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Transportation is a means of moving people or goods from one place to another. The modern commercial transport serves the public interest and includes all the means and facilities involved in the movement of persons or property, and reception services, shipping and handling of such goods. The commercial transport of persons classified as passenger and the goods and service goods. As elsewhere in the world, transport is in Latin America and has been central to the progress or backwardness of different civilizations and cultures. Transportation is the most visible of all functions of service and high contributor to cost. We can see trucks, containers and wagonloads of material being moved from place to place as an activity directly associated with trade and business. We should also appreciate that this is an activity that adds highest amount of cost to the activity of making inputs and outputs available to consumers. Transportation function moves the products to meet customer expectations at minimum cost. Transportation is one of the most visible elements of operations. Transportation provides 2 major functions: product movement & product storage.

Transportation infrastructure consists of the rights-of-ways, vehicles, and carrier organizations that offer transportation services on a for-hire or internal basis. The nature of the infrastructure also determines a variety of legal and economic characteristics for each mode or multimodal system. A mode identifies the basic transportation method or form. RAIL NETWORK Since olden times, railroads have handled the largest number of ton-miles. As a result of the early establishment of a comprehensive rail network connecting almost all the cities and towns, railways dominated the intercity freight tonnage till World War II and in some cases of Europe, Asia and Africa they even connected the countries. This early superiority enabled railways to transport large shipments very economically. MOTOR CARRIERS Highway transportation has increased rapidly since the end of World War II. This is because Motor carrier industry results from door-to-door operating flexibility and speed of intercity movement. They are even flexible because they can operate on each and every kind of roadways. In comparison to railroads, motor carriers have relatively small fixed investments in terminal facilities and operate on publicly maintained highways. Although the cost of license fees, user fees, and tolls are considerable, these expenses are directly related to the number of overthe-road units and miles operated. The variable cost per mile for motor carriers is high because a separate power unit and driver are required for each trailer or combination of tandem trailers.

WATER TRANSPORT It is the oldest mode of transportation. First it was the sailing vessels, which was replaced by steamboats in early 1800¶s and by diesel power in the 1920¶s. Domestic water transportation ± involves the Great Lakes, canals, and navigable rivers. In every country, fewer system miles exist for inland water than any other transportation mode. The main advantage of water transportation is the capacity to move extremely large shipments. Water transport employs 2 types of vessels. Deep-water vessels, which are generally designed for Ocean and Great Lakes use, & are restricted to deep-water ports for access. In contrast, diesel-towed barges, which generally operate on rivers and canals, have considerably more flexibility. Water transport ranks between rail and motor carrier in the fixed cost aspect. Although water carriers must develop and operate their own terminals, the right-of-way is developed and maintained by the government and results in moderate fixed costs as compared to railways and highways. The main disadvantage of water transport is the limited range of operation and speed. Unless the origin and destination are adjacent, supplement haul by rail or truck is required. The capability to carry very high cargo at an extremely low variable cost places this mode of transport in demand when low freight rates are desired and speed of transit is a secondary consideration.

AIR TRANSPORT Air transport is the newest and the least utilized mode of transport. Its major advantage being its speed, which is accompanied by high costs. A coast-to-coast shipment via air requires only a few hours contrast to days taken by other mean of transportation. The high cost of transport can be traded off for high speed, which allows other elements of logistical design, such as warehousing, inventory to be reduced or eliminated. But still air transport remains more of a potential opportunity than a reality because it is very much underutilized. The high cost of jet aircraft, coupled with erratic nature of freight demand, has limited the assignment of dedicated planes to all-freight operations. However premium carriers provide planes dedicated for freight operations. This premium service started off with documents and has moved onto large parcels, which is an ideal service for firms with a large number of high-value products and timesensitive service requirements.

Already in the pre-Columbian Inca period had a crude but efficient system of interconnected roads throughout his empire, by which different types of goods moved. On foot or on the back of flames, managed to get their goods to their destination. Sometimes through rope bridges through the mountains. Other people used canoes or boats as a means of communication.

It is generally used 4 modes of transportation: Water Road Rail Air.

History The arrival of Europeans, Spanish and Portuguese, along most of America produced major changes in transportation. The main mode of communication was by sea, as it was more efficient and faster for natural harbors, and for places that were built in the ports, both sea and rivers of America.

Canals Environment created for easy water transport. The opening of this waterway was created to a considerable reduction in travel time in freight by sea worldwide. In Latin America, the Amazon and Parana rivers are important waterways for navigation, but undoubtedly the most important cannal is the Panama Canal. This links the Atlantic to the Pacific across the Isthmus of Panama. The early development of water transport was stimulated by the tendency of people to concentrate on the coast or waterways. The ancient Romans used to sail boats equipped with several banks of oars to transport their armies to Carthage and other theaters of operations. Shipbuilding and rigging and sail handling was improved over time. With these changes, together with the adoption of the mariner's compass, made possible the open sea navigation without sight of land. As was true during the ancient age in the Mediterranean and other world regions, the fact that colonial settlements in America were usually established on the coasts, rivers or lakes, was a cause and consequence of which the first transport routes in the colonies were natural waterways, and more efficient modes of travel be made by boat. The first ship was undoubtedly a floating log which would lead to feet and hands. After joining several trunks thought they could build ties with a firm platform or raft (as he called them). In Egypt were built with bundles of reed rafts, in other places hollowed logs for canoes or kayaks.

Top Boats Around 1200 years BC, the Phoenicians were early seafarers used cedar wood to build boats large and strong to venture beyond their marine boundaries. The Vikings, built on a solid wooden structure that resembled our spine. The Vikings were tall, strong and sturdy, this allowed wielding oars and hoisted huge square sails, came from the northeastern coast of Europe and were responsible for assaulting coastlines across Europe.

Steamboats During the nineteenth century saw dramatic progress through technology product of steam power. The Clermont, the first efficient steamboat, was built by the American inventor Robert Fulton. She made her maiden voyage in 1807 by the Hudson River from New York City to Albania, which made the distance traveled round trip of nearly 483 km in 62 hours. The first ship to use steam power in a transatlantic crossing was the American ship Savannah in 1819, though the candles were used during part of the 29-day trip. By 1840, while a steamer could make six trips between America and Europe at the same time a sailboat could do only three. During the 1870s they reached the coast of Rio de la Plata, the French ship Le Frigidaire, including some refrigerators. This produced a breakthrough in the production mode of the meat sector, which should no longer be salted for export. Other perishables were benefited with refrigeration. Modern craft

The diesel engine has made for a more modern ships economy that has largely replaced the steam engines. The use of nuclear energy in vessels is currently limited to military vessels. Other developments in modern navigation are the hovercraft, boat going on a cushion of air a few inches of water or the ground, equipped with reactors or wings like those of a plane or studs that at a certain speed, lift the hull of the water to reach higher speeds.

Yates Among the latest developments of man in water transport, we find the small boats yachts that are intended for use by a small group of people, are equipped with the latest technological advances and can sail at sea.

Motor Skiing

Another important invention is the ski bike, which is the result of the quest for human beings to create devices for fun, is also used as a means to rescue people with a water accident as they are quick and increasingly a little larger ( for these uses).

History In the twentieth century training and installation of large corporations, manufacturers have given great impetus to the production of both vehicles for private use to public transport and goods, and exports to third countries. With economic growth of recent years is expected to reach Brazil and Argentina soon levels of use of vehicles at the same level as developed countries.

Road In the thirteen original American colonies, which extended westward to the Mississippi River, the main mode of land transportation was by train of pack animals and horses on the trails of Native Americans. By 1800 it became dirt roads to remove the weeds and trees of the trails. Many of these roads, however, became almost impassable during periods of bad weather. In 1820, the improvement of roads called turnpikes (motorways), in which private companies charged a toll for having built, connecting all major cities to surpass all other roads. Ground transportation developed more slowly. For centuries the traditional means of transport, restricted to riding on animals, carts and sleighs pulled by animals, rarely exceeded an average of 16 km / h. Land transport has improved slightly until 1820, when the British engineer George Stephenson adapted a steam engine to a locomotive and started, between Stockton and Darlington in England, the first steam railway.

It was in the twentieth century when most developed road network in Spain. Successive governments have invested heavily to get a basic high-capacity roads (motorways and expressways) that allow the displacement of large numbers of people and goods through the Spanish territory of motorization levels close to the major industrialized countries. In Latin America, the horse, mule and wheeled transport were introduced by Spanish and Portuguese. They often took advantage of the routes constructed by the Indians. Already in the eighteenth century there were existing roads linking the Argentine cities of Tucumán and Buenos Aires, Mexico City and Guadalajara with its neighbors Jalapa, and the Andes (Peru) and Paita. Also in Brazil coastal highways were built. Nevertheless, today many Latin American countries have road systems more or less acceptable, with Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, the countries with the highest number of kilometers of roads improved and paved. In 1928, it was agreed between the countries of the sector to build a Pan-American highway that would unite the entire continent from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego. In 1940 62% of the tranche for Central America was paved and 87% of South America.

The drag and the wheel The transport started when our ancestors came down from the trees and begin their nomadic life. The man forced the man to move to ensure their food, with this, how to ship home anything about their food as the man himself is weak and animal transport.

The wheel, important invention that man invented 5.500 years ago and this initiated a change in the mode of transport and transfer of achievement so forth their food faster and easier. Animals for transportation Because the man did not have enough strength to lift and carry food or utensils for themselves was the need to domesticate animals. The dog was the first domestic animal to man, then use larger animals and extremely strong to carry heavy things with the same man. And how well that ideology only carry things, if not the man who also use as food, and feeding on what occurred or killing animals for meat and take skin and for different uses. Initial proceedings With the coming of the trade, man was given to the need to establish trade routes and also to create the first steps pulled by horses to be transported from one place to another to the same people and their belongings or goods. . Bike Man saw the need for man transported individually and in 1818 invented Draisienne history of the bicycle. Two-wheeled vehicle, placed one in front of another, with a seat, handlebars and pedals to drive to propel it. Also find the unicycle and the motorcycle.

Motorcycle Vehicle with 2, 3 and 4 wheel, self-propelled, no way and sometimes it can be used by 2 persons and are now reaching a speed of 100 km / hour.

The car Man looking for ways to invent a device that transports you quickly and easily without the need to use animals. In 1882, with the discovery of oil, discovered that using Gottlielo Damler oil, could drive a faster piston gradually more inventions arose with the application of oil and fine steel was cheaper than the one they use in production Henry Ford, thus created the car. The wars have developed new kinds of automobiles such as tanks and buses. After varieties of cars came and today the auto industry is one of the great and important in the world, were considered a luxury and now can be seen today having a car is not a luxury, if not that is a need.

Urban transport Already at present there are too many people, the authorities saw the need for urban transport to the high number of inhabitants and also the necessity in which they are forced to travel long distances. Either a bus or a combination.

By 1830, shortly after the rail line began service Stephenson in England, the United States had 1767 km of steam railways. In 1839, the route had increased to 8,000 km and from 1850 to 1910 the growth of the railroad was spectacular. Railroad construction stimulated much of the settlement and development of the West. The first railroad in America was established in 1827, but the real development began on July 4, 1828, with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The introduction of the railway in Spain was relatively quick. Was stimulated in part by the lack of inland waterways, unlike other surrounding countries. The first railway was opened in 1848 between the cities of Barcelona. By 1870 already had a network that was the third in Europe in area, after France and England. However, the decision in 1844 to provide a gauge of the Spanish railway network different from the isolated European continent to Spain from the rest of the continent by this mode of transport. After a century of private operation of rail in 1941 establishing the Network of Spanish Railways (RENFE), a state of nature to exploit much of the railway line. In recent decades, improved road infrastructure and increasing motorization of families and businesses have led to a sharp decrease in the number of passengers and goods transported by train. However, the introduction of high speed services in recent years have led to considerable recovery of passengers on journeys in the network too.

After 1850 this mode of transport started its expansion in Latin America. The railway network, financed by French capital, English or American, while benefiting freight and passengers generally designed to respond to business needs of their owners and countries of origin and not addressing the needs of Latin American countries. In Argentina, the railroads had their terminals in the port cities: Buenos Aires and Bahia Blanca, on the coast, and Rosario on the Parana River. The same happened in the Uruguayan city of Montevideo. In Brazil, the railway network spread across the plateau of São Paulo, since there was concentrated the production of precious coffee. The Mexican case is paradoxical, since the same railway used to transport finished products to be, at the beginning of the century, the fundamental basis for the transportation of revolution. It was around 1945 when the railways began to be deficient, giving way to road transport, both passenger-and freight-all. In this way, and it is not beneficial to their owners, most of the Latin American rail system was nationalized, often under false nationalist discourse.

The Metro It has been an effective means of transport in big cities since it consumes electrical energy, is set below ground and the maintenance cost is low and does not pollute.

The bullet train We can observe the evolution of the railroad that has been refined and is more common in Japan.



DHL is the global leader in logistics - with more highly experienced professionals at more locations in more countries than any other provider. His goal is to build strong, long-term partnerships with customers by providing world class services, across all our operations. In India, they have formed a new joint venture - DHL Lemuir Logistics, which consolidates their position as the leader in International Freight Forwarding, Supply Chain Management, Project Transport and Customs Brokerage. They are the first choice for companies looking for end to end logistics solutions and high quality servicing capabilities. After joining forces with Excel in 2005, they are now also the sector's leading innovator - providing the extraordinary range of cutting-edge solutions. His logistics customers include over 75% of the worlds largest quoted nonfinancial enterprises. These organizations trust us with their brands and reputations not simply because they are the worldwide market leader, but because they strive to deliver globally consistent services of the highest quality,


DHL are the first letters of the last names of the three company founders, Adrian Dalsey, Larry Hillblom and Robert Lynn. In 1969, just months after the world had marveled at Neil Armstrong's first steps on the moon, the three partners took another small step that would have a profound impact on the way the world does business.

The founders began to personally ship papers by airplane from San Francisco to Honolulu, beginning customs clearance of the ship's cargo before the actual arrival of the ship and dramatically reducing waiting time in the harbour. Customers stood to save a fortune. With this concept, a new industry was born: international air express, the rapid delivery of documents and shipments by airplane. The DHL Network continued to grow at an incredible pace. The company expanded westward from Hawaii into the Far East and Pacific Rim, then the Middle East, Africa and Europe. By 1988, DHL was already present in 170 countries and had 16,000 employees. At the beginning of 2002, Deutsche Post World Net became the major shareholder in DHL. By the end of 2002, DHL was 100% owned by Deutsche Post World Net. In 2003, Deutsche Post World Net consolidated all of its express and logistics activities into one single brand, DHL

The world's largest express and logistics Network

DHL is a global expertise in express, air and ocean freight, overland transport and logistics solutions; DHL combines worldwide coverage with an in-depth understanding of local markets. Below are the global facts and figures that show you the scale of the world's largest express and logistics network.

DHL Express worldwide more than 124,000 more than 220 36 4700 72,000 350 900

Employees Countries and territories Hubs Bases Vehicles Aircraft Pack stations (only Germany)

DHL Logistics in figures DHL logistics worldwide Employees * DHL Global Forwarding Countries and territories Terminals, warehouses, offices Air freight volume Ocean freight volume TEU ** DHL Excel Supply Chain Countries and territories Centers, warehouses, terminals Storage area sqm DHL Freight Countries and territories Full truckload movements p.a. Terminals more than 30 2,000,000 more than 160 59 2500 23,000,000 150 813 4,409,000 tones 2,764,000 more than 162,500


DHL Worldwide Express (India) Pvt Ltd is the No.1 international air express services provider in India, a position it has held since it began its India operations in 1979. Today, DHL offers its customers the entire spectrum of express services from international air express to high end logistics solutions including repair and return, strategic inventory management and direct express inventory. DHL India has over 50,000 customers serviced through DHL's national network with its 1,000 strong ground staff, fleet of 400 vehicles and dedicated service centers in Ahmadabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Cochin, Jaipur, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi, Pune and Tripura. Acknowledged for its innovative solutions and pioneering initiatives, DHL India has many firsts to its credit including India's first and only 24-hour customer service call center, the first to introduce customized solutions such as Jumbo Box, Junior Jumbo, Import Express and Fashion First for customers in the air express industry, as well as the first to provide track and trace services in India via email, via SMS or via the Internet and WAP phones.

Facilities: DHL India has an outstanding reputation in the market for providing a reliable, fast and easy-to-use service. DHL offersHighly trained and professional staff, committed to being responsive to all customers¶ needs Customer Service Agents, available round-the-clock, 365 days of the year, to serve customers whenever and wherever they need them Electronic pre-clearance of shipments through Customs Five international gateways providing direct-to-air networks and faster sorting of inbound and outbound shipments DHL India is a proven facilitator of trade, across the globe. His strength lies in our global network and the know-how of our people. Backed by strategic alliances with world-class partners and the innovative use of technology, they strive to continuously improve the quality of our service. Our services range from fast, responsive and cost effective express deliveries toe-commerce fulfillment and intelligent logistics solutions. DHL Core Services consist of door-to-door air express delivery of documents and parcels of all sizes (and weight), both into and out of the country.

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