0068 .3783 .1190 .0110 2.0136 .3015 .0392 .1515 .2877 .0004 .0011 .0004 .0032 .3264 .0764 .8 .4168 .2005 . .0122 .0006 .4129 .2709 .0082 .0179 .3446 .0010 2.1562 .4207 .4404 .3050 .0031 .0049 .0001 3.4247 0.0192 .0548 .0015 .0505 * .0418 .1 .0011 .0023 .4721 .0019 2.3520 .0174 .0 .3300 .1056 .0030 .1075 .0005 .3483 0.0375 .0668 .0055 .1736 .0015 .9 .4052 .0004 .0026 2.1251 .1112 .01 .2266 .0043 . use 0.0089 .0045 .3228 .1788 .0008 .0021 .5 .0003 3.0207 .0048 2.0012 .0102 .0007 3.0359 .2 .1093 .1357 .0005 .0044 .0016 .2 .0222 .0643 .0073 .0014 2.0166 .4801 .0039 .0062 .0033 .2912 .50 and lower .1660 .1611 0.0307 .

9956 .7995 .9970 .9131 .9177 1.9932 .9987 .9983 .9981 .6480 .2 .6406 .5199 .9901 .8980 .9985 . .2 .9656 .7054 .5714 .9726 .9988 .9950 0.8212 .960 0.9706 1.9 .3 .9798 .05 .9887 .9207 .9693 .7257 .9995 .8643 .9997 .7190 .1 .9808 .9961 .9997 .9990 .7580 .6844 .90 1.9997 .6554 .7324 .8 .9875 .9554 .9394 .4 .9909 .9992 .0 .9846 .9664 .6331 .8944 .9699 .9987 .9984 .9756 .9896 .9988 .9941 .9945 . POSITIVE z Scores 0 z TABLE A-2 (continued) Cumulative Area from the LEFT z .9972 .9964 2.7422 .9783 .9992 .8729 .95 1.5279 .7517 .7673 .7157 .6026 .645 0.06 .9992 .5871 .8810 .8 .9986 .03 .9955 .8315 .9732 .8159 .5 .9997 .9977 .6179 .9989 .9500 0.9940 .9582 .6591 .9545 1.9996 .5000 .9991 .9850 .7704 .9564 .9893 .9817 2.9332 .9996 .6217 .99 2.9976 .7291 .9767 2.50 .8531 .6443 .9997 .5557 .9032 .01 .9997 .9890 2.9 .9929 .5 .9222 .8264 .9713 .8023 .8907 .9842 .9963 .9452 .9946 .9977 .1 .5478 .9625 .9761 .9916 2.9535 .6293 .8888 .8186 .9495 * .5 .0 .9993 .9994 .9920 .9995 .9969 .9996 .9719 .9922 .9994 .9953 .1 .7939 .2 .3 .9115 .9015 1.4 .575 An Addison-Wesley product.9649 .9982 .9265 .9952 2.5948 .9971 .9370 .9406 .9474 .7019 .8708 .9463 .9991 .9251 .9998 3.9573 .9993 .9382 .4 .6064 . Pearson Education.9744 .6985 .9996 .7454 .8340 .6255 .9066 .5517 .6879 0.5040 .8485 .9830 .9990 .9962 .9834 .9357 .9997 .9974 .8925 .9616 .9788 .7881 .9991 .9 .7967 .9884 .7088 .5636 .9993 3.9968 .5910 .04 .7794 .7823 .6368 .9292 .9997 3.6808 .7357 .6 .6700 .5832 .9686 .9826 .8106 .7852 0.8289 .9236 .5987 .8238 .9994 .9967 .9878 .9868 .9838 .8438 .9591 .9738 .5438 .5793 .9505 .9608 .8830 1. Common Critical Values *Use these common values that result from interpolation: Confidence Critical z score Area Level Value 1.08 .5359 0.49.9957 .6141 0.9772 .9999 and up NOTE: For values of z above 3. Copyright © 2004.7224 0.9980 .9985 .9951 .9864 .8078 .9994 .9960 .9082 .8869 .9192 .9925 .9984 .6736 .9671 .8665 .9975 .8770 .9990 3.9441 1.9279 .9966 .9484 .9949 * . Inc.9927 .9938 .9996 .9973 .9906 .8749 .9750 .1 .6664 .9913 .9306 .9319 1.7549 0.8051 .7 .9995 .8790 .7611 .7734 .8365 .8 .5160 .9633 1.8599 .7910 .9995 .9515 .9981 2.9345 .8962 .9881 .9995 .9943 .9918 .8686 .7123 .3 .9641 . use 0.7389 .9525 .9803 .0 .9854 .9979 .9934 .9999 for the area.8997 .3 .9996 .9997 .4 .6517 0.9965 .9987 .645 2.00 .9997 .07 .7 .5753 0.9989 .5239 .8508 .8389 1.7764 .7486 .9959 .5319 .9429 .9049 .02 .5596 .6 .5398 .6628 .9678 .9904 .8621 1.9099 .8554 .9986 3.9978 .9861 .7642 .9871 .9936 2.5080 .6103 .6772 .9979 .9994 .9948 .9931 .9974 2.9778 .9147 .9993 .575 0.9995 3.9418 .9911 .2 .9857 2.7 .9989 .9898 .9793 .9162 .8461 .0 .8133 0.9821 .5675 .09 0.9982 .9812 .5120 .8413 .6915 .9599 .9992 .6950 .8577 .8849 .6 .

313 29 2.315 27 2.984 1.028 1.998 2.992 1.697 1.05 0.586 2.604 3.624 2.330 1.747 2.632 2.771 2.679 1.20 1 63. Pearson Education.662 1.997 1.262 1.364 1.457 2.714 1.02 0.694 1.648 2.582 2.052 1.339 1.583 2.356 13 3.284 400 2.295 70 2.040 1.131 1.169 2.719 2.571 2.383 10 3.746 1.201 1.005 0.654 2.01 0.284 500 2.753 1.626 2.447 1.350 14 2.706 6.921 2.943 1.643 2.101 1. Copyright © 2004.333 18 2.703 1.960 1.787 2.812 1.282 An Addison-Wesley product.962 1.860 1.602 2.182 2.688 1.074 1.896 2.968 1.412 2.042 1.365 1.323 22 2.671 1.056 1.334 1.518 2.664 1.326 1.009 1.048 1.423 2.309 34 2.668 2.895 1.106 2.014 1.283 750 2.055 2.660 1.601 2.763 2.479 2.314 3.403 2.292 90 2.441 2.729 1.920 1.064 1.807 2.717 1.657 31.721 1.708 1.303 2.771 1.021 1.669 1.282 Large 2.738 2.306 1.665 1.060 1.541 3.646 1.397 9 3.977 2.499 2.310 31 2.972 1.293 80 2.861 2.966 1.653 1.728 2.533 5 4.473 2.318 25 2.821 12.963 1.681 2.093 1.552 2.301 50 2.120 1.440 7 3.678 2.250 2.10 Degrees of Area in Two Tails Freedom 0.377 1.676 1.345 1.372 11 3.701 1.032 1.878 2.492 2.704 2.012 2.734 1.673 1.831 2.462 2.667 1.740 1.947 2.841 4.725 1.325 21 2.699 1.833 1.368 1.453 2.819 2.396 2.314 28 2.712 2.316 26 2.845 2.821 2.756 2.528 2.750 2.684 1.650 2.660 2.592 2.328 20 2.500 2.764 2.965 1.291 100 2.337 17 2.000 1.925 6.415 8 3.648 1.086 1.05 0.718 2.032 3.539 2.321 23 2.160 1.646 1.069 1.374 1.776 2.744 2.004 1.025 0.961 1.283 1000 2.782 1.886 3 5.132 1.576 2.311 30 2.319 24 2.355 2.080 1.796 1.045 1.145 1.390 2.304 40 2.331 1.015 1.567 2.690 2.898 2.294 75 2.691 1.707 3.696 1.467 2.286 300 2.381 1.TABLE A-3 t Distribution: Critical t Values Area in One Tail 0.282 2000 2.649 1.110 1.508 2.299 55 2.365 2.306 38 2.330 19 2.639 2.485 2.476 6 3. Inc.336 1.290 200 2.10 0.345 15 2.024 1.588 2.303 45 2.647 1.987 1.01 0.228 1.578 2.434 2.429 2.309 32 2.179 1.990 1.341 16 2.296 65 2.581 2.711 1.328 1.638 4 4.143 2.297 60 2.650 1.078 2 9.307 36 2.449 2.353 1.779 2.686 1.363 12 3.761 1.965 4.797 2.994 1.645 1.385 1.037 1.706 1. .

685 26.547 22.023 21.229 6.816 4.314 46.955 9 1.689 13.652 40.787 14.103 0.409 35.952 70 43.987 18.851 12.237 1.940 4.308 16.188 46.700 3.144 32.275 45.558 3.483 23.688 29.239 1.601 5.283 11.697 6.475 20.493 20.379 17. Ninth Edition.629 6.015 8.459 74.708 19.916 41.204 30. Reprinted with permis- sion of the publisher.975 0.490 13.265 7.119 29.325 4.629 112.410 34.879 2 0.026 23.520 11.566 39.557 45.980 45.191 38.209 25.05 0.584 6.897 10.963 49.676 0.565 113.256 43.954 16. Owen.154 79.833 12.085 24.848 15..711 1.116 128.542 26.292 35.141 31.260 9.578 32.352 0.920 24. Pearson Education.659 33.364 42.488 30.982 12.790 21.95 0.812 22.304 18.181 24 9.231 9.605 5.004 0.482 43.599 40.278 8 1.575 5.226 6.169 From Donald B.841 5.390 10.261 8.764 37.067 16.289 42.707 32.672 10.299 100 67.088 2.156 19 6.267 17 5.210 10.167 67.337 26.362 24.932 41.633 8.815 9.290 27 11.082 83.757 12 3. Inc.773 46.136 124.344 1. Reading.886 10.485 40.278 96.779 9.024 6.065 74.342 63.151 18.076 41.172 38.597 3 0.408 7.571 4.321 90 59.666 23.348 11.115 0.845 32.064 7.559 25 10.505 71.672 40 20.337 44.449 16.939 37.807 140.856 12. An Addison-Wesley product.120 14.001 0.989 28. .739 55.222 77.865 25.509 29.548 7 0.848 32.071 12.565 15.643 9.769 27.635 7.074 3.991 7.844 7.215 80 51.488 11.722 49.805 37.781 40.928 18.010 0.191 33.434 8.262 7.378 9.072 0.561 135.706 3.615 32.578 17.591 10.034 8.578 101.160 12.296 28.989 1.240 29.592 14.345 12.885 41.275 19.257 16.645 28 12.527 90. Inc.733 3.675 21.819 14 4.651 27.507 17.260 10.358 118.007 35.996 27.401 22 8.611 16.995 0.013 18.198 13.379 91.908 7.196 61.329 85.808 12.172 53.813 33.338 14.297 0.540 57.042 30.251 7.812 6.042 19.768 39.923 45.691 66.689 63.879 106.196 36.473 34.211 4.188 11 2.498 124.017 14.10 0.420 76.924 36.646 44.844 15.587 30.196 11.647 69.091 14.009 5.117 11.312 23.194 46.277 14.01 0.156 2. MA. ©1962 Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.490 60 35.329 116.993 29 13.979 50. by Mario F.591 13.357 34.573 16.216 0.023 100.204 10.247 3.016 2.442 48.589 10 2.758 59.99 0.433 26.053 3.750 6 0.892 53.236 11.718 18 6.725 26.860 5 0.638 44.919 19.153 60.479 38.121 14.929 82.401 13.051 51.997 21 8.342 129.610 9.443 28.524 13.217 28.143 13.307 20.642 48.549 21.962 9.796 23 9.415 39.812 18.907 10.801 16 5.064 23.168 14.563 38.90 0.075 4. Formulas and Tables for Elementary Statistics.278 50.865 15.879 14. Handbook of Statistical Tables.114 36.831 1.164 24.170 37.564 8.328 70.412 0.928 26 11.025 0.534 37.086 16. Triola Copyright 2004 Pearson Education.531 95.571 7.872 1.005 1 — — 0.336 30 13.635 2.603 3.758 51.805 55.126 73.484 0.299 13 3.145 118.207 0.047 17.051 0.107 5.646 2.707 22.991 29.461 48.660 5.397 79.791 18.766 50 27.461 13.145 1.000 34.582 20 7.838 4 0.535 20.554 0.404 5.090 21.298 88.319 15 4.892 7.307 24.412 31.291 107.741 40.833 15.869 31.684 16.425 104.565 4.588 52. Copyright © 2004.391 64. TABLE A-4 Chi-Square (x2 ) Distribution Area to the Right of the Critical Value Degrees of Freedom 0.542 10.020 0.690 2.180 2.735 2.167 2.382 37.736 27.362 15.087 42.526 34.754 65.671 35.113 43.142 5.645 12.852 36.