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Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 24, 169-182. 0481-2085/91 $03.50 © 1991 The Geological Society

Behaviour of radon in the geological environment: a review

T. K. Ball, D. G. Cameron, T. B. Colman & P. D. Roberts
British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK

Abstract Health aspects

A review of the behaviour of radon in the geological Initially radon was regarded as a fairly harmless or
environment is presented. The general geochemistry of the even benign component of gases from geological
element is described and the factors controlling its emanation sources. More recently its importance as the major
from minerals and rocks and into the disperse phases contributor to the radiation dose received by the
itemized. A brief summary of analytical procedures for the human body in the U K has been recognized. The
analysis of the radon isotopes in waters and soil gases is National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) has
given. The emanation of radon depends upon the source term
uranium concentration, the nature of the host mineralogy, the shown that at least 50% of the total dose for the
permeability of the host rock and soil and the characteristics average Briton is obtained from combined radon and
of the transporting medium. Weather can have a profound thoron (Clarke & Southwood 1989).
effect upon the concentration of radon in soil gas but often Alpha particles are massive and relatively highly
the variation due to the geological substrate is greater. Radon charged, but not penetrative and, provided the source
is not a problem unless it collects in buildings and under- remains outside the body, the particles are easily
ground structures. Some guidelines are given for identifying
areas of high radon emanation based upon existing data blocked by clothing or epidermal tissue. When
sets. ingested, however, alpha particles can give rise to
tissue damage and, because they are not penetrative,
they give up their energy to a relatively small volume
of tissue. The major pathway by which alpha activity
Introduction enters the human body is by inhalation of radon and,
more importantly, its immediate daughter products
Radon (Rn) is a naturally occurring radioactive gas. It which are also alpha particle emitters. Since radon is a
is produced in the decay series of both uranium (U) noble gas and its half-life is 3.82 days, most radon is
and thorium (Th) (Tables 1 & 2). Originally called breathed out again. The daughter products, however,
'niton', it became variously known as 'radium which remain in suspension as aerosols, on dust and
emanation' or more simply 'emanation'. The radon moisture particles or are unattached, being solid may
isotope in the thorium decay series (thoron Rn-220) remain in the respiratory system. The major health
was discovered by Soddy & Rutherford in 1900, that hazard from radon and its daughters is thought to be
in the U-238 decay series (radon Rn-222) by Dorn in an increased risk of lung cancer (O'Riordan, James,
1901 and that in the U-235 series (actinon Rn-219) by Green & Wrixon 1987).
Giesel in 1902 (Partington 1957). The atomic mass was
determined by Ramsey and Gray in 1911 to be 222.4.
The name 'radon' was introduced by Schmidt in 1918 Geochemistry
and is now used universally. It remained a chemical
curiosity for decades, being promoted at times as a The three naturally occurring radon isotopes, with
'health giving' gas at various spas. During the uranium atomic masses of 219, 220 and 222, are found in the
prospecting boom of the 1950s and 1960s the value of decay series of U-235, Th-232 and U-238 respectively.
Rn-222 (commonly known as just 'radon') as a Rn-219 (actinon) has a very short half-life (some 3
pathfinder for the parent uranium was recognized and seconds) and occurs in the decay chain of U-235 which
much of the information concerning the behaviour of is only present as 0.7% of natural uranium. The
the gas stems from this period. For reviews of this and abundance of Rn-219 in gases from most geological
earlier work on the geochemistry of radon, much of sources is therefore limited. It may be present,
which was undertaken in eastern Europe, see Miller & however, in fumarolic gases in volcanic areas where
Ostle (1973), Dyck (1972), Smith, Baretto & Pournis there is rapid transport of radon from the zone of
(1976). generation to the point of measurement.

Depending on its mineralogy in the weathering environment uranium may well be removed Isotope Decay Half-life from the weathering zone and soils. degree of fracturing. shape. thereafter transport by carrier fluids is expected radon is Po-218 (half-life 3. Clark & Adams 1972). about 1 000000 years is required for the Rn-222 a at Carleton University Library on May 13.39 x 10l° years Ra-228 13 5. however. As uranium minerals have high Po-216 a 0.K. being generally much less mobile in the characteristics of the carrier gas.8 mins Rn-220 (thoron) has a half-life of 54. the end product of which is expelling the radon from the radium bearing mineral Pb-206 (Table 1). rock or soil is expressed as Po-212 a 3. Andrews & Isotope Decay Half-life Wood (1972) have shown that only a very small proportion of the radon generated can be released by Th-232 a 1.75 years recoil however. U-234 a 2.825 days decay series to achieve 91% of secular equilibrium.19 mins Pb-206 stable weathering products. imperfections and even metamictization Rn-220 a 54.02 days the chemical buffering reactions which often control Po-210 a 138. The uranium-238 decay series (Lederer & Shir.05 minutes). the recoil range is usually low. The time Po-214 a 1. The Th-228 ~t 1.5 mins escapes from the mineral.64 hours present in intergranular films. half-life 3. The thorium-232 decay series radium bearing mineral (Tanner 1964). Giletti & Kulp (1955) noted that the emanation coefficients for uranium Pb-207 stable minerals increased with temperature but decreased with pressure.1 days of Ra-226 is significant in terms of the timescale of Pa-234(m) 13 1. but the radium U-238 a 4. The decay to be dominant.1 mins the 'emanation coefficient'.1 mins typical densities.lyellcollection. Tanner (1964) has shown that the .7 s of the host mineral.13 hours mineral to decay again to solid products.64 days such factors as the specific surface area. radon is relatively unaffected by Bi-210 ~ 5. most of the radon remains within the Ac-228 13 6.18 mins fairly recent geological events.3 years Being an inert gas. whilst soils usually have the highest values (Baretto. Pb-214 13 26. limit the value of Rn as a direct pathfinder for ley 1978) uranium. before Ra-226 in the decay chain have long half-lives convective or pressure gravity flow mechanisms can whilst those below have relatively short half-lives.913 years efficiency of expulsion from the mineral depends upon Ra-224 a 3.7 mins is a member of the Th-232 decay series. TABLE 1. In aqueous media. for example. The relatively long half-life Th-234 13 24. The fraction of the radon that Bi-212 13 63% 60.04 × 10-7 S T1-208 13 3. If radium is Pb-212 13 10. These coefficients are greater for rocks than for minerals.82 days) is a member of Recoil and diffusion mechanisms are important in the U-238 decay series. The release of radon from minerals would be expected to be controlled by alpha particle recoil mechanisms which tend to expel radon from the TABLE 2.468 x 10 9 years frequently remains behind.52 × 104 years Ra-226 ct 1602 years complete separation of uranium from its daughter products. BALL ET AL. the 10 000- Pa-234 13 6. Once in the intergranular region the chain may be divided into two portions separated by migration of radon depends upon the fluid flow Ra-226 (half-life 1600 years). Most of the isotopes characteristics of the rock and soil. following Th-234 a 7.3 days the generation of other gases in rocks and their T1-206 13 4. In ideal conditions of oxidizing secondary environment. Pb-210 a 22. Bi-212 ct 37% 60. Rn-222 (radon. 2015 170 T. Downloaded from http://qjegh.48 × l0 s years Consideration of the half-lives indicates that. In a gas phase Radium's geochemical behaviour is markedly different the transport may be controlled by the diffusion from uranium. then recoil ranges varying between 20 and 70 lim would occur.7 hrs 12 000 years since the end of glaciation in the UK.7 seconds and At-218 a 2s Bi-214 ~ 19.05 mins same rate that the U-238 decays.5 mins Gingrich (1984) has found this to be true of rocks with T1-208 13 3. in which state the daughter products are produced at the Po-218 a 3. influence the migration of the radon. This property can dry gravel.145 s densities.64 × 10 -4 S taken for secular equilibrium to be achieved in the T1-210 13 1. The immediate daughter product of host.32 mins thorium decay series is about 70 years.

has been made of this technique for long-term monitoring despite its lower count rate. period the build-up of the radioactivity of the at Carleton University Library on May 13. During each minute a quantity of Po-218 will have grown in. solvent. If the net Semiconductor detectors counts for minutes one to three are given as C1. Miller & Loosemore 1972). It is also moisture sensitive. fluorescence agent which is dissolved in an organic As radon isotopes are the only alpha emitting gases. Alpha tracks may be detected using photographic materials but they are also sensitive to light. image analysis techniques. Although the practical surface area is be calculated at very low count rates and where generally much less than that of a ZnS chamber. The solvent is ionized by alpha and beta gases (Dyck 1969. Absolute calibration is Radon detector systems include the following. used for radon and radon daughter measurements. usually a water immiscible phase such as their concentration may be determined accurately xylene or toluene. it is possible to achieve a high throughput corrections to be made for the relative contributions of and the procedure is of particular value in the thoron and radon to the total alpha activity of a gas. negative values are likely to recording. record alpha particles but are make use of the fact that it is an alpha emitter.lyellcollection. The thoron count is thus simply the total cpm minus Alpha particles interact with the semiconductor that from radon.34C1 (Morse 1976). can concentrate (1973) has described the use of a very large volume radon and/or its decay products. has never been used extensively in the Absorbers of various kinds. Resolution is important only if alpha spectrometry is to be employed (for example. Some Analytical methods plastics. expensive Calibration with a pure radon source enables equipment. use background subtraction is employed.32C2 . possible using standard radon generators and uniform processing procedures. If a high potential difference is placed across electrodes to distinguish between radon and radon daughters). This technique is efficient extractors of radon from gas or liquid phases commonly used for the measurement of radon in soil or absorbers. However. which is less sensitive than the ZnS chamber. C2. After a suitable ionization chamber for airborne radon detection. A total count is usually recorded after one minute and then at minute intervals. it is possible of radon extracted. Although the procedure is to calculate the activities of Rn-220 and Rn-222. Because of the random statistical depletion layer to produce pulses of current for nature of the radiation. activated field. The track of the alpha particle is Separation of the gas phase from solid or liquid phases identified following etching by caustic alkali solution. photomicrograph registration or automatic products. 2015 RADON IN THE GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 171 maximum expected diffusion of radon is 10 m. Dyck charcoal and charged metal plates.g. e. lithium-drifted silicon and ion implanted high-purity germanium surface barrier detectors can be cpm = 0. and C3 then the cpm (counts per minute) due to radon Because of the lack of penetration of alpha particles. particles and its subsequent de-excitation results in the Because of the different half-lives of radon isotopes emission of light which is proportional to the quantity and their immediate daughter products. Large surface area detectors are usually a compromise between Ionization chambers resolution and sensitivity. Zinc sulphide scintillation counters Liquid scintillation counting Alpha particles produce photons when they interact with zinc sulphide.87C3 + 0. insensitive to light. such as cellulose nitrate and CR-39 (Kodak) which are the basis of the Track-Etch Survey Method The most common procedures for identifying radon (Gingrich & Fisher 1976). silica gel. The Linked absorbers ionization chamber. Many liquid scintillators are using relatively simple equipment. In soils Alpha track registration this distance would be substantially less. the presence of an ionizing gas such as radon results in a current being conducted through the gas which is proportional to the degree of ionization. measurement of radon in water. Downloaded from http://qjegh. can be calculated from silicon-gold. provides a simple means of determining various The track density can be determined by point radioactive properties of the gas and its daughter counting. laboratory based and requires large. These pulses of light are counted This method depends on the use of an organic using a photomultiplier and suitable counting circuitry.

gas through the detector (Smith. Downloaded from http://qjegh. Andrews & Wood (1972) made use of a highly sensitive procedure whereby outgassing was under- Passive m e t h o d s taken by a stream of nitrogen and the radon collected on an activated charcoal trap at -80°C. conductor detectors or various absorbers. although the latter case requires a monitoring is employed to overcome the problems of low gamma background. required. In practice they are generally not favoured Nicholson & Peachey 1983a).org/ at Carleton University Library on May 13. This procedure is used when long-term daughter Bi-214. the detectors are time consuming to emplace. often up to a month. pumping gas diffusion of the radon but not water vapour. two visits to each site Usually a thin rigid tapered hollow tube is hammered are required with all the problems of re-occupying the into the ground to a convenient depth. Instruments for the determination of soil gas radon are Other passive approaches make use of semi- based generally upon either an extraction method. Miller & Ostle 1973). but the using a 'pump monitor' device for transferring a etched track methods are the most popular and are sample of the soil gas to an instrument. The concentration of radon into an evacuated ZnS counting chamber or in soil gases is usually sufficient to permit a relatively alternatively a sealed recirculating system may be set speedy measurement.g. Heating These generally involve emplacing detectors in the to 200°C liberated the radon which was conducted ground. are normally taped to the bottom of a plastic cup which is inverted before burial. Water from the soil usually means that suspended daughter droplets on the surface of the film may also affect the products are not carried over into the counting device recorded alpha counts and water vapour absorbers so that a purer sample of radon is obtained. This approach causes a equipment and laboratory processing. Polyethylene allows out. the detector emplaced and the nitrogen. radon. but the presence of a 1976). Baretto & Pournis They are also sensitive to thoron. 2015 172 T. Alternative methods for primary uranium mineral exploration although include augering of a hole and recirculating the soil they do have an important role to play at later stages. e.2 m. although this Soil gas m e t h o d s instrument was usually employed in a more active mode. For the former the ZnS is coated on the inside of a plastic or metal cup Radon in w a t e r or a glass flask (Lucas cell).K. laboratory processing is minimum disturbance to the soil profile (Ball. The detectors emplacing the detector in the ground. up. or simply generally used for long-term monitoring. A portable field development of this was to coat a perspex Measurement of radon cylinder with ZnS to increase the effective surface area (Miller 1966. Holes may be dug with a spade or auger to a into an evacuated ZnS coated flask on a stream of depth of about 0. Because the pore spaces are small. Very detailed attention must be paid to the timing The ionization chamber is rather less attractive for of both degassing and counting and careful calibration this purpose since it is affected by moisture in the soil of the procedure with standardized radon solutions is gas. the use of considerable disturbance of the soil profile and immiscible liquid scintillators (Prichard & Gessell . generally within a few minutes. It is relatively robust for field use and the equipment is designed for rapid There is a high partition coefficient (gas to water) for changing of the cell when it becomes contaminated. soil replaced. BALL E T A L . temporal variation in the concentration of radon. Gas bubbles may be drawn its suitability for field use. These have the advantage of minimal soil polyethylene film seal about 50 mm from the detector disturbance if the sampling probe or auger is narrow reduces the amount of short-lived thoron while having and are usually used when rapid surveys are carried a negligible effect on radon. required (Morse 1976). Although these methods overcome many of the problems associated Extractive m e t h o d s with temporal variation in radon fluxes. The detector is then recovered some time Other methods show promise but require expensive later. daughter products may be determined by extraction of requires a relatively long period to obtain an adequate the radon into a liquid scintillator (Prichard & Marlin sample as the soil gas re-equilibriates with the gas in 1983) or by detection of the gamma activity of the the hole. Detection may need to be introduced into the sampling device.lyellcollection. more importantly. Hextall. of radon is usually based upon the ZnS scintillation method or the ionization chamber. One of the earliest passive detectors was a simple ZnS screen viewed by a photomultiplier. so that the introduction of fine gas bubbles The large number of instruments produced attests to extracts radon efficiently. causing site and.

zircons etc) then the radium will tend to be in secular equilibrium with the uranium. 1978). 2015 RADON IN THE GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 173 1977). Gamma spectrometric determinations of granites of Cornwall and Devon and the Upper uranium in the field and laboratory often make use of Palaeozoic mudstone and limestone lithologies in the this photopeak on the usually reasonable assumption Pennines (Bowie & Plant 1983. The crystal or a high-resolution lithium drifted germanium composition of the stream sediment reflects that of the semiconductor detector. Radon in soil gas has been studied extensively in relation to uranium mineralized zones (Miller & Ostle Factors controlling radon emanation 1973). Plant. Downloaded from http://qjegh. Ostle & Miller that the decay chain is in equilibrium and that this 1983). stream sediment uranium concentrations for Northern Scotland (Plant 1984) identify. 1. In addition to known areas of uranium mineralization (Bowie. Digital image for uranium in stream sediments from above. Ball. monazites. stream sediments and unconsolidated aquifer sands) by agitating a slurry of the material with distilled water. mineralogy. into the gas phase. Consequently 1964.lyellcollection. Ostle One of the solid daughter products of radon is Bi-214 & Campbell 1973). for example. 6-11 ppm. 3-6 ppm and < 3 ppm. U ranium concentration Mineralogical effects Since uranium and ~thorium are the ultimate parents of Uranium is very seldom distributed homogeneously radon isotopes. the permeability of a broad based study of soil gas methodology. at Carleton University Library on May 13. the granitic areas and the Orcadian Cuvette as being Radon in solid materials especially rich in uranium (Fig. Density intervals are > 11 ppm. Radon host rocks. allowing a period for in-growth of about 20-30 days before measuring the radon in the aqueous phase by the techniques outlined FIG. If the parent uranium mineral is resistant to weathering (thorium. Most of the uranium in these elements in different bedrocks would be expected rocks can be attributed to discrete uranium bearing to provide a useful first indication of radon and minerals even when there is only a few parts per thoron concentrations. Morse (1976) and Andrews & Wood (1972) determined the radon release from disaggregated samples (soils.76MeV. concentrations of uranium.76MeV. comprehensive dataset for stream sediments covering measured using either a sodium iodide scintillation most of northern and western Great Britain. This emits high-energy gamma radiation at identified as having high uranium levels are the 1. 1). Data on bedrock geochemistry million of uranium present. a knowledge of the distribution of throughout rocks and soils. The data is made available from the described the use of sawn cubes of granite for the Geochemical Interactive Systems Analysis (GISA) service of determination of the radon transfer into water and the Geochemical Survey Programme. Irfam & Read 1981). measurement provides an effective total radon determination. An alternative method makes use of the radon are very localized but there is a detailed and daughter Bi-214 photopeak emission at 1. The measurement of radon release requires a different method. In such minerals the radon loss is generally low and gamma spectrometric measurements give a good indication of the uranium contents. Nicholson & Peachey (1983b) included radon in soil gas studies over mineral deposits which Many features of rocks and soils influence the were not uraniferous and Gregory. the nature and extent of carrier fluid anomalies were also observed where the mineral transport mechanisms and even the weather have their deposits are fracture controlled or contain low parts to play.and REE-rich uranium oxides and silicates. other zones which have been (Table 1). For more solid rocks Edmunds et al. (1987) Northern Scotland. The Bi-214 is allowed to grow bedrock and locally derived glacial drift in the in for several hours prior to measurement (Lucas catchment area (Plant 1971. Durrance & migration of radon into the biosphere: uranium and Mitchell (1986) and Gregory (1987) included radon in thorium concentration. as radon is a gas .

with a limited half-life its chances of escaping the Caledonian granites is largely in the form of high- parent mineral are much greater if it is generated thorium uraninites and other resistate minerals. Radon in soil gas profile across the Ashover anticline. The the surface. (1982) have concluded that the host mineralogy for independent of these. . the transmission to the biosphere is largely al. Plant & Cope (1976). Ball. history of the two areas. The openess of and imperfections in the lattice consequently liberate less radon. with large-scale removal of site. notably the fluid transmission low-thorium uraninite which occurs as equant grains characteristics of the rock and the nature of any of up to 200~tm and accounts for more than 90% fractures and disaggregation features. The relatively immobile radium remains in a earlier weathered and disaggregated granite zones. In contrast the uranium in the The degree of water retention in the rock substrate Distribution of Radon in soil gas in relation to geology ! = = i I 1km I ~ 0 ~ AshoverGrit A ~_3_. Derbyshire. Uraninite is easily weathered near and consequent disaggregation of the granite. 2015 174 t. of the Pleistocene ice front and hence retained Tertiary proportionate amount of radon on account of its erosion surfaces with their deep weathering profiles dispersed nature. Basham & Michie (1982) and Basham et however. monazite Hercynian granites compared to those of Caledonian and apatite whilst there is a small and microscopically age. all of within the margin of that mineral (Andrews & Wood which are more resistant to weathering and 1972). is of course ultimately dependent on the concentration Simpson. In the Hercynian granites the main host is a factors take over. The mixture of plumbogummite. Downloaded from http://qjegh.K. bearing phases. as is the specific surface area of the mineral. Southwest England was south This last component probably emanates a dis. Once the radon is released from uranium is substantially different for the two granitic the parent mineral into the intergranular region other areas. Ball & Basham of uranium and the nature of the parent mineral. the end result being that much of the more Caledonian granites have been efficiently eroded by mobile uranium is removed from the original mineral sheet and valley glaciers. 2. in of the uranium at Carleton University Library on May 13.I~_T1 Namurian Shale A' ~ Longstone Mudstone ~ KnollReefin Eyarn Limestone X X 10o o ~ MonsalDale Limestone o I~ /Y~'ITuff. are important controls. which is a highly efficient radon generator mineralized and the presence of lodes and other because of the high specific surface area of the radium fractures provides potential pathways to the surface. BALL E T A L . there is a considerable difference in the weathering irresolvable uranium component at grain boundaries. For example. (1979). iron oxides and clay southwest England granites are also substantially minerals.Fallgate Volcanic Formation FIG. The remaining uranium is addition to the greater generating capacity of the distributed as a minor element in zircons.lyellcollection. Preliminary observations indicate that the Hercynian granites of southwest England appear T r a n s m i s s i o n characteristics of bedrock to generate much more radon than those in the Caledonides of northern England and Scotland despite The generation of anomalous concentrations of radon their similar uranium levels.

35 ppm) than the limestones (2-10ppm) but.8 20 Rn Bq/l COs~ 15- 10. however.2 1. The in reducing the radon values in a stream originating carrier effect may also be important for other rock from a spring on the Dartmoor Granite. peaks on the radon distribution profile equate with some of those for CO 2. Downloaded from http://qjegh. In surface streams the radon appears to be related to the radium concentration of the Carrier fluids stream sediment (Morse 1976).org/ at Carleton University Library on May 13. contribute much less radon to the soil gas phase. Mudstones retain water more efficiently between CO 2 and radon is 0. It has been than limestones so the mobility of this potential concluded that the CO 2 is derived as a metabolic transmission phase is restricted in mudstones. in soil gases by the carrier effect. The CO 2 enhances the concentration of radon The mudstones contain much more uranium (8. Radon and carbon dioxide in soil gas profiles over encountered (Morse 1976.k s .25 at 25°C (Morse 1976). 35 . Heath (1982) showed that the relative uniformity of uranium distribution (1. because of their waterlogged nature. Nicholson & Peachey gently folded sequence of mudstones and limestones. 5 0 0 200 400 600 The faulted area in Fig. The presence of faults with their enhanced fluid flow 4O frequently results in high radon in soil gases.... I . Gwynedd. presumably from the radium in the stream Wales (Rice & Sharp 1976) where variation in soil gas alluvium although there may be a small contribution radon is observed despite the low concentration and from groundwater.9 1. 2015 RADON IN THE GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 175 can also be critical in the generation of soil gas radon Fig. 3. 4. Lancashire. Radon may be carried by the air/water interface to occur unless a gas phase is other fluids. i i 0. Generally radon is not supported by dissolved radium. For example.8-2.. For ground underlain solely by the sandstone. D~/l t / 2o . However the radon concentration in surface streams is usually far too low Because of its short half-life.1 / 4. . 4. Figure 3 Pm shows a soil gas traverse and illustrates the high radon 3o . however.4.4 0. Radon is soluble in water in which it may be carried for great distances. CO2 occurs as a carrier gas at the waterfalls there is a gradual build up of radon the Coed y Brenin porphyry copper deposit in North values. Morecambe area.51 at 0°C falling to 0. . Figure 2 product of the microbial oxidation of the low grade shows the distribution of radon in soil gas across a sulphide mineralization (Ball. . but this is not exceptional compared with some of the values observed over the sandstone.6 2 2. FIG. The controlled by hydrological factors unrelated to the relationship between CO 2 and radon is illustrated by uranium content of the bedrock and that the radon . The solubility coefficient for radon is 0.. flux over a fault..4 2. Scatter diagram of radon versus carbon dioxide in soil gas. The product moment correlation coefficient anomalies. . | ! i i i i i w .731. The partition coefficient air to water is high so that radon may be lost to the gas phase when turbulence is FIG.lyellcollection. the maximum diffusion for more than a very small degree of transfer across distance of radon is limited. Coed y Brenin.. Rose & Korner 1979) or faulted junction of sandstone (dotted) and mudstone (horizontal lines).. 1985). when groundwater discharges and there is pressure release of gas. Figure 5 illustrates the effect of waterfalls such as limestones this may be most significant.4.* 30 25 . and in areas of permeable rocks introduced. 4. In between types. 3 also has a moderately Distance (m) high CO 2 anomaly.9 radon distribution in surface waters on Dartmoor was ppm U for 30 analyses) in the diorite host rock.

7 and 18 Bq/l. Vadose water can also carry distribution. pumping rate and residence time were not radon either into gas voids or to the phreas. and because it is no longer surrounded by uranium. or even neck size of the pores. Under relatively static Lee (1984) recorded concentrations between 110 and conditions there would be insignificant transport 740 Bq/1 in near-surface groundwaters and minewaters across the phreatic-vadose interface. Burgess. unless there was the Rosemanowes doublet boreholes for the Hot Dry significant turbulence. K. activity downstream of a spring appeared to be (1987) studied the radon generation characteristics for controlled by radioactive decay. Significant controls are shallow water discharge and that from deep waters. by Fehn (1985). The radium is relatively immobile Andrews & Lee (1979) studied the radon dis. Edmunds and others With their low water table and high permeability to .org/ at Carleton University Library on May 13. Edmunds et al. the vadose zone. They concluded that high recovery. There is a high fissure flow in the relatively oxidized surface zone of the phreas. In this state it is from material surrounding the fissure with a low relatively mobile and can be removed by solution in contribution by diffusion from the pores. ~ (feet) An alternative model to explain the radon and helium distributions in surface and subsurface waters FIG. These authers produced a conceptual model in which post-1953 meteoric water Alpha percolated to a depth of over 700 m. Andrews & Radon was found to range between 1. important provided residence time did not exceed 25 Below the water table and in the more reduced days. BALL ET AL. Devon. On the basis southeast Devon as being parallel to major wrench of radon and other radio-isotopic measurements faults. 2015 176 T. zones at depth. high activities showing areas of ascent while descending zones gave In limestone areas there is a very broad relationship low values. Andrews. Kay speeds significant in terms of the half-life of radon & Lee (1982) and Edmunds. Andrews. likely to include the variable nature of the uranium the overall distribution pattern for radon conformed mineralization. component with little transfer of water from pore to uranium can be oxidized to the hexavalent state. The circles Durrance (1987). He concluded that most of the radon derived depending upon its mineralogy. Kay & Lee (1982) The mapping of possible hydrothermal circulating showed how the radon contents of groundwaters could cells in the Dartmoor Granite has been undertaken by be affected by drought and subsequent water level Durrance & Heath (1985). The diffusion coefficients the granite areas of SW England has been the subject are low and unless there is transport of water at of intensive studies. This aquifer is characterized by radon depend on whether it is generated above or a high porosity but low permeability due to the small below the water table. mixing with much cpm older water in the fracture systems. Downloaded from http://qjegh. cells with dimensions of 5-10 km. modified by mining Wote~olls activity. Edmunds. (1987) concluded that for most of the granites shallow fresh water had mixed with more 50. tribution in a sandstone aquifer in central England. Kay & little movement takes place._ were developed over the granite high ground with upwelling in the fracture systems. uraninite and other common uranium The radon content of surface and groundwaters in minerals tend to be stable. in the Carnmenellis Granite. Radon activity expressed as counts per minute per on the same granite was suggested by Gregory & litre for a stream profile on Dartmoor. which were close to the lower lying granite Io ~ 4o oo 8o l margins. the residence time of groundwaters and closely to models of hydrothermal circulation deduced the nature of the contact between water and bedrock. Rock project and found even higher radon con- NW trends in stream radon iso-contoured data for centrations in the re-circulated waters. Burgess. Edmunds. Andrews. saline groundwaters. Zones of recharge I.lyellcollection. fissure. by the radon activity in stream waters. Burgess. Although with moderate radon activities between the uranium concentration in the limestones difficulties were encountered in distinguishing between and the radon of karst springs. Durrance (1978) interpreted SE. Wood (1972) have shown that the radon dispersion the value being dependent upon the uranium content coefficient in the gas phase is about one hundred times of the aquifer rock and its porosity and pore size greater than in water. These authors concluded that broad and error bars show the means and ranges for five zones of groundwater movement could be recognized determinations at each site. During 1977 the enkarstic thermal spring at concentrations of radon in surface streams arose from Bath recovered from a value of 37Bq/1 to a more discharge of groundwater on rising limbs of convection normal 82 Bq/1 following the drought of 1976. 5. can lose radon to the neighbouring voids. Ward (1989) found 2-7 Bq/1 of radon in the chalk The generation and transmission characteristics of aquifer in East Anglia. Above the water table.

A 1. . at Carleton University Library on May 13. . The product moment in areas in which there was no significant uranium correlation coefficient is 0. Humic soils can behave in a porous manner conditions and a relationship between rainfall and high when the soil dries out so that generalizations with radon values was recognized.1. . . statistical would be expected to give rise to greater radon analysis of the soil gas data for such a soil type gave emanation than other rocks of similar uranium (or a highly significant product moment correlation co- radium) concentrations. . . During the consequently varies directly with barometric pressure spring to autumn months when evaporation exceeds and to a lesser extent inversely with wind speed. . . ." SOIL GAS 6000. .~ / \ Alpho ACTIVITY octivib/ ets/hr 0 .831 between atmospheric pressure and certain caves within the Carboniferous Limestone are alpha activity (Fig. 6. including radon lies along the least squares best fit. The soil is a heavy clay brings the contained gas under the direct influence of which is difficult to distinguish from the underlying atmospheric variables. . . . . .. . .. The radon concentration weathered Mercia Mudstone Formation. . . Relationship between alpha activity in soil gas. HUMIDITY g0-- 60-- . .000 ALPHA q. 4000-.00 . . . .0 . . . 1. . . mm. the ease of contact through the soil of approximately a year.i. 2015 RADON IN THE GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 177 gas transport.. Although all the observations were made in areas of I 4 I 5 I 6 I 7 [ 8 [ 9 110 Ill I uranium mineralization.10' 1. . . .lyellcollection. . . . . a moderately uniform flux of alpha Rainwater passes quickly through to the subsoil and activity in the soil gas is observed. Devon. . * / RELATIVE 1 0 0 . e. relative humidity) the JULY effects of which were partly dependent upon soil type. this observation and noted additional controls (atmospheric pressure. A radon build-up is often observed during the Since radon is a noble gas its behaviour is far more night when dew forms on the surface and this can likely to be affected by physical changes in the result in a twofold increase in soil gas alpha activity. typical topsoil limits the effects of pressure and wind velocity to a marginal role. Temporary deviations are . Nicholson & Peachey (1983b) described the atmospheric pressure. In the between 50 and 100cpm. . Fletcher & The finer grain and humic contents of the more Prime 1989). . 6). Scattergram of soil gas alpha activity versus Ball. cph 500 el. . . Merrivale. . . . . over a period sand content. If the latter is of 0. Kingswood. .016 tabors FIG. Downloaded from http://qjegh. . . . . . . . . . RB=. . subsoil overlain by variable thicknesses of less Figure 8 shows alpha activity in soil gas at a depth permeable humic or clay-rich topsoil. . . Peacock & Rain is a much more effective sealant and increases Williamson (1961) showed that soil-gas radon values of an order of magnitude are sometimes observed in southwest Scotland were affected by weather (Fig. 4. .^ ~ . .: >. in pine forests or where there is a high British Geological Survey in Keyworth. .831. wind.. The small near-surface pore spaces are easily filled with moisture and Weather and soil types effectively prohibit the rapid outgassing of radon from the soil. limestones coniferous forest at Kingswood in Devon.. . 7. . .v* °:. . ~ 1. . . They confirmed the correlations between radon and relative humidity for these areas In most mechanically hard rock areas soil profiles and also indicated a probable carrier gas effect with a comprise a highly permeable rock fragment-rich correlation between CO2 and radon. . atmos- i i i p pheric relative humidity and rainfall. mineralization. Later work (Miller 1966. regard to soil gas behaviour should take account of Miller & Ball 1969.500 *. ranging mostly only affects radon values during precipitation. . . FIG. . Dartmoor. especially in karstic terrains. .g. . they were not confined to 2- uranium bearing structures. . . . 982 9. precipitation.. 7).7I:. environment than by any chemical effects. The high radon levels in efficient of 0.q" ° : / ° . The segmented line investigations of soil gas components. . . . . Miller & Ostle 1973) confirmed seasonal variations. 0. :i *:': * "*:". . .7 m together with rainfall data for a site at the absent. symptomatic of these properties (Gunn..

lyellcollection. with a gradual and persistent increase in activity. Various rock types have been tested the result of waterlogging of the soil profile.31/12/90 FIG.00 M 0. .. During (Ball et al. A catastrophic fall which occurred fluxes in areas which are not mineralized appear to be during a period of heavier rainfall was deduced to be relatively uniform.00 A c 200. observed during periods of heavy rainfall involving an soil column remained wet and it was only during the increase in radon flux followed by a decrease to more late spring that the concentration regained the values normal levels. but generally there is an encouragingly observed during the previous summer. i! f 27/9/90 ! z6/IW9O Days Kcyworth ltaiwrall 3/11/89 .00 P h a 250. 1983b) and the variation across the site is the remaining winter months the pore spaces in the often less than that between adjacent rock types.00 C P 50. I. Relationship between alpha activity in soil gas and rainfall (bars) for the Keyworth site.00 t i v 150.. there is a in temporary entrapment of radon in soil at Carleton University Library on May 13.EL :J0/5/90 2917190 .00 i t y 100..00 mm 20 15 o:l/oa/on z/vo/a9 1/12/a9 <'lolllno "ail'. Keyworth Soil Gas Alpha Activity 3/8/89 . K. minor significant increase in both the Bi-214 photopeak and amounts of rain having a relatively greater effect than the total gamma activity. 8. During the winter months. Nottingham. Downloaded from http://qjegh.t..00 A 1 300. in the summer months as alpha activities do not return The encouraging aspect is that the soil gas radon to the lower values.31/12/90 350. sealing effects of moisture near the surface can result when precipitation exceeds evaporation. . The pore uniform concentration.ll90 . BALL E T AL. 2015 178 T.

equilibrium with Bi-214) for the Ashover area. USA. mines and caves. number of well sited measurements can be used to radon produces none of the potential problems that predict the broad-scale radon generation potential of a some other 'geological' gases exhibit. Figure 9 a fairly restricted range in relation to certain rock shows the relationship between soil gas radon and in types: the presence of ventilated cavities modifies the situ surface determination of the Bi-214 photopeak composition so that it becomes closer to that for the intensity (expressed as eqU ppm and based upon atmosphere. In the case of radon the activity is calibration pads in which the uranium is in secular reduced. 9. Downloaded from http://qjegh. for a large area. tufts. They concern existing mines. gamma spectrometry is including civil engineering operations and 'ground more efficient than soil gas measurements as the level workplaces where radon can accumulate after instruments can be vehicle or aircraft mounted (e. other underground workplaces However. Keyworth. Green & Wrixon (1987) Derbyshire. Grasty & Charbonneau 1990). They consider such aspects as of interbedded limestones. a relatively small Due to its inert nature and very low concentrations. Scattergram of radon in soil gas versus equivalent uranium in surface soils determined by field gamma spectrometry. it would be etc. shafts and caves has been applied by radium and the different effects of permeability which Sibley & Grainger (1988). Reimer & Gundersen in the U K are covered by the Approved Code of (1989) have shown a direct spatial relationship Practice Part 3: Exposure to Radon. permeating to the surface from underlying rock Doyle. 2015 RADON IN THE GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 179 Environmental considerations Because of the dominant effect of the geology upon concentrations of radon in soil gas. Detailed soil Radiation Regulations. although 'hotspots' may occur due to faults purely because it is radioactive. Intuitively. 1985. James. the containing uranium'. The Ionising between house levels and soil gas radon. tourist assessment of the radon potential over a small area. This may be important in terms of planning expected that house radon measurements would relate requirements for buildings. concentration maps for the UK. Abatement measures which may measurement of Bi-214 is unreliable as a general be applied are also reviewed. O'Riordan. 160 140 130 lE0 110 100 O0 RADON 80 Bq/litre 70 60 o 50 o ~<20> o <2£> o 0 40 o o % © © 30 o o~ o A o~)oo o © 20 IG 0 i ! ! 2 4 6 13 I0 12 14 eU pprn in soils FIG. sandstones and risk evaluation and provide generalized indoor radon mudstones. indicator of soil gas radon potential due to the A novel approach to cavity detection to locate contrasting geochemical behaviour of uranium and concealed mines. It is hazardous large area. issued by the Health and gas radon surveys are suitable for the preliminary Safety Executive. Correlation of the Bi-214 photopeak discussed radon in dwellings and summarized the intensity with the soil gas radon is poor in this region geological conditions. The gamma spectrometers were calibrated using international standard calibration pads at BGS. Soil gas compositions show result in variable levels of Bi-214 build-up. Despite this.lyellcollection. . In the Reading Prong Regulations regarding radon hazards in workplaces area of at Carleton University Library on May 13.g. most closely to soil gas levels.

A. 1972. J. G. the mineralogy. BURGESS. 1. Radon concentrations in dwelling and working places can be Discussion and conclusions reduced. D.1 m compared to about 10m in dry over large areas are now in progress.. Radon potential surveys phase is about at Carleton University Library on May 13. depth of 0.K. Current studies may removed from surface zones by weathering. radon can domestic radon concentrations. J. D. the orientation and frequency which are judged to have potential for enhanced radon of fractures and the presence of voids. difficult. Namurian low overall concentration in the rock. M. Radon -. The Householder's Guide to Radon is issued by the To understand fully the geochemistry of radon. F.6 m or even less in certain soils. W. all emanation is essential for planning processes. & WooD. The authors thank J. A compromise between groundwater from the Bunter Sandstone of England as reducing the effects of weather and the practicality of indicators of age and palaeoclimatic trends. more radon is generated Radon levels have been measured over a variety of from rocks with high uranium levels than from those rock types in the UK. Unfortunately this simple available for meteorological variables. C. F. The highest relationship is not always observed in practice. This gas may Many of these are difficult to determine and require be stripped easily from high radon groundwaters by specialist equipment and knowledge. elements in the decay series of uranium and thorium. D. Downloaded from http://qjegh. 298. Cooper. whereas at about 2 m depth the effects are ANDREWS. Transactions Section B. resulting identify other areas of concern. The health hazards of radon are now more widely whilst any filter beds will remove daughter products. Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. be transported considerable distances from its point of generation. the deep weathering profile major component through to major minerals in which and the strongly fractured nature of the granites uranium is present as a trace. It may even occur at combine to give enhanced radon generation. studies are also being made of radon in groundwaters. mainly using soil gas extraction methods The maximum diffusion of radon in the aqueous and gamma spectrometry. These are controlled In view of many local control factors it is necessary to by the permeability of the rocks. Uranium can be shales and Jurassic ironstones. Plant and a referee for constructive along faults can give rise to anomalous concentrations criticism. recognized and the measurement of radon and its daughter products is becoming easier. amongst other careful consideration must be given to the chemical matters. EDMUNDS. the relationships between radon distribution and Being the most soluble of the noble gases. avoid clay soils during the winter months as pore --. J. Its behaviour in soils is as much controlled by physical (meteorological) variations as by chemical and mineralogical parameters. 233-252. Radon movement depends upon the trans.lyellcollection. KAY. Department of the Environment and. & spaces are often moisture-filled and gas sampling is LEE. Often the radon levels. L. However. conditions as possible and care should be taken to B198-209. 41.5-0. other things being equal. The thermal springs of Bath. J. mission rates of the carrier fluids. Bateson.. These include some other granites and certain radon than the discrete uranium minerals. the nature and carry out individual site assessment within broad areas frequency of pore spaces. Inert gases in limited (Miller & Ball 1969). This paper is of radon in soil gas remote from uranium or radium published with the approval of the Director of the British enrichments. The identification of potential areas for enhanced radon Radon is a daughter product of uranium and. Geologial Survey (NERC). D. 1982. The high concentration of be found in trace minerals in which the uranium is a uranium. aeration (Hoather & Rackham 1963. 1979. Rapid fluid transport in karst terrains and ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. deals with remedial measures to be applied in and physical properties of a wide range of other the event of high levels of domestic radon being found. & LEE. Green produced Fig. Nature. 81. W. . Journal of sampling under field conditions is to sample from a Hydrology. Some comparative data is also with low concentrations. despite their areas of the Carboniferous Limestone. P. H. established. Mechanism of radon release in surveys should be undertaken in as stable weather rock matrices and entry into groundwaters. Clearly the effects of References changing weather are likely to be greater near the surface. often by very simple procedures. N. radon levels occur over Hercynian granites in Uranium is not uniformly distributed in rocks. BALL ET AL. 339-343. in the radium remaining in situ and generating radon The methodology of measurement is now well in the absence of uranium. R. it may southwest England. M. concentration in soil gas relates to the amount of CO 2 Future studies will be directed towards determining or other carrier gases. Complementary soil gas. Rafferty 1963). 2015 180 T. sub-microscopic levels within intergranular zones and a number of other areas also give rise to high radon these are likely to generate proportionately more values. Groundwater usually contains radon.

731-740. 92. 92. J. U. 1969. 21. 1984. P. E. 4. --.. H. J. BALL. & THOMAS. London. Some observations DOYLE. EDMUNDS. F. Proceedings of the Ussher Society. Geological Survey of Canada. New York. rocks. C. Institution of Mining interactions in relation to Hot Dry Rock geothermal and Metallurgy. I. Studies of granites from the British Isles. Houston. H. W. & PEACHEY. In: Applied Geochemistry Unit Report 272. S. M. L. 1985.. J. Soil gas surveying S. . Carnmenellis radiothermal granite of southwest chemistry. University of Exeter. & OSTLE. J. & MICHIE. S. & BALL. Soil Gas Emanometry and In: Proceedings of Symposium on Uranium Exploration Hydrothermal Mineralisation in Southwest England. 179. programme. 1982. Paper 90-1A. H. 389-392. Environment. London. 1987. Track Etch method. In: Exploration for Uranium Ore U. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 73- --. CLARK. A. & PRIME. J. Metalliferous Minerals and 1972.. J. R. & SHIRLEY. K. R. W. 220-228. Post-magnetic convection related to high heat detect buried ore deposits. both Radon-222 and Radium-226. & RACKHAM. 389-397. GREGORY. airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. & DURRANCE. Academic.. ANDREWS. Vienna. In: Vein-type and Similar Uranium Deposits in R. Uranium 12586. R.. N. L. B183-190. 40. University of Chicago Press. NICHOLSON. Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. Institution of Mining and production in granites of southwest England: a Metallurgy. McL. Institute of Geological Geochemical and Radiological Investigations in Relation Sciences. W. 1985. HOATHER. In: High heat production (HHP) . 1979. B. W. Current Research. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 1989. H. R. J. BEDDOE-STEPHENS. 212-241. NICHOLSON. & FISHER.. M. W. J. Report. J. radon and BOWIE.. & MITCHELL. M. mineralisation in N. (eds) Uranium -. L. Journal of Geophysical Research. British Geological Survey. 1983b. to the South West England Geothermal Anomaly. Canada. II. 1982. 1-4 June 1982. 1987. C. In: Investigation of the Geothermal HEATH. OSTLE. Effects of of the UK. 48. J. University of Exeter. J.B. Radon leakage from BARETTO. KAY. F. M. LEDERER. at Whitchurch Down... Radon methods of prospecting in Canada. S. BROMLEY. The origins and circulation GUNN. In: Applied Environmental Geo. G. tool. ANDREWS. Hills. H. genesis. near Tavistock. D. . PhD Methods. F. Uranium-bearing accessory minerals and Deposits [Symposium Volume]. International Atomic thermal groundwaters in the Carnmenellis granite. Energy Agency. R. & M1CHIE. Technique. caution. occurrences of south-west England--paragenesis and EDMUNDS. PhD CLARKE. 1973. 2015 RADON IN THE G E O L O G I C A L ENVIRONMENT 181 BALL. D. GILETTI. BURGESS. M. L. 19-39. Risks from thesis.lyellcollection. Investigations of the Geothermal Potential --. R. MILODOWSKI. ionising radiation. A case for of groundwater in the Carnmenellis granite: the hydro. t~ PEACHEY. L. 481-494. R. Institution of [Conference Volume]. Institution of Mining and Mining and Metallurgy.B. T. on radon in water and its removal by aeration. Uraniferous vein 28. and minerals: its relation to temperature GINGRICH. M. . 1982. & KULP. February/March. Scotland. Transactions Section B. I. McL. IRFAM.& HEATH. 1986. G. 437-438. 1972.A. V. & CAMPBELL. 26-27. Devon: an Transactions Section B.. 6. & ADAMS.W. Radon as a geochemical exploration and alpha at Carleton University Library on May 13. & LEE. Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. J... D. 1990. T. R. L. Part A. R. A. and radionucliide transport in SW England. Devon. T. GRASTY. 197-198. C. No. integrated approach to vein and fracture mapping. radioactive minerals. London. A. & CHARBONNEAU. 17. Transactions Section B. 1981. London. & SOUTHWOOD. England. M. An ionisation chamber for continuous monitoring minerals in granites from south west England. development. Low-level activity of 226Ra 32. B177-179. J. 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Natural radioactivity hydrothermal circulation associated with the in the environment. Radioactive accessory -. 213-227. M. the Midlands and . Review of the NEA/IAEA R & D thesis. Gas geochemistry as an aid to granites. W. D. M. 13-22. Institute of Geological Sciences.. 1989. Helium. Uranium in the Dartmoor Granite: Potential of the UK. 407-424. in water measured with a 3 x 3 inch NaI(T1). 1987. V. 289-299. Granite-water geochemical exploration research. Nuclear DURRANCE. of atmospheric radon-222 levels in Ottawa and Gatineau Proceedings of the Ussher Society. Thermal groundwater movement Wiley. 338. Geological Survey of Canada Radon in Soil Air as a Prospecting Technique. Institute Paper 68-21. D. D. B. BOWIE. Transactions Section B. Interim Report on the Measurement of Prospecting for Uranium. P. Proceedings of the Ussher Society. J. & READ. HEXTALL. B181-188. 12567- . meteorological variables on certain soil gases used to FEHN. J. B. 27. K. Downloaded from http://qjegh.. 92. 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DAVIS. 155-160. 1971. i . M. B324-345. Discovery of at Carleton University Library on May 13. forest of Coed-y-Brenin. Y. R. 71. NERC Newsjournal. Health Physics. sediments of Mining and Metallurgy. In: Exploration for P. D. International Atomic Energy correlation among indoor Rn. C.. J. Vienna. D. 5-7. & COPE. A direct (Conference Volume). D. R. Health Physics. (ed. In: Exploration for Uranium Ore Deposits (Conference RICE. Some notes on a plant for the removal Metallurgy. R. S. Transactions Section B. methods in uranium exploration. B. 32-39. 1976.) Geology. R. 57. Rexdale. & OSTLE. F. 1976. PLANT. R. Mining and Metallurgy. Orientation studies on stream sediment abundance and distribution in some granites from sampling for a regional geochemical survey in northern northern Scotland and southwest England as indicators Scotland. Tracer and Natural 222Rn Studies of the Uranium in Britain--Economic and Environmental East Anglian Chalk Aquifer. C. soil. Desorption of radon from uranium prospecting. 1976. Rapid measurements of Rn-222 concentrations in water with a commercial liquid scintillation counter. Mining and Extractive Processing of Uranium. Association of Exploration PARTINGTON. JAMES. P. Exploration 1 9 7 8 . Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. n. M. J. 1961. 3(4). of radon by aeration. 23-35. .. Ontario. 155-157. Miscellaneous national Atomic Energy Agency. London. 33. Analytical OSTLE. In: Uranium Exploration Methods REIMER. University of Chicago. Journal of the Institution of Water . Vienna. PhD thesis. D. J. L.P. 1989. & KORNER. 1972. A. • POURNIS. Report Institute of Geological Sciences East Anglia. 1963. Transactions Section B. 577-581. C. A. H. 1977. 126-139. PRICHARD. M. & THEOBALD. soil gas Rn and geology Agency. R. A. Institution of Mining and 229-239. In: JONES. S. Pennsylvania. Radon measurements in uranium Engineers and Scientists. Natural Radiological Protection WATTERSON. Vienna. G. The investigation of PEACOCK. McL. M. 17. U. OSTLE. NATO Chemistry. 1979. 1976. 83/I. Radon migration in the ground: a 1984. 1973. 135-146. Geological Society. Received 27 September 1990. of uranium provinces. L. revised typescript accepted 19 March 1991 . C. M. 1983. GREEN. Nature. In: The Natural Radiation Environment. & GUNDERSEN. 1988.lyellcollection. NRPB-GS6. & MILLER. R. 26-31. 2015 182 T. In: BOWIE. & LOOSEMORE. Institution of geophysical methods. Metallurgy. H. S. Natural levels of uranium in rocks. 185-211. J. J. M. A. prospecting. R. 1983. BARETTO.. A.K. TANNER. London. H. 85. D. International Atomic Energy Agency. & SHARP. Radon in natural waters WRIXON. S. M. 1957. A. R. Institution 1978. 21-36. K. BALL ET AL. 1964. 65-76. 55. (ed. & activated carbon into a liquid scintillator. In: Dwellings. Radon environmental and economic considerations. T. J. (eds) Geochemical Board. 237-247. J.W. . J. M. Geochemists. 912. 8£ GRAINGER. SIMPSON. J. P. London. 7. G. --. & GESALL. Natural Levels of WARD. HMSO. R. Downloaded from http://qjegh. SMITH. 1987. London. P. Inter- Environment. D.. O'RIORDAN. A. (eds) Uranium Prospecting Handbook. SIBLEY. B. in the Reading Prong near Boyertown. and waters. J. Copper mineralisation in the Volume). Uranium PLANT. Institution of Mining and RAF~RTY. 161-190. & ROSE. Exposure to Radon Daughters in as a guide to uranium deposits in Pennsylvania. University of Significance. 179.. Radon cavities at disused mines using soil gas geochemical and determination as a prospecting technique. Regional geochemical maps of the United review. Kingdom. 1989. Radon counters in uranium exploration. Advanced Study Institute. BI-13. W. (~ WILLIAMSON. 7. Paper. K. In: DUFF. Transactions Section B. . Regional geochemical maps of uranium.) Geological Aspects of Uranium in the Uranium Ore Deposits (Symposium Volume). 85. C. MORSE. Instrumental techniques for & MARLEN. 80. B75. Proceedings of the Ussher Society.