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Ninth Crusade

The Ninth Crusade, which is sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is
commonly considered to be the last of the medieval Crusades to the Holy Land. It
took place in 1271–1272.

The failure of Louis IX to capture Tunis in the Eighth Crusade led Prince Edward of
England to sail to Acre in what is known as the Ninth Crusade. In addition to lagging
support in Europe, it failed largely as a result of the growing power of the Mamluks in
Egypt, and foreshadowed the imminent collapse of the few remaining crusader
strongholds along the Mediterranean coast. The Eighth Crusade in Northern Africa
and the Ninth Crusade in the Holy Land were part of a larger strategy which included
actions by Spanish kings in the Reconquista, military orders against pagans and
heretics in Europe, and alliances with the Mongols in Central Asia and the Middle
East against the Mamluks and Turks.

The Crusaders included European princes such as Prince Edward of England and
Louis IX of France to religious leaders such as the pope and the Byzantine emperor.
Mongol leaders Mongke and Abaqa Khan played roles, as did the Mamluk sultans
Baibars and Qutuz.

Prologue
Following the Mamluk victory over the Mongols in 1260 at the Battle of Ain Jalut by
Qutuz and his general Baibars, Qutuz was assassinated, leaving Baibars to claim the
sultanate for himself. As Sultan, Baibars proceeded to attack the Christian crusaders in
Arsuf, Athlith, Haifa, Safad, Jaffa, Ascalon, and Caesarea. As the Crusader fortress
cities fell one by one, help was sought from the various rulers in Europe; but their
assistance was slow in coming. In 1268 Baibars captured Antioch, the last remnant of
the Principality of Antioch, thereby securing the Mamluk northern front and
threatening the Crusader County of Tripoli.

The Crusade in North Africa
Having already organized a large crusader army with the intent of attacking Egypt,
Louis IX of France's crusade was diverted instead to Tunis, where Louis himself died
in 1270, with the word "Jerusalem" on his lips[citation needed]. Prince Edward of England
arrived in Tunis too late to contribute to the remainder of the crusade in Tunis.
Instead, he continued on his way to the Holy Land to assist Bohemund VI, Prince of
Antioch and Count of Tripoli, against the Mamluk threat to Tripoli and the remnant of
the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Crusader operations in the Holy Land
It was decided that Edward along with Louis' brother Charles of Anjou would take
their forces onward to Acre, capital of the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and
the final objective of Baibars' campaign. The army of Edward and Charles arrived in

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hoping to draw Hugh III of Cyprus (the nominal King of Jerusalem) and his fleet out of Acre.[citation needed] Edward and his knights personally killed the assassins and at once began preparations for a direct attack on Jerusalem. he sent an embassy to the Mongol ruler of Persia Abagha. Edward realized that to ensure long-term resistance it was necessary to end the internal unrest within the Christian state. an enemy of the Muslims. In the interim. Gregory called for a new crusade at the Council of Lyons in 1274. with the objective of conquering the island and leaving Edward and the crusader army isolated in the Holy Land. but they trigerred an exodus of Muslim populations (who remembered the previous campaigns of Kithuqa) as far south as Cairo. However. At the end of October 1271. who engaged in a raid on the town of Qaqun. Feeling his position sufficiently threatened. Prince Edward of England began negotiating an eleven-year truce with Baibars. but nothing came of this. The arrival of the additional forces of Hugh III of Cyprus further emboldened Edward. After the mediation. Abagha agreed for cooperation and asked at what date the concerted attack on the Mamluks should take place. rather than attack the Crusader army directly. Meanwhile new fissures arose within the Christian states when 2 . Having finished construction of the fleet. which as the last remaining territory of the County of Tripoli was full of tens of thousands of Christian refugees. the Mongol troops requested by Edward arrived in Syria and ravaged the land from Aleppo southward. However. Godefroi of Waus and John of Parker. he endeavored to head off such a maneuver by building a fleet. Abagha. As soon as Edward arrived in Acre. Baibars attempted to land on Cyprus in 1271. a treaty was signed with Baibars.000 Mongol horsemen under general Samagar from the occupation army in Seljuk Anatolia.[2] When Baibars mounted a counter-offensive from Egypt on November 12th. Baibars came to suspect there would be a combined land-sea attack on Egypt. and so he mediated between Hugh and his unenthusiastic knights from the Ibelin family of Cyprus. From their bases in Cyprus and Acre. Edward and Charles managed to attack Baibars' interior lines and break the siege. plus auxiliary Seljukid troops. although this negotiation almost ended when Baibars attempted to assassinate him by sending men pretending to seek baptism as Christians. when news arrived that Edward's father Henry III had died. occupied by other conflicts in Turkestan could only send 10. The embassy was led by Reginald Rossel.1271. 1271. in the ensuing naval campaign the fleet was destroyed and Baibars' armies were forced back. the Mongols had already retreated beyond the Euphrates.[1] In an answer dated September 4. who became Pope Gregory X in 1271. and its mission was to obtain military support from the Mongols. Following this victory. just as Baibars was besieging Tripoli. allowing Edward to return home to be crowned King of England in 1272. See also: Franco-Mongol alliance Aftermath Edward had been accompanied by Theobald Visconti.

[citation needed] Qalawun demanded they pay an extraordinary amount in compensation. and the Venetians in order to bring the remaining Christian state under his control. but in 1281 Pope Martin IV assented to it. Crusader States ceased to exist. In 1277 Hugh of San Severino captured Acre for Charles. The attack on Tripoli however was particularly devastating to the Mamluks as the Christian resistance reached fanatical proportions and Qalawun lost his eldest and most able son in the campaign. The period of the Crusades to the Holy Land was over. ultimately laying siege to the capital and taking it after a bloody assault. This was the last expedition launched against the Byzantines in Europe or the Muslims in the Holy Land. as Mamluk Sultan. the Sultan used it as a pretext to besiege Acre. it provided the opportunity for a single commander to take control of the crusade in the person of Charles. as well as increased persecution of pilgrims. When no reply came. almost two hundred years after Pope Urban II had called for the first of these holy wars. the sole surviving member of his family. Qalawun died during the siege. including tribute. Sultan Qalawun gathered a large army and invested the remnants of the county of Tripoli. Pope Gregory would not have supported such an attack. Having bought Mary of Antioch's claims to the Kingdom of Jerusalem. and Charles was forced to return home. causing a civil war within the rump kingdom. However. instigated by Michael VIII. a group of pilgrims from Acre came under attack and in retaliation killed nineteen Muslim merchants in a Syrian caravan. all in contravention of the truce. the Knights Templar. the ensuing fiasco helped lead to the Sicilian Vespers on March 31. 3 . [citation needed] leaving Khalil. In 1291. and finish off the last independent Crusader state occupying the Holy Land. The remaining nine years saw an increase in demands from the Mamluks. In 1289.Charles of Anjou took advantage of a dispute between Hugh III. Having conquered the city. he attacked Hugh III. this hope was dashed when Venice suggested a crusade be called not against the Mamluks but against Constantinople. He waited another two years to regather his strength. where Michael VIII had recently re-established the Byzantine Empire and driven out the Venetians. Although the internecine war within the crusaders' ranks had proven debilitating. 1282.