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Pharmacy Practice

Prof. Yahya
Lecture 2

• This alternating question and answer formats
keeps the patient actively involved in the
consultation process, which for the adult
learner is crucial to knowledge retention and

. Vision .• Inappropriate responses should alert the pharmacist to possible problems with comprehension due to hearing . or language problems.

• The pharmacist should discuss at least the following points while counseling the patient: .• Content of patient counseling: • Several guidelines have been published regarding's the points to be covered while counseling the patient's.

3. . Route of administration. Dosage form. Administration and use of prescribed drugs by the patient. Duration of therapy. 2. Name and description of medication. Special directions and precautions for preparation.1. 5. 6. 4.

10. 9. 8. Common side effects or interactions and therapeutic contraindications that may be encountered.Prescription refill information. Action to be taken in case of missed dose. 11. Proper Storage. .7. Techniques of self-monitoring of drug therapy. including their avoidance and the action required if they occur. and drug-disease interactions or contraindications. 14.Proper disposal of contaminated or discontinued medications and used administration devices. 13.Potential drug-drug (including non- prescription) .The medications expected onset of action and what to do if the action does not occur.drug. .

.• Then ask the patient if he or she has any additional questions. close the consultation with an offer to help when questions arise.

• The pharmacist is often the last member of the health-care team to see the patient before he takes the drug without direct medical supervision. .• The pharmacist responsibility : • The pharmacist must play an active role in the proper use of prescription medication by the patient.

it is the responsibility of the pharmacist to ensure the safe and appropriate use of the medication and to answer questions of concern to the patient.• Therefore. . • The responsibility also encompasses non - prescription (OTC) products.

.• As the health-care provider. in the best position to provide patients with adequate understandable information on the drugs they take or use to maximize the therapeutic outcome and prevent convievable problems during therapy. perhaps . the pharmacist is obligated morally and legally and is.

the pharmacist must first understand how a patient misuses prescribe medications. • Medication misuses: • The misuses are as follows: 1. Overdosage: a) Taking more than the prescribed dose at any one Administration.• To prevent these problems. .

at a time other than when needed.b) Taking more than the prescribed number of doses in any one day. . d) taking the same medication from two or more different containers simultaneously. prescribed as needed. c) Taking a dose.

c) Discontinuing the drug before the prescribed time. Under dosage: a) Taking less than the prescribed dose at any one administration. b) Omitting one or more doses. .2. d) Omitting the dose of medication prescribed as needed when it is needed.

3) Taking the dose at different time if the time has been specified in the directions. 5) Using the wrong route of administration. 4) Taking a dose in a form other than that specified in the directions. . 6) Taking medication that has been discontinued. 7) Taking outdated medications.

8) Taking two or more medications which are contraindicated therapeutically. .g. 11) Failing to understand how to properly use or administer the dosage form. 10) Failing to understand how to properly use the administration unit ( e. * The types of misuse committed most frequently were overdosage and omission of doses. inhaler). 9) Failing to get the prescription filled.

• Who and when to counsel: The amount and type of information provided to the patient will vary based on the patient needs and practice setting. .

.• Patients who should always be counseled: • Confused patients and their caregiver. • Patients who are sight or hearing impaired. • Patients with poor literacy. • Patients whose profile shows a change in medication or dosing.

. complicated directions . • Children and parents receiving medication. or those receiving a medication for the first time. significant side effects. • Patients receiving medication with special storage requirements.• New patients.

.• Removing the drug from the package: • Removing the drug from its package may seem to be a simple procedure to the pharmacist but not always to the patient. but not to some patients. • Opening " safety containers" has presented considerable problems to patients. • Removing the rapping from a suppository before insertion is quite obvious to the pharmacist.

Some . . • Most patients understand this method of administration. • Tablets: • The most common method to administer a tablet is to place on the tongue and to swallow with water. need to be reminded to take the tablet with a glass full of water. however .• Administering the drug : • The pharmacist should ensure that the patient understands the details of using the medicine.

tetracycline or potassium chloride.g. aspirin.release tablets. .• This is very important with those drugs that are irritating to the stomach e. ferrous sulphate . • The patient should be told not to chew enteric -coated or sustained. • Place the medication well back on the tongue.

• Administration of sublingual and buccal tablets: 1) Wash hands. . * Do not administer with water. * Allow the drug to dissolve where placed. 2) Place the medication: under the tongue (sublingual) or between the upper molar teeth and the cheek (buccal).