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Composite Materials

Design, Analysis & Applications

Dr. S. Kamran Afaq

Composite Materials

OUTLINE
• Introduction Week-1

• Mechanical Behavior
Week-2,3
• Laminated Composite Materials

• Sandwich Structures Week-4

• Analysis and Design Week-5

• Manufacturing Processes
Week-6
• Applications

Composite Materials

OUTLINE

Mechanical Behavior

• Unidirectional Composite (Revision)

• Off-Axis Stiffness/Compliance Matrix

• Off-Axis Engineering Constants

• Failure Criteria

• Laminate Theory

• Classical Laminate Theory

ET L T . EL Longitudinal Transverse T  T .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite  L .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Mechanical Behavior Longitudinal θ (Parallel to fibers) Transverse (Perpendicular to fibers) .

EL T  c   mVm   f V f Ec  EL  E f V f  EmVm .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness T L  L .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Transverse Strength and Stiffness T L T  T . ET 1 Ec  ET  Vf Vm  Ef Em  mu  TU  S .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Mechanical Behavior Unidirectional Composite Shear Stiffness and Poisson’s Ratios G f Gm GLT  GmV f  G f Vm  LT  V f  f  Vmm vLT : Relate σL to εT (Major)  LT TL  vTL : Relate σT to εL (Minor) EL ET .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Lamina Properties Stress Tensor σ33 σ31 σ32  11  12  13  σ13  ij   21  22  23  σ23 σ11  31  32  33  σ21 σ12 σ22 x3 x1 x2 .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Lamina Properties Stress Tensor  11  12  13   1  6  5   ij   21  22  23   ij   6  2  4   31  32  33   5  4  3  .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Lamina Properties Isotropic Properties Anisotropic Properties .

they behave as Isotropic .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Lamina Properties Orthotropic Properties if load is applied in a specific direction.

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Stress-Strain Relationships Orthotropic Materials Nine independent Material Constants .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Stress-Strain Relationships Orthotropic Materials For Plane Stress State 3  4  5  0 Compliance Matrix    S   .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Stress-Strain Relationships Orthotropic Materials For Plane Stress State    S      Q  Rigidity Matrix [Q] = [S]-1 .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Stress-Strain Relationships Transformation Coordinates 1 y θ 2 x .

s  sin  2 x .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Stress-Strain Relationships Transformation Coordinates Stresses in 1-2 system  12  T  x y Transformation Matrix  c2 s2 2cs  T    s 2 c 2  2cs  y 1  sc sc c 2  s 2    θ c  cos  .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Stress-Strain Relationships Transformation Coordinates Stress-Strain  12  Q 12  12  T  x y So. 2 Q   T QT  1 x .  x y  T 1  12  x y  T 1 Q 12 1  x y  T 1 QT  x y y θ  x y  Q  x y Where.

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Revision Stress-Strain Relationships Transformation Coordinates Q   T QT  1 Similarly for Compliance Matrix S   T S T  1 .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Q   T QT  1 Q11  Q11 cos 4   Q22 sin 4   2Q12  2Q66 sin 2  cos 2   Q12  Q11  Q22  4Q66 sin 2  cos 2   Q12 cos 4   sin 4   Q16  Q11  Q12  2Q66 sin  cos 3   Q12  Q22  2Q66 sin 3  cos  Q22  Q11 sin 4   Q22 cos 4   2Q12  2Q66 sin 2  cos 2  Q26  Q11  Q12  2Q66 sin 3  cos   Q12  Q22  2Q66 sin  cos 3  Q66  Q11  Q22  2Q12  Q66 sin 2  cos 2   Q66 cos 4   sin 4    .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior S   T S T  1 S11  S11 cos 4   S 22 sin 4   2S12  S 66 sin 2  cos 2   S12  S11  S 22  S 66 sin 2  cos 2   S12 cos 4   sin 4   S16  2( S11  S12 )  S 66 sin  cos 3   2( S12  S 22 )  S 66 sin 3  cos  S 22  S11 sin 4   S 22 cos 4   2S12  S 66 sin 2  cos 2  S 26  2( S11  S12 )  S 66 sin 3  cos   2( S12  S 22 )  S 66 sin  cos 3   S 66  22( S11  S 22  2 S12 )  S 66 sin 2  cos 2   S 66 cos 4   sin 4   .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Carbon/Epoxy .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Q12 Carbon/Epoxy .

 i'  0    S    x'  x'   x   S11 S12 S16    x'         y    S 21 S 22 S 26    y'     S S 66   xy'  y  xy   61 S 62  2 1 θ   x   S11 S12 S16   x'   x  S11 x' x        y    S 21 S 22 S 26   0   y  S 21 x'    S S 66   0   xy   61 S 62   xy  S 61 x' .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Off-Axis Longitudinal Modulus  x'  0.

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Off-Axis Longitudinal Modulus  x  S11 x'  y  S 21 x'  xy  S 61 x'  x'  x'  x' 1 Ex    x S11 y 2 1  S11 cos 4   S 22 sin 4   2S12  S66 sin 2  cos 2  1 θ Ex x 1 1 1   LT 1  2  cos   4 sin    2 4   sin  cos 2  E x EL ET  EL GLT  .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Off-Axis Poisson’s Ration  xx   S11' S12' S16'   x'     ' '    yy    S 21 S 22 ' S 26   0     S ' S ' '    xy   61 62 S 66  0   x'  x'  x  S11'  x' S12' y  S  ' 21 ' x y  ' x S11  xy  S 61 '  x' y ' 2 1 S  y   xy x  xy   12 ' θ S 11 x  LT  1 1  2   xy  Ex   cos   sin   4 4  1    sin  cos   2  EL  EL ET GLT   .

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior  y' Off-Axis Transverse Modulus  y'  0.  i'  0   x   S11 S12 S16    x'         y    S 21 S 22 S 26    y'     S S 66   xy'   xy   61 S 62   y'   x   S11 S12 S16   0  y     '   y'   y    S 21 S 22 S 26   y  1 2 1 Ey      S S 66   0   y S 22 θ  xy   61 S 62  x 1 1 1  1  LT  2  sin   4 cos    4 2   sin  cos 2  E y EL ET  GLT ET  .

 i'  0  xy'   x   S11 S12 S16   0         y    S 21 S 22 S 26   0     S S 66   xy'   xy   61 S 62  y 2 1 ' 1 θ Gxy   xy  xy S66 x 1  2 2  LT 1  2 1  2  4   sin  cos 2   (cos 4   sin 4  ) Gxy  EL ET EL GLT  GLT .Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Off-Axis Shear Modulus Test  xy'  xy'  0.

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior Ex Gxy 0° θ 90° 0° θ 90° Variation of Ex and Gxy w.r.t.θ .

2 GPa  LT  0.4 TL  0.0 Example A Lamina has following characteristics. 3.1 Find the stresses in L-T direction and y the strain in x-y directions.5 E L  14 GPa 1.Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior 7. T L 60° x .4 ET  3.5 GPa GLT  4.

 LT  0. EL  40 GPa . ET  10 GPa σx σxy GLT  4. .5 GPa .5%  5 10 3 T L 30°  xy  2%  2 10 2 x Find the stresses in L-T and x-y directions.Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior σy Excersise A Lamina has following characteristics.32 Lamina is subjected in its x-y plane to the following strain state:  xx  1%  10 2 y  yy  0.

r. σx σxy Mechanical Properties of Glass fiber and epoxy can be taken from Table 1.  = 0 to 90⁰ y 2.t.3 of you Reference book.Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Mechanical Behavior σy = 7 MPa Assignment 4.r.Plot behavior of 1 and 6 w.  = 0 to 90⁰ T L  x .4 and Table = 3 MPa 3.t. 1.Plot behavior of 1 and 2 w.1 A Glass fiber/Epoxy Lamina (Vf = 60%) having = 5 MPa loading as shown.

Introduction Mechanical Behavior Laminate Theory Sandwich Structures Analysis & Design Manufacturing/Application Composite Materials Thank you .