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Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

**Energy Conversion and Management
**

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/enconman

**A model of turbocharger radial turbines appropriate to be used in zero- and
**

one-dimensional gas dynamics codes for internal combustion engines modelling

J.R. Serrano a,*, F.J. Arnau a, V. Dolz a, A. Tiseira a, C. Cervelló b

a

CMT-Motores Térmicos, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain

b

Consellerı́a de Cultura, Educación y Deporte, Generalitat Valenciana, Spain

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The paper presents a model of ﬁxed and variable geometry turbines. The aim of this model is to provide

Received 6 March 2007 an efﬁcient boundary condition to model turbocharged internal combustion engines with zero- and one-

Received in revised form 26 November 2007 dimensional gas dynamic codes.

Accepted 29 June 2008

The model is based from its very conception on the measured characteristics of the turbine. Neverthe-

Available online 23 August 2008

less, it is capable of extrapolating operating conditions that differ from those included in the turbine

maps, since the engines usually work within these zones.

Keywords:

The presented model has been implemented in a one-dimensional gas dynamic code and has been

Internal combustion engines

Turbochargers

used to calculate unsteady operating conditions for several turbines. The results obtained have been com-

Radial turbines pared with success against pressure–time histories measured upstream and downstream of the turbine

Engine modelling during on-engine operation.

Intake/exhaust processes Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

**1. Introduction reasonable cost, and due to problems in achieving the required
**

reliability of the variable geometry mechanism. However, many

Turbocharging increases the power of internal combustion en- of current high-speed direct-injection Diesel engines and recently

gines and reduces speciﬁc fuel consumption [1]. However, the developed downsized petrol engines are being equipped with var-

application of this technique poses coupling problems between iable geometry turbines. The reason lies in the wide operating

the engine and the turbocharger. For example, at low engine speed range of such engines, in which this type of turbine allows (with

with small mass ﬂow rate, a turbine with high expansion ratio (i.e., the appropriate control) to improve the transient response of the

with a small effective section of the exhaust gas passage) is neces- engine and to reduce the pumping losses in steady operation [2].

sary to supply the power needed to meet the compressor require- Therefore, smoke emissions, NOx emissions (when combined with

ments. However, for high-speed engine operating points, a turbine EGR) and speciﬁc fuel consumption are reduced in comparison

with a larger effective area would be enough to supply the power with ﬁxed geometry turbines.

required by the compressor. Therefore, a single turbine might fail Zero- and one-dimensional models are able to reproduce the

to adapt correctly to all the working conditions of an engine. To global engine behaviour with reasonable computational costs [3–

solve this problem variable geometry turbines, capable of altering 6]; therefore, in this context the correct physical modelling of the

the effective area of the gas ﬂow passage, can be used. A solution variable geometry turbine provides a powerful tool for the design

commonly used is to vary the angle of inclination of the stator of the necessary matching between turbocharger and engine plus

guide blades, thus changing the effective ﬂow area. Variable geom- the required control strategies. On the one hand, the modelling

etry turbines of this kind are referred to in this study as VGT. An- of the turbine must take into account the ﬂuid-dynamic behaviour

other possibility is to change the width of the gas ﬂow passage of the gas, that is, the boundary conditions to be set at the exhaust

by relocating the stator guide blades, with a constant angle, along manifold end. This is necessary in order to guarantee that the dy-

an axis parallel to the rotor shaft. Variable geometry turbines of namic interaction between the cylinders and the turbine, as well

this second type are referred to in this study as angle ﬁxed turbine as the ﬂow evolution downstream of the turbine and along the rest

(AFT). of the exhaust system, are correctly computed. On the other hand,

The uptake of variable geometry turbines by engineering ﬁrms the modelling of the turbine must take into account the energy

has been a slow process, as they are difﬁcult to manufacture at a conversion and the irreversibilities generated in the process [7];

that is the production of mechanical energy from the gas expansion

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 96 387 96 57; fax: +34 96 387 76 59. through the turbine stator and rotor. This energy will be available

E-mail address: jrserran@mot.upv.es (J.R. Serrano). to the compressor, and a balance between the energy produced by

**0196-8904/$ - see front matter Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
**

doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2008.06.031

critical ﬂow conditions are reached model based on two nozzles in series. angular velocity (rad/s) x Relative velocity (m/s) Latin symbols a speed of sound (m/s) Subscripts and superscripts A amplitude of pressure wave (bar) 0 stagnation conditions (also indicates inlet turbine con- c gas velocity (m/s) ditions) cp speciﬁc heat at constant pressure (J/kg K) 1 conditions between turbine stator and rotor cv speciﬁc heat at constant volume (J/kg K) 2 turbine outlet conditions D diameter (m) a axial Disp displacement (m) eff effective h speciﬁc enthalpy (J/kg) g polytropic coefﬁcient of the expansion in the rotor M Mach number i incident pressure wave m_ mass ﬂow rate (kg/s) k polytropic coefﬁcient of the expansion in the stator N turbocharger speed (rps) pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ limit value for which the stator blades direct the ﬂow tangen- m_ corrected mass ﬂow rate: m _ T 00 =p00 ðkg=s K0:5 MPaÞ tial to the rotor pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ N * corrected turbocharger speed: N= T 00 (rps/K0. the nozzle outlet pressure corresponds now to the pres- the last few years [10–13]. imposing the turbine charac. Following this. six-cylinder engine matches the experimental results. Payri et al. to this model is the representation of the turbine as a nozzle lo. and thus sation of the turbine as a simple nozzle is considered. in or- by Benson [8] and found in the literature [9]. Additionally. ly. sure drop across the turbine for a speciﬁc mass ﬂow rate. these sim. shocked ﬂow conditions. A further drawback of this model is that Presumably. the use of interpolation functions has the drawback of increas. the introduction of the turbine characteristic curves. Thus. behaviour under steady ﬂow and pulsating ﬂow conditions over However.19] presented a sion is produced in two steps. This situation prevents the calculation of the pres- steady behaviour in the turbine.89. in turn. However. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 Nomenclature Acronyms Greek symbols AFT angle ﬁxed turbine c adiabatic exponent (cp/cv) EGR exhaust gas recirculation a stator blades angle (°) FGT ﬁxed geometry turbine g efﬁciency VGT variable geometry turbine with moving stator blades .3730 J. shock conditions with an expansion rate of approximately 1. The pressure–time histories calculated at the cylinder outlet in a cated at the exhaust manifold outlet. Several authors have studied this difference in turbine expansion and that of the non-constant nozzle area can be solved. based on pipe junctions.R. T/s total to static conditions T temperature (K) TQ torque (Nm) u blade tip velocity (m/s) W_ work transfer rate (J/s) the turbine and the energy consumed by the compressor must be for an expansion rate of approximately 3. only quite recently tur. Serrano et al. the operating point can then be ob. in which the same ideali- ﬂow conditions. in which variable sec- The simplest model developed for a radial turbine was that pro. whereas a nozzle reaches performed. the ﬂow boundary conditions at the engine Therefore. to be constant. whereas a predictive model is used to describe the rotor. sure between the stator and the rotor. In the results at the rotor outlet were not presented. to characterise the turbine. tained and. this model must consider additional solutions for inlet. Hribernik et al. Final.5) n nut of the wheel n polytropic index r radial (also indicates reﬂected pressure wave) g polytropic coefﬁcient of the expansion in the rotor rot rotor k polytropic coefﬁcient of the expansion in the stator R relative conditions (also indicates reﬂected pressure p. Pr pressure (Pa) wave) R ideal gas constant (J/kg K) s isentropic process R reaction degree st stator rexp ratio of expansion in the turbine t. [18. Central the stator. which reproduces the pres. separated by an intermedi- . However. but setting it will usually be necessary to relate the characteristic curves of the effective area so that a given mass ﬂow produces half the pres- the turbine under steady ﬂow to its behaviour when coupled to sure drop generated in the turbine. thus making it impossible to take sure–time histories at the turbine outlet and the calculation of the into account mass accumulation during unsteady operation. In 1991 and further in 1996. An alternative to this initial and basic model is that described by bine manufacturers have attempted to test them under pulsating Payri et al. der to represent accurately the ﬂuid-dynamic behaviour of a radial ulations require a wide range of previous measurements in order turbine. the easiest way to attain the proposed objectives is the effective section of the nozzle is assumed to be constant. possible effect of this variable upon the behaviour of the turbine. This has to be established as teristic curves always implies the need to interpolate and excludes a function of the pressure at the turbine outlet. T transmitted pressure wave S cross section area (m2) Ts. as suggested whereas it should be a function of the expansion produced. case of radial turbines with high reaction degrees. which is assumed any option to extrapolate. tion nozzles are introduced to simulate the ﬂow expansion inside posed for a ﬁxed geometry unit by Watson and Janota [14]. Moreover. as those found in real engine operation. in which expan. in addition to assume a totally quasi. [15] and by Winterbone [16]. ble entry turbines. [17] proposed a more complete model for dou- ing the calculation time. the problem of critical the engine.

1. [23] presented another relatively recent model for in order to determine the effective area of the equivalent nozzle. Finally. was much smaller than unity for the rotor con- pin0 pin0 sidered in the study. Serrano et al. pressure and temperature at the turbine tions in the turbine map. This model was also applied to ﬁxed geometry radial turbines tios and the calculation of the instantaneous pressure downstream with two inlets (twin-scroll). A rather sim. from the opening of the volute up to [14]. This hypothesis assigned a length to the volute. tained by using an appropriate deﬁnition for the ﬂow area of the [19] assumed that the mass ﬂow through each one (Fig. when the turbine outlet conditions of the ﬂow were through the turbine as an initial acceleration. Moreover. The p1 1 p model proposed by Payri et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 3731 ate reservoir with the same volume than the turbine. Chen et al. the volute. [19] calculated the value of the pressure at the velocity. as indicated in (1) and very important issue in non-steady ﬂow studies. the authors added several loss models. This ilar model concerning the inclusion of an intermediate volume up. 1) was the duct. Thermodynamic process of the ﬂow traversing a radial turbine and geometry diagram of the turbine model [19]. an increase in the ﬂow or the rotor. i. The model described the passage of the ﬂow Subsequently. Payri et al. The second hypoth. inlet. . This geometry combined the advantages of the ﬁrst mod- els mentioned above and solved the problem of high expansion ra. according to the authors. which is a same as that passing through the turbine. conﬁrming its ability to predict the where Seff is the effective area of the nozzle equivalent to the stator instantaneous mass ﬂow. as a function of the geometry guide blades in the stator and with radial blades in the rotor of the turbine to be modelled. the pressure drop produced in the rotor had to be also de. Two nozzles were located at the entrance of tion in the volume and therefore the consideration of unsteady the volume and reproduced the pressure drop across the stator. [19] is sketched in the diagrams ¼ 1þ 2 ð3Þ p00 2 p00 of Fig. In spite of the ﬂow inlet conditions being would not have been predictable with a model based on interpola- known. conditions used in one-dimensional and gas dynamics codes also In 1996. vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ " ﬃ 1=c u u 2 ðc1Þ=c # which provided a balanced improvement of the steady ﬂow simu- pout pout p F ¼c t 1 out ð2Þ lations under conditions far from those used in the design. across the stator than across the rotor. The rotor was (2): simulated using a quasi-steady model. which describes the relative importance of cRT in0 p _ m ¼ Seff F out ð1Þ the unsteady ﬂow. These turbines are normally used in automotive applications.R. which ditions. Afterwards. capacity under pulsating ﬂow conditions is demonstrated. this model allowed easy access to the correct time his- mon practice in zero-dimensional models that calculate internal tories of all the variables that describe the behaviour of the turbine combustion engines and is common practice to solve the boundary [19]. it was necessary to deﬁne the pressure drop across the stator Macek et al. three nozzles repre- of the turbine. Moreover. In addition. expansion ratio across the stator and the rotor. ﬂow turbine under pulsating ﬂow conditions. In this case. This is the case in turbines without convergent tube of a certain length. The volume of the casing could be main- In order to calculate the effective area of the nozzles. and ‘‘in” and ‘‘out” represent the inlet and outlet con. 1) imposing the condition of an equal losses. followed by ﬂow acceleration at the turbine volute. as shown in (3). 1.e. taking into account the rotor velocity and the incidence vaneless space (p1 at Fig. J. radial turbines. the absolute velocity was transformed into relative ing it. The ﬁrst hypothesis is com.5. The model was validated for a sin- simulating the turbine (from both the ﬂuid dynamics and the ther. is consistent with the second hypothesis of their model: stream of the rotor was also proposed by Baines et al. This was a develop- esis facilitates the calculation of the effective areas of the nozzles ment of the model for a ﬁxed geometry turbine under steady and representing the turbine stator and rotor. at the opening of known. mass ﬂow rate. [20]. as in the previous case. phenomena. The pro- pin0 pin0 c1 pin0 posed model was applied to four cases of turbine operation under pulsating ﬂow conditions. an azimuth angle of 180°. the model allowed for mass accumula. [21] published the modelling of a mixed used to calculate internal combustion engines. respectively. In addition. the relative expansion under the inﬂuence Fig. reproduces the behaviour of the turbine was quasi-steady throughout the nozzles pressure drop across the rotor. Subsequently. ﬁned in order to calculate the effective area of the nozzle represent. Payri et al. as justiﬁed by the fact that pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ the Strouhal number. and for a twin-scroll turbine in a six-cylinder in-line engine. hypothesis is quite representative of what occurs in a turbine with The proposed model simulated the spiral part of the casing as a a reaction degree (R) of 0. The main hypotheses of this model were that the While the third nozzle. the second pulsating conditions presented by Chen and Winterbone [22]. gle-inlet turbine with a waste gate in a four-cylinder-in-line en- modynamic point of view) and the pressure drop was the same gine. sented the turbine.

included the transformation to relative con. [24] in which The deﬁnition of R is usually based on the energy transferred. Another noted feature was the diffuser at the outlet of the turbine. be used in the paper for the velocity vectors. These steps were followed by a special treatment h00 h20 h00 h20 for nozzle geometry. before variable geometry ðch2 ¼ 0 ! c22 ¼ c2a2 Þ and it is assumed that the radial velocity at turbines spread. the corrected mass ﬂow and no swirl at turbine outlet).. TQ ¼ m W _ ðu1 ch1 u2 ch2 Þ ¼ m _ cp ðT 10 T 20 Þ ð6Þ mass ﬂow rate through the VGT was calculated using the nozzle Eq.3732 J. which will be deter- Therefore. if an alternative velocity triangles. then to variable geometry turbines. 2. (Fig. In addition. . it is possible guide blades. it is observed from Eq. it can be assumed that turbine testing. the corresponding tem. As such. it has been commonplace to use the R = 0. hypotheses at design conditions [14] (radial component of the An important objective of the proposed model is that the only velocity at rotor inlet equal to axial component at rotor outlet inputs will be geometrical parameters. which was rep. Fig. volume between two nozzles in series (Fig. Nevertheless. Here. follow: etry. from Eqs. the energy transfer in the rotor can be represented perature drop and other variables. the validity of models based on a ch1 = u1 (Fig. This model. formed. The neural network was used to ﬁnd the pressure drop between two given points. 2 shows the diagrams of the velocity triangles at the rotor ditions. and the be used at every operative condition. In 1999. (9) that R is 0. as they were mostly designed without guide blades in the stator and with radial blades in the rotor. Nasser and Playfoot [25] known as the Euler equation [14]: presented a model for a radial turbine with moving blades. the inlet and outlet of a radial turbine and the nomenclature that will model offered an interesting line of research. vaneless spaces and rotor inlet outside the gi. to calculate the effective area and to determine the permeability It is shown that from the deﬁnition of R and using two common across the stator and rotor of the variable geometry turbines. 2). at the rotor inlet) is equal to the axial velocity hypothesis to model the behaviour of radial turbines used in turbo- at the rotor exit (cr1 = ca2 = c1 cosa1). once This is the case of most of the ﬁxed geometry turbines without the pressure drop will be established for each nozzle. in comparison with other existing models. the models sin a1 ca2 cos a1 ch1 c1 sin a1 tan a1 ca2 based on mass accumulation in an intermediate volume (Fig. Since no work is developed at the stator h00 = h01. a1 is the gas entry angle to the rotor. taking into account the losses at the outlet. Calculation of reaction degree resented by a ﬂow deceleration.5). R can be expressed as shown in and speed (m _ and N*) and the total to static expansion ratio. In this way. If as design hypotheses swirl at the exit is neglected The thesis of present paper is that. (1) and by taking the cross section of the throat area of the sta. The aim is to extend. The model was based on a series of thermody- namic transitions. a turbine model was designed in order to obtain data to train a that is. such as increases in enthalpy as the product of the torque by the angular velocity. Serrano et al.5. which is and entropy. Although many adjustment parameters are needed. the ratio between the energy transferred due to the pres- neural network aiming to simulate the behaviour of a variable sure change in the rotor and the total variation of energy: geometry turbine. 2). there is no distinction be- tween the geometrical and the effective sections. charger manufacturers. Therefore. The _ ¼ . If the ﬂuid can ven design conditions in order to ﬁt experimental data from the be regarded as an ideal gas. 1) R¼1 ¼1 ¼1 ¼1 ð9Þ 2u1 2u1 2u1 2 u1 would be a good starting point to calculate the behaviour of a var- iable geometry turbine. Velocity triangles of a radial turbine at the rotor inlet and outlet. up blades (b1 = 0) and without guide blades to direct the ﬂow. it is readily obtained that tor blades as the effective area.e. thereby being consis. Following this. 2. c21 c22 c2 þ c2r1 c2a2 R¼1 ¼ 1 h1 ð8Þ tent with that hypothesis [14]. 1). When modelling variable geometry 2u1 ch1 2u1 ch1 turbines. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 of a centrifugal power was simulated and the relative velocity in are available in the turbine maps normally provided by turbo- relation to the ﬁxed coordinate system was once again trans.5 the stator outlet (i. [23] for ﬁxed geometry cp turbines. this paper proposes a model for calculating R and the mined by the stator guide blades. An example is the one presented by Kessel et al.R. This model is ðu1 ch1 u2 ch2 Þ T 10 T 20 ¼ ð7Þ similar to that presented by Macek et al. From the previous equation. In the case of a rotor with radial pressure drop through the stator and rotor. The calculation of the Only a few articles are found in the literature referring to the reaction degree of variable geometry turbine is demonstrated as one-dimensional modelling of radial turbines with variable geom. such a hypothesis cannot Taking into account the aforementioned conditions. by considering a parameter that h10 h20 ¼ cp ðT 10 T 20 Þ ð5Þ describes local efﬁciency. which (10): Fig. this can be rearranged to give method were found to calculate the pressure drop across the tur- bine stator and rotor (instead of assuming R = 0. (4)–(6) one has chargers. were calculated. with guide blades in the stator. which represent the processes occurring inside h1 h2 ðh10 c21 =2Þ ðh20 c22 =2Þ R¼ ¼ ð4Þ a radial turbine.

27]. 11). Measurements were p00 carried out for seven constant positions of the VGT. for a given opening and turbine speed. Serrano et al. gTs m when the VGT opens. the following is obtained: R¼1 ð10Þ 2 u1 2 ccþ1 T 00 Rðc 1Þ m _ T 00 1 Considering that mass ﬂow rate at the rotor outlet is a function ¼1þ ð22Þ T0 2c S0 T0 of the geometric area at its exit (S2) and the gas conditions at the turbine outlet (10) can be rewritten as An iterative process can solve Eq. like the ‘‘VGT closed” pic- approximate expression can be established. (22). only ten as one point was measured. several operating speeds and expansion ratios were conditions: tested. it is not always pos- behaviour of the variable geometry turbine can be expressed in sible to use the Eqs. Follow- out on a VGT turbine (Table 1). The speciﬁcations of the transducers used in the turbo- " ðc1=cÞ !# charger testing are shown in Table 2. 3. T 00 . once some measurable geometric parameters of the tan a1 4m _ RT 2 turbine (a1. solving (16) for the exit gas temperature and considering that tests R was calculated using (23). D1. In this case. From the data obtained during the ing. the following ume between the stator and the rotor. and for each the value of T2 is obtained as a function of the turbine inlet position. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 3733 tan a1 ca2 By substituting this value into (20). T0 p2 p2 T 0 Since the angle of the blades in the VGT stator is directly related T 2 ¼ T 00 gTs 1 ¼ T 00 f 0 .5. More- as it has been demonstrated from Eqs. 3 show that there will be an intermediate position between ‘‘VGT open” and ‘‘VGT closed” for which the chord of each T 00 T 20 gTs ¼ ð15Þ blade is tangential to the turbine rotor. the blades angle can be clearly determined once the rack po- sition is established. 2) T 00 T 2s higher than this intermediate position the ﬂow exiting the stator Taking into account the previous stated hypothesis of no swirl is no longer directed towards the rotor but to the intermediate vol- at the turbine outlet and assuming that c0 c2. gTs . if the low values of gas kinetic energy at turbine inlet and In order to apply the previous model. . On the other hand. R can be supposed equal to 0. which are available in turbine maps. S0 . over. 1) and Dn is the rotor nut diameter. giving an initial value of tan a1 mRT _ 1 to the temperatures ratios. This is the a1 value at which the axis of each blade is tangential to the turbine rotor The relationship between the turbine inlet temperature (T0) and external circumference. J. whose blades always have a constant a1 the corrected variables. Fig. In- angle (Fig. Dn and S0) and the turbine map for each position R¼1 ð14Þ of the variable geometry mechanism are known.R.5 R¼1 ð19Þ p2 D1 ðD22 D2n Þ N p2 when the blades angle tends to a1 68°. the direction of the rotor inlet velocity is not dependent upon the angle of the stator blades (a1) but upon T 00 T 20 T0 T2 the angle of the rotor blades (b1). considering that (whose scheme is shown in Fig. the isentropic Nevertheless. This turbine consists of a mov- T 00 c1 2 ing rod to which the stator blades are attached and a vacuum ¼1þ M0 ð20Þ T0 2 pump which controls the position of the rod. Introducing this result in Eq. In addition. (22) easily converge to a value slightly 2 R¼1 ð11Þ higher than one. where it can be observed that R increases 0 p2 T 0 2 _ tan a1 R T 00 f p00 . respectively (see Fig. (19) and rewriting it 2 u1 S2 p2 as a function of corrected variables yields The velocity u1 and the rotor exit area S2 can be written as 2R m_ tan a1 p2 R¼1 f _ . 3 shows that R tends to 0. Taking into account that radial rotor blades are generally used and the remaining compo- It is worth noting that the approximation of (16) (based on both nents of the design hypothesis. Therefore. gTs ¼ . The results obtained are shown at the bottom of Fig.m u1 ¼ pND1 ð12Þ p 2 D ðD2 1 2 D2n Þ N p00 p 1 " 1 c1=c !# S2 ¼ ðD22 D2n Þ ð13Þ p2 p2 T 00 p2 4 f _ . For values of a1 (Fig. 3). if cp is assumed constant. An angle of the stator blades of 42° When taking into account (18) (obtained from (15)). 3. R can be corresponds to the open VGT and an angle of the stator blades of expressed as 86° corresponds to the closed VGT. the turbine can be con- gTs ¼ ð16Þ T 00 T 2s T 00 T 2s sidered without guide blades in the stator. Indeed. gTs T 00 p00 p00 T 00 to the movement of the rack from the variable geometry mecha- ð18Þ nism. in the case of a VGT (Fig. ture shows in Fig.m gTs 1 p00 p00 T0 p00 where D1 and D2 are the external and internal diameters of the tur- bine rotor. The tests consisted on measuring ðc1=cÞ p2 the performance maps for the VGT using a speciﬁc test rig for tur- T 2s ¼ T 00 ð17Þ bochargers. Thus. ð23Þ Substituting (12) and (13) into (11) gives Therefore. and then R was calculated from Eq. sﬃﬃﬃﬃ cþ1 _ c0 mRT 1 _ m R T 00 2ðc1Þ (14) by using the average values of pressure and temperature mea- 0 M0 ¼ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð21Þ sured downstream the turbine on engine tests. 4) was tested coupled to an engine on a test bench deed. an AFT. Information about a0 p0 S0 cRT 0 S 0 c T0 the precision and range of the transducers used in the tests are . hypothesis stated in previous paragraph) is quite consistent. S0 . (4)–(9). D2. several tests were carried outlet sections are compared with the gas enthalpy values. the pictures at terms of temperatures as the top of Fig. (4)–(9) to calculate R. it is possible to 2pD1 N pðD22 D2n Þ p2 calculate R for each operating point. This is fully described in [26. More characteristics of this variable geometry turbine with ﬁxed angle are shown in The Mach number for the turbine inlet conditions can be rewrit- Table 1. the inlet stagnation temperature (T00) has to be also obtained from Additionally.

5% (at 273 K) Fig. 4.42 0. Diagram and view of an AFT. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 Fig. Thermo.61 0.R.42 0.3734 J.AFT AFT Comp. Piezo. Different blade positions of a VGT and R obtained for the different measured points.83 Range 0–5 0–5 273–1533 73–663 0–720 80–2400 (bar) (bar) (K) (K) (kg/h) (kg/h) Precision 0.VGT VGT Comp. Hot- Outlet diameter (mm) 38 38 35 50 63 66 resistive electric couple resistance wire wire Number of rotor blades 6 9 6 11 7 12 Model Kistler Kistler K type Pt100 Sensyﬂow Number of stator blades – 11 – 11 – – 4045 A5 7031 A/R 0.FGT FGT Pressure Temperature Mass ﬂow Inlet diameter (mm) 39 33 41 40 95 58 Type Piezo. 3.1% 0. Variation of R versus the displacement of the turbine shaft and versus the turbine mass ﬂow rate.033% 1.7% 0. Serrano et al.77 0. Thermo.62 0. Hot. .3% 0. Table 1 Table 2 Characteristics of the turbochargers used to validate the model Characteristics of the sensor used in the experimental measurements Comp.5% 1.

the thermodynamic process is going to be as the k–g would imply a temperature increase. In contrast to what occurs in the VGT. from gTs deﬁnition like (25) shows respectively. It can be presumed that a lamination process is produced n=n1 c p2 T2 n ln pp002 þ c1 ln TT000 in the stator when the AFT is closed and therefore R is increased.33 would imply a decrease of entropy in the ﬁnal state when Fig. They clearly show that R is dependent on the motion of the compared with the initial state. On the one hand. turbine axis. the operative conditions with the low- T1 T 00 p2 c est isentropic efﬁciency are when the VGT is closed or fully open. Calculation of pressure at the stator outlet sure and temperature at the vaneless space the polytropic expo- nents (k and g) cannot be directly obtained. a satisfac- Taking into account that in any thermodynamic process of a tory hypothesis would be to assume the polytropic process in the ﬂow traversing the turbine. Therefore. (22) and (26). the turbine is adiabatic but irreversible. Consequently. 6. T2). the turbine inlet to the turbine outlet. it may start from certain initial condi. R generally decreases when the exhaust gas ﬂow increases. Since in the turbine maps there are not available data of pres- 3.25 and stant) polytropic exponents. Fig. (4). 3 show this trend where n is a function of corrected variables from the turbine maps for each position and each turbine speed. k and g. Thus.5 has been imposed as previously ex.R. The cause of this behaviour can be the with a constant polytropic index n. ¼ ) ¼ ð28Þ Both Figs. caused by friction are very signiﬁcant and the entropy increment is tor. for the total process from the 0. as (27) shows R is 0. for a VGT fully open also the tur- haust gases. when the VGT is closed p0 T0 p00 and the passage area of the stator is very small. one may write h i c T 1 T 00 T2 T 20 g k k1 ln TT 10 ln pp002 þ c1 ln TT000 ¼ þR 1 ð24Þ ¼ h i ð31Þ T0 T0 T 00 T 00 g1 ln TT 10 ln TT002 þ ln TT000 where the ratio T00/T0 can be calculated using (22). 4. the polytropic expo. That is. It is worth noting that when the AFT is closed (AFT_ quite different from the process through the rotor. and considering the gas to be and further by substituting (28) in (30) as shown in (31): a perfect gas. Therefore. after taking logarithmics and (AFT_Disp = 0 corresponds with the drawing showed at top of rearranging: Fig. An equivalent but more accurate statement will nent of the process takes values between 1. In this case. Serrano et al. respectively. there are still two unknown values in " c1 # T 20 p2 c (31). Being the objec- the turbine will be discussed in order to calculate the k coefﬁcient. If the thermodynamic process of the gas traversing the turbine 6 shows the thermodynamic evolutions in such opening condi- is known. 6. 5 shows the isentropic efﬁciency versus VGT opening for several turbocharger speeds. where R = 0. for example. Fig.1 when the AFT is open (AFT_Disp = 10). The results plotted in Fig. in the left part of Fig. since the ﬂow rate in seems convenient to assume the hypothesis that the process across the AFT is almost constant for the different expansion ratios con. of VGT closed. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 3735 shown in Table 2. " c1 # With respect to the VGT. (28) can be proposed to cal- particular way in which the AFT reduces the stator effective section culate the polytropic index n. the hypothesis that temperature and (with the help of (26)) to R. the tur- " #!k=k1 bine efﬁciency is lower than at intermedium openings and the c1 p1 T 00 p2 c thermodynamic process should be similar to the k–g process ¼ 1þ ðR 1ÞgTs 1 ð27Þ shown in the left part of Fig. k1 g1 n1 g1 ln TT 1 0 If R is deﬁned according to Eq. 6. On the other hand. in the polytropic process in the stator will have a polytropic exponent such a way that p0 > p2 and T0 > T2. and 1. as shown in (30): ters. Eq. However. 4). the polytropic process through the stator is generally plained. possible to relate them taking logarithmics and rearranging (29). The exception is the case by combining (28) with (18) and (22). Nevertheless. bine variables and of some easily measurable geometric parame. it is necessary to consider an additional ¼ 1 gTs 1 ð25Þ hypothesis. R increases If the gas traversing the turbine undergoes a polytropic process when the turbine closes.33 in the case of isentropic process for ex. tive to calculate the pressure between stator and rotor. it is Once R has been calculated as a function of the corrected tur.5 when the VGT is closed has been used. Therefore. the thermodynamic processes in going to be higher in the stator than in the rotor. Fig. the following is obtained: graphs in order to stablish the additional hypothesis. since that let. it Disp = 0) R remains also virtually constant. tween n and c. tions (p0. it is possible to relate the intermediate pressure to the tions. 4 also shows that R varies between 0. g=g1 k=k1 n=n1 p2 p2 p1 T2 T1 T2 creases and this would account for the very low efﬁciency that is ¼ ¼ ¼ ð29Þ p0 p1 p0 T1 T0 T0 usually observed for a completely open AFT. However. the stator and the process across the rotor have different (but con- sidered (Fig. T0) and it may achieve certain ﬁnal conditions (p2. This means again with . the irreversibilities where k is the polytropic exponent that deﬁnes process in the sta. stator with lower slope than the process in the rotor. 4). Likewise. it is necessary to establish its relation with the intermediate T2 k g n g ln T 00 þ ln TT000 pressure between turbine stator and rotor in order to apply the ¼ þ ð30Þ chosen model of two nozzles plus an intermediate volume. Therefore. In the following paragraphs. In ¼1þ ðR 1ÞgTs 1 ð26Þ T0 T0 p00 the case of the VGT described in Table 1. J. The results obtained are shown at the bottom of 1. The behaviour of the VGT and the AFT under different T 00 p00 operative conditions are going to be analysed in the following para- Substituting (25) and (18) in (24). between n and 1. it can be established that change of relative speed in the rotor should be lower when R de. the ratio T2/T00 where the ratio of logarithms can be calculated as a function of cor- can be calculated using (18) and the ratio T20/T00 can be calculated rected variables from the turbine maps by using (18). Therefore. any value above process shown in the right part of Fig. it is physically impossible due to there is not and optimum angle of incidence at the stator in- for the polytropic exponent to take values below 1. for the extreme case in be that the polytropic exponent in the rotor (g) will be limited be- which T0 = T2. 3 and 4 show also a dependency with other turbine p0 T0 n1 ln TT 2 þ ln TT00 00 0 variables. Assuming that the process undergone by the gas in bine isentropic efﬁciency is lower than at intermedium openings.

p0 p0 Υ Υ k-g k-g h (J/kg) h (J/kg) n n p1n ( +1)/2 p1n p ( +1)/2 p1 1 0 p1γ 0 p1γ Δhs Δ hs 1s 1s Δht 1n 1γ Δht 1k-g 1n 1k-g 1γ Δhr Δhr p2 p2 2 2 2s 2s s (J/kgK) s (J/kgK) Fig.16 1.85 Isentropic efficiency 0.8182 0.55 120 rps/√ K 110 rps/ √K 100 rps/√ K 0.18 1.12 1.1 1.35 0 20 40 60 80 100 0. h–s diagrams for low efﬁciency conditions. 5.75 0.65 0. 6. .45 "n" polytropic exponent 0.5. Serrano et al.5.3736 J. Relation between isentropic efﬁciency.14 1.24 Fig.75 0. VGT opening and polytropic exponent n.2.55 2 R = 0.9159x .85 Isentropic Efficiency 0.9829 0. and VGT 100% open (right) with R > 0.45 90 rps/√ K 80 rps/√ K 70 rps/√ K 60 rps/√ K 50 rps/√ K 40 rps/ √K VGT opening (%) 0.22 1.R.2 1. VGT closed (left) with R = 0. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 0.35 1.65 y = 2.

Once g is calculated. If (33) is used. can be obtained from (30). In the case of (32). This is shown 0vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ " ﬃ1 u u 2 ðc1Þ=c # 1 in (32) and (33). the stator polytropic exponent (k) is in these cases always between n and c. In summary. On the one hand. h–s diagrams for high efﬁciency conditions. the incidence angle 2 ðn 1Þ1 þ cþ1 2 n in the stator blades is closer to the optimum and this is why the efﬁciency is higher (Fig. based on previous paragraphs analysis and in or- " c1 #!k=k1 p1 T 00 p2 c der to calculate the k polytropic exponent (necessary to solve ¼ 1þ ðR 1ÞgTs 1 ð34Þ p0 T0 p00 (27)) it will be assumed the following hypotheses: where 1.e. higher than the average between isothermal and isentropic process the effective areas of the nozzles equivalent to the stator and the (n > (c + 1)/2) the turbine efﬁciency will be considered high enough rotor can be obtained from the nozzle Eq. 5). / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 3737 higher increase of entropy in the stator than in the rotor. and pondered are chosen to impose that the lower is the isentropic efﬁ- therefore. VGT 20% open (left) with R = 0. J. they will p00 c p1 be calculated as a pondered addition of these limits. S0 .m if a1 6 alimit p2 D1 ðD22 D2n Þ N p00 2.5 (Fig. closer is the g polytropic exponent to c. (1). In summary. the process in the rotor is the one between c and n (c > g > n). R¼1 2R f _ . cþ1 cðn 1Þ1 þ n cþ1 2 n if 1 < n 6 !g¼ 1 ð33Þ Finally. In this second case R is higher than 0. the same hypothesis previously exposed for the VGT if 6n<c!k¼ 1 ð32Þ 2 can be assumed. 4. if n polytropic exponent is Once the pressure drop across the stator (p1/p0) is calculated. 3). Indeed. if the turbine efﬁciency is high enough the ( polytropic exponent of the process in the stator is between c R ¼ 0:5 if a1 > alimit _ tan a1 m p2 and n (c > k > n). the lower is the distance between n and the unity) the process. 7. with lower increase of 4. has ations are also exempliﬁed at Fig. In the AFT case.R. 7. .5 and VGT 60% open (right) with R > 0. 6 and at Fig. the thermodynamic process should be as the k–g process shown in Fig. Consequently. 7. Serrano et al. In both cases n is pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ calculated using (28). if the turbine efﬁciency is not high enough. For the stator. In the case of (33). In the case of a variable geometry turbine of the AFT type. These situ. the weights used to and for the rotor Υ p0 Υ p0 h (J/kg) k-g k-g h (J/kg) n p1 n p1s (Υ+1)/2 (Υ +1)/2 p1n p 1s p 1 0 0 p 1n Δ hs p2 1n p2 Δ hs 1s 1k-g Δ ht 1s Δ ht Δ hr 1k-g 1n Δ hr 2 2 2s 2s s (J/kgK) s (J/kgK) Fig. one to assume the ﬁrst hypothesis (c > k > n) and viceversa. the calculation of the intermediate pressure may Similar hypothesis can be done for AFT maximum efﬁciency be formally expressed as openings. ð35Þ and k is calculated at any turbine position as a function of the n (28) The polytropic exponent n will be used to discriminate between polytropic exponent by using (32) or (33). k plies a low level of expansion at the stator. the lower is the distance between n and c) the closer is the k polytropic exponent to c. remaining both situations. with a polytropic exponent between n and c in the rotor ciency (i. at intermedium openings of a VGT. 3. RcT 00 1 p00 1=c Seff st _T ¼m Once the boundaries for k and g have been established.e. efﬁciency (as Fig. it has to be considered that R n cþ1 2 þ ðc nÞ1 takes values in accordance with those showed in Fig. due to the linear relation between n and turbine k polytropic exponents can be further calculated using (30). gTs . the weights used to pondered p @t 1 1 A ð36Þ are chosen to impose that the higher is the isentropic efﬁciency c1 p00 (i. which im.5. On the other hand. Synthesis of the proposed VGT model entropy in the stator than in the rotor. 5 shows). when 1 it is fully closed or fully open (and turbine isentropic efﬁciency is cþ1 n n cþ1 2 þ cðc nÞ1 very small). instead 1 of Fig. Therefore.

8. (38): sﬃﬃﬃﬃ cþ1 !sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ c=c1 x1 c0 _ m R T 00 2ðc1Þ T0 p10R M 1R ¼ ¼ ¼ ð41Þ p T 10r a1 a1 S0 c T0 T1 ¼ 1 ð38Þ p2 p2 T1 Considering Eqs. T1 2c S0 T0 T1 deed. the Mach number for Seff rot _ ¼ mT p10 c p2 the relative conditions at the turbine inlet (M1R) can be rewritten 0v ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 1 as u u !ðc1Þ=c 3 1 Bu 2 4 p2 x1 @t 1 5C A ð37Þ M 1R ¼ ð40Þ c1 p10R a1 In addition. 9. (40) may be rewritten as an isentropic expansion can be easily demonstrated Eq. (41). 2). . In. 2. Eq. Eq. Fig. considering that Considering (22). Serrano et al.R. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ RcT 10 1 p10R 1=c Considering the nomenclature of Fig. (39) can be rewritten as The relationship between stator inlet temperature (T1) and the " 2 ccþ1 # relative stagnation temperature (T10R) has to be obtained from T 10R Rðc 1Þ m _ T 00 1 T 0 ¼1þ ð42Þ the corrected variables. (42) can be rewritten as T 10R c1 2 T 10R T 00 T0 ¼1þ M 1R ð39Þ ¼1þ 1 ð43Þ T1 2 T1 T0 T1 Fig. which are available in turbine maps. Correlations obtained for the effective areas of the nozzles equivalent to the AFT and VGT stators.3738 J. blades in the rotor (b1 = 0) the following identities can be obtained Considering the relation between pressure and temperature in cr1 = x1 = c0 (Fig. Therefore. Correlations obtained for the effective areas of the nozzles equivalent to the AFT and VGT rotors. from (4)–(9) was demonstrated that with radial where p10r is the relative stagnation conditions at the rotor inlet.

engine test bed. an AFT turbine and a ﬁxed ling developed at CMT-Motores Térmicos TM and called wave action geometry turbine without guide stator blades (FGT). 8 c p1 p1 p00 T 00 1c showed that in spite of the variable geometry mechanism position ¼ ð45Þ p2 p0 p2 T0 explains most of the stator effective area variation. The turbine model has been validated using tests conducted in gle. it should de- c1c c pend on mass ﬂow rate too. tions of the VGT and AFT stators.8 L engine. In both cases. 9 shows that for a are shown in Table 3. Conversely. Fig. Fig. WAM is one-dimensional. Fig. J. Serrano et al. the correlations obtained (46) shows that p10R p1. considering (45) and substituting in (44). equipment and instrumentation necessary to control their perfor- In addition. In each test. (46) is operative variables. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 3739 Fig. this effective area increases when The engines have been installed in test benches with all the the gas mass ﬂow (and therefore the expansion ratio) increases. 10. The effective areas and range of the transducers used in the tests are shown in Table of the nozzles equivalent to the stator and the rotor of the FGT 2.5 (see equations between (4)–(9)) and using the data from the c=c1 turbine maps provided by the turbocharger manufacturer. 9 shows that it is possible to correlate the ignition engines. for the nozzle effective area representing the stator and the rotor The calculation of the effective areas has been carried out for were implemented in a global gas dynamic code for engine model- three single entry turbines: a VGT. It is worth noting that usually T0/T00 is close to one. the effective area clearly increases when the tur. Fig. more details can be found in the works referred from Fig. The features of these engines using the gas conditions at the rotor inlet.R. speciﬁc turbocharger speed. 8 shows in the case of an AFT the relationship between sta. 10 shows that the stator effective area obtained: (36) increases. mance and measure their operational variables. (46) shows that the relative total to static expansion ratio (p10R/p2) can be calculated as a function of total to static expansion 5. where it can be observed the p2 p2 T0 T1 excellent level of correlation obtained with respect to the turbine In addition. [28–36]. In addition. Considering Eqs. the model developed is also useful for ﬁxed geome. WAM supplies the inputs required by the obtained corre- tor effective area and stator displacement and in the case of a VGT lations in order to calculate the effective areas. the alent nozzle at the rotor decreases when the speed increases. non-homoentropic and teristics are also shown in Table 1.9 L engine and function of the ﬂow rate and the operation speed both corrected the FGT is coupled to a 10. Information about the precision try turbines with or without guide stator blades. Their charac. the VGT is part of a 1. (43). 10. Eq. the ﬂow rate passing and the passage of the exhaust gas is obstructed. Once the turbines were characterised. through the engine. the effective area of the equiv. Effective areas of the nozzles equivalent to stator and rotor for an FGT.2 L displacement engine. the operating speed of the turbo and the posi- Obviously. when the ﬂow rate is increased and the corrected operating speed is decreased. The re- p10R p T 00 T0 ¼ 1 1þ 1 ð44Þ sults obtained are plotted in Fig. albeit slightly. for a speciﬁc ﬂow rate. unsteady. the relationship between stator effective area and stator blades an. as the speed increases. model (WAM). (38) can be rewritten as 0. The AFT is part of the turbocharging group of a effective area of the nozzle equivalent to the turbine rotor (37) as a 2. The results obtained from the turbine model (within the without guide stator blades were calculated assuming that R is WAM) have been compared to the measurements for checking if . such as the pressure and temper- the centrifugal forces produced when the rotor turns also increase ature at the inlet and outlet of the turbine. the effective area of the p10R p1 p00 T0 T 00 T 0 c1 ¼ 1þ 1 ð46Þ nozzle equivalent to the rotor correlates linearly with corrected p2 p0 p2 T 00 T0 T1 mass ﬂow rate and expansion ratio. so that the turbines were coupled to compression bine trends to open. the turbine have been measured. therefore. This most signiﬁcant parameters related to the operative conditions of can be accounted for by considering that. Comparison between measured and modelled data ratio (p00/p2) and corrected variables (considering also (22) and (26)).

The mass ﬂow through the AFT was calculated by transducers did not coincide with.9 L 2. the precision reported by Compression 18. with a distance be- Type of injection Direct Direct Direct tween two consecutive sensors of 0. 11 are also shown the most important elements than modify Fig.20 1. 11.5 crank angle degrees.400 measurements were made versus crank angle.80 2. comprising 10 engine cycles. without any complex features originated by singularities.R.0 1.7% of the full scale.000 records (three Bore 80 mm 85 mm 123 mm instantaneous pressure upstream and three downstream for each Stroke 93 mm 96 mm 152 mm Connecting 139 mm 152 mm 225 mm measurement) were acquired in time with an acquisition fre- rod length quency of 20 kHz and 14. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 Table 3 [37]. imposing to the turbine model the instantaneous pressure traces sure nodes associated with the standing-wave pattern established measured upstream and downstream the AFT. a straight duct was It is well known that the wave dynamics of the system where tur- designed (diameter and length) according to inlet and outlet com.60 Pr (T/s) Fig.20 2.40 1.20 3.3740 J. Scheme of engine experimental test and error in mass ﬂow prediction for the AFT. Serrano et al.0 5.41].00 1.0 -10. bine or compressor are located inﬂuence their performance [40]. was taken into account that the position of any of the in [38.3:1 18:1 16:1 ratio the pressure transducer manufacturer is 0. Transducer Displacement 1. In the engine scheme of different radial turbines. Beam-forming techniques were used for wave decomposi- tion [38] in order to obtain the pressure wave components from it reproduces properly the ﬂuid-dynamic behaviour of the three the measured pressure–time histories. Rated power 88 kW/4000 rpm 98 kW/4000 rpm 340 kW/1800 rpm Simultaneously. The mass ﬂow er- AFT TURBINE Error_CD Stator (%) Error_CD Rotor (%) Error_Mass Flow (%) 10.60 1. pressor cross section area to ensure an essentially one-dimensional More details about the described experimental technique and ﬂow.05 m.2 L 10.40 3.60 2. instantaneous pressure versus time and versus Rated torque 300 Nm/2000 rpm 314 Nm/2000 rpm 2200 Nm/1200 rpm crank angle was measured.39]. in order to get a suitable Number of 4 4 6 compromise between the assumption of linear propagation be- cylinders tween transducers and measurement precision [38.40 2.0 Error % 0. any of the pres. tested the AFT. Arrays of three ‘‘Kistler 7031” piezoelectric transducers with Characteristics of the engines used to validate the model water cooled adaptors were used at each measurement position Engine with VGT Engine with AFT Engine with FGT (upstream and downstream of compressors). Using a Yokogawa high frequency Rated speed 4500 rpm 4500 rpm 1800 rpm (maximum 100 kHz) acquisition system.0 -5. 11 shows a scheme of the 2. each 0.8 L signals were calibrated at each test case. In other tests performed with the same arrangement can be found addition. .80 3. 40. Fig.2 L Diesel engine at which was the wave dynamics of the system around turbine and compressor. At each measurement position.00 3. or lie close to.00 2.

4 1. of errors) how much should be reduced with respect to the unity a 12 reﬂected (AR) and transmitted (AT) pulses. 11 shows (also in the form are the excitations used as input variables for the model. (Hz) Fc. rors obtained for all the points. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 3741 Ai At Ar Ar2 EXCITATION RESPONSE AT AR 0. In Fig.02 0. for the case of the AFT at 10% opening and 120. pressure wave decomposition (from PUPSTREAM and PDOWNSTREAM) ply the effective areas provided by the turbine model.1 4 -0.R. The ﬂow lamination through . The lines stream of the turbine and the reﬂected pressure pulse (Ar2) showed in Fig. 09 2. including also the average value. 07 2. 05 0 120 240 360 480 600 720 0 120 240 360 480 600 720 Crank Angle (º) Crank Angle (º) Modelled Measured Fig. J.02 0 0 120 240 360 480 600 720 0 120 240 360 480 600 720 -0.000 rpm.01 Pressure (bar) Pressure (bar) 0. (Hz) PUPSTREAM PDOWNSTREAM 3 1. The inci. 11 shows. Fig. In an equivalent way. also in this case the errors are mainly below 5%.01 -0. 11 join the points that correspond to the same obtained from the pressure measured downstream of the turbine AFT opening.2 1. 11 Pressure (bar) Pressure (bar) 2. in order to have been compared with the corresponding modelled results in provide zero mass ﬂow error when imposing the expansion ratio. 13 2. which multi. Fig. In addition. obtained also from given stator and rotor coefﬁcients of discharge (CD). Comparison with an AFT. 12 shows an example of the instantaneous results obtained measured pressure signal upstream and downstream of the AFT.000 rpm.02 Crank Angle (º) Crank Angle (º) AR AT 200 160 175 140 dBl 150 dBl 120 125 100 100 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Fc. were always lower than 5%. as Fig. Wave decomposition in time and frequency domain for measured and modelled signals. 12 shows the comparison of the Fig. average value).8 1. Serrano et al.6 1. the time and the frequency domains (without considering the As expected. 10% opening and 120. measured at different speed at AFT dent pressure pulse (Ai) obtained from the pressure measured up- positions. 12. 1 0.0 6 -0.

60 1.20 2.40 2.0 -1.0 1.80 3.0 4.60 1.0 5.20 2. Serrano et al. 13.0 -5.30 2. Schemes of engines used for testing and errors of mass ﬂow prediction for the VGT and FGT.0 3.0 -5.70 1.60 3. .90 2.0 Error % 0.80 Pr (T/s) FGT TURBINE Error_CD Stator (%) Error_CD Rotor (%) Error_Mass Flow (%) 5. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 Piezo-resistive transducer temperature mass flow rate VGT TURBINE Error_CD Stator (%) Error_CD Rotor (%) Error_Mass Flow (%) 10. also obtained this is consistent with the hypotheses previously discussed in Sec.0 1.00 3.80 2.0 -4. These good results.00 2.40 2.60 2.0 -10.40 3. qualify the turbine model for tion 3.20 1.3742 J.80 Pr (T/s) Fig.0 Error % 0.R. the reﬂected pressure wave (AR).0 2.10 2.50 1.0 -3.80 1.00 2.20 3.0 -2.70 2. Indeed.50 2. being used in noise prediction tasks. in many other operative conditions.40 1. the AFT at 10% opening is evidenced by the very small amplitude of It is worth noting that the good prediction obtained in the fre- the pressure waves downstream the turbine (PDOWNSTREAM and AT) quency domain up to quite high frequencies (600 Hz) especially in compared with those upstream turbine (PUPSTREAM and AR).40 1.60 2.0 1.

Serrano et al.R. 15. Comparison of measured and modelled pressures in an FGT for different operating points. Comparison of measured and modelled pressures in a VGT for different blade angles and operating points. 800 rpm 1200 rpm 5 3 Pressure [bar] Pressure [bar] 4 2. .5 3 2 2 1.5 1 1 0 180 360 540 720 0 180 360 540 720 Crank Angle (º) Crank Angle (º) Experimental Turbine Inlet Turbine Outlet Compressor Outlet 1500 rpm 1800 rpm 7 7 6 6 Pressure [bar] Pressure [bar] 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 180 360 540 720 0 180 360 540 720 Crank angle (º) Crank Angle (º) Fig. 14. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 3743 Fig. J.

SAE corrected variables. and by the obstruction imposed to the passage of exhaust gases. Modelling of a turbocharger turbine Firstly. Turbocharger modeling for automotive control applications.38(4):341–69. Once these pressure drops are known. Fig. Non-steady ﬂow behaviour of supercharger passing through the turbine. 1982. Energy Convers Manage 1997. editor. 14 shows the comparison between helpful suggestions and Mr. 2002. Hajilouy-Benisi A. obtained when calculating the average mass ﬂow through the and it was concluded that for both VGT and AFT.C484(034):239–49. balances in a multi-cylinder turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine. in. the rotor. vol. inlet. Nobuyuki I. dynamics coupled to an internal combustion engine. Lee KS.C484(006):209–18. p. [3] Lee SJ. The pulse ﬂow performance and nozzle equivalent to the rotor. A new model for variable geometry turbines suitable to be used [7] Rakopoulos CD. 15 shows that the model is able to reproduce even in HD Diesel engines. The authors would like to thank Dr. Once R is performance in pulsating ﬂow. Janota S. which reproduces mass [10] Karamanis N. for a speciﬁc rotating speed. Proc Inst Mech Eng creases as the gas ﬂow or the expansion ratio increases. Proc Inst Mech Eng 1994. Benajes J. In addition.3744 J. The theory of wave action approaches applied to reciprocating engines. sion and range of the transducers used in the tests are shown in To validate the turbine model. of the VGT. obtained from the maps supplied by the man. it was concluded that R has a [17] Hribernik A. 1994. established. Reyes M. the effective area of the turbine. Cylinder wall temperature effects on the transient performance of a turbocharged Diesel engine. 1990. Strasbourg. it has been introduced into a glo- Table 2. London: McMillan Publishers Ltd. Vaughan ND. Proc Inst Mech Eng 1991. Chun KM. Frost H. Giakoumis EG. Energy Convers Manage 2005. Daniel del Valle for the equations the modelled and measured pressure–time histories at the turbine supervision. and that of the ro. tor with the corrected mass ﬂow rate.210:397–407. calculate the effective areas of the equivalent nozzles representing [16] Winterbone DE. Benajes J. As a result. vol. turbochargers: steady and unsteady performance. However. These results cover [1] Ugur K. The thermodynamics and gas dynamics of internal-combustion geometry turbines in which the turbine is represented by two ideal engines. Hakeem I. different turbine speeds and different en. for a given ﬂow rate. it is possible to Prague. ISBN 0-333-24290-4. stator correlates with the position of the turbine. as stated in the project (which would be necessaries to obtained zero mass ﬂow error) objectives. Thus. nozzles. Boada J. 8–16. Yeo JH. stator blades. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The measured-modelled comparison for the VGT results was carried out using steady tests of the 1. Internal combustion engineering: science & the turbine stator and rotor. Fig. in the case of the FGT.8–9:853–69. [18] Payri F. and at an intermediate cavity. Int J the divided exhaust manifold typical of truck engines. Low pressure loop EGR system analysis using the asymmetric behaviour of the instantaneous pressure caused by simulation and experimental investigation in heavy-duty Diesel engine. Int J Vehicle Des 2006. over a wide are generally of the same order but opposite sign than the mass operative range. 1200. / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 3729–3745 The validation of the model for the VGT and the FGT was per. of this study. Serrano JR. Nikpour B. Fig. Acknowledgements Fig. except for quite low expansion ratios at a certain opening accuracy in both time and frequency domains. 14 shows an example of the results obtained for different an- gles of VGT stator blades. the rotor diminishes when rotating speed increases. [2] Galindo J. engine.8 L displacement engine. Energy Convers Manage 2004. and allow observ. [5] Rakopoulos CD.46:11–32. A contribution to understanding turbine ufacturer. the model was applied to a FGT using the maps supplied the same VGT opening and the error of the discharge coefﬁcients by the manufacturer as the only input data. Comparison of turbocharger ogy has been proposed in which geometrical parameters and the performance between steady ﬂow and pulsating ﬂow on engines. it has been possible to achieve. A methodol.7(4):459–68. This is caused fold of the used engines. Marutani Y. [11] Chen H. the reaction degree R of the variable geometry turbine un- under pulsating inlet conditions. This model is a natural evolution of a previous one for ﬁxed [8] Benson RS. Cervelló C.46:2258–87. 347–51. instantaneous piezo-resistive transducer was placed in one of the [4] Ugur K. Mixed-ﬂow turbines for automotive accumulation in the system. Application of rotor characteristics for one- high level of correlation with the opening and with the ﬂow rate dimensional turbine modelling. 1982. [12] Iwasaki M. Cernej A. Technical Paper 940839. Lejeune M. Prediction method for the operating conditions ciency (represented by n exponent) the type and the position of the of a turbocharged Diesel engine.3(3):127–38. the corrected speed or the [19] Payri F. Dynamic simulation model of a hybrid powertrain and controller using co-simulation – Part I: Powertrain modelling. I.41:343–67. 11. Giakoumis G.45:2627–38.. [20] Baines NC. In addition. [13] Winterbone DE. Study on the design of inlet and exhaust system of a stationary internal combustion engine. Kolmanovsky I. Rakopoulos DC. a wide operating range for a heavy-duty engine. 2. branches of the exhaust manifold. Vera F.C433/011:19–30. 15 shows the comparison be- tween measured and modelled pressure histories for four full load References conditions at different engine speeds (800. Duan Q. Jullien J. 6. 14 The authors thank Renault SA and Generalitat Valenciana shows a good agreement between the experimental values and (Grant GV06/057-20060547) for the material and ﬁnancial support those obtained from the modelling. [15] Payri F. Martinez-Botas R. oped. 1500 and 1800 rpm) of the 10. modelling of radial inﬂow turbines. As in the case of Fig. the effective area of the nozzle equivalent to formed without modifying either the intake or the exhaust mani. Int J Automotive Technol 2006. 1999. 1991. Finally. Development of cumulative and availability rate in either zero or one-dimensional engine codes has been devel. Kitazawa T. Energy Convers Manage 2005. Modelling of supercharger turbines in internal- expansion ratio. Turbocharging the internal combustion at the stator and at the rotor taking into account: the turbine efﬁ. Conclusions [6] Cho B. . 1994. Fig. Serrano et al. are used as the only inputs for R calculation. SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0908.R. Dobovisek Z. Relevance of valve overlap ing the good agreement achieved between the measured and mod.7(6):659–66. Fig. Effect of turbocharging system on the performance of a natural gas engine.9 L engine described above. it is possible to calculate the pressure drops produced [14] Watson N. Song SH. to reproduce the ﬂuid-dynamic behaviour of the turbine with good low ±5%. Int J Engine Res The structure of the new model presented is the following. Desantes JM. due to the Automotive Technol 2006. a highly precise reproduction of the turbine ﬂuid ﬂow errors. which reproduce the pressure drops across the stator and [9] Moraal P. p. this model is able VGT and through the FGT. it was shown that the effective area of the combustion engines. at the turbine outlet and also at the compressor outlet. technology. In: Proceedings of the third EAEC international conference. Fig. 13. the lines join the points with Finally. 445–500. Int J Mech Sci 1996. Proc Inst Mech Eng 1996. p. Antonio Torregrosa for his gine operative conditions. provided by the turbine model through the plotting of the errors Results were compared to tests performed on an engine bench. Martinez-Botas R. London: Elsevier Applied Science. Concerning the VGT and the AFT. for meeting Euro 5 soot emissions requirements during load transient process elled values. 13 shows that all the errors are be. Information about the preci. In: Weaving JH. 13 shows a validation of the mean values bal engine model based on a one-dimensional gas dynamic code. In: Proceedings of the motor symposium’86. der the desired performance conditions is calculated. The engines schemes and the location of by the centrifugal forces produced when the turbine rotor turns the transducers are shown in Fig. 1986.

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