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INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE LAW OF THE SEA

The “ARA Libertad” Case
(Argentina v. Ghana)

REQUEST FOR THE PRESCRIPTION OF PROVISIONAL MEASURES
UNDER ARTICLE 290, PARAGRAPH 5, OF THE UNITED NATIONS
CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA

WRITTEN STATEMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GHANA

28 NOVEMBER 2012

I. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY OF THE FACTUAL BACKGROUND

1. On 29 October 2012 Argentina instituted proceedings against Ghana before an
UNCLOS Annex VII arbitral tribunal, pursuant to Part XV of the United
Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (“the Convention”, or “UNCLOS”).
On 14 November 2012 Argentina filed a Request for Provisional Measures to
the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (“ITLOS”). Ghana is not
required to submit any written response of the hearing that has been set to
commence on 29 November 2012, but in order to assist ITLOS and as a
courtesy to Argentina it submits this Written Statement setting out concisely the
principal arguments that will be elaborated by Ghana at the oral hearings.
2. In summary, Ghana submits that Argentina’s request for provisional measures
should be rejected because:

(a) the Annex VII arbitral tribunal which is to be constituted will not have
jurisdiction over the dispute submitted to it by Argentina; and/or
(b) the provisional measures requested by Argentina are not necessary or
appropriate to preserve the rights of the parties to the dispute; and/or
(c) there is no urgency such as to justify the imposition of the measures
requested, in the period pending the constitution of the Annex VII arbitral
tribunal.

II. FACTUAL BACKGROUND

3. This unfortunate case arises from a series of cases brought by NML (reported to
be a company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and a
subsidiary of a US company which is engaged in the management of
investments) in the courts of the United States and United Kingdom against
Argentina. These cases relate to sums said to be due to NML under two series of
bonds issued by Argentina pursuant to a Fiscal Agency Agreement (“FAA”)
dated 19 October 1994. On 11 May 2006 the US District Court for the Southern
District of New York (“the District Court”) granted NML’s motion for
summary judgment in respect of sums due to it under the bonds. 1 On 18
December 2006 the District Court entered a judgment in favour of NML in the
amount of US $284,184,632.20 (“the New York Judgment”). 2 NML
subsequently sought to have the New York Judgment enforced in the UK. On
appeal, the United Kingdom Supreme Court acceded to NML’s request and
agreed with the findings of the District Court that Argentina was not entitled to

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1
NML Capital Ltd. v. The Republic of Argentina, United States District Court for the Southern District
of New York, 03 Civ. 8845, 16 May 2006, Annex 3.
2
NML Capital Ltd. v. The Republic of Argentina, Judgment #06,2728, 18 December 2006: see the
extract from the Civil Docket for case #: 1:03-cv-08845-TPG (NML Capital Ltd. v. The Republic of
Argentina), Annex 4.

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claim state immunity by reason of a wide-ranging waiver contained in the Bond
Agreements.3

4. On 1 October 2012, whilst in the course of an official visit, the ARA Libertad,
an Argentina military vessel, docked at the Port of Tema in Ghana. On 2
October 2012 NML filed a Statement of Claim before the High Court of the
Republic of Ghana sitting in Accra seeking to obtain satisfaction of the New
York Judgment debt from Argentina. NML noted in its Statement of Claim that
the ARA Libertad, an asset belonging to Argentina, was at that time berthed at
the Port of Tema and available to be the subject of enforcement proceedings.
The Ghanaian High Court accepted jurisdiction over the proceedings in respect
of the claim and subsequently made an Order for Interlocutory Injunction and
Interim Preservation (“the Injunction”) detaining the ARA Libertad.4 Argentina
has unsuccessfully sought to have the Order set aside.5

5. On 15 October 2012 the Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority (“the Ports
Authority”) sought a variation of the Injunction to relocate the ARA Libertad
from berth 11 to berth 6 at the Port of Tema in order to mitigate economic
losses resulting from the presence of the ARA Libertad in berth 11. The
affidavit of the General Manager of the Ports Authority explained that berth 11
is ordinarily one of the busiest at the Port and the ongoing docking of the ARA
Libertad at that berth was financially detrimental to the Ports Authority and had
created “a very serious and alarming state of congestion and traffic at the Port.”6
The Ports Authority has also stated that moving the vessel to berth 6 would be
beneficial to Argentina because the relocation would ensure the vessel could be
protected from possible clinker and cement contamination at berth 11, and such
a move would not pose any risk to the ship.7
6. Although the High Court granted the motion to move the vessel to berth 6, the
crew of the ARA Libertad have resisted the Ports Authority’s attempts to allow
it to be moved, in compliance with the Court’s ruling.8 The Injunction has been
appealed by Argentina to the Court of Appeal and the ruling of the High Court
on the moving of the vessel is the subject of a motion by Argentina for a stay
which is pending before the High Court. Both proceedings will be heard shortly
and should be completed by the end of January 2013, with the real prospect of
an expedited hearing of the appeal.
7. This is the general factual background against which Argentina has made a
request for provisional measures to this Tribunal.

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3
NML Capital Limited v. Republic of Argentina, [2001] UKSC 31, 6 July 2011.
4
Order for Interlocutory Injunction and Interim Preservation of the “ARA Libertad”, High Court of
Justice (Commercial Division), Accra, 2 October 2012. This Order is in Annex A of Argentina’s
Request for Provisional Measures, 14 November 2012.
5
NML Capital Limited v. Republic of Argentina, Suit No. RPC/343/12, Ruling of 11 October 2012. See
Argentina’s Request for Provisional Measures, 14 November 2012, Annex A.
6
See Argentina’s Request for Provisional Measures, 14 November 2012, Annex E.
7
Report on Actions Taken by Ghana Ports and Harbour Authority Together with Explanatory
Information and Items of Evidence, 23 November 2012, p. 4, Annex 1.
8
See Argentina’s Request for Provisional Measures, 14 November 2012, para. 17 and Annex E.

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III. LAW ON PROVISIONAL MEASURES

8. The substantive law regarding the “exceptional and discretionary” imposition of
provisional measures is set out in Article 290 of the Convention.9 Pursuant to
Article 290(1), ITLOS has the power to prescribe provisional measures where
such measures are appropriate under the circumstances to prevent irreparable
prejudice to the respective rights of the parties to the dispute or to prevent
serious harm to the marine environment, pending the final decision”.10 In order
to grant a party provisional measures pending the constitution of an Annex VII
arbitral tribunal under Article 290(5) of the Convention, ITLOS must be
satisfied, first, that the arbitral tribunal to be constituted will have prima facie
jurisdiction over the dispute, and second, that the urgency of the situation
justifies the prescription of provisional measures at that stage.11
9. Accordingly, for Argentina to be granted provisional measures in the present
proceedings (where there is no risk of harm to the marine environment), it has
the burden of satisfying ITLOS that:
(a) the Annex VII arbitral tribunal which is to be constituted will have
jurisdiction over the dispute;
(b) the provisional measures sought are necessary and appropriate to preserve
the rights of the parties to the dispute;
(c) urgency justifies the imposition of the measures.

Ghana respectfully submits that Argentina has failed to meet any or all of these
requirements. Accordingly, the Republic of Ghana invites the Tribunal to reject
the prescription of provisional measures requested by Argentina on the basis
that the requirements of Article 290 of UNCLOS are not met. In making these
submissions Ghana wishes to make clear that it fully understands the reasons
that Argentina has acted to bring these proceedings and in no way minimises the
importance of the interests that it seeks to protect. Ghana considers, however,
that the resolution of this unfortunate dispute must comply with the relevant
rules of international law, which are not to be found as such in the Convention.
Accordingly, as matters currently stand ITLOS does not have jurisdiction to
order the provisional measures requested by Argentina.

A. Prima Facie Jurisdiction

10. Article 288(1) of UNCLOS stipulates that a Tribunal “shall have jurisdiction
over any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this

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9
MOX Plant Case, Separate Opinion of Judge Mensah, 3 December 2001.
10
UNCLOS, Article 290(1); ITLOS Statute, Article 25(1); ITLOS Rules, Article 89(1).
11
UNCLOS, Article 290(5); ITLOS Rules, Article 89(4).

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Convention”. For a number of reasons, however, the dispute presented by
Argentina does not fall within the provisions of UNCLOS.12

11. First, whereas Article 32 of UNCLOS refers to the immunity of warships in the
territorial sea, it does not refer to any such immunity when in internal waters.
Article 32 provides that “with such exceptions as are contained in subsection A
and in articles 30 and 31 (which are not at issue in the present case), nothing in
this Convention affects the immunities of warships and other government ships
operated for non-commercial purposes”. In other words, the Convention does
not provide any rule or other guidance on the immunities of a “warship” which
is present in internal waters. Unlike Article 95 of the Convention which
stipulates in express terms that “[w]arships on the high seas have complete
immunity from the jurisdiction of any State other than the flag State”, Article 32
does not establish any rule with regard to the grant of immunity (or any rule on
the waiver of immunity).
12. The interpretation and application of the rules concerning the immunity of a
“warship” in internal waters does not involve the interpretation and application
of the UNCLOS. To the extent that such a rule might exist it could only be
found outside the Convention, whether under other rules of customary or
conventional international law. Consequently, Article 32 cannot be a legal basis
for Argentina’s claim, and therefore neither the Annex VII Tribunal nor ITLOS
can establish jurisdiction on the basis of that provision.
13. Argentina has also invoked Articles 18(1)(b), 87(1)(a) and 90 of UNCLOS as a
basis for its claim. However, none of these provisions are applicable to the facts
of this case. Article 18(1) defines “passage” as navigation through the territorial
sea without entering the internal waters of the coastal State or for the purpose of
entering or leaving the internal waters. It clarifies the meaning of passage for
the purpose of “innocent passage” in the territorial sea,13 without extending that
right to the internal waters of a coastal state. Internal waters are an integral part
of a coastal state and are therefore not the subject of detailed regulation by the
Convention. The coastal state enjoys full territorial sovereignty over internal
waters, and any foreign vessel that is located in internal waters is subject to the
legislative, administrative, judicial and jurisdictional powers of the coastal State.
As set out by Argentina, the ARA Libertad is detained by the authorities of
Ghana at the Port of Tema and is thus within the internal waters of Ghana. It is
not in Ghana’s territorial sea: Article 18(1)(b) is therefore not applicable or in
dispute and cannot provide a basis for asserting the jurisdiction of the Annex
VII Tribunal.
14. Likewise, Articles 87 and 90 relate to the freedom of the High Seas and the
Right to Navigation and are not directly relevant to this matter: enforcement
measures with respect to the ARA Libertad were not carried out on the high seas
but instead occurred exclusively within the Port of Tema. As such, Argentina’s
purported rights of innocent passage and freedom of navigation are not engaged
in the present proceedings. These provisions do not cover access to ports, as by
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12
This is even though Ghana has accepted that the ARA Libertad is a warship for the purposes of
Article 29 of UNCLOS.
13
UNCLOS, Article 19: Meaning of Innocent Passage.

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virtue of its sovereignty, a coastal state can regulate the access of ships to its
ports.14 It follows that Articles 87 and 90 are not applicable or in dispute and
cannot provide a basis for asserting the jurisdiction of the Annex VII Tribunal.
15. Secondly, the central issue in relation to this matter concerns the interpretation
and application of a waiver of immunity that is found in the bonds. In its ruling
on the question of immunity and the extent of the waiver, the decision of the
High Court (Commercial Division) of Ghana was based on an interpretation of
Argentina’s waiver that was based on judgments of courts in the United States
and the United Kingdom.15 Ghana notes that the Convention contains no rule or
provision on the issue of waiver of immunity, and that the matter is entirely
unregulated by the Convention. In its decision the Ghanaian Court did not base
its conclusion on waiver of immunity on any provision of the Convention (and
was plainly exercising a judicial function, independently and completely
separately from other branches of the Ghanaian government). In the absence of
any relevant provision of UNCLOS, Ghana submits that the Annex VII Tribunal
has no jurisdiction over the issue of waiver of immunity in this matter.
Relatedly, Ghana can see no basis on which ITLOS could - at this limited
jurisdictional phase under Article 290(5) – express any view on the merits of a
Ghanaian High Court judgment on the interpretation and application of a waiver
of immunity that is unrelated to any provision of the Convention.16

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14
See Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of
America), Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1986, p. 14, paras. 212-213.
15
The US District Court sets out the waiver in relevant part. It states:

“…To the extent the Republic [of Argentina] or any of its revenues, assets or properties
shall be entitled … to any immunity from suit, … from attachment prior to judgment,
… from execution of a judgment or from any other legal or judicial process or remedy,
… the Republic has irrevocably agreed not to claim and has irrevocably waived such
immunity to the fullest extent permitted by the laws of such jurisdiction (and consents
generally for the purposes of the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act to the giving of
any relief or the issue of any process in connection with any Related Proceeding or
Related Judgment) …”
16
The executive branch of the Government of Ghana has indicated its position with regard to the
immunity of warships before the Ghanaian Court. However the executive is unable to intervene
directly to effect the release of the vessel in the way that Argentina has demanded. The Constitution of
Ghana provides for a clear separation of powers between the three branches of the government and
establishes an independent judiciary. Some of the relevant international and constitutional provisions
which impose restraints on Ghana include:
• Key international obligations which require that Ghana respects the rule of law and the
independence of the judiciary;
• Key provisions of chapter 11 of the 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana establishes an
independent judiciary;
- Article 125(1) which states that justice emanates from the people and shall be
administered in the name of the Republic by the Judiciary which shall be independent and
subject only to this Constitution;
- Article 125(3) fleshes this out further when it states that “[t]he judicial power of Ghana
shall be vested in the Judiciary, accordingly, neither the President nor Parliament nor any
organ or agency of the President or Parliament shall have or be given final judicial
power;”

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that is a question to be resolved by the law applicable to the interpretation and application of the bond. Argentina has not established that the provisional measures it has requested are necessary or appropriate because it has not demonstrated that it will suffer a real and imminent risk of irreparable prejudice to its rights such as to warrant the imposition of the measures. Separate Opinion of Judge Mensah. ITLOS should not (as a matter of “court comity”) decide the matter at this stage. Article 127(1) which provides that “in the exercise of the judicial power of Ghana. 17. it is apparent that UNCLOS has nothing to say on that matter. 18. Irrespective of whether the issue of waiver is a matter that falls to be resolved by general international law. paras. 12-13. the Judiciary. In this regard. Even if the Annex VII Tribunal had jurisdiction. in both its judicial and administrative functions. 6 . 14 November 2012. or that it will suffer irreparable harm in the short period between now and the establishment of the Annex VII Tribunal. 3 December 2001. To the extent that this is a question governed by private international law relating to the identification of rules applicable to the interpretation of the bond. the executive branch (represented by the legal advisor of the Ghanaian Ministry of Foreign Affairs) took a position at variance with the decision of the High Court17 and is considering what further steps it might take in the dispute between NML and Argentina in continued support of the views it has previously expressed. Necessity and appropriateness 19.16. including financial administration. It is expected that Argentina’s appeal and motion for a stay will be disposed of by the Ghanaian Courts before the end of January 2013. As set out in Argentina’s Request. Moreover. UNCLOS is irrelevant and the matter cannot be resolved by an Annex VII Tribunal established under Part XV.” 17 Argentina’s Request for Provisional Measures.18 Ghana does not accept that Argentina has suffered irreparable harm due to the temporary holding of the ARA Libertad at the Tema Port pursuant to an order of the Ghanaian High Court. This is because the central question in the case – which is plainly a matter for the merits – is whether Argentina has waived immunity. 20. B. with the real prospect of an expedited hearing of the appeal. as Argentina has requested it to do. as the proceedings develop before the Ghanaian Courts. Argentina submits that the continuous docking of the ARA Libertad in Port Tema: !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! . namely New York law. and possibly also the law of Ghana. Prima facie. is subject only to this Constitution and shall not be subject to the control or direction of any person or authority. 18 MOX Plant Case. the domestic legal process in Ghana is continuing and Argentina has appealed to the Ghanaian Court of Appeal in respect of the injunction and has applied to the High Court by way of motion for a stay with respect to the High Court’s order to move the vessel from berth 11 to berth 6 in the port.

In fact. 23 November 2012. in exercising their duty to enforce the order of the Ghanaian High Court. 22 A significant number of the crew. She has since [following the unsuccessful attempt on 7 November 2012 to move the ship from berth 6 to berth 11 due to congestion at the port] remained at the same location inside the harbor and [is] receiving services from her agents. and (d) injures the feelings of the Argentine people. Minister of Foreign Affairs. 23.21 21. 23 Report on Actions Taken by Ghana Ports and Harbour Authority Together with Explanatory Information and Items of Evidence. there is no real or imminent risk of prejudice to Argentina’s rights caused by the ongoing docking of the ARA Libertad at Port Tema. see: http://www. the Port Authority has acted reasonably in avoiding the use of excessive force and has taken into account the historical and cultural value of the vessel in trying to protect it from all possible risks – including risks to navigational safety and risks of clinker and cement contamination. In fact. 56 and 58. MAPPS Shipping. As such. 54. The interlocutory order made in the Ghanaian High Court proceedings enables !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 19 Argentina’s Request for Provisional Measures.. have left the vessel and Ghana. including many individuals who do not have Argentine nationality. 60. 20 Ibid. the Port Authority has been very careful to ensure that the ship and its remaining crew22 have been and will continue to be provided with all requirements to ensure their full liberty. paras.20 (c) causes a serious risk to very existence of Argentina’s rights. para.19 (b) poses a serious risk to the safety of the warship and crew. (a) hinders the Argentine Navy from using the ARA Libertad for training cadets. Indeed. while it remains in Port Tema. … Since her berth inside the harbor basin. the Director-General of the Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority to the Hon. 23 According to the Ghana Ports and Harbour Authority: “5.businessinsider. 4. 24 Letter dated 16 November 2012 from Mr Richard A-Y Anamoo. Annex 2. the imposition of provisional measures imposing the immediate release of the ARA Libertad cannot be said to be necessary or appropriate in the circumstances to prevent imminent and irreparable harm to the rights of Argentina. the grant of the provisional measures now sought by Argentina is entirely inappropriate as Argentina has the ability to ensure the immediate release of the ARA Libertad by the payment of security to the Ghanaian courts. p.24” 22. the crew have had access to all amenities inside the port including doing physical exercises on the wharf and the use of a generator on the quay apron for the vessel. Annex 1. Contrary to the Argentina’s submission. safety and security.com/argentina-evacuating-libertad- ghana-2012-10. 54. paras. 7 . 14 November 2012. 21 Argentina’s Request for Provisional Measures. […] 11. 14 November 2012.

25 C. 27 Ibid. any issues which the crew of the ARA Libertad may have resulting from the need to refuel or the need to respond adequately to emergencies are being kept under close consideration by the Ports Authority.28 The events of 7 November 2012 in no way demonstrate that there is a risk of irreparable prejudice to Argentina’s rights prior to the imminent formation of the Annex VII Tribunal. Argentina claims that the events of 7 November 2012 (when officers of the Ghanaian Port Authority tried to move the ship from one berth to another within the port in compliance with the order of the Ghanaian High Court) indicate that breaches of Argentina’s rights are likely to take place in the near future. 3 December 2001. In the absence of payment of this security the High Court has ordered the ship to remain in Tema port until the dispute is resolved (or until further order) thus preventing any attempt by Argentina to avoid enforcement of NML’s claims by removing its property from the territory of Ghana. Accordingly. the ARA Libertad’s fuel supply will be depleted by mid-December 2012. 8 . 14 November 2012. 26 Argentina’s Request for Provisional Measures. Argentina has failed to establish any urgency in the present situation. which may have caused certain actions taken by the Ports Authority to be mistakenly treated as hostile. such as to !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 25 MOX Plant Case.. Ghana regrets that the events of 7 November 2012 appear to have been exacerbated by language difficulties. This is because Argentina has not adduced evidence to demonstrate that there is a real risk of the occurrence. pp. If Argentina is seriously concerned about irreparable prejudice to its rights it can elect to pay the security to the Ghanaian courts. Separate Opinion of Judge Mensah. paras. there is no need for any additional remedy by this Tribunal in order to prevent any prejudice being caused to the rights of Argentina. 27. while the dispute remains pending before the Ghanaian courts. Nothing in the materials presented by Argentina comes close to demonstrating any such risk. Argentina to secure the release of the ARA Libertad through payment of a bond in the amount of US$20 million. and that the number of crew present on the ARA Libertad are insufficient in numbers to respond adequately to fire emergencies or to carry out the scheduled maintenance of the ship necessary to implement the Argentinean Navy’s 2013 training plans. prior to the constitution of the Annex VII tribunal of a critical event causing irreparable prejudice to Argentina’s rights. Annex 1. 63-64. 65-67. Finally. 4-5. 23 November 2012. paras. and this would expeditiously deal with the matter of irreparable harm and allow the claim to be addressed by means of return of the bond or payment of damages. Likewise.26 It also suggests that based on current estimates.27 26. Ghana submits that there is no urgency such as to require the prescription of provisional measures pending the constitution of the Annex VII tribunal. Urgency 24. 25. 28 Report on Actions Taken by Ghana Ports and Harbour Authority Together with Explanatory Information and Items of Evidence.

Respectfully submitted. IV. and (2) to order Argentina to pay all costs incurred by the Republic of Ghana in connection with this request. and for the abovementioned reasons. CONCLUSION 28. Ebenezer Appreku Co-Agent for the Republic of Ghana 9 . the Republic of Ghana requests the Tribunal: (1) to reject the request for provisional measures filed by Argentina on 14 November 2012. Mr. Accordingly. require the prescription of the provision measures requested by Argentina in the short period before the Constitution of the Annex VII arbitral tribunal.

6 July 2011 10 . 23 November 2012. Minister of Foreign Affairs. 8845. 16 May 2006 Annex 4 Extract from the Civil Docket for case #: 1:03-cv-08845-TPG (NML Capital Ltd. Annex 3 NML Capital Ltd. United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. the Director-General of the Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority to the Hon. LIST OF ANNEXES Annex 1 Report on Actions Taken by Ghana Ports and Harbour Authority Together with Explanatory Information and Items of Evidence. [2001] UKSC 31. The Republic of Argentina. 03 Civ. The Republic of Argentina) Annex 5 NML Capital Limited v. Annex 2 Letter dated 16 November 2012 from Mr Richard A-Y Anamoo. Republic of Argentina. v. v.

23 November 2012 . ANNEX 1 Report on Actions Taken by Ghana Ports and Harbour Authority Together with Explanatory Information and Items of Evidence.

(OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. REPORT FOR GOVERNMENT OF GHANA LEGAL TEAM INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE LAW OF THE SEA (ITLOS) ACTION ON ARREST OF FRIGATE ARA LIBERTAD REPORT ON ACTIONS TAKEN BY GHANA PORTS AND HARBOR AUTHORITY TOGETHER WITH EXPLANATORY INFORMATION AND ITEMS OF EVIDENCE KWAME MFODWO. ACTING DIRECTOR. LEGAL AND INSURANCE) AZARA PREMPEH (GHANA MARITIME AUTHORITY. GOVERNMENT OF GHANA) MARGARET CAMPBELL (GPHA DIRECTOR. LEGAL) 23RD NOVEMBER 2012 .

In its submission to ITLOS. maps. (Authority documents.1. Argentina consistently refers to actions taken by the Ghana Ports and Harbour Authority(referred to as the Port Authority in that submission and in this report) framing the actions taken as central to the alleged breach of international obligations by Ghana. photographs and video) .0 INTRODUCTION The Government of Argentina is currently taking legal action in the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea against t the Government of Ghana with respect to the alleged unlawful detention of its warship Frigate ARA LIBERTAD at the port of Tema. In its request for remedies. affidavits by relevant officials. Argentina also specifically asks for the relevant Ghanaian officials to be sanctioned for their alleged misconduct and breach of international and diplomatic obligations. intended to give effect to a claim brought before that court by NML. affidavits by relevant officials. Clearly the actions of the Port Authority have substantial relevance to the proceedings. (2) detaining the vessel has violated its international obligations as the vessel as a warship enjoys absolute immunity from both judicial and enforcement action. a company claiming that it is owed debts by Argentina. In terms of the themes covered the report and its attachments covers the following issues: • Information on actions taken by the Port Authority as part of the normal operations of a port functioning in accordance with international standards and procedures • Evidence relating to these actions as well as their context • Evidence of the courtesies extended to the vessel and its crew from the start of the visit to Ghana (October 1st 2012) to November 22nd 2012. photographs and video) into the process of defending Ghana against the Argentine claim. It is in this context that this report provides the following inputs (principally Port Authority documents. In its submission to ITLOS Argentina claims that Ghana by (1) adopting judicial measures against the vessel. Ghana. That arrest is in pursuance of a court order by the High Court of Ghana.

The Port Authority sought to move the frigate through a court order 2. That the Port Authority does not exercise the high powers of constraint and control over the frigate that is suggested and that in many cases the Authority is unable to prevent vessels from leaving the port if they wish and that they sometimes do so even without their documents (see illustrative letter from Port Authority setting out its limited powers of constraint) . 16. That they have sought to implement those parts of the Court Order that relate to them and that they have been reasonable towards the frigate in their efforts to enforce the court order (GPHA administrative forms relating to supply of fresh water and bunkering fuel) 2. 2012 1.2. The Port Authority initially denied the Argentine Ambassador access to the Port 4. The Port Authority after granting the Ambassador access to the Port prevented the Ambassador from boarding the vessel Paragraph 18 The situation has remained highly tense since then due to the conduct of the Port Authority and its security personnel 3.0 ARGENTINE CLAIMS OF CONDUCT BY THE PORT AUTHORITY THAT BREACH INTERNATIONAL LAW The Argentine claims with respect to the Port Authority are as follows as per Paragraphs 8. 17 and 18 Paragraph Activity alleged to have been undertaken by the Port Authority Paragraph 8 4th October 2012: That the Port Authority attempted to take possession of the vessel’s flag and other essential maritime navigation documents Paragraph 16 That the Port Authority is enforcing the Court Order by preventing the ARA LIBERTAD from refueling and that this is affecting maintenance of its two electricity generators and a water distiller and that this caused the Argentine authorities to repatriate the bulk of the frigate’s personnel Paragraph 17 Actions taken by the Port Authority on 7th November 24.0 THE POSITION OF THE PORT AUTHORITY WITH RESPECT TO ITS ACTIONS AT THE PORT OVER THE PERIOD The Port Authority takes the following positions: 1. The Port Authority physically but unsuccessfully attempted to board and move the warship and thereby caused a situation of tension as the armed sections of the Argentine contingent sought to prevent the proposed move 3.

the position of the Port Authority is as follows: 1. That diplomatic vehicles are not prevented from entering the port (affidavit by acting Director of Ports. 3. with economic returns from this activity central to the operations of the port. That the Argentine Ambassador sought to enter the port using a normal civilian vessel and that she was made subject to the normal security procedures and searches for such vessels (see photos setting out normal port security procedures for non-diplomatic vehicles. she was unable to board the vessel because the Commander of the Argentine vessel had drawn up the gangplank before she arrived and even when she was there failed to lower it so she could enter (photographs on stay of ARA LIBERTAD) 5. That the Ambassador was not prevented from entering the vessel on 7th November – rather. That the crew of the frigate have had a high level of liberty for the entire period and that even the limited period of tension on 7th November did not involve any excessive use of force or threat by the Ghana authorities (electronic images and pictures on the stay of ARA LIBERTAD) 4. Tema) 4. That to maintain economic profitability. they have sought to move the frigate from its original central location (Berth 11) to a location (Berth 6) which affects economic operations less – the frigate is currently occupying Berth 11 which is normally host to profitable cement and clinker vessels. The delay of the Ambassador is regretted but it was unavoidable under the circumstances and as soon as she was identified she was quickly allowed to enter the port (affidavit by acting Director of Ports.0 THE POSITION OF THE PORT AUTHORITY WITH RESPECT TO MOVEMENT OF THE ARA LIBERTAD . Tema) 2. That the move from Berth 11 to Berth 6 is a very small distance (see Large Scale Port map and Small Scale Port map) and that this move does not pose any risk whatsoever to the navigational safety of the vessel as alleged by Argentina (see Large Scale Port map and Small Scale Port map) 7. affidavit by acting Director of Ports Tema) 3. That they have sought to move the ARA LIBERTAD from Berth 11 to Berth 6 (a more sheltered anchorage)thereby protecting the vessel from clinker and cement contamination and that this is in the interests of Argentina considering the historical and cultural value of the vessel (see Large Scale Port map and Small Scale Port map) 6. That they have sought to manage the overall port in such a way that the presence of the frigate does not affect the running of the port either operationally or with respect to the financial and economic aspects 4. 5.0 THE POSITION OF THE PORT AUTHORITY WITH RESPECT TO ALLEGED RESTRAINTS APPLIED TO ARGENTINE AMBASSADOR ON 7TH NOVEMBER 2012 On this issue.

. This was mistakenly viewed by the Argentine Commander as a hostile act.0 OTHER ISSUES – MISUNDERSTANDINGS DUE TO LANGUAGE BARRIERS Another issue that needs to be considered is whether at certain times on 7th November language barriers may have caused problems on both sides. utility supply was stopped at Berth 11 prior to moving the vessel to Berth 6. Another example is the delay in affording the Ambassador access. the Port Authority provides evidence that the ARA LIBERTAD voluntarily submitted to being moved along the Quay and within its berthed area so as to assist the port authorities manage the port more effectively (see affidavit of Harbour Master and also vessel signals logsheet copy). This is normal GPHA procedure and is taken in advance of the vessel being moved. 7. Moving the ARA LIBERTAD is in short not unusual as claimed by Argentina and had previously been agreed to for operational reasons.On this issue. In this particular case. This possibility should clearly not be discounted. Good example relates to the cessation of utility supply to the ARA LIBERTAD on the 7th of November.0 OTHER ISSUES – MISINTERPRETATION OF ACTIONS TAKEN BY PORT AUTHORTTY It also appears to be the case that the Argentinian authorities have misunderstood actions by the Port Authority and have seen them as antagonistic when they are not. 6.

PICTURES – SUPPLY OF UTILITIES TO ARA LIBERTAD – NOVEMBER 2012 9. GPHA ADMINISTRATIVE FORMS – APPLICATIONS FOR SUPPLY OF FRESH WATER AND BUNKERING FUEL 2. REQUEST FOR SHIPS DOCUMENTS FORMS IN PURSUANCE OF A COURT ORDER 3. PICTURES – SECURITY PROCEDURES FOR ORDINARY/NON- DIPLOMATIC VESSELS AT ENTRANCE TO TEMA PORT 8. ELECTRONIC IMAGES – VIDEO/STILLS ON STAY OF ARA LIBERTAD AT TEMA PORT – OCTOBER TO NOVEMBER 2012 7. NOTARISED AFFFIDAVIT – HARBOUR MASTER 11. LARGE SCALE PORT MAP BASED ON SATELLITE IMAGES 6. SAMPLE LETTER TO GHANA COURT ABOUT PORT AUTHORITY INABILIY TO RESTRAIN VESSELS 4. LIST OF EXHIBITS. AFFIDAVITS AND OTHER EVIDENCE 1. NOTARISED AFFIDAVIT – ACTING DIRECTOR OF PORTS 10. COPIES OF LOG BOOK ENTRIES . SMALL SCALE PORT MAP AND IMAGES 5.

ANNEX 2 Letter dated 16 November 2012 from Mr Richard A-Y Anamoo. the Director-General of the Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority to the Hon. Minister of Foreign Affairs .

.

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The Republic of Argentina. 8845. v. ANNEX 3 NML Capital Ltd. United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. 03 Civ. 16 May 2006 .

NY. Plaintiff: Harold A.S.N. Boccuzzi. 2006 U. holder. Dist.. broker. Ltd. defaulted. New York.. ownership. Quinn. summary judgment. L.D.N. 03 Civ. 2006 U. GRIESA. corporate entities. Jonathan I.. Republic of Arg. Defendant. . default. 14. LEXIS 6156.Y. transferred. Section 22 of the 1994 FAA states that the Republic waives sovereign immunity and consents to jurisdiction in any state or federal court [*2] in the borough of Manhattan in the City of New York.Y.J. Dist. Dist. Barza. fiscal.. LEXIS 29842 May 11. A declaration by the Republic of a .S. confirmations. The 1994 FAA provides that the Republic's obligations on the bonds are unconditional and that failure to make any payment of principal or interest for 30 days after the applicable payment date constitutes an event of default. principal amount. v. Decided May 16. FACTS The bond indebtedness at issue is governed by a Fiscal Agency Agreement dated October 19. No.S.D. 2003). 2003 WL 1878420 (S. Republic of Argentina.P. Plaintiff is suing to recover amounts due to it as a result of the default and has moved for summary judgment. JUDGES: THOMAS P.. LEXIS 30198 (S. Page 1 NML CAPITAL. Kevin S. Blackman.S.D. Oliver & Hedges. depository. Emanuel.Y. NY. 2003 U. proposed judgment. moratorium. Plaintiff. notice. Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton. Reed. acceleration. The Republic defaulted on such indebtedness in December 2001 during a profound fiscal crisis. 2006) PRIOR HISTORY: NML Capital.. May 10. 8845 (TPG) UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK 2006 U. OPINION BY: THOMAS P. Filed SUBSEQUENT HISTORY: Related proceeding at Sauco v. 3804. 2006. 1994 (the "1994 FAA").against . The motion is granted. Defendant: Carmine D. 02 Civ.S. 2006) CORE TERMS: beneficial interests. U.L. external. authorization. May 15. LEXIS 28247 (S. Apr. subsidiaries COUNSEL: [*1] For NML Capital. Republic of Arg.D. Dist..THE REPUBLIC OF ARGENTINA. Urquhart. v. maturity. issuance. unable to reach. beneficial owner. New York. LLP. LTD. Jr. The 1994 FAA is the same agreement that governed the bond indebtedness on which this court granted summary judgment to the plaintiffs in Lightwater Corp. For The Republic of Argentina. Ltd. GRIESA OPINION Plaintiff is the beneficial owner of certain bond indebtedness issued by defendant The Republic of Argentina. indebtedness. 2006.N.

2003 WL 1990206. 2020. 2005). 2003 U. Lightwater.000. 2001 the Republic declared a moratorium on payments of principal and interest on the external debt of the Republic. in some form. LEXIS 29842.S. 2003). These beneficial interests are identified by reference to the underlying bond (CUSIP or ISIN number or both. If either of these events occurs.: Date Of Issuance: Not provided.S. Also listed are the amounts of the beneficial interests owned by plaintiff. Ltd. This distinction is discussed more fully in Million Air Corp. 1773. 2005 U. rate of interest) and the principal amount of the beneficial interest. Dist. Oct.Y. at *2. LEXIS 7128. The court refers to its previous opinions for a description of the circumstances of these defaults. date of issuance and maturity. BB CUSIP No. On July 22.D. Face Value: U.. The bonds that are the subject of this action are listed hereafter. The depository. 2003. 2003 WL 1878420. 1048. 04 Civ.N. Plaintiff Beneficial Owner: NML Capital. the Fiscal Agent of The Republic of Argentina). Dist. . 2004. . On December 24. 040114FB1. 17. Date Of Maturity: February 1. 1 The court notes the distinction between bonds and beneficial interests.S.. No. ISIN No. each holder of Securities and such Series may by such notice in writing declare the principal amount of Securities of such Series held by it to be due and payable immediately . No. ISIN No. declaring the principal amounts of the debt securities held by plaintiffs to be immediately due and payable." The Republic actually issues "a bond" to a depository. [*4] Table 1.00 CUSIP No. 2001 to November 3. $ 60. Interest Rate/Payable: 12 % Date Of Purchase: Various dates from July 9. Page 2 2006 U. 040114FB19 No. 02 Civ. 1 The following tables contain the necessary identifying information regarding plaintiff's beneficial interests in bonds. Republic of Argentina." when in fact plaintiffs are technically owners of "beneficial interests in bonds.D. issues "participations" to brokers.S. who sell "beneficial interests" to purchasers. plaintiff [*3] sent notices to Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas (the successor to Bankers Trust Company. Dist. Paragraph 12 of the 1994 FAA provides for acceleration of principal if there is a failure to pay interest or a moratorium. Apr. v. 29. In some previous opinions. LEXIS 23904 (S. *2 moratorium on the payment of principal or interest on its public external indebtedness is an event of default as well. 2003 U. the court has simply referred to the plaintiffs as owners of "bonds. 2 2003.244. Acceleration: November 4. Dist. at *1 (S. . Applestein v. Republic of Argentina. LEXIS 6156.S.N. .Y.

S. Certificates. Ltd. ISIN No. Certificates. 040114GB0. ABN AMRO.909. Indenture. FRB. Page 3 2006 U. FRB. 2001 to November 3.. Acceleration: July 22. Offering Prospectus. (FAA. and Merrill Lynch. Letters.) JPMorgan Global Trust dated December 31. Contract Documents: 1994 FAA. Indenture. BB No.) . LEXIS 29842. *4 Contract Documents: 1994 FAA. Face Value: U.S. Interest Rate/Payable: 10.. 2004. inter alia. $ 111. Chase Manhattan Bank. 040114GB00 Date Of Issuance: Not provided. etc. ISIN No. 2 The bonds were originally purchased by subsidiaries or related corporate entities of NML. 2003. Goldman Sachs. Dist. etc. (FAA. Date Of Maturity: July 21. Offering Prospectus. Table 2. etc.000.25 % Date Of Purchase: Various dates from June 6. 2003.) Evidence of Ownership . (Account Statements. Notarized 2001 to November 3. Plaintiff Beneficial Owner: NML Capital. They were transferred to NML in November 2003.Account statements and purchase confirmations Proffered: from.00 CUSIP No.: CUSIP No. 2030. Account statement from Statements. 3 2003. dated June 6.

The court will then resolve any remaining disagreements. 2005). Dist. [*5] 3 The bonds were originally purchased by subsidiaries or related corporate entities of NML. 2003. they shall jointly submit an agreed proposed judgment to the court. 2003. SO ORDERED. Chase Manhattan Bank. GRIESA U. [*6] JPMorgan Chase Bank. Page 4 2006 U.Account statements and purchase confirmations Proffered: from. 2005). 415 F. They were transferred to NML in November 2003. LEXIS 29842.3d 238 (2d Cir. and Merrill Lynch. There is no evidence of any change of ownership thereafter.D. 2005 U. but that such authorization may be granted subsequent to the filing of a lawsuit. Mar. No. 2003.Y. such as plaintiff here. 03 Civ. must receive authorization from the registered holder of the bond before it may sue. etc. CONCLUSION Plaintiff's motion for summary judgment is granted. Account statement from JPMorgan Global Trust dated December 31.S.S. With regard to current ownership. Only certain specific issues need to be discussed in connection with the present motion. plaintiff's broker. Republic of Argentina. plaintiff shall submit a proposed judgment to the court.3d 242 (2d Cir. 31. 2006 [*7] THOMAS P. The parties shall consult with one another concerning the form of the judgment and the amounts of interest that should be awarded in the judgment. the holder of the bonds at issue. Here. 8120. If the parties are unable to reach agreement on those subjects.. If the parties are unable to reach agreement on those subjects. Dist. plaintiffs have adequately demonstrated through its account statements that owned the relevant beneficial interests as of December 31. LEXIS 5692 (S. Province of Buenos Aires. Letters. 2001 to November 3. DISCUSSION This Court has already granted summary judgment in other cases to plaintiffs seeking to collect on the Republic's defaulted bonds issued under the 1994 FAA. ABN (Account Statements. Judgment will be entered for the principal amount of the bonds plus accrued interest. obtained authorization to sue from Cede & Co. and Applestein v. New York May 11.) June 6. inter alia.S. 415 F. . Dated: New York. Goldman Sachs. dated Notarized Statements.D. JPMorgan in turn granted permission to sue to plaintiff. *4 Evidence of Ownership . 2005).J. Republic of Argentina. the Second Circuit has held that an owner of a beneficial interest.N. See Mazzini v. Standing and Proof of Ownership In the two opinions in Fontana v. and the Republic shall submit any objections to plaintiff's proposed judgment within five business days thereafter. AMRO.

The Republic of Argentina) . ANNEX 4 Extract from the Civil Docket for case #: 1:03-cv-08845-TPG (NML Capital Ltd. v.

L. Ltd. Emanuel.P. District Court Southern District of New York (Foley Square) CIVIL DOCKET FOR CASE #: 1:03-cv-08845-TPG NML Capital.gov/cgi-‐‑bin/DktRpt. NY 10017 (212) 702-8100 LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Kevin S. NY 10036-6797 (212) 698-3500 Fax: (212) 698-3599 Email: dennis.P. 09-03932-cv(Con) Cause: 28:1330 Breach of Contract Plaintiff NML Capital. Hranitzky Dechert. Emanuel. L. Barza Quinn. Rep. Reed Quinn. Urquhart. Urquhart. Oliver & Hedges. LLP (NYC) 1095 Avenue of the Americas New York.hranitzky@dechert. Ltd.uscourts. represented by Dennis H. 09-03929-cv USCA 2nd Circuit.com LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED https://ecf.2 CLOSED.S.nysd. Griesa Date Terminated: 12/18/2006 Demand: $0 Jury Demand: None Related Cases: 1:05-cv-02434-TPG Nature of Suit: 190 Contract: Other 1:05-cv-02275-TPG Jurisdiction: Federal Question 1:08-cv-07974-TPG Case in other court: USCA 2nd Circuit. v. REFERRED U. 335 Madison Avenue 17th Floor New York. Oliver & Hedges.L. 335 Madison Avenue 17th Floor New York. of Argentina Date Filed: 11/07/2003 Assigned to: Judge Thomas P.pl?577959704773746-‐‑L_452_0-‐‑1 Matthew Dempsey McGill 1/110 . NY 10017 (212) 702-8100 Email: kevinreed@quinnemanuel. ECF.com LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Harold A. L.11/26/12 SDNY CM/ECF Version 4.

N.25th Floor New York.com TERMINATED: 02/11/2009 LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Charles Richard Jacob . LLP (NYC) 919 Third Avenue. LLP (DC) 1050 Connecticut Avenue.31st Floor https://ecf.com LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED William Mcginley Jay Gibson.C. N. Washington. LLP (DC) 1050 Connecticut Avenue. Dunn & Crutcher.pl?577959704773746-‐‑L_452_0-‐‑1 2/110 .W.com ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED David Mark Bigge Dechert. Rivkin Debevoise & Plimpton.uscourts.bigge@dechert. Washington.nysd.W. NY 10036-6797 (212) 698-3500 Fax: (212) 698-3599 Email: david.com ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Charles I.2 Matthew Dempsey McGill Gibson. 570 Lexington Avenue. NY 10022 (212) 336-3500 Fax: (212) 336-3555 Email: cjacob@mw-law. III Miller & Wrubel. DC 20036 (202)-887-3680 Fax: (202)-530-9662 Email: mmcgill@gibsondunn.poret@dechert. NY 10036-6797 (212)698-3532 Fax: (212)698-3599 Email: charles.11/26/12 SDNY CM/ECF Version 4. Poret Dechert.com ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED David W. P. LLP (NYC) 1095 Avenue of the Americas New York. DC 20036 (202)-955-8256 Fax: (202)-530-9553 Email: wjay@gibsondunn. Dunn & Crutcher. LLP (NYC) 1095 Avenue of the Americas New York.gov/cgi-‐‑bin/DktRpt.

P.C. Kang Miller & Wrubel.C. Miller Miller & Wrubel. 570 Lexington Avenue 25th Floor New York. NY 10036-6797 (212)698-3501 Fax: (212)698-3599 Email: robert. III Quinn Emanuel Urquhart & Sullivan LLP 51 Madison Avenue New York.25th Floor New York. NY 10022 (212)-336-3507 Fax: (212)-336-3555 Email: hkang@mw-law.uscourts.11/26/12 SDNY CM/ECF Version 4.25th Floor New York. P.com ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED https://ecf.com ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Haynee C.nysd.com ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Joel M.com ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Jeremy Mack Sher Miller & Wrubel.com ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED William Brady Mack . NY 10022 212 336 3501 Fax: 212 336 3555 Email: jmiller@mw-law. Cohen Dechert. 570 Lexington Avenue. NY 10022 (212) 336-3510 Fax: (212) 336-3555 Email: jsher@mw-law.2 New York.cohen@dechert. P. 570 Lexington Avenue.gov/cgi-‐‑bin/DktRpt.com ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Robert A.C. LLP (NYC) 1095 Avenue of the Americas New York. NY 10022 212 909-6000 Fax: 212 909-6836 Email: dwrivkin@debevoise.pl?577959704773746-‐‑L_452_0-‐‑1 3/110 . NY 10010 (212)-849-7154 Fax: (212)-849-7100 Email: williammack@quinnemanuel.

. LLP (NYC) 919 Third Avenue. Movant Banco De La Nacion Argentina represented by Mark Stephen Sullivan https://ecf. Rivkin (See above for address) ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Robert A.Consolidar AFJP S.com LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED V.A.. Appellant Administracion Nacional de Seguridad represented by Administracion Nacional de Seguridad Social Social PRO SE Appellant Union de Administradoras de Fondos represented by Oliver J.com ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED V.2 Plaintiff EM Ltd. represented by Charles I.A Fax: (212) 541-5369 Email: oarmas@chadbourne...gov/cgi-‐‑bin/DktRpt.A.11/26/12 SDNY CM/ECF Version 4. Cohen (See above for address) ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Suzanne Michelle Grosso Debevoise & Plimpton.A. Armas De Jubilaciones Y Pensiones. Poret (See above for address) ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED David Mark Bigge (See above for address) ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED David W.uscourts. NY 10112 S. Origenes AFJP (212) 408-5100 S. Profesion+Auge AFJP S.nysd. Arauca Chadbourne & Parke LLP (NY) Bit AFJP S.31st Floor New York.A.. 30 Rockefeller Plaza Futura AFJP S.A.pl?577959704773746-‐‑L_452_0-‐‑1 Dorsey & Whitney LLP 4/110 . Met AFJP S.A. NY 10022 (212)-909-6755 Fax: (212)-909-6836 Email: smgrosso@debevoise. Maxima AFJP New York.

pl?577959704773746-‐‑L_452_0-‐‑1 Fax: 646 710 5236 5/110 . Jr Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton. Defendant The Republic of Argentina represented by Carmine D. NY 10019 212-415-9200 Fax: 212-953-7201 Email: sullivan.nysd. Blackman Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton.com LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED V. NY 10006 212-225-2000 Fax: 212-225-3499 Email: maofiling@cgsh. represented by Robert Edward Grossman Chadbourne & Parke LLP 30 Rockefeller Plaza New York.gov/cgi-‐‑bin/DktRpt.com ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Movant CitiGroup.com LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Jonathan I. NY 10112 212 408 5236 https://ecf.11/26/12 SDNY CM/ECF Version 4. LLP(NYC) One Liberty Plaza New York. LLP(NYC) One Liberty Plaza New York.A. NY 10006 212-225-2000 Fax: 212-225-3499 Email: maofiling@cgsh. Inc. Boccuzzi .2 Dorsey & Whitney LLP 51 West 52nd Street New York.uscourts.mark@dorsey. V. Garnishee Banco De La Nacion Argentina represented by Mark Stephen Sullivan (See above for address) ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Interested Party Arauca Bit AFJP S.

represented by Robert Edward Grossman (See above for address) LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Interested Party Profesion+Auge AFJP S.2 Fax: 646 710 5236 Email: rgrossman@chadbourne.A.pl?577959704773746-‐‑L_452_0-‐‑1 6/110 .A.nysd.gov/cgi-‐‑bin/DktRpt.uscourts. represented by Robert Edward Grossman (See above for address) LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Interested Party Met AFJP S. represented by Robert Edward Grossman (See above for address) LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Interested Party Origenes AFJP S.A. represented by Robert Edward Grossman (See above for address) LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Interested Party Maxima AFJP S.A. represented by Robert Edward Grossman (See above for address) LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Interested Party Futura AFJP S.A.com LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Interested Party Consolidar AFJP S. represented by Robert Edward Grossman (See above for address) LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Interested Party Unidos S.A. AFJP represented by Robert Edward Grossman (See above for address) LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Interested Party Banco Central de la Republica represented by Joseph Emanuel Neuhaus https://ecf.A.11/26/12 SDNY CM/ECF Version 4.

450 Lexington Avenue New York.L.sherwin@davispolk.P. 450 Lexington Avenue New York.pl?577959704773746-‐‑L_452_0-‐‑1 7/110 . NY 10017 (212)-450-4501 Fax: (212)-450-3501 Email: edward.2 Banco Central de la Republica represented by Joseph Emanuel Neuhaus Argentina Sullivan and Cromwell.L. NY 10017 (212) 450-4404 Fax: (212) 450-3404 Email: Karen.com LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Interested Party https://ecf.newstead@dpw.P. 450 Lexington Avenue New York. NY 10004 (212)-558-4240 Fax: (212)-291-9105 Email: neuhausj@sullcrom.com LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED James Loran Kerr Davis Polk & Wardwell L.com ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Interested Party Jaime Caruana represented by Edward David Sherwin Davis Polk & Wardwell L.gov/cgi-‐‑bin/DktRpt.L. NY 10017 (212) 450-4000 x4999 Fax: (212) 450-3999 Email: jennifer.P. LLP(NYC) 125 Broad Street New York.com LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Karen E Wagner Davis Polk & Wardwell L.com LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Jennifer Gillian Newstead Davis Polk & Wardwell L. NY 10017 (212) 450-4552 Fax: 212 450 3552 Email: jkerr@dpw.nysd.uscourts.Wagner@davispolk. 450 Lexington Avenue New York.L.P.11/26/12 SDNY CM/ECF Version 4.

com LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Kevin Michael Brennan Lowenstein Sandler PC (NJ) 65 Livingston Avenue Roseland.nysd.uscourts.com ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED V.pl?577959704773746-‐‑L_452_0-‐‑1 Fax: 212-753-0396 8/110 . represented by Barry Jay Glickman Zeichner Ellman & Krause LLP 575 Lexington Avenue New York.11/26/12 SDNY CM/ECF Version 4. Intervenor Bank of America.A. NJ 07068 973-597-2380 Fax: 973-597-2381 Email: shecht@lowenstein. N.gov/cgi-‐‑bin/DktRpt. NJ 07068 973-597-2592 Fax: 973-597-2593 Email: kbrennan@lowenstein.2 Interested Party Bank for International Settlements represented by Edward David Sherwin (See above for address) LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED James Loran Kerr (See above for address) LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Jennifer Gillian Newstead (See above for address) LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Karen E Wagner (See above for address) LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Interested Party Empresa Argentina de Soluciones represented by Steven Michael Hecht Satelitales ("AR-SAT") Lowenstein Sandler PC (NJ) 65 Livingston Avenue Roseland. NY 10022 212-223-0400 https://ecf.

Ltd. re: that this action be filed as related to 02cv1773 (TPG).C. (jjm) (Entered: 11/12/2003) 11/07/2003 CASE REFERRED TO Judge Thomas P. Miller (See above for address) ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Date Filed # Docket Text 11/07/2003 1 COMPLAINT filed.1 CERTIFICATE filed by NML Capital. represented by Matthew Dempsey McGill (See above for address) LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED William Mcginley Jay (See above for address) TERMINATED: 02/11/2009 LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Joel M. Barza .pl?577959704773746-‐‑L_452_0-‐‑1 9/110 . Copy of notice and judge's rules mailed to Attorney(s) of record: Kevin S. Document filed by The Republic of Argentina. (pa. Griesa as possibly related 1:02cv1773. Reed. (sb) (Entered: 11/14/2003) 11/21/2003 5 Notice of Case assignment to Judge Thomas P. Harold A. Answer due on 11/27/03 for Rep. (jjm) (Entered: 11/12/2003) 11/07/2003 3 STATEMENT OF RELATEDNESS PURSUANT TO LOCAL RULE 1. Moore.2 Fax: 212-753-0396 Email: bglickman@zeklaw. of Argentina. (jjm) (Entered: 11/12/2003) 11/07/2003 2 RULE 7.11/26/12 SDNY CM/ECF Version 4.S.com LEAD ATTORNEY ATTORNEY TO BE NOTICED Counter Claimant The Republic of Argentina V. ) (Entered: 01/09/2004) 01/06/2004 7 MEMORANDUM OF LAW in Support re: 6 MOTION to Dismiss.6 by NML Capital. Griesa . Ltd. attached affdvt of ChristopherP.00 RECEIPT # 490841.. 636(c). (jjm) (Entered: 11/12/2003) 11/10/2003 4 AFFIDAVIT OF SERVICE of summons and complaint as to Rep. of Argentina by Antonio Lues on 11/7/03.gov/cgi-‐‑bin/DktRpt.nysd.uscourts. (rag) (Entered: 11/22/2003) 01/06/2004 6 MOTION to Dismiss plaintiff's claims. FILING FEE $ 150. Document https://ecf. Ltd. . Counter Defendant NML Capital. Summons issued and Notice pursuant to 28 U.

Boccuzzi. (jmi. (Signed by Judge Thomas P. Ph. Ltd..nysd. Griesa on 1/10/07) (jco) (Entered: 01/17/2007) 01/12/2007 Transmission to Judgments and Orders Clerk.gov/cgi-‐‑bin/DktRpt.. Document filed by NML Capital. (lma..pl?577959704773746-‐‑L_452_0-‐‑1 17/110 . Document filed by NML Capital.. ) (Entered: 12/18/2006) 12/20/2006 Mailed notice of Right to Appeal re: 86 Judgment and to Attorney(s) of Record: Harold A. (jmi. ) (Entered: 12/20/2006) 01/12/2007 87 ORDER UNDER RULE 54(b) MAKING EXPRESS DETERMINATION AND DIRECTING ENTRY OF FINAL JUDGMENT FOR PLAINTIFF that final judgment be entered as set forth in the Judgment for plaintiff in the amount of $284..2728 in favor of plaintiff against defendant in the amount of $ 284.. paid on 2/27/07. the Declaration of Michael J. Document filed by The Republic of Argentina. Byars. and interest at the appropriate legal rate or rates shall commence running on 12/18/06.. Ltd. Blackman. Jonathan I.(dle) (Entered: 03/06/2007) 02/27/2007 CASHIERS OFFICE REMARK in the amount of $25. Ltd. EM Ltd. ) (Entered: 12/08/2006) 12/18/2006 86 JUDGMENT #06.11/26/12 SDNY CM/ECF Version 4..'s motion for Thirdy Days' Notice of Debt or Securities Inssurance served on https://ecf.. Document filed by NML Capital.30 entered on 12/18/06.00.184.uscourts. ) (Entered: 12/08/2006) 12/05/2006 85 DECLARATION of Julio Cesar Rivera. EM Ltd.. Transmitted re: 87 Order. Jay to Appear Pro Hac Vice. (jmi.2 Law in Support. EM Ltd. Bigge in Support re: 88 MOTION 30-Days' Notice of Debt or Securities Issuance.184. (jmi) (Entered: 03/07/2007) 03/30/2007 91 DECLARATION of Jorge P.. Barza. Receipt Number 607319. (jco) (Entered: 01/17/2007) 02/27/2007 MOTION for William M. Document filed by The Republic of Argentina.(jmi) (Entered: 03/07/2007) 03/06/2007 89 MEMORANDUM OF LAW in Support re: 88 MOTION 30-Days' Notice of Debt or Securities Issuance.D. (Signed by Judge Thomas P. (mbe) (Entered: 04/04/2007) 03/30/2007 92 MEMORANDUM OF LAW in Opposition re: 88 MOTION 30-Days' Notice of Debt or Securities Issuance. (dle) (Entered: 03/06/2007) 03/06/2007 88 MOTION for 30-Days' Notice of Debt or Securities Issuance. and includiing Exhibit A-K. Document filed by NML Capital. this Order shall be considered as rendered nunc pro tunc as concerns the Judgment entered on 12/18/06. (mbe) (Entered: 04/04/2007) 03/30/2007 93 CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE of the Declaration of Jorge Heilpern. Heilpern. Document filed by NML Capital. ) (Entered: 12/08/2006) 12/05/2006 84 DECLARATION of Alex Cukierman.. Ltd. EM Ltd. Ltd. Matthew Dempsey McGill.. Ltd. Ltd. EM Ltd. EM Ltd. Document filed by NML Capital.. to the Judgments and Orders Clerk.632. Kevin Samuel Reed..20.. except that the time for any appeal therefrom shall commence running from the date of entry of this Order. Ltd. Document filed by NML Capital. Jr. (jmi) (Entered: 03/07/2007) 03/06/2007 90 DECLARATION of David M. Griesa on 12/18/06) (ml. Carmine D.632. and the Memorandum of Law of the Republic of Argentina in Opposition to EM Ltd's and NML Capital.

Republic of Argentina. 6 July 2011 . ANNEX 5 NML Capital Limited v. [2001] UKSC 31.

Trinity Term [2011] UKSC 31 On appeal from: [2010] EWCA Civ 41 JUDGMENT NML Capital Limited (Appellant) v Republic of Argentina (Respondent) before Lord Phillips. President Lord Walker Lord Mance Lord Collins Lord Clarke JUDGMENT GIVEN ON 6 July 2011 Heard on 29 and 30 March 2011 .

Appellant Respondent Jonathan Sumption QC Mark Howard QC Peter Ratcliffe Benjamin John Sandy Phipps Ciaran Keller (Instructed by Dechert (Instructed by Travers LLP) Smith LLP) .

at a little over half their face value. Jurisdiction was founded on an express submission to New York jurisdiction in the Fiscal Agency Agreement. In November 2003. This appeal relates to bonds issued by the Republic of Argentina in respect of which. NML commenced proceedings against Argentina in the United States District Court.LORD PHILLIPS Introduction 1.153. It is an affiliate of a New York based hedge fund of a type sometimes described as a “vulture fund”.000 (“the bonds”). to recover principal and interest due under the bonds. Page 2 . relying on the moratorium and Argentina’s subsequent failure to pay interest on the bonds. obtained summary judgment on the bonds for a total. together with all its other debt.632. of US$ 284. The question raised by this appeal is whether that finding was correct. in these proceedings. The appellant (“NML”) is a Cayman Island Company. That judgment was reversed by the Court of Appeal. The terms applicable to the bonds were contained in the Agreement and the bonds themselves.184. The bonds were issued by Argentina in February and July 2000 pursuant to a Fiscal Agency Agreement between Argentina and Bankers Trust Company. having declared events of default under the Fiscal Agency Agreement. Argentina declared a moratorium in December 2001. Between June 2001 and September 2003 affiliates of NML purchased. which held that Argentina is protected by state immunity. Judge Thomas P Griesa granted NML’s motion for summary judgment. as beneficial owner. Vulture funds feed on the debts of sovereign states that are in acute financial difficulty by purchasing sovereign debt at a discount to face value and then seeking to enforce it. and succeeded before Blair J in the Commercial Court. Argentina appeared and defended the proceedings. bonds with a principal value of US$ 172. Southern District of New York. including interest. The bonds and the New York Judgment 2. challenge that judgment. in a Federal Court in New York. Argentina does not. NML.30. both of which were expressly governed by the law of New York. On 11 May 2006. NML brought a common law action on that judgment in this jurisdiction.

Aikens LJ gave the only reasoned judgment. NML’s proper course was to make a fresh application for permission to serve Argentina out of the jurisdiction. Blair J rejected this procedural objection and found in favour of NML on both the new substantive points [2009] EWHC 110 (Comm). On 14 March 2008 NML applied ex parte for this permission. [2009] QB 579. to which I shall refer in due course. The Court of Appeal reversed Blair J on all three issues [2010] EWCA Civ 41. and in Appendix 3 the relevant terms of the bonds. any claim that it might have to state immunity. alleged two reasons why Argentina was not entitled to state immunity. On 5 September 2008 Argentina applied under CPR 11(1) to set the order for service aside on the ground that Argentina enjoyed state immunity from the jurisdiction of the English courts. and service was duly effected. At the hearing of this application before Blair J NML conceded that it could rely. In order to serve a foreign sovereign state it is necessary to obtain the permission of the court to serve the claim form out of the jurisdiction. Page 3 . David Steel J granted NML permission to serve Argentina out of the jurisdiction.The proceedings in this jurisdiction 3. and the draft particulars of claim exhibited to it. with which Mummery and Elias LJJ agreed. Instead NML sought to rely first on the provisions of section 31 of the Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 (“the 1982 Act”) and secondly on alternative provisions as to waiver and jurisdiction in the bonds themselves. on neither of the grounds for alleging that Argentina did not enjoy immunity that had been advanced in support of the application to serve out. 4. The witness statement supporting this application. On 2 April 2008. and agreed not to plead. The first was that under clause 22 of the Fiscal Agency Agreement Argentina had waived. 5. in Appendix 2 Article 20 of the European Convention on State Immunity (“ECSI”). Argentina contended that it was not open to NML to invoke alternative grounds for contending that immunity did not apply when these had not been relied on in the original ex parte application. at first instance. and consequently constituted “proceedings relating to a commercial transaction” for the purposes of the State Immunity Act 1978 (“the 1978 Act”). I shall follow the example of Aikens LJ in annexing in Appendix 1 the relevant provisions of section 31. The second was that NML’s claim was founded on the Fiscal Agency Agreement and the bonds. 6. [2011] 1 QB 8.

The property of the state was also immune from execution. (3) Whether the bonds contain a submission to the jurisdiction of the English court in respect of these proceedings within the meaning of section 2 of the State Immunity Act 1978.The issues 7. At the beginning of the 20th century state immunity was a doctrine of customary international law. there was no procedural provision in this jurisdiction for service of process on a foreign state. applied in England as part of the common law. however. The Court of Appeal had. Argentina is entitled to claim state immunity in respect of these proceedings. occasion to Page 4 . (4) Whether NML was entitled to raise at the inter partes hearing the two new points not previously relied on in the ex parte application for permission to serve Argentina out of the jurisdiction. The following issues are raised by this appeal: (1) Whether the present proceedings for the recognition and enforcement of the New York court’s judgment are ‘proceedings relating to a commercial transaction’ within the meaning of section 3 of the State Immunity Act 1978. Because a state could not be sued. (As I shall explain. (5) Whether. The resolution of the first two issues turns on statutory interpretation. This must be carried out in the context of simultaneous developments in the law of sovereign immunity and of the recognition of foreign judgments. having regard to the answers to the above questions. this issue was not open to NML in the courts below). State immunity 8. Under this doctrine a state enjoyed absolute immunity from suit in the court of another state. (2) Whether Argentina is prevented from claiming state immunity in respect of the present proceedings by Section 31 of the Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982.

The Court held that the vessel. for example. we are of opinion that the mere fact of the ship being used subordinately and partially for trading purposes does not take away the general immunity. the court held that the only way that a sovereign could waive immunity was by submitting to jurisdiction in the face of the court as. as we think it is. It has been held that an ambassador cannot be personally sued. In Mighell v Sultan of Johore [1894] 1 QB 149 leave to effect substituted service on the Sultan of Johore in an action in personam was set aside on the ground that he enjoyed sovereign immunity. If the remedy sought by an action in rem against public property is. If the sovereign ignored the issue of the writ. and which sends him upon the faith of his being admitted to be clothed with the same independence of and superiority to all adverse jurisdiction as the sovereign authority whom he represents would be. although other grounds have sometimes been suggested. an indirect mode of exercising the authority of the court against the owner of the property. although he has traded. that the real principle on which the exemption of every sovereign from the jurisdiction of every court has been deduced is that the exercise of such jurisdiction would be incompatible with his regal dignity – that is to say.” 9. therefore. Page 5 . Giving the judgment of the court Brett LJ explained the reason for this immunity.consider the law of state immunity when proceedings in rem were served on a mail packet owned by Belgium which had been involved in a collision in the case of The Parlement Belge (1880) LR 5 PD 197. and in both cases because such a suit would be inconsistent with the independence and equality of the state which he represents. being the property of a foreign sovereign state. the case is within the terms of the rule. To an argument that he had waived this immunity. then the attempt to exercise such an authority is an attempt inconsistent with the independence and equality of the state which is represented by such an owner. with his absolute independence of every superior authority. By a similar examination of authorities we come to the conclusion. by appearance to a writ. although other reasons have sometimes been suggested. it is within the spirit of the rule. the court was under a duty of its own motion to recognise his immunity from suit. at pp 207-208 and 220: “From all these authorities it seems to us. The property cannot upon the hypothesis be denied to be public property. was immune from legal process. that the immunity of an ambassador from the jurisdiction of the courts of the country to which he is accredited is based upon his being the representative of the independent sovereign or state which sends him.

The absolute doctrine of state immunity could pose a disincentive to contracting with a state and some states attempted to avoid this disadvantage by including in contracts an agreement not to assert state immunity. The English courts held. that is. the view that judicial immunity should not apply to commercial transactions. Lord Atkin started his judgment with the following definition of state immunity. at p 490: “The foundation for the application to set aside the writ and arrest of the ship is to be found in two propositions of international law engrafted into our domestic law which seem to me to be well established and to be beyond dispute.” Three members of the House questioned. The second is that they will not by their process. 11. 422 Lord Denning expressed. and not earlier – see Duff Development Co v Kelantan Government [1924] AC 797 and Kahan v Pakistan Federation [1951] 2 KB 1003.10. The first is that the courts of a country will not implead a foreign sovereign. In Rahimtoola v Nizam of Hyderabad [1958] AC 379. however. they will not by their process make him against his will a party to legal proceedings whether the proceedings involve process against his person or seek to recover from him specific property or damages. 12. however. whether the sovereign is a party to the proceedings or not. This reflected a growing recognition around the world of the “restrictive doctrine” of state immunity under which immunity related to governmental acts in the exercise of sovereign authority (acta jure imperii) but not to commercial activities carried on by the state (acta jure gestionis). It was not until nearly Page 6 . because the point had not been argued. Immunity could only be lost by a submission to the jurisdiction when it was invoked. There has been some difference in the practice of nations as to possible limitations of this second principle as to whether it extends to property only used for the commercial purposes of the sovereign or to personal private property. obiter. but the other members of the House expressly dissociated themselves from this view. whether state immunity would protect a vessel that was used for the purposes of commercial trade. that such a purported waiver was ineffective. In Compania Naviera Vascongado v Steamship “Cristina” [1938] AC 485 the House of Lords confirmed that a state-owned ship that was used for public purposes could not be made the subject of proceedings in rem. In this country it is in my opinion well settled that it applies to both. seize or detain property which is his or of which he is in possession or control.

In particular. in the United Kingdom. I shall deal with the intervention of Parliament in the form of the 1978 and 1982 Acts when I deal specifically with the first two issues. These conditions plainly preclude the registration of a judgment against a defendant who. Section 9 of that Act provides that. 15. The existence of a foreign judgment was not a ground upon which permission could be obtained to serve a writ out of the jurisdiction. Prior to the 1982 Act the common law provided two alternative remedies to a plaintiff who had obtained a judgment against a debtor in a foreign jurisdiction. 17. “if in all the circumstances of the case they think it is just and convenient that the judgment should be enforced in the United Kingdom” order the judgment to be registered. The Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act 1933 was passed to make provision for the enforcement in the United Kingdom of judgments given in Page 7 . 13. he had to establish that the foreign court had had jurisdiction over the defendant in accordance with the English rules of private international law and the judgment had to be final and conclusive on the merits.twenty years later that Lord Denning MR was able to carry the rest of the Court of Appeal with him in applying the restrictive doctrine of state immunity in Trendtex Trading Corporation v Central Bank of Nigeria [1977] QB 529. The former did not merge in the latter. is subject to state immunity. Part II of the Administration of Justice Act 1920 (“the 1920 Act”) provides an alternative means of enforcing. 16. In order to establish jurisdiction to sue on the judgment the plaintiff had to serve a writ in personam in accordance with the normal procedure. The conditions include a requirement that the foreign court should have had jurisdiction and preclude registration where the judgment is “in respect of a cause of action which for reasons of public policy or for some other similar reason could not have been entertained by the registering court”. the High Court may. The plaintiff had to establish that a number of conditions were satisfied in order to claim successfully on the foreign judgment. under English law. of any plaintiff having attempted to register such a judgment. This decision was approved by the House of Lords in I Congreso del Partido [1983] 1 AC 244. Enforcement of foreign judgments 14. He could bring a claim on the judgment or he could bring a claim on the cause of action in respect of which he had obtained the judgment. Prior to 1978 there is no record. the judgment of a superior court in another part of “His Majesty’s dominions”. so far as I am aware. subject to the conditions there specified.

but as the Bill passed through Parliament the scope of the legislation was widened so as to make provisions in relation to state immunity having effect on all states. but who had submitted to the foreign jurisdiction. that permits enforcement of such a judgment against property owned by a state. Issue 1: are the present proceedings “proceedings relating to a commercial transaction” within the meaning of the State Immunity Act 1978? 19. subject to the right of the judgment debtor to apply to have the judgment set aside. Page 8 . The section provides that for the purposes of execution a registered judgment is to be treated as if it were a judgment of the registering court. except perhaps a diplomat in respect of whom his state had waived diplomatic immunity. describes the genesis of the Act. being a defendant in the original proceedings. and section 4(1)(a)(v) requires the registration of a judgment to be set aside if enforcement would be contrary to the public policy of the registering court. The section further provides by subsection (3)(c) that the foreign court shall not be deemed to have had jurisdiction “if the judgment debtor. Section 4 makes provision for an application to set aside a registered judgment. The 1978 Act had its origin in the need to give effect to the ECSI. Fox on The Law of State Immunity 2nd ed (2008). This last provision is significant in the present context in that it implicitly provides for the registration of a judgment against a state. Section 2 of this Act provides for registration of such judgments on specified conditions. The section includes a provision that the judgment shall be set aside if the registering court is satisfied that the foreign court had no jurisdiction in the circumstances of the case. So long as the absolute doctrine of state immunity prevailed in the United Kingdom it is hard to envisage registration of a foreign judgment against a judgment debtor who had been entitled to state immunity.foreign countries that accord reciprocal treatment to judgments given in the United Kingdom. Furthermore section 2(1)(b) of the Act precludes recognition of a judgment that cannot be enforced by execution in the country of the original court. at p 241 and following. a state entity or an individual who was subject to state immunity in the foreign country if there has been a submission to the foreign jurisdiction. There does not seem to be any recorded instance of such a case. was a person who under the rules of public international law was entitled to immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of the country of the original court and did not submit to the jurisdiction of that court. and not just those party to the Convention. The 1933 Act contains no provision. however. ” 18.

Issue 1 turns on the question of whether they were rightly decided. Stanley Burnton J held that this conclusion was supported by two matters. for the purposes of section 3(1)(a). AIC argued that their application to register the judgment was a “proceeding relating to a commercial transaction” within section 3(1)(a). section 9 would be unnecessary if a claim in respect of an arbitration constituted a “proceeding relating to the commercial transaction” to which the arbitration related. the proceedings resulting from an application to register a judgment under the 1920 Act relate not to the transaction or transactions underlying the original judgment but to that judgment. one in the High Court and one in the Court of Appeal which. In view of this definition it is not surprising that it is common ground that the action in respect of which NML obtained judgment in New York was a “proceeding relating to a commercial transaction” within the meaning of section 3(1)(a). This was because of two reasoned decisions. albeit that the latter was obiter. constrained NML to accept that. The issues in such proceedings are concerned essentially with the question whether the original judgment was regular or not. Stanley Burnton J rejected this submission. However before Blair J and the Court of Appeal NML conceded that this averment was not open to them short of the Supreme Court. the action that NML was seeking to bring was a proceeding “relating to” the New York judgment and not to the transaction to which that judgment related. The first of these cases is AIC Ltd v Federal Government of Nigeria [2003] EWHC 1357 (QB).” 22. Section 3(3)(b) defines “commercial transaction” as including “any loan or other transaction for the provision of finance…”. His reasoning appears in the following short passage in para 24 of his judgment “In my judgment. The Nigerian Government applied to have the registration set aside on the ground that registration was an adjudicative act and that Nigeria was protected by state immunity by reason of section 1 of the 1978 Act. The first was that section 9 of the 1978 Act excludes immunity “as respects proceedings … which relate to [an] arbitration” where the state has entered into a written arbitration agreement. The second matter was that it would be illogical to exempt from immunity the enforcement of a judgment in Page 9 . Section 3(1) of the 1978 Act provides: “A State is not immune as respects proceedings relating to – (a) a commercial transaction entered into by the state”. Permission to effect service on Argentina out of the jurisdiction was obtained from David Steel J on the basis of an averment that the common law action that was to be brought in England on the New York judgment was also a “proceeding relating to a commercial transaction”. Before this Court Mr Sumption QC has challenged these authorities. AIC registered under the 1920 Act a judgment that they had obtained in Nigeria against the Nigerian Government in relation to what AIC alleged to be a commercial transaction.20. for that would fall within 3(1)(a). As most arbitrations relate to commercial transactions. 21.

Directorate of Agricultural Supplies [1975] 1 WLR 1485. There the relevant issue was whether a claim to enforce an arbitration award constituted “proceedings relating to” the transaction that gave rise to the award for the purposes of section 3(1)(a). A similar issue to that considered by Stanley Burnton J arose in Svenska Petroleum Exploration AB v Government of the Republic of Lithuania (No 2) [2005] EWHC 2437 (Comm).20. Her decision on the point was obiter. 558 had emphasised the significance not merely of the fact that the proceedings related to a commercial transaction. relating to contractual claims. normally under paragraphs (5) or (6). when the case reached the Court of Appeal [2006] EWCA Civ 1529. Purely domestic activities of a foreign state are not the subject of any exception to immunity. Gloster J followed Stanley Burnton J’s reasoning in holding that it did not. Stanley Burnton J went on to observe that Lord Denning MR when advancing the restrictive doctrine of state immunity in Rahimtoola v Nizam of Hyderabad [1958] AC 379. 23. Stanley Burnton J remarked at para 30 that it was unsurprising that the defendants were immune from proceedings for the registration of the Nigerian judgment: “the underlying principle of the State Immunity Act is that a state is not immune from the jurisdiction of the courts of the United Kingdom if it enters into commercial transactions or undertakes certain activities having some connection with this jurisdiction. but not the enforcement of a judgment in relation to any of the other matters in respect of which the 1978 Act provided exceptions to immunity under sections 3 to 11 of the Act. Section 3(1)(a) does not include any such qualification. also obiter. but it received reasoned approval. 6. Section 3 is one Page 10 . [2006] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 181. 5. 4. [2007] QB 886.” 24. Sections 3(1)(b). in Thai-Europe Tapioca Service Ltd v Government of Pakistan. 422. 8 and 11 all contain territorial qualifications to the exceptions to immunity to which they relate. but that the transaction was connected with the United Kingdom.relation to a commercial transaction. The court held at para 137: “In our view the expression ‘relating to’ is capable of bearing a broader or narrower meaning as the context requires. 1491 and in Trendtex Trading v Bank of Nigeria [1977] 1 QB 529. 25. 7. but even there the claimant wishing to bring proceedings must establish a basis for jurisdiction under CPR Part 6.

but in the context of restrictive state immunity it only makes sense to focus on the latter. which provides for service out of the jurisdiction “if a claim is made to enforce any judgment or arbitral award”. which is concerned with arbitration as the parties' chosen means of resolving disputes rather than with the underlying transaction. with their conclusion as to the relevant context. Whether a state is immune from such a claim should. When considering whether a state is entitled to immunity in respect of a claim to enforce a foreign judgment the question “does the claim constitute proceedings relating to a commercial transaction?” can only be given a meaning that is sensible if “relating to” is given a broad. That stage involves the conversion of the New York judgment into an English judgment. Argentina has not suggested that (subject to the issue of immunity) these proceedings did not fall within CPR 6. I agree with the Court of Appeal that the expression “relating to” is capable of bearing a broader or narrower meaning as the context requires. The only issue is whether Argentina is immune from the claim. therefore.20(9). To construe section 3 in this way does not give rise to any conflict with section 9. however. meaning. of a group of sections dealing with the courts' adjudicative jurisdiction and it is natural. under the restrictive doctrine of state immunity.” 26. The argument to the contrary accepted by Stanley Burnton J in AIC proceeds as follows. In our view AIC Ltd v Federal Government of Nigeria was correctly decided and Gloster J was right to follow it in the present case. to interpret the phrase in that context as being directed to the subject matter of the proceedings themselves rather than the source of the legal relationship which has given rise to them. There is a distinction between the adjudicative and the executionary stages of these proceedings. 27. First NML has to establish liability in this jurisdiction and then proceed to attempt to levy execution. Section 3(1)(a) makes it plain that the United Kingdom applies the restrictive doctrine of state immunity. not upon the nature of the process by which the claimant is seeking to enforce the claim. The proceedings to effect this conversion do not turn on the nature of the underlying transaction. rather than a narrow. The proceedings relate both to the foreign judgment and to the transaction underlying that judgment. The object of bringing these proceedings is to enforce the New York judgment. but on whether the judgment in respect of that transaction was Page 11 . I disagree. The question is whether Argentina enjoys immunity from the adjudicative stage. depend upon the nature of the underlying transaction that has given rise to the claim. Sections 1 to 11 of the 1978 Act are a comprehensive statement of the scope of state immunity under the law of the United Kingdom. The context in which the question of the meaning of “relating to” has arisen in this case is the issue of whether Argentina is or is not protected by state immunity against the proceedings that NML seek to bring.

instead. The issue that Mr Howard identifies has to be answered in order to determine whether. It is common ground that it did not. Argentina enjoys state immunity in relation to these proceedings.regularly obtained. Mr Howard QC put the matter more accurately at para 15 of his written case: “It is important to bear in mind that the issue in these proceedings is not whether the English court had jurisdiction to entertain proceedings on the bonds. or are.” 29. The fact that NML is seeking to enforce that judgment in this jurisdiction by means of an action on the judgment does not bear on the question of immunity. but this will not Page 12 . I must deal with the matters that Stanley Burnton J considered supported the narrower interpretation of “relating to” in AIC Ltd v Federal Government of Nigeria. under English law. 28. This leads to the conclusion that the context in which the issue of the meaning of the words “relating to” arises in this case requires one to look behind the New York judgment at the underlying transaction. Thus those proceedings do not relate to the underlying transaction. the issue is whether the present proceedings for the recognition and enforcement of the New York judgment are proceedings ‘relating to’ that judgment. if “relating to” is given the wider meaning. It is true. That question ought to be answered in the light of the restrictive doctrine of state immunity under international law. 30. The fallacy in this argument is that the issue raised in the present proceedings is not the regularity of the New York judgment but whether Argentina is immune to an action on that judgment. The first is that section 9 would not be needed if section 3(1)(a) applies to proceedings to enforce an arbitration award. This involves consideration of the nature of the underlying transaction that gave rise to the New York judgment. proceedings ‘relating to’ a ‘commercial transaction entered into by’ Argentina within the meaning of section 3(1)(a) on the grounds that the New York proceedings on which the New York judgment was based were proceedings ‘relating to’ a commercial transaction entered into by Argentina (ie ‘relating to’ the bonds). Rather. where state A did not enjoy immunity in respect of the proceedings that gave rise to that judgment. that the circumstances covered by section 9 of the 1978 Act will often overlap with the circumstances covered by section 3(1)(a). Under international law the question of whether Argentina enjoys immunity in these proceedings depends upon whether Argentina’s liability arises out of acta jure imperii or acta jure gestionis. There is no principle of international law under which state A is immune from proceedings brought in state B in order to enforce a judgment given against it by the courts of state C.

it is necessary to quote the point that he made in his own words at para 26: “Furthermore. but a New York judgment where there was an exemption from immunity equivalent to that provided by section 5 – ie a New York judgment in respect of a personal injury caused in New York. Thus. As to that point. It was illogical that the 1978 Act did not make provision for the enforcement in this country of such a judgment. Furthermore. It was assumed that Stanley Burnton J was suggesting that if a foreign judgment relating to a commercial transaction were enforceable here. Mr Sumption’s answer was that the judgment would in fact be enforceable here. I believe. if in New York a judgment were given against Argentina in respect of personal injury caused to the claimant in the United Kingdom. 31. so logically should a foreign judgment dealing with one of the other matters specifically exempted from immunity under the 1978 Act. with no provision for the registration of foreign judgments where the exception to immunity before the original court was the equivalent of one of the other exceptions to immunity in that Act. In order to deal with the second matter to which Stanley Burnton J referred. if Parliament had intended the State Immunity Act to include an exception from immunity relating to the registration of foreign judgments. section 9 relates not only to proceedings to enforce an award. one would expect that judgment to be enforceable here – see section 5 of the 1978 Act. it would have been illogical to limit it to commercial transactions entered into by the state (which is the consequence of AIC’s contentions). 34. for instance. and establishes jurisdiction of the English court in relation to all such proceedings. That omission was made good by section 31 of the 1982 Act. as Mr Sumption pointed out. 33. This was because the draftsman of the 1978 Act did not deal generally with foreign judgments. It was not that it would be logical to be able to enforce here a New York judgment dealing with a personal injury caused in the United Kingdom. An action on the New York judgment would be an action “in respect of” the personal injury caused in the United Kingdom.always be the case. but to all proceedings relating to an arbitration to which a state is party.” 32. I agree with Stanley Burnton J. In argument this point was. misunderstood. I believe that we all misunderstood Stanley Burnton J’s point. Not all arbitrations relate to commercial transactions. Page 13 . as I shall show.

however. it is more properly cognisable here than elsewhere. Page 14 . When Parliament enacted the 1978 Act the exemption from immunity under section 3(1)(a) in respect of proceedings relating to a commercial transaction entered into by the state was not qualified by any requirement for a link between the transaction and the United Kingdom. 37. [1975] 1 WLR 1485. r 1. 36. 1491-1492: …a foreign sovereign has no immunity when it enters into a commercial transaction with a trader here and a dispute arises which is properly within the territorial jurisdiction of our courts…By this I do not mean merely that it can be brought within the rule for service out of the jurisdiction under RSC Ord. I mean that the dispute should be concerned with property actually situate within the jurisdiction of our courts or with commercial transactions having a most close connection with England. Article 24 provides. It is true that the need for such a link receives support from dicta of Lord Denning in the judgments prior to 1978 in which he sought to introduce the restrictive doctrine of state immunity into English law. and the Act was designed to give effect to the Convention. by the presence of parties or the nature of the dispute. The original Bill followed closely the structure of the ECSI. Thus in Thai-Europe Tapioca Service v Government of Pakistan he said. that any state may declare that …its courts shall be entitled to entertain proceedings against another Contracting State to the extent that its courts are entitled to entertain proceedings against States not party to the present Convention. The ECSI does not give effect to the restrictive doctrine of sovereign immunity. Such declaration shall be without prejudice to the immunity from jurisdiction which foreign States enjoy in respect of acts performed in the exercise of sovereign authority (acta jure imperii). He drew attention to the existence of such a link in the other exemptions to state immunity in the 1978 Act and to dicta of Lord Denning. Its scope was. The other matter that impressed Stanley Burnton J was the desirability of giving section 3(1)(a) an interpretation which would have the effect of requiring a link between the defendant state’s commercial transaction and the United Kingdom jurisdiction. however. The 1978 Act was expanded so as to apply to all states. significantly enlarged by amendment. The United Kingdom ratified the ECSI on the same day that the 1978 Act came into force.35. This was not accidental. such that. The ECSI only applies as between contracting states. Fox on The Law of State Immunity at p 269 describes the academic criticism of what was alleged to be confusion by Lord Denning of the doctrine of state immunity with principles of extra territorial jurisdiction. 11.

paras 105-137 and Bouzari et al v Attorney General of Canada et al (Bouzari v Iran (Islamic Republic)) [2004] 243 DLR (4th) 406. para 51. [2010] 2 SCR 571. At all events. as had by then been recognised both in The Philippine Admiral [1977] AC 373 and in the Trendtex case [1977] QB 529. the consequential exception included in section 3 of the Act of 1978 related to commercial transactions. observed that the declaration: “must have been intended to recognise the inapplicability in English law of the principle of sovereign immunity in cases in which the sovereign was not acting jure imperii. was not then available. 41. The United Kingdom made such a declaration at the time of ratification of the Convention. however. though the authoritative statement of the law by Lord Wilberforce in I Congreso del Partido [1983] 1 AC 244. For these reasons I have concluded that Stanley Burnton J’s decision on this point in AIC and the Court of Appeal’s approval of it in Svenska was erroneous. 1158 Lord Goff. though in section 3(3) the expression ‘commercial transactions’ is very broadly defined. with whom the rest of the Committee agreed. in Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v P T Garuda Indonesia Ltd (2010) 269 ALR 98. Mr Howard relied upon the approaches taken in Holland v Lampen-Wolfe [2001] 1 WLR 1573. 262. None of these cases concerned.38. I can see no justification for giving section 3(1)(a) a narrow interpretation on the basis that it is desirable to restrict the circumstances in which it operates to those where the commercial transaction has a link with the United Kingdom. per Lord Millett. 40. Page 15 . For these reasons I differ from the Court of Appeal on the answer to the first issue. Such an action is sui generis and I did not find the authorities in question of assistance. the meaning of “relating to” in the context of an action on a foreign judgment. The restrictive doctrine of sovereign immunity does not restrict the exemption from immunity to commercial transactions that are in some way linked to the jurisdiction of the forum. My conclusion is that the present proceedings are “proceedings relating to a commercial transaction” within the meaning of section 3 of the 1978 Act. 1587. [2010] SCC 40.” 39. By reason of section 3(1)(a) of the 1978 Act Argentina is not immune from the proceedings that NML have commenced in this jurisdiction. My conclusion accords with the decisions on the identical points of the Quebec Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court of Canada in Kuwait Airways Corporation v Republic of Iraq [2009] QCCA 728. In Kuwait Airways Corporation v Iraqi Airways Corporation [1995] 1 WLR 1147.

There was no provision in 1978 for service out of the jurisdiction of a claim to enforce a judgment. While section 9 of the Act makes express provision for arbitration awards. not least because other members of the Court may not agree with me on the first issue. In 1978 the Rules of Court made no provision for impleading a foreign sovereign. restricted to the states who were parties to that Convention. but they were fully argued and I propose to deal with them. Section 12(1) of the 1978 Act made provision for service on a state and section 12(7) made it plain that such service required permission. only 8 ratifications of that Convention. no doubt reflecting the previous absolute doctrine of state immunity. in fact. The application of section 31 was not. the Act makes no mention of proceedings in relation to foreign judgments against states. 43. which could only be granted in accordance with the rules of court governing service out of the jurisdiction. As I have explained the 1920 and the 1933 Acts gave little scope for registering foreign judgments against states and there is no recorded instance of an attempt to do this before 1978. however. This Convention made provision for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments. In these circumstances it is perhaps not surprising that the Act made no express provision in relation to proceedings to enforce foreign judgments. there have been. The following are the most significant provisions of that section: “(1) A judgment given by a court of an overseas country against a state other than the United Kingdom or the state to which that court belongs shall be recognised and enforced in the United Kingdom if and only if… (a) it would be so recognised and enforced if it had not been given against a state. Prior to 1978 there had been no attempts to enforce in the United Kingdom foreign judgments against states. other than Part II. other than judgments against the United Kingdom covered by the ECSI. and Page 16 . The primary object of the 1982 Act was to give effect to the Brussels Convention of 1968. The conclusion that I have reached resolves an issue that may not have occurred to the draftsman of the 1978 Act or to Parliament when enacting it.42. which deals with judgments against the United Kingdom in the courts of other states party to the ECSI. Issue 2: Is Argentina prevented from claiming state immunity in respect of the present proceedings by section 31 of the Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982? 44. My decision on the first issue may make the other three issues academic.

in part. I do not believe that Aikens LJ’s analysis is correct. He interpreted section 31 as imposing an additional requirement to exemption from immunity where an action was brought to enforce a foreign judgment. If NML’s interpretation of section 31 is correct. far from providing an additional hurdle Page 17 . Section 31 provides for recognition of a foreign judgment against a state where there exists a connection between the subject matter of that judgment and the forum state that is equivalent to one that would give rise to an exception to immunity in this jurisdiction. it effected an addition to the categories of exemption from state immunity set out in the 1978 Act. Let me revert to the example that I gave in para 32 above. 47. It is NML’s case that section 31 provides comprehensively for the recognition and enforcement of the foreign judgments to which it applies. so far as foreign judgments are concerned. but his decision was reversed by the Court of Appeal. Blair J found in favour of NML on this issue. In short. Conversely it would not permit recognition of a New York judgment against a state in respect of a personal injury caused by the state in the United Kingdom unless. (4) Sections 12. My conclusion in relation to the first issue is. 46. however. (b) that court would have had jurisdiction in the matter if it had applied rules corresponding to those applicable to such matters in the United Kingdom in accordance with sections 2 to 11 of the State Immunity Act 1978. such as submission to New York jurisdiction by the foreign state. there was an alternative basis for recognition that satisfied section 31.” 45. section 31 both reflects and. Section 31 provides for the recognition and enforcement of a New York judgment against a state in respect of a personal injury caused in New York. If this is correct the first issue ceases to be of relevance but for the possible impact of the fourth issue. entirely in harmony with NML’s case on the second issue. without any express amendment to the 1978 Act. 13 and 14(3) and (4) of the State Immunity Act 1978 (service of process and procedural privileges) shall apply to proceedings for the recognition or enforcement in the United Kingdom of a judgment given by the court of an overseas country (whether or not that judgment is within subsection (1) of this section) as they apply to other proceedings. The claimant would first have to show that section 31 of the 1982 Act was satisfied and then that the proceedings fell within one of the exemptions from immunity set out in sections 2 to 11 of the 1978 Act. as in reality would be likely to be the case. Thus. The words “if. replaces the exemptions from immunity contained in the 1978 Act. and only if” in section 31 are important. Aikens LJ could not accept that an extension would have been effected in this way.

which is to provide the same protection for a separate entity acting in the exercise of sovereign authority as is accorded to a state. The first problem that I have is reconciling the words in parenthesis in the subsection - “whether or not that judgment is within” section 31(1) . section 31 would be largely nugatory. with the aid of the application of a wet towel to the head. 50. None of the other exceptions would be likely to be capable of application. This argument was considered by Aikens LJ at paras 80 to 86 of his judgment. Both the wording of section 31(1) and the scheme to which it gives effect appear to me to be clear. including the protection against Page 18 . the state against whom the judgment was given was not entitled to immunity in respect of the claim. under the principles of international law recognised in this jurisdiction. with the exception of section 2. I agree with this conclusion. the state against which the foreign judgment was given would have had no entitlement to immunity. Sections 14(2) and 14(3) are part of a particularly complex part of the 1978 Act. Even though.that the claimant has to cross before enforcing a foreign judgment against a state. and so to 14(2) of the 1978 Act “tends to support” Argentina’s case on the construction of section 31. There is. however. however.with the provision in section 31(1) that a foreign judgment shall be enforced “if. State immunity cannot be raised as a bar to the recognition and enforcement of a foreign judgment if. one exception which would in practice be capable of application would be section 3(1)(a). one complication. according to the British view of state immunity. It is not easy to make sense of all their provisions in the context of the 1978 Act itself. section 31 provides an alternative scheme for restricting state immunity in the case of foreign judgments. and only if” the requirements of the subsection are satisfied. Their general object is. It is not easy to reconcile the reference in section 14(3) to the submission by a separate entity “to the jurisdiction in respect of proceedings in the case of which it is entitled to immunity” with a scheme where any relevant submission to jurisdiction will be in a foreign forum. He concluded that the reference in section 31(4) of the 1982 Act to section 14(3). it was possible to determine that the provisions of section 14(3) were only consistent with Argentina’s case on the construction of section 31(1). this country would be prevented from recognising or enforcing the foreign judgment unless the case also fell within one of the exceptions in the 1978 Act. If Aikens LJ were correct. 49. 51. clear. The complication is as to the effect of section 31(4) of the 1982 Act. If I am right on the first issue. The second is as to how to make sense of the provisions of section 14(3) in the context of proceedings to enforce a foreign judgment. 48. Mr Howard QC for Argentina submitted that. let alone section 31 of the 1982 Act.

It thus became possible to obtain leave to serve out of the jurisdiction proceedings in respect of an action on a foreign judgment in circumstances where this was not governed by any Convention. 54. Order 11 was accurately summarised by Dicey. Ord 11. r (1)(1): “…service of a writ out of the jurisdiction is permissible with the leave of the court if in the action begun by the writ.enforcement in section 13. other than the United Kingdom or the state to which the court which pronounced the judgment belongs. The Conflict of Laws. Section 31(4) made section 12 of the 1978 Act applicable to proceedings for the recognition or enforcement of a foreign judgment and thereby made such proceedings subject to the rules of court governing service out of the jurisdiction.…(m) the claim is brought to enforce any judgment or arbitral award. as follows: “The effect of [section 31] is that a foreign judgment against a state. … A foreign judgment against a state will be capable of enforcement in England if both of the following conditions are fulfilled: first. that the foreign court would have had jurisdiction if it had applied the United Kingdom rules on sovereign immunity set out in sections 2 to Page 19 . I do not consider that it would be right to abandon an interpretation of section 31 which I find clear and compelling in order to attempt to give a coherent role to section 14(3) of the 1978 Act. as applied by section 31(4) of the later Act. para 14-095. For these reasons. in agreement with Blair J at para 26 of his judgment. I conclude that the effect of section 31 of the 1982 Act. together with the addition to RSC. is to be recognised and enforced in the United Kingdom if [the judgment] would be so recognised and enforced if it had not been given against a state and the foreign court would have had jurisdiction in the matter if it had applied rules corresponding to those applicable to such matters in the United Kingdom in accordance with sections 2 to 11 of the [1978 Act]. No question appears to have been raised as to the fact that this opened the door to enforcement proceedings in this country of overseas judgments given against states. vol 1. These rules were significantly amended in consequence of the passing of the 1982 Act by Rules of the Supreme Court (Amendment No 2) 1983 (SI 1983/1181).” 53. and disagreement with Aikens LJ. 14th ed (2006). Morris & Collins. 52. In particular the following new provision was introduced into RSC.

(4) of the 1978 Act. NML relied on the second paragraph as supporting the conclusion that Blair J had drawn from the first. Argentina submitted to the jurisdiction of the English court. second. in that it provided that a state could submit to the jurisdiction by a written agreement prior to any dispute arising. 56. 11 of the [1978 Act]. as I have described it at paras 9 and 11 above. on the true construction of the relevant provisions of the bonds. the effect of which is that a state is not immune (inter alia) where it submits to the jurisdiction or where the proceedings relate to a commercial transaction. The issue in relation to the provisions of the first paragraph is whether the following provision constitutes a submission to the jurisdiction of the English court: “…the related judgment shall be conclusive and binding upon [Argentina] and may be enforced in any specified court or in any other courts to the jurisdiction of which the republic is or may be subject (the ‘other courts’) by a suit upon such judgment…” Page 20 . Before Aikens LJ. They were. The bonds were governed by New York law and that law applies a narrow construction in favour of the state to the construction of a term which is alleged to waive state immunity. ” Issue 3: Do the Bonds contain a submission to the jurisdiction of the English court in respect of these proceedings within the meaning of section 2 of the 1978 Act? 55. There was and is a degree of common ground. that under United Kingdom law the state is not immune from the processes of execution. they did not constitute a submission to the jurisdiction of the English court. The issue on this appeal is simply whether. unsuccessful. It is accepted that the judgment of the New York court is a “related judgment”. even when the two paragraphs were read together. 57. for Aikens LJ ruled that. The relevant provisions of the bonds are set out in appendix 3 in two paragraphs. that is a judgment in “related proceedings”. however. Blair J at paras 32 to 38 of his judgment concluded that the first paragraph contained a submission to the jurisdiction of the English court. Section 31(4) of the 1982 Act gives to judgments against foreign states the benefit of (inter alia) the immunities from execution contained in sections 13 and 14(3). their effect is that there can be no execution against sovereign property without the written consent of the foreign state unless the property is in use or intended for use for commercial purposes. Section 2(2) of the 1978 Act varied the law of what was capable of amounting to a submission by a state to the jurisdiction of the English court.

Blair J held that this agreement was more than a mere waiver. Argentina would be subject.20(9). and I agree. Blair J considered at para 38 that this provision constituted a submission to the jurisdiction of the English court inasmuch as “Argentina unambiguously agreed that a final judgment on the bonds in New York should be enforceable against Argentina in other courts in which it might be amenable to a suit on the judgment. If. was CPR 6. this would be dispelled by the second paragraph. and to the extent that in any such jurisdiction there shall be attributed such an immunity. Aikens LJ did not agree. absent immunity. A waiver of immunity does not confer jurisdiction where. however. The provision in the first paragraph constituted a submission to the jurisdiction of the English courts. this reads: “To the extent that the republic … shall be entitled. If a state waives immunity it does no more than place itself on the same footing as any other person.” 59. I do not follow this reasoning. in any jurisdiction … in which any … other court is located in which any suit.” Page 21 . If consideration of the first paragraph alone left any doubt that the terms of the bonds included a submission to this jurisdiction. England is such a country. would have jurisdiction. action or proceeding may at any time be brought solely for the purpose of enforcing or executing any related judgment. He held at para 101 that the agreement that the New York judgment could be enforced in any courts to the jurisdiction “of which Argentina is or may be subject by a suit upon such judgment” was neither a waiver of jurisdiction nor a submission to the jurisdiction of the English court. state immunity apart. It was both an agreement to waive immunity and an express agreement that the New York judgment could be sued on in any country that. In this case Argentina agreed that the New York judgment could be enforced by a suit upon the judgment in any court to the jurisdiction of which. 60. the republic has irrevocably agreed not to claim and has irrevocably waived such immunity to the fullest extent permitted by the laws of such jurisdiction … solely for the purpose of enabling … a holder of securities of this series to enforce or execute a related judgment. in the case of another defendant. by reason of what. at the material time. it would not exist. from the jurisdiction of any such court … from execution of a judgment or from any other legal or judicial process or remedy. state immunity is the only bar to jurisdiction. to any immunity from suit. It seems to rob the provision of all effect. an agreement to waive immunity is tantamount to a submission to the jurisdiction. Omitting immaterial words.58.

short of conferring jurisdiction on any country whose domestic laws would not. 63. A claimant has always been required by rules of court to include in the application for permission to serve proceedings out of the jurisdiction a statement of the ground for doing so. permit an action to enforce a New York judgment. Both jointly and severally the two paragraphs amount to an agreement on the part of Argentina to submit to the jurisdiction of the English (no doubt among other) courts. there is jurisdiction to bring a suit for the purposes of enforcing a judgment on the bonds. Aikens LJ held at para 103 that because. the proceedings here were not “brought solely for the purpose of enforcing or executing any related judgment”.61. Thus the second paragraph constitutes an independent submission to English jurisdiction. No suggestion has been made that there is any other purpose in bringing these proceedings. 64. England is such a jurisdiction. For this reason I would reverse the decision of the Court of Appeal on the third issue also. This requirement is currently to be found in CPR 6. The reality is that Argentina agreed that the bonds should bear words that provided for the widest possible submission to jurisdiction for the purposes of enforcement. It gives the provisions as to immunity in the bonds the only meaning that they can sensibly bear. This issue has been described as the “gateway issue”. 62. Issue 4: Were NML entitled to raise at the inter partes hearing the two new points not relied on in the ex parte application to serve Argentina out of the jurisdiction? 65. NML had to bring an action in this jurisdiction to obtain recognition of the New York judgment. in the present proceedings. This was to confuse the means with the ends. immunity apart. The words “may at any time be brought” which I have emphasised once again constitute Argentina’s agreement that the waiver of immunity applies in respect of any country where.37 Page 22 . It involves consideration of the effect of what I shall describe as the rule in Parker v Schuller (1901) 17 TLR 299. Obtaining recognition of the New York judgment is no more than an essential stepping stone to attempting to enforce it. 66. Neither Aikens LJ nor Mr Howard suggested any alternative meaning for the words. No doubt those responsible were anxious to make the bonds as attractive as possible. absent any question of immunity. This conclusion does not involve a departure from the narrow approach to construction required by the law of New York.

the plaintiff ought not to be allowed. The plaintiffs sought to persuade the Court of Appeal to uphold the leave given to serve out on the basis of substituting for the original claim a claim for failure to deliver the relevant documents in Liverpool.(1)(a).” It should be noted that in this case the plaintiffs sought to rely upon different facts and not merely upon a different cause of action. Leave was given ex parte and upheld inter partes. That could not be allowed. In Parker v Schuller the plaintiffs obtained leave to serve a writ out of the jurisdiction under Order 11. The breach alleged was of a CIF contract. At p 300 A L Smith MR is reported as saying: “It was not until the case came into this Court that the plaintiff set up another cause of action.37 (3) provides: “The court will not give permission unless satisfied that England and Wales is the proper place in which to bring the claim. to set up another and a distinct cause of action which was not before the judge upon the original application. not the goods to which the documents relate. which expressly requires an application for permission to serve a claim form out of the jurisdiction to set out which of the grounds for service out (now contained in paragraph 3.” 68. Page 23 . ” Romer LJ added: “…an application for leave to issue a writ for service out of the jurisdiction ought to be made with great care and looked at strictly. and the allegation was that the contract was broken by reason of a failure to deliver in Liverpool the goods that were the subject of the contract. CPR 6. 67. In the Court of Appeal the plaintiffs conceded that the way that their claim had been advanced had been misconceived in that a CIF contract involves an obligation to deliver documents. The Court of Appeal refused to permit this. when an application was made by the defendant to discharge the order for the issue of the writ and the service. r 1(e) of the RSC on the ground that the claim was for breach of a contract within the jurisdiction.1 of Practice Direction B) is relied on. If a material representation upon which the leave was obtained in the first instance turned out to be unfounded.

as to the modern practice concerning pleadings: “It is sufficient for the pleader to state the material facts. it was not made in the context of a pleading intended to be served out of the jurisdiction. and the defendant is likewise apprised as to the nature of the claim which he has to meet. ” Page 24 . If. for it expanded the scope of the original decision. To permit him to take a different course would be to encourage circumvention of the Order 11 procedure. 231. to which we think rather different considerations apply. The facts of that case are complex. was Metall und Rohstoff A G v Donaldson Lufkin & Jenrette Inc [1990] 1 QB 391. The most significant of these. which is designed to ensure that both the court is fully and clearly apprised as to the nature of the legal claim with which it is invited to deal on the ex parte application. However. for the purpose of justifying his application under Ord 11. perhaps. In our judgment. Since then it has been referred to or applied in a significant number of decisions at first instance or in the Court of Appeal. With this possible exception.69. he does so. if the draftsman of a pleading intended to be served out of the jurisdiction under Ord 11. He need not state the legal result. what he has stated. at p 436. Parker v Schuller was soon lost from sight until it was applied with obvious reluctance by Sir Nicolas Browne-Wilkinson V-C in Re Jogia (A Bankrupt) [1988] 1 WLR 484. the alternative basis has been specifically referred to in his affidavit evidence. the plaintiff cannot thereafter. which it was not in the present case). r 1(1)(f) (or indeed under any other sub-paragraph) can be reasonably understood as presenting a particular head of claim on one specific legal basis only. he is not bound by.” We respectfully agree with this statement as a general proposition. of Slade LJ. for the purpose of an Order 11 application. if and when he seeks to discharge an order for service out of the jurisdiction. if he specifically states in his pleading the legal result of what he has pleaded. or limited to. be permitted to contend that that head of claim can also be justified on another legal basis (unless. but it suffices to record the response. to one of the submissions of counsel for the plaintiffs: “One of Mr Waller’s responses to this contention has been to refer us to the general observations made by Lord Denning MR in In re Vandervell’s Trusts (No 2) [1974] Ch 269. r 1(1)(f). for convenience. giving the judgment of the court. he is in our judgment limited to what he had pleaded.

but on a correct legal analysis the state is not in fact immune from the jurisdiction.24. the basis upon which it is alleged that the state does not enjoy immunity from suit. There can be no question of exercising a discretion to correct the error (in the absence of a new application on a different basis) because the lack of jurisdiction is fatal”. He held that it involved an extension of the rule in Parker v Schuller. It is not a mere procedural error. He held at para 48 that where permission to serve out is given on the basis of a mistaken legal analysis of the absence of state immunity. Page 25 . in the same position as a failure to identify the correct cause of action or the correct ground for obtaining permission to serve out of the jurisdiction”.” 71. He exercised that discretion in favour of NML because this involved no prejudice to Argentina. when seeking to serve a state out of the jurisdiction. qualitatively speaking. He added at para 66 “…if NML incorrectly identified the basis on which it asserted that Argentina was subject to the ‘adjudicative jurisdiction’ of the English court. to make clear. repeating what at the material time was 6. and to require NML to start proceedings afresh would be pointless and involve a waste of costs – para 49.37.24. It is. No rule of court requires a claimant. 72. It is Argentina’s case that if the grounds relied upon in the application for permission for contending that the defendant state is not immune from suit prove to be unfounded. then the basis for the exercise of the jurisdiction was incorrect. Blair J did not accept this submission.21. in the application for permission. that order has to be set aside for want of jurisdiction.70. the rule in Parker v Schuller precludes the subsequent grant of permission to the claimant to rely on alternative valid grounds. Logically therefore. just as it must when a claimant has relied on an incorrect cause of action or an incorrect ground for permission to serve out of the jurisdiction. The Practice Note at CPR para 6. which he declined to make. Aikens LJ reversed this decision. because it goes to the very basis for invoking the jurisdiction against a sovereign state. states that the claimant “must show distinctly (a) why the prospective defendant is not absolutely immune from suit. the court has a discretion whether or not to set aside the order giving permission to serve out. He held at para 61: “…the order of Steel J was made upon an incorrect basis of the court having jurisdiction in respect of the proposed claim against Argentina.

But if this is done on a false basis in circumstances where there is a valid basis for subjecting him to the jurisdiction. I can see no reason in principle why similar considerations should not apply where an application is made for permission to serve process out of the jurisdiction. Procedural rules should be the servant not the master of the rule of law. Lord Woolf. Before Parker v Schuller there had been a relevant decision of a powerful Court of Appeal. It is. Mr Sumption sought to persuade the Court to distinguish Parker v Schuller. It is argued that.73. 76. of which A L Smith LJ was a member.1 states that the overriding objective of the Rules is to enable the court to deal with cases justly. 74. CPR 1. This included the adoption of the “overriding objective” with which the new CPR begins. by his Reports on Access to Justice. but only in a Practice Note. 75. the case for permitting the amendment is even stronger. Where all that a refusal of permission will achieve is additional cost and delay. Where an application is made to amend a pleading the normal approach is to grant permission where to do so will cause no prejudice to the other party that cannot be dealt with by an appropriate order for costs. and that this involves saving expense and ensuring that cases are dealt with expeditiously. but at the same time he invited this Court to hold that there is no longer any justification for following that decision. highly desirable that care should be taken before serving process on a person who is not within the jurisdiction. inasmuch as the requirement to identify the reason why a state is not immune when seeking permission to serve out is not found in the rules. such notice was duly served upon the defendant abroad. The Court of Appeal upheld an order giving leave to amend the writ. Aikens LJ’s decision involves an extension of the rule in Parker v Schuller. under these circumstances. In doing so Lord Esher MR said this at p 451: “Leave was given for the issue of the writ so indorsed. of course. brought about a sea change in the attitude of the court to such rules. This accords with the overriding objective. In Holland v Leslie [1894] 2 QB 450 leave to serve out of the jurisdiction had been granted in relation to a bill of exchange which had been erroneously described in the statement of claim indorsed on the writ. I believe that Mr Sumption is correct. and the defendant has in due course appeared in this country. and service of notice of it out of the jurisdiction. But I think that Aikens LJ was correct to find that there was no difference in principle between the two situations. it is not obvious why it should be mandatory for the claimant to be required to start all over again rather than that the court should have a discretion as to the order that will best serve the overriding objective. if indeed there ever was. Strictly. the writ Page 26 . which was not referred to and does not seem to have been cited in the later case.

There are a number of authorities which follow the approach of Lord Esher in suggesting that there is. because the writ was for service. cannot be amended. It is not easy to reconcile the approach in this decision with Parker v Schuller. 749. There is no question here of relying on a different cause of action to that in respect of which leave was obtained to serve out. 79. and I can see no reason why an amendment such as this should not be made. Bastone & Firminger Ltd v Nasima Enterprises (Nigeria) Ltd [1996] CLC 1902. there may be good reason for refusing to allow the amendment. [2009] QB 503. When that case arises. 1907. Beck v Value Capital Ltd (No 2) [1975] 1 WLR 6.” The other two members of the Court agreed. or would not. While amending to add a cause of action is not the same as amending to substitute one. nevertheless that there cannot be an amendment. For all these reasons I would hold that the rule in Parker v Schuller should no longer be applied. out of the jurisdiction. 78. Certainly it is good reason to confine the latter decision to its particular facts. 77.15. just as in the case of a writ served within the jurisdiction. it might be amended so as to introduce a cause of action in respect of which leave could not have been originally given for service out of the jurisdiction. Masri v Consolidated Contractors International (UK) Ltd (No 3) [2008] EWCA Civ 625. have been given to serve out: Waterhouse v Reid [1938] 1 KB 743. Donohue v Armco Inc [2001] UKHL 64. While most of these cases involved proceedings which had progressed beyond the initial leave stage. I can see no reason for adopting a less generous approach to amendment at the earlier stage. 747. Nor is there any question of relying on facts that were not before David Steel J when he gave permission to serve Page 27 . in principle. I would confine the rule in Parker v Schuller and not extend it to cover the different facts of the present case. But the defendant has now appeared in this country. if such a writ could be amended. and similar principles should apply in each case. para 74. in either case the amendment involves subjecting the overseas party to a claim other than the one that he entered an appearance to meet. [2002] 1 All ER 749. The same approach should be taken to an application to amend a pleading that has been served out of the jurisdiction as is adopted to any other application to amend a pleading. and has been served. We were pressed with the possibility that. It is contended. no objection to amending a pleading which has been served out of the jurisdiction unless the effect will be to add a claim in respect of which leave could not. If this conclusion is not shared by the majority. Why not? The rules with regard to amendments appear in terms to apply to such a case. That is not the present case.

In the result. It has not been suggested that Argentina will be any better off if NML is required to start proceedings afresh. Page 28 . in any event. There are no valid grounds for challenging his decision. 81. For these reasons. that is. But I do so by a different route to his primary route. I do not think that the rule in Parker v Schuller (1901) 17 TLR 299 should be treated as extending to the present case. Lord Phillips has set out the facts and. It had before it all the relevant material. Nor is there any failure to comply with a rule of court. no longer be followed. I also agree that NML was entitled to raise these two new issues.Argentina out of the jurisdiction. not having relied upon them on the ex parte application for permission to serve the Republic of Argentina out of the jurisdiction. Argentina agreed when the bonds were issued to a wide ranging waiver of immunity and submission to jurisdiction. namely that the Republic is not entitled to claim state immunity in the present proceedings to enforce against it the judgment obtained in New York proceedings. I also agree with Lord Phillips’ answer to the fifth issue. in para 7 identified the five issues to which they give rise. LORD MANCE 83. the effect of section 31 of the Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1978 and whether the bonds contain a submission to the English jurisdiction. Any initial mistake on the part of NML in identifying the correct reason why Argentina enjoys no immunity should not preclude NML from proceeding with its action. Issue 5: Is Argentina entitled to claim state immunity in respect of these proceedings? 82. but I also agree that it should. I agree with his judgment on the second and third issues. My answer is no. The court had an independent obligation to satisfy itself that Argentina is not entitled to immunity. To require them to do so would be a waste of time and money. It follows that I consider that the application to rely on alternative reasons why Argentina has no immunity was one to be determined by Blair J in the exercise of his discretion. 80. I would reverse the Court of Appeal on the fourth issue also. I would allow this appeal. For reasons which Lord Collins has given.

86. in the widest terms. The exceptions from immunity provided by sections 2 to 11 of the 1978 Act focus on specific conduct (submission) in the domestic UK proceedings or on specific transactions. The pursuit of a cause of action without the benefit of a foreign judgment is one thing. fraud or the observance of natural justice in the obtaining of the judgment. This is because I am unable to agree with Lord Phillips on the first issue: the scope of section 3 of the State Immunity Act 1978. A claim on a cause of action normally involves establishing the facts constituting the cause of action. public policy. These are matters discussed in rules 42 to 45 of Dicey. But a claim on a cause of action commonly gives rise to quite different issues from those which arise from a claim based on a judgment given in respect of a cause of action. in a Privy Council context. The recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments has long been recognised as a special area of private international law. I do not consider this to be justified. The Conflict of Laws 14th ed (2009) vol 1. a suit based on a foreign judgment given in respect of a cause of action is another. I do not consider that the drafters of that Act or Parliament contemplated that section 3(1)(a) of the 1978 Act had in mind that it would or should apply to a foreign judgment against a foreign state. The improbability of so extended a construction is underlined by the extreme care that the drafters of the Act took to define in s. contexts or interests in relation to which causes of action may arise. AK Investment CJSC v Kyrgyz Mobil Tel Ltd [2011] UKPC 7. but. paras 48 and 109 to 121.3.84. now Regulation EC44/2001) in terms specifically addressing state immunity. Page 29 . 85. as well as in Part II of the 1978 Act itself (judgments against the United Kingdom in other states party to the European Convention on State Immunity. the concept of “commercial transactions”. In the present case. Morris & Collins. A recent example of their potential relevance is. I understand Lord Phillips effectively to accept that (para 42). nonetheless. the only issue arising happens to be the issue of state immunity with which the Supreme Court is concerned. Careful statutory attention was given to it in the Administration of Judgments Act 1920 (judgments of courts from other parts of Her Majesty’s dominions) and the Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act 1933 (judgments from certain other countries) in terms which (as Lord Phillips points out in paras 16 to 18) respect the existence of state immunity. he and Lord Clarke treat the words as wide enough to cover such a judgment. This represents his preferred basis for his answer to the fifth issue. But it not infrequently directs attention to quite different matters. such as the foreign court’s competence in English eyes to give the judgment. A suit based on a foreign judgment normally precludes re-investigation of the facts and law thereby decided. it stretches language beyond the admissible to read “proceedings relating to … a commercial transaction” as covering proceedings relating to a judgment which itself relates to a commercial transaction. In this context.

This subsection addresses the consequences of submission. although section 13(2) to (4) restricts the issue of process against state property (principally. and leaves it to the court to determine whether such has occurred. I do not however agree with the view (expressed by Stanley Burnton J in AIC Ltd v The Federal Government of Nigeria [2003] EWHC 1357 (QB). But very many arbitrations are commercial. Even before the enactment of section 34 of the Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982. making expressly clear that this was to ensure that “No qualifications. 89. This. section 9 of the 1978 Act provides that the state is not immune as respects proceedings in United Kingdom courts which relate to the arbitration. paras 30-32) that the improbability can be supported on the basis of an implied limitation of section 3(1)(a) of the 1978 Act to commercial transactions with a domestic nexus. If there were any doubt about the point (which there is not). to property for the time being in or intended for use for commercial purposes). Section 9 thus reversed the effect of the House of Lords reasoning in Duff Development Co Ltd v Government of Kelantan [1924] AC 797 on the concept of submission as understood in Kahan v Federation of Pakistan [1951] 2 KB 1003. it is extremely doubtful whether the principle that a cause of action did not merge in a foreign judgment survived in English law: Carl Zeiss Stiftung v Rayner & Keeler Ltd [1967] 1 AC 853. and is not limited to arbitration relating to commercial transactions. 88. was territorially limited to commercial activity by a State “through an office. clause 3(1). That view ignores the clear contrast between the wording of section 3(1)(a) and (b). 966 per Lord Wilberforce. no jurisdictional links with the United Kingdom are to be required” under sub-clause (a) as distinct from sub-clause (b): Hansard HL Deb 16 March 1978 vol 389 cc1491-540. and a major purpose of section 9 must on any view have been to lift state immunity in respect of the enforcement of arbitration awards against states. agency or establishment maintained by it for that purpose in the United Kingdom”.87. to my mind. the Lord Chancellor moved an amendment inserting a clause in the form which became section 3(1). I would endorse on these aspects what is said in paragraphs 117 to 122 of the judgment of the Court of Appeal handed down by Moore-Bick LJ in Svenska Petroleum Exploration AB v Government of the Republic of Lithuania (No 2) [2007] QB 886. Following strong criticism of this limitation by Lords Wilberforce and Denning (Hansard HL Deb 17 January 1978 vol 388 cc51-78). Where a state has agreed in writing to submit a dispute to arbitration. In case there were any room for Page 30 . including foreign arbitration awards since the subsection is in general terms (see further on this last point para 90 below). the precursor to section 3(1)(a). In the original bill. The subsection also covers ancillary or interlocutory applications relating to arbitration. it would be dispelled by the Parliamentary history. also makes unconvincing a reading of “proceedings relating to (a) a commercial transaction” which covers proceedings to enforce a judgment based on a cause of action arising from a commercial transaction.

until the House of Lords decision in I Congreso del Partido [1983] AC 244.doubt. and the absence when the 1978 Act was passed of any basis for obtaining leave to serve out in respect of a foreign judgment or award also points. 90. At the time of the 1978 Act. and this phrase was only deleted in the House of Commons. But the question is how far the drafters of the 1978 Act appreciated or covered the full possibilities allowed by international law. but the question before the Supreme Court now is: how far and in respect of what transactions. The lifting by section 9 of the 1978 Act of state immunity in respect of arbitration awards had obvious relevance in a case.1(1)(m). there is. on the point that states were not immune in respect of commercial transactions. As Lord Phillips records at para 12. removal of state immunity in respect of judgments relating to commercial transactions. no equivalent problem to that raised by the Duff Development and Kahan cases. paras 119 and 120 set out extracts from Hansard (HL Debs16 March 1978 vol 389 cc1516-1517 and 28 June 1978 c316). as what was then RSC O. but nonetheless (if achieved) very important. from 1 January 1984. the clause in the original bill which became section 9 in the 1978 Act was confined to “arbitration in or according to the law of the United Kingdom”. English common law was at the time itself in development and not finally settled. The question whether a claim to enforce a judgment “constitute[s] proceedings relating to a commercial transaction” simply does not arise. or. On NML’s case. In relation to foreign judgments there was. putting the same point in a different way. as a result. the rules of court provided no basis for obtaining leave to serve out of the jurisdiction in respect of a claim to enforce any judgment or arbitral award. some years after the 1978 Act. It is true that it is now well-recognised that no principle of international law renders state A immune from proceedings brought in state B to enforce a judgment given against it in state C. an unlikely dichotomy between the express treatment of arbitration in Part I of the 1978 Act and the suggested tacit. where the Lord Chancellor confirmed expressly the intention to remove state immunity in respect of the enforcement of arbitration awards. It is true that the 1978 Act adopted the restrictive theory of state immunity. Section 12(7) of the 1978 Act maintained the need for leave to serve out of the jurisdiction where required by the rules of court.11 r. 91. how far these were only covered a little later by section 31 of the 1982 Act. like Duff Development Co Ltd v Government of Kelantan itself. however. unless one assumes that the wording of section 3(1)(a) of the 1978 Page 31 . against a construction stretching the wording of section 3(1) to cover suits to enforce such judgments. I think. where a foreign state had by an English arbitration agreement undertaken to submit to the English jurisdiction in respect of an application to enforce any award as a judgment. Indeed. as appears from the original bill and from the passages in Hansard quoted in the Svenska Petroleum Exploration case at paras 119 and 120. Such a basis was only introduced.

if “relating to a commercial transaction” can be read widely enough to cover “relating to a foreign judgment relating to a commercial transaction”. 93. On NML’s case. in situations paralleling those covered by sections 4 to 11 of the Act. the Act either fails to lift immunity or. Under section 2. Secondly. First. or relating to membership of any body corporate not incorporated or constituted under United Kingdom law (cf section 8). The territorial limits involved in these sections are understandable in proceedings actually relating to such contexts or interests. if it lifts immunity at all. section 3 of the 1978 Act therefore gave a very partial and haphazard mandate for enforcement of foreign judgments. section 31(1)(b) refers to sections 2 to 11 of the 1978 Act without discrimination and evidently Page 32 . or relating to any patent not registered in the United Kingdom (cf section 7). But they make no real sense as a basis for distinguishing between foreign judgments in respect of which state immunity is and is not said to exist. as Mr Mark Howard QC points out on behalf of the Republic. 94. even if this persistent stretching of words were to be accepted. 92. Parliament by section 3(1) of the 1978 Act achieved a partial and oddly imbalanced lifting of state immunity in respect of foreign judgments against foreign states. though only necessary. It does not. to restore the comprehensive harmony which in that respect the 1978 Act had singularly failed to achieve. Mr Sumption QC responds on behalf of NML that. 95. it omitted to introduce any analogue of a most obvious situation in which a foreign judgment might be rendered against a state. Lord Phillips acknowledges the illogicality (para 34). There is however no trace of that in the 1982 Act itself. On NML’s analysis. but nothing in the 1978 Act lifts state immunity in the United Kingdom in respect of a foreign judgment on the basis of its submission in proceedings abroad. However. But that is the very issue which is before the Supreme Court. which Lord Phillips favours. then phrases in other sub-sections such as “in respect of death or personal injury” (section 5(a)) can be read widely enough to mean “in respect of a foreign judgment in respect of death or personal injury” caused by an act or omission in the United Kingdom. does so in a partial and illogical way. a state is not immune as respects proceedings in respect of which it has submitted to United Kingdom courts. On the contrary.Act covers proceedings on judgments. or relating to immovable property not in the United Kingdom (cf section 6). it does not remove the anomalies which flow from NML’s case. To this. while section 31 of the 1982 Act was necessary. or in respect of death or personal injury or damage or loss of tangible property caused by an act or omission not occurring in the United Kingdom (cf section 5). address the cases of a foreign judgment against a state where the contract of employment was not made in the United Kingdom or the work was not wholly or to be performed here (cf section 4). in particular.

They do not overrule or affect any provision of section 3(1) which. 96. a comprehensive and coherent treatment of the issue of state immunity in respect of foreign judgments. and which Lord Phillips and Lord Clarke are minded to accept. for the first time. I see no basis for giving the phrase “relating to” in section 3(1)(a) what is described as an “updated” meaning. and has varied. But I do not think that Mr Sumption’s submission is correct. social or other developments have been identified justifying it in this case. and the only effect of expanding the scope of section 3(1)(a) would be partially to create an overlap with that section and/or the illogical patch-work effect referred to in preceding paragraphs. on Mr Sumption’s case. even if (contrary to my view) any expansion were theoretically possible. expand to remove immunity in respect of judgments. On the contrary: the enactment of section 31(1) of the 1982 Act argues strongly against any such expansion of the ambit of “relating to” in section 3(1)(a) of the 1978 Act. and it enables the enforcement of the New York judgment in this case. If that were so. supersede section 3(1) as regards judgments “against the state to which that court belongs”. with social or professional attitudes from time to time. which arises on NML’s case. But the bonds also contain a comprehensive submission to the English jurisdiction in Page 33 . But a connecting factor like “relating to” is most unlikely to have this elasticity. the width of section 3(1). have been replacing a partial scheme of enforcement of foreign judgments under the 1978 Act with a new scheme provided by section 31(1) of the 1982 Act. contrary to the rule stated in Bennion on Statutory Interpretation (5th ed) section 288. The patchwork provision of the two statutes. on NML’s case. no legal. in consequence of the words “if and only if”. already covered such judgments. What constitutes a family or cruel or inhuman treatment or a “true and fair view” (to take three well-known examples) may vary. This would amount to altering the scope of the Act in a way not falling within the principles originally envisaged. Further. section 31 is the means by which the United Kingdom legislator achieved. over time. It is for these reasons that I am unable to follow Lord Phillips’ and Lord Clarke’s answer to the first issue. para (6). Further.without recognising that (on NML’s analysis) the legislator must. and it is implausible to suggest that Parliament intended that its meaning or application in or under section 3(1)(a) could. Mr Sumption submits that this would. section 31(1) makes clear that the scheme it introduces is to apply to judgments by a foreign court “against a state other than the United Kingdom or the state to which that court belongs”. In my view. then the 1982 Act would for some unexplained reason be cutting down what is. by reason of the words “if and only if”. 98. becomes even less probable as a matter of imputed Parliamentary intention. All that the words “if and only if” achieve is the exclusion of judgments “against the state to which that court belongs” from the scheme of section 31. 97.

the loan had been ostensibly raised:” see Borchard. Nor. therefore. I would rest my conclusion on section 31 of the 1982 Act and on Argentina’s submission and waiver of immunity. binding. quoting Wynne (1935) 42 J Can. and there is no analogy between the rules for applications for service out of the jurisdiction in general and good practice in relation to service on foreign States. is that these so-called bonds amount to nothing more than engagements of honour. I would. but. Vol 1 (1951). State Insolvency and Foreign Bondholders. pp 141 et seq. 101. In Twycross v Dreyfus (1877) LR 5 Ch D 605. and not on section 3 of the 1978 Act. therefore allow the appeal. in my judgment the point does not.respect of the enforcement of the New York judgment. I agree with Lord Phillips that the appeal should be allowed. Although I agree with Lord Phillips’ observations on the so-called rule in Parker v Schuller (1901) 17 TLR 299. Bankers’ Assn 472. but are not contracts enforceable Page 34 . The first widespread defaults on sovereign debt occurred in the early 19th century. Sir George Jessel MR said (at 616): “… [T]he municipal law of this country does not enable the tribunals of this country to exercise any jurisdiction over foreign governments as such. the government which issues them. so far as I am aware. or otherwise wastefully dissipated. Marichal. LORD COLLINS (with whom Lord Walker agrees) 99. with little regard to the quite different purposes for which. in many instances. so far as engagements of honour can bind. National courts of the debtor state and of the creditors were unable to secure the rights of unpaid bondholders. Introduction 100. A Century of Debt Crises in Latin America (1989). pp xx-xxi. arise in these proceedings because there has never been a rule (as distinct from good practice) that the grounds for absence of immunity must be set out once and for all at the stage when an application for permission to serve the foreign State is made. a case concerning Peruvian bonds. The Province of Buenos Aires defaulted in 1827 on loans raised for it by Baring Brothers: see Ferns. on this basis. Britain and Argentina in the Nineteenth Century (1960). is there any international tribunal which exercises any such jurisdiction. p 59. The result. and this leads to the same result. in agreement with Lord Mance. and did not. The newly independent former Spanish American colonies “besieged London for loans” in the years 1822-1825 and the proceeds were “quickly expended on armaments.

the bondholders were speculators who had bought cheaply bonds issued by the Greek Government in the 1920s and unpaid since 1941: see eg National Bank of Greece SA v Westminster Bank Executor and Trustee Co (Channel Islands) Ltd [1971] AC 945. the bonds had largely passed out of the hands of the original purchasers into the possession of speculators who bought them up at next to nothing and. Italy. quotes Wynne. pp 322-325. enunciated in 1902 what became known as the Drago doctrine. By the beginning of the 20th century only a few countries (including Belgium and Italy) had adopted a restrictive theory of sovereign immunity. the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Argentina.” 102. Germany and Britain. namely that “the public debt [of an American nation] cannot occasion armed intervention … by a European power”: Hackworth. however. The idea behind “vulture funds” is not new. 2003 WL 1878420 (SDNY 2003). vol 5 (1927). 2011 WL 1237538 (SDNY 2011). UGS Finance Ltd v National Mortgage Bank of Greece [1964] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 446. NW Global Strategy v Republic of Argentina. NML is one of several bondholders who have obtained judgments in the New York Federal District Court against Argentina on the bonds: see also Lightwater Corp v Republic of Argentina.” 105. 104. Page 35 . So also in the famous Greek bond cases in England in the 1960s and 1970s. Digest of International Law. op cit. in relation to the early South American defaults: “Meanwhile. Venezuelan bond claims were subsequently submitted to mixed claims commissions: Borchard. The only remedy for countries whose citizens were affected by sovereign default was force. in due time. op cit.xx-xxi. and in response to the blockade of Venezuelan ports by the United States. p 307. 103. and the modern law now depends on the application of the restrictive theory of immunity and on the almost invariable use in international loan agreements and bond issues since the 1970s of clauses providing for submission to national jurisdiction and waivers of immunity. Diplomatic Protection of Citizens Abroad (1915). But law and practice was revolutionised in the second half of the 20th century by the widespread (but by no means uniform) adoption of the restrictive theory of sovereign immunity. but only with regard to jurisdiction. reaped a handsome profit. and not to execution: see Borchard. Dr Drago. before the ordinary tribunals of any foreign government… without the consent of the government of that country. Borchard State Insolvency and Foreign Bondholders. pp. p 625. Vol 1 (1951).

Highberry Ltd v Colt Telecom Group plc (No 1) [2002] EWHC 2503 (Ch). and the Debt Relief (Developing Countries) Act 2010. [2007] QB Page 36 . but that has no effect on these proceedings because (a) there is no international insolvency regime for States. 107. eg. particularly economic. 2010 (A/HRC/14/21). Argentina declared a sovereign debt moratorium in December 2001 and has restructured much of its debt through debt exchange. Issue 1: “proceedings relating to a commercial transaction” and the State Immunity Act 1978. On this part of the appeal the only relevant question is whether the proceedings in England at common law on the New York judgment are “proceedings relating to … a commercial transaction entered into by the State. social. 110. The question on this issue is whether the expression “relating to” is to be given the meaning ascribed to it (in proceedings different from the present ones) by Stanley Burnton J in AIC Ltd v Federal Government of Nigeria [2003] EWHC 1357 (QB) (registration of a Nigerian judgment under the Administration of Justice Act 1920) and by Gloster J and the Court of Appeal in Svenska Petroleum Exploration AB v Government of the Republic of Lithuania (No 2) [2005] EWHC 2437 (Comm). and (b) the bonds are governed by New York law and are unaffected by any Argentine moratorium. So-called vulture funds have given rise to at least two problems. Second.” where “commercial transaction” includes “any loan or other transaction for the provision of finance…”: section 3(1)(a). 1970 ICJ Rep 3. section 3(3)(b). Donegal International Ltd v Republic of Zambia [2007] EWHC 197 (Comm). [2006] EWCA Civ 1529. Whether the New York proceedings were themselves “proceedings relating to a commercial transaction” is not the relevant question. particular attention has focussed on the ability of vulture funds to thwart loan re-structuring by “highly indebted poor countries”: see Lumina. the ability of investors to acquire defaulted debt can be abused: see. None of the statutory methods of enforcement is available for judgments rendered in the United States.106. April 29. section 3 109. [2006] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 181. First. and cultural rights. (No 2) [2002] EWHC 2815 (Ch). [2003] 1 BCLC 290. 108. [2007] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 397. Report to the UN Human Rights Council on the effects of foreign debt and other related international financial obligations of States on the full enjoyment of all human rights. The proceedings in the present appeal are proceedings at common law for the enforcement of the New York judgment. [2003] BPIR 324. the Barcelona Traction case (Belgium v Spain).

I do not consider that a potential overlap with the arbitration provision in section 9 supports a narrow interpretation of section 3. The wider meaning would give effect to the practical reality that the proceedings relate to liability under the bonds. The question. the question whether the proceedings in Canada “relate[d] to any commercial activity of the foreign state” (State Immunity Act RSC 1985.” can be given a narrow or a wide answer. 113. decided that. to what do the proceedings for enforcement of the New York judgment “relate. in an action to enforce an English judgment. which would involve such matters (not likely to be the subject of dispute in a case such as the present one) as whether the New York court had in personam jurisdiction (here there was a clear submission to the jurisdiction of the New York courts) or whether enforcement could be resisted on any of the traditional grounds (such as want of natural justice. Both the Quebec Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court of Canada in Kuwait Airways Corporation v Republic of Iraq [2009] QCCA 728.1(10)) was enacted in 1982 (and came into force on January 1. 1984) a defendant outside the jurisdiction could not be served in an action on a foreign judgment even if there were assets within the jurisdiction to satisfy the judgment (and consequently no freezing injunction could be made in relation to Page 37 . Nor do I consider that the narrow construction is supported by an argument that section 3(1)(a) should be interpreted so as to require a link with the territorial jurisdiction of the United Kingdom. and they are therefore unhelpful on this appeal. r 1(1)(m) (now CPR PD6B. section 5) depended on the nature of the underlying proceedings in England. section 101). That was because until RSC Order 11. none of which has any arguable application. revd [2010] SCC 40. the issue of which was plainly a commercial transaction for the purposes of section 3. The narrow meaning would result in a conclusion that they “relate” to the enforceability of the New York judgment. [2010] 2 SCR 571. and it would be artificial and over- technical to use the potential overlap to cut down the scope of section 3. fraud. c-18.886 (enforcement of Danish arbitral award under Arbitration Act 1996. or public policy). What is not likely to be in doubt is that at the time the 1978 Act was enacted it would not have been envisaged that section 3 would have applied to the enforcement at common law of a foreign judgment against a foreign State based on a commercial transaction. The overlap would not be complete. My conclusion that the narrower meaning is the one which must be ascribed to Parliament rests on considerations somewhat different from the reasons articulated by Stanley Burnton J in AIC. para 3. 114. But neither judgment articulates the reasons for that conclusion. 111. although reaching different conclusions on the facts. No such link is required in the 1978 Act in relation to the head of commercial transactions covered by section 3(3)(b). 112.

Cheshire. at 547-548 for some of the history. There is no impediment in public international law to the institution of proceedings to enforce a foreign judgment based on commercial transactions. the section has such limited effect that it would not have been worth enacting. 14th ed (2008). Issue 2: section 31 of the Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 117. 115. That meaning is the one which text writers have propounded since the section was enacted: Collins. I accept that neither of those points is conclusive as to the meaning of section 3. If the Court of Appeal was right to accept Argentina’s argument. North & Fawcett. 14th ed (2006). [2011] 1 WLR 433. it might have been desirable as a matter of policy to give section 3 the wider meaning. Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 (1983). There would. para 14-095). But for section 31 of the 1982 Act. The proceedings in England relate to the New York judgment and not to the debt obligations on which the New York proceedings were based. and (b) mutatis mutandis the foreign State would not have been immune if the foreign proceedings had been brought in the United Kingdom. Page 38 . This is a very short point. and certainly would not have justified the attention that it was given in the Parliamentary process: see Fox (2009) 125 LQR 544. pp 588-589. paras 5-27. Morris & Collins. and the almost invariable employment of wide express waivers of immunity. Yemshaw v Hounslow London Borough Council (Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government intervening) [2011] UKSC 3. and the 1978 Act could be construed in the light of present circumstances: Fitzpatrick v Sterling Housing Association Ltd [2001] 1 AC 27. pp 454-455 (now Dicey. Dicey & Morris. It is now possible to serve a foreign sovereign out of the jurisdiction in such proceedings. 116. Conflict of Laws 11th ed (1987). be no principled basis on which to found such a conclusion. Nor is it likely that section 31 of the Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 would have been enacted in the form that it was enacted if Parliament had thought that the 1978 Act already applied to a class of foreign judgments. 118. p 140. Private International Law. 49. The natural meaning of section 31(1) is that it requires recognition and enforcement of a foreign judgment against a foreign State (other than the United Kingdom or the State in which the foreign proceedings were brought) if (a) the normal conditions for recognition and enforcement of judgments are fulfilled.those assets: Perry v Zissis [1977] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 607). however.

160.” In 1965 the Restatement Second. 123.119. section 70(1) stated that a foreign State might waive its immunity by agreement with a private party. for example. “the only mode in which a sovereign can submit to the jurisdiction is by a submission in the face of the court. but they give no support to the Court of Appeal’s surprising conclusion that. 121. As late as 1957 Delaume. relying on Mighell v Sultan of Johore [1894] 1 QB 149. Issue 3: submission 120. In Mighell v Sultan of Johore [1894] 1 QB 149 the argument for the unfortunate Miss Mighell was that the Sultan had waived his immunity by coming to England as Albert Baker and making contracts as a private individual. and therefore has no discernible purpose. section 31 does not affect the law of immunity. Foreign Relations Law of the United States. including the reference to “such matters” in section 31(1)(b). In Duff Development Co Ltd v Government of Kelantan [1924] AC 797 the question was whether the Government had waived immunity in relation to an Page 39 . as. It is true that there are some drafting infelicities. and the words in parentheses in section 31(4). said “there was no consensus of opinion as to whether contractual waivers of immunities are valid and binding upon a foreign sovereign or as to what acts are necessary to constitute such a waiver. in the absence of an express amendment to the 1978 Act. The Reporters’ Note accepted that there had been no judicial decision to this effect. or “unless upon being sued he actively elects to waive his privilege and to submit to the jurisdiction” (Kay LJ at 164). by appearance to a writ” (Lopes LJ at 161). As indicated above (para 103). 159. That argument was rejected. 122. 203. Jurisdiction of Courts and International Loans (1957) 6 Am J Comp L 189. The position in English law prior to the enactment of the 1978 Act was that it was thought that a prior contractual submission to the jurisdiction of the court was ineffective to amount to a waiver of immunity and that nothing less than an appearance in the face of the court would suffice: Duff Development Co v Government of Kelantan [1924] AC 797 and Kahan v Federation of Pakistan [1951] 2 KB 200. it was only in the 1970s that it became almost invariable practice for syndicated bank loans to States and international bonds issued by States to contain wide submissions to the jurisdiction of national courts and express waivers of immunity. Submission had to be “when the Court is about or is being asked to exercise jurisdiction over him and not any previous time” (Lord Esher MR at 159). but that it was believed that United States courts would apply a waiver rule. including an agreement made before the institution of proceedings.

Cf Lord Dunedin at 821.” This is consistent with international practice: United States Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act 1976. Art 2(b) (no immunity if “it has undertaken to submit to the jurisdiction of [the] court … by an express term contained in a contract in writing”). In a classic article (Cohn.application to the court to enforce an arbitration award by agreeing to the arbitration clause in the deed of concession and by applying to the court to set aside the award. Art 7(1)(b) (no immunity if the State has “expressly consented to the exercise of jurisdiction by the court with regard to the matter or case … in a written contract”). section 1605(a)(1) (State not immune if it has “waived its immunity either explicitly or by implication. notwithstanding any withdrawal of the waiver . In particular. European Convention on State Immunity 1972. “the proposition that a waiver or submission had to be declared in the face of the court was a peculiar (and unjustifiable) rule of English law”: (1991) 107 LQR 362. Waiver of Immunity (1958) 34 BYIL 260) Dr E J Cohn showed that from the 19th century civil law countries had accepted that sovereign immunity could be waived by a contractual provision..”). at 364. 124. and that the speeches in Duff Development on the point were obiter (and did not constitute a majority) and that both Duff Development and Kahan v Federation of Pakistan had overlooked the fact that submission in the face of the court was not the only form of valid submission since the introduction in 1920 in RSC Ord 11. Page 40 . The effect of the decision was that a submission to arbitration was not a submission to enforcement. The principle enunciated in Kahan v Federation of Pakistan was reversed by section 2(2) of the 1978 Act. As Dr F A Mann said. which provided that a State could submit to the jurisdiction “by a prior written agreement. the Court of Appeal held that there was no submission in the absence of an undertaking given to the court at the time when the other party asked the court to exercise jurisdiction over it. in Duff Development Lord Sumner had overlooked the fact that British Wagon Co v Gray was no longer good law. Relying on three of the speeches in Duff Development and the decision in Mighell. Only Viscount Cave and Lord Sumner relied on the approach in Mighell. 126. r 2A (reversing the effect of British Wagon Co Ltd v Gray [1896] 1 QB 35) of a rule that the English court would have jurisdiction to entertain an action where there was a contractual submission. in a contract for the supply of Sherman tanks Pakistan agreed “to submit for the purposes of this agreement to the jurisdiction of the English courts” and agreed a method of service within the jurisdiction. In Kahan v Federation of Pakistan [1951] 2 KB 1003.. 125. UN Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property 2004.

in my judgment the point in Parker v Schuller (1901) 17 TLR 299 does not arise.” This was the clearest possible waiver of immunity because Argentina was or might be subject to the jurisdiction of the English court since the English court had a discretion to exercise jurisdiction in an action on the New York judgment by virtue of CPR 6. action or proceeding may at any time be brought solely for the purpose of enforcing or executing any Related Judgment.20(9) (now CPR PD6B. The “Waiver and Jurisdiction Clause” in the bonds provided that a related judgment: “…shall be conclusive and binding upon [Argentina] and may be enforced in any Specified Court or in any other courts to the jurisdiction of which the Republic is or may be subject (the ‘Other Courts’) by a suit upon such judgment. 129. As I have said. The waiver is confirmed by the second paragraph of the clause. As Lord Walker said in Roberts v Gill & Co [2010] Page 41 . to any immunity from suit.1(10)). which provides: “To the extent that the Republic… shall be entitled. the Republic has hereby irrevocably agreed not to claim and has irrevocably waived such immunity to the fullest extent permitted by the laws of such jurisdiction …solely for the purpose of enabling the Fiscal Agent or a holder of Securities of this Series to enforce or execute a Related Judgment. and to the extent that in any such jurisdiction there shall be attributed such an immunity.” Argentina agreed that it could be enforced in any other courts “to the jurisdiction of which the Republic is or may be subject.127. The New York judgment was on any view a “related judgment. para 3. in any jurisdiction…in which any…Other Court is located in which any suit.” 128. Issue 4: The Parker v Schuller point 131. Again England is a jurisdiction in which an action “may … be brought” to enforce the New York judgment and Argentina agreed not to claim any immunity in that jurisdiction.” 130. from the jurisdiction of any such court…from execution of a judgment or from any other legal or judicial process or remedy. The contrary conclusion of the Court of Appeal is not readily explicable.

UKSC 22, [2011] 1 AC 240, at [94], the law of procedure and practice has
traditionally been regarded as the province of the Court of Appeal rather than the
House of Lords (or, now, the Supreme Court), and this court should be especially
hesitant to decide points of procedure in appeals in which they do not even arise.

132. The reason why the point does not arise is as follows. The current CPR
6.37(1)(a) provides that an application for permission to serve a claim form out of
the jurisdiction must set out which ground in paragraph 3.1 of Practice Direction
6B is relied on. There was substantially the same rule under the RSC, where Order
11, r 4(1) provided that an application for the grant of leave to serve a writ out of
the jurisdiction had to be supported by an affidavit stating the “grounds on which
the application is made”. If there is such a rule as the so-called rule in Parker v
Schuller (1901) 17 TLR 299 it is a rule that the court must decide an application
for permission to serve out of the jurisdiction on the basis of the cause or causes of
action expressly mentioned in the pleadings and the claimant will not be allowed
to rely on an alternative cause of action which he seeks to spell out of the facts
pleaded if it has not been mentioned: see now Civil Procedure 2011, vol 1, para
6.37.15.1 (or under the RSC, Supreme Court Practice 1999, para 11/1/10).

133. But there is no analogous rule relating to the exceptions to State immunity.
There is simply a note in Civil Procedure, vol 1 (now para 6.37.24, and formerly,
eg at Supreme Court Practice 1999, Vol 1, para 11/1/17) indicating that the
practitioner should note that an application for permission to serve the foreign
State should show distinctly why the prospective defendant is not absolutely
immune from suit. This is neither a rule nor a Practice Direction nor has it ever
been. There is no analogy between the specific rule for service out of the
jurisdiction and the good practice note and therefore no basis for the conclusion of
the Court of Appeal that because the basis for absence of immunity was incorrectly
identified the English court had no jurisdiction. That is why the point simply does
not arise.

134. If it had arisen, I would have agreed with the general approach of Lord
Phillips. It is to be noted in particular that in Parker v Schuller itself Romer LJ (at
300) based his decision on the ground very close to that of non-disclosure. He said

“…an application for leave to issue a writ for service out of the
jurisdiction ought to be made with great care and looked at strictly. If
a material representation upon which the leave was obtained in the
first instance turned out to be unfounded, the plaintiff ought not to be
allowed, when an application was made by the defendant to
discharge the order for the issue of the writ and the service, to set up
another and a distinct cause of action which was not before the judge
on the original application.”
Page 42

135. It was on the representation that the defendants were bound to deliver the
goods in England that leave had originally been granted.

136. In cases of non-disclosure, the court has a discretion (a) to set aside the
order for service and require a fresh application; or (b) to treat the claim form as
validly served, and deal with the non-disclosure if necessary by a costs order:
Macaulay (Tweeds) Ltd v Independent Harris Tweed Producers Ltd [1961] RPC
184; Kuwait Oil Co (KSC) v Idemitsu Tankers KK, The Hida Maru [1981] 2
Lloyd’s Rep 510.

137. By analogy, where the so-called rule in Parker v Schuller (1901) 17 TLR
299 might apply in a case where the ground for service out has been incorrectly
identified, the court would also have power to grant permission to serve out on a
fresh basis and dispense with re-service.

LORD CLARKE

138. I agree that the appeal should be allowed for the reasons given by Lord
Phillips. I add a short judgment of my own because of the difference of opinion
between Lord Phillips and Lord Mance, Lord Collins and Lord Walker on the first
issue. As to the fourth issue, I agree with Lord Collins that the point does not arise
but, if it does, like him I agree with Lord Phillips’ observations on the so-called
rule in Parker v Schuller (1901) 17 TLR 299.

139. The question raised by the first issue is whether these proceedings are
“proceedings relating to … a commercial transaction entered into by the state” of
Argentina within the meaning of section 3(1)(a) of the State Immunity Act 1978
(“the 1978 Act”). The Court of Appeal held that they are not. As Lord Phillips
observes at para 20, it is common ground that the New York proceedings in which
NML obtained judgment against Argentina were such proceedings. The contrary
would have been unarguable because they were brought in order to establish
Argentina’s liability under the bonds described by Lord Phillips. NML’s argument
is that, if the New York proceedings related to a commercial transaction, it is but a
short step to hold that these proceedings, which were brought in order to enforce a
judgment in respect of a liability under the bonds, are also proceedings “relating to
a commercial transaction”. I agree. As ever, all depends upon the context, but it
seems to me to follow naturally from the conclusion that the New York
proceedings were such proceedings that the same is true of these. Both have the
same purpose, namely to enforce Argentina’s liabilities under commercial bonds.
There is nothing in the language of section 3(1) to lead to any other conclusion.

Page 43

140. The Court of Appeal reached its conclusion in the light of the decision of
Stanley Burnton J in AIC Ltd v Federal Government of Nigeria [2003] EWHC
1357 (QB) and in the light of dicta in the Court of Appeal in Svenska Petroleum
Exploration AB v Government of the Republic of Lithuania (No 2) [2006] EWCA
Civ 1529, [2007] QB 886. Lord Phillips has set out the relevant parts of the
judgments in those cases at paras 21 and 23 and para 25 respectively. In Svenska
the judgment of the court was given by Moore-Bick LJ. Scott Baker LJ and I were
the other two members of the court. I have now reached the conclusion that the
decision in AIC and the dicta in para 137 of Svenska (to which I was a party) were
wrong, essentially for the reasons given by Lord Phillips at paras 26 to 41 which I
adopt without repeating.

141. Lord Mance has reached a different view. He notes in para 84 that in para
42 Lord Phillips recognises that the conclusion that he has reached may not have
occurred to the draftsman of the 1978 Act or to Parliament. Lord Mance concludes
that Lord Phillips’ approach and conclusions are not justified. He does so
principally by looking at circumstances as they existed at the time the 1978 Act
was enacted. However, in my opinion, that is to approach the construction of
section 3(1)(a) of the Act too narrowly.

142. It is stated in Bennion on Statutory Interpretation, 5th ed (2008) at section
288 that, unless a contrary intention appears, an enactment is intended to develop
in meaning with developing circumstances and should be given what Bennion calls
an updating construction to allow for changes since the Act was initially framed.
Bennion distinguishes that case, which he calls the usual case, from the
comparatively rare case of the Act which is intended to be of unchanging effect.
The commentary to section 288 states that the court must, in interpreting an Act,
make allowances for the fact that the surrounding legal conditions prevailing on
the date of its passing have changed.

143. That approach seems to me to be entirely consistent with that of Lady Hale
in Yemshaw v Hounslow London Borough Council (Secretary of State for
Communiteis and Local Government intervening) [2011] UKSC 3, [2011] 1 WLR
433, paras 25 to 28, where she was considering whether words such as “violence”
in a statute could be given an updated meaning. She concluded that the question
was whether an updated meaning was consistent with the statutory purpose. See
also Fitzpatrick v Sterling Housing Association Ltd [2001] 1 AC 27, per Lord
Clyde at 49-50, where he said in the context of the meaning of “family” in the
Rent Acts:

“The judges in Helby v. Rafferty [1979] 1 WLR 13 had difficulty in
accepting that a word which had been repeated throughout the
successive Rent Acts could change its meaning from time to time.
Page 44

The question is whether. I note that section 12(6) of the 1978 Act permits a state to accept service of proceedings against it in a particular manner. including no doubt proceedings to enforce a foreign judgment.20(9) and is now CPR 6BPD para 3. Page 45 .1(10). In my opinion it is appropriate and consistent with the statutory purpose of the 1978 Act to give it an updated meaning. 146. prior to 1978 there had been no attempts to enforce in the United Kingdom judgments against states. In my opinion. It could thus be said with force that at that time it was not contemplated that proceedings could be brought in England on a foreign judgment. viewed at the time the question arises. It subsequently became CPR 6. However. At the time the 1978 Act was enacted there was no machinery for seeking permission to serve proceedings out of the jurisdiction in respect of a claim to enforce either an arbitration award or a foreign judgment. Belfast v Commissioner Northern Ireland Valuation [1964] 2 All ER 705). Such an approach was recently adopted by this House in Reg v Ireland [1988] AC 147. particular proceedings for the enforcement of a particular foreign judgment are proceedings “relating to a commercial transaction”. he adds that section 12(7) makes it plain that service on a sovereign state requires permission.” As I see it. I would answer that question in the affirmative.” 144. Parliament must have recognised that those rules. such a rule was introduced with effect from January 1 1984 in RSC Order 11 r 1(1)(m). 3rd ed p 686). then RSC Order 11. As Lord Phillips says at para 42. As Lord Collins explains at para 114. indeed. which could only be granted in accordance with the rules of court governing service out of the jurisdiction. may well have contemplated that at some future date a rule would be introduced permitting permission to be given allowing service out of the jurisdiction. the question is whether such proceedings are proceedings “relating to a commercial transaction” within section 3(1)(a) in circumstances where such proceedings are contemplated by the present rules of court. The rule of contemporary exposition should be applied only in relation to very old statutes (Governors of Campbell College. would be likely to be amended from time to time and. The general presumption is that an updating construction is to be applied (Bennion on Statutory Interpretation. 145. at any rate unless the defendant accepted service of them. But as a matter of construction I see no grounds for treating the provisions with which we are concerned as being in the relatively rare category of cases where Parliament intended the language to be fixed at the time when the original Act was passed. which provides for service of proceedings out of the jurisdiction where “a claim is made to enforce any judgment or arbitral award.

I also agree with him that these are proceedings relating to the foreign judgment. As I see it. since a defendant could not be served out of the jurisdiction in an action on a foreign judgment. I agree that that was indeed the position at that time. in construing the meaning of “relating to”. I agree with Lord Collins that the expression “relating to” in section 3(1)(a) can be given a narrow or wide meaning. there being no principle of international law under which state A is immune from proceedings brought in state B in order to enforce a judgment given against it by the courts of state C where state A did not enjoy immunity in respect of the proceedings that gave rise to that judgment. Finally I agree with Lord Collins that it is not likely that section 31 of the Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 would have been enacted in the form in which it was if Parliament had thought that the 1978 Act already applied to a class of foreign judgments. relate to a commercial transaction. In para 114 Lord Collins notes that it was decided in Perry v Zissis [1977] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 607 that. at any rate on the facts of this case. the question in these proceedings is whether Argentina enjoys state immunity. I agree with Lord Collins in para 111 that the wider meaning would give effect to the practical reality that the proceedings relate to liability under the bonds.147. That involves a consideration of the nature of the underlying transaction and demonstrates that the proceedings. Page 46 . For my part. I also agree with him that the absence of reasoning in the Canadian case to which he refers in para 113 makes it of little assistance. there was during the 20th century a growing recognition round the world of the restrictive doctrine of state immunity under which immunity related to government acts in the exercise of sovereign authority (acta jure imperii) but not to commercial activities carried on by the state (acta jure gestionis). I see no reason why. The position would surely be different now that the rules have been changed. The question arises in the context of the particular proceedings in this case. I agree with Lord Collins in para 112 that a potential overlap with the arbitration provision in section 9 does not support a narrow interpretation and that there is no warrant for holding that section 3(1)(a) should be interpreted as requiring a link with the territorial jurisdiction of the United Kingdom. As Lord Phillips observes at para 29. no freezing injunction could be granted in respect of assets within the jurisdiction. the court should not reflect that practical reality. The question is whether they are also proceedings “relating to a commercial transaction” entered into by Argentina. under international law the question whether Argentina enjoys immunity in these proceedings depends upon whether its liability arises out of acta jure imperii or acta jure gestionis. I agree with him that. 148. As Lord Phillips has explained. 150. the conclusion that these proceedings are proceedings relating to a commercial transaction is no more than a further example of that growing recognition. 149. the issue of which was plainly a commercial transaction for the purposes of section 3.

be no principled basis for doing so. In my opinion. He cites Fitzpatrick v Sterling Housing Association Ltd [2001] 1 AC 27. 153. whether as a matter of policy or as a matter of principle. it might have been desirable as a matter of policy to give section 3 the wider meaning. I would go further and hold that it should be given an updated meaning. That is because there is no impediment in international law to the institution of proceedings to enforce a foreign judgment. however. but for section 31 and the almost invariable employment of wide express waivers of immunity. I respectfully disagree. As Lord Clyde said in Fitzpatrick in the passage quoted above. 152. Lord Collins accepts at para 115 that neither of those points is conclusive as to the meaning of section 3. viewed as at the time the question has to be decided these proceedings relate both to the New York judgment and to the underlying commercial transaction. the wider meaning would give effect to the practical reality that the sole purpose of the proceedings is to enforce Argentina’s liability under a commercial transaction and that there is no impediment to such a construction in international law. However. both policy and principle lead to the conclusion that the wider interpretation is to be preferred. As I see it. He adds that there would. paras 5 to 27 for that proposition. I do not think that either the enactment of section 31 or the fact that some parties use wide submission and waiver clauses points to a narrow meaning of “relating to”. Lord Collins suggests at para 116 that. once it is concluded that an updating construction should be applied. Page 47 .151. As stated in para 144 above. the general presumption is that an updating construction is to be applied. 49 and Yemshaw [2011] 1 WLR 433. Lord Collins adds that it is now possible to serve a foreign sovereign out of the jurisdiction and that the 1978 Act could be construed in the light of present circumstances.

(3)A State is deemed to have submitted— (a) if it has instituted the proceedings. or (b) asserting an interest in property in circumstances such that the State would have been entitled to immunity if the proceedings had been brought against it.. Immunity from jurisdiction "1.—(1) A State is immune from the jurisdiction of the courts of the United Kingdom except as provided in the following provisions of this Part of this Act. (2)A State may submit after the dispute giving rise to the proceedings has arisen or by a prior written agreement. Page 48 . if it has intervened or taken any step in the proceedings. APPENDIX 1 State Immunity Act 1978 "….—(1)A State is not immune as respects proceedings in respect of which it has submitted to the jurisdiction of the courts of the United Kingdom. (5)Subsection (3)(b) above does not apply to any step taken by the State in ignorance of facts entitling it to immunity if those facts could not reasonably have been ascertained and immunity is claimed as soon as reasonably practicable. but a provision in any agreement that it is to be governed by the law of the United Kingdom is not to be regarded as a submission. (2)A court shall give effect to the immunity conferred by this section even though the State does not appear in the proceedings in question. Exceptions from immunity 2. or (b) subject to subsections (4) and (5) below. (4)Subsection (3)(b) above does not apply to intervention or any step taken for the purpose only of— (a) claiming immunity.

shall be deemed to have authority to submit on behalf of the State in respect of any proceedings.(6)A submission in respect of any proceedings extends to any appeal but not to any counter-claim unless it arises out of the same legal relationship or facts as the claim. this section does not apply if— Page 49 . professional or other similar character) into which a State enters or in which it engages otherwise than in the exercise of sovereign authority. (7)The head of a State's diplomatic mission in the United Kingdom. 3. (2) Subject to subsections (3) and (4) below. or (b)an obligation of the State which by virtue of a contract (whether a commercial transaction or not) falls to be performed wholly or partly in the United Kingdom.—( 1) A State is not immune as respects proceedings relating to a contract of employment between the State and an individual where the contract was made in the United Kingdom or the work to be wholly or partly performed there.—(1)A State is not immune as respects proceedings relating to— (a) a commercial transaction entered into by the State. but neither paragraph of subsection (1) above applies to a contract of employment between a State and an individual. or the person for the time being performing his functions. and subsection (1)(b) above does not apply if the contract (not being a commercial transaction) was made in the territory of the State concerned and the obligation in question is governed by its administrative law. and any person who has entered into a contract on behalf of and with the authority of a State shall be deemed to have authority to submit on its behalf in respect of proceedings arising out of the contract. (3)In this section "commercial transaction" means— (a)any contract for the supply of goods or services. financial. and (c)any other transaction or activity (whether of a commercial. 4. (2)This section does not apply if the parties to the dispute are States or have otherwise agreed in writing. (b)any loan or other transaction for the provision of finance and any guarantee or indemnity in respect of any such transaction or of any other financial obligation. industrial.

a British protected person within the meaning of the said Act of 1948 or a citizen of Southern Rhodesia. or its possession or use of. A State is not immune as respects proceedings in respect (a) death or personal injury. immovable property in the United Kingdom. or its possession or use of. at the time when the contract was made. caused by an act or omission in the United Kingdom. any such property. habitually resident in that State. (6) In this section "proceedings relating to a contract of employment" includes proceedings between the parties to such a contract in respect of any statutory rights or duties to which they are entitled or subject as employer or employee. (3) Where the work is for an office. or (c) the parties to the contract have otherwise agreed in writing. or (b) damage to or loss of tangible property. 5. (4) Subsection (2)(c) above does not exclude the application of this section where the law of the United Kingdom requires the proceedings to be brought before a court of the United Kingdom. 13 or 16 of the British Nationality Act 1948 or by virtue of the British Nationality Act 1965. (5) In subsection (2)(b) above "national of the United Kingdom " means a citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies. agency or establishment maintained by the State in the United Kingdom for commercial purposes. subsection (2)(a) and (b) above do not exclude the application of this section unless the individual was.(a) at the time when the proceedings are brought the individual is a national of the State concerned.— (1) A State is not immune as respects proceedings relating to - (a) any interest of the State in. a person who is a British subject by virtue of section 2. 6. or (b) any obligation of the State arising out of its interest in. or (b) at the time when the contract was made the individual was neither a national of the United Kingdom nor habitually resident there. Page 50 .

A State is not immune as respects proceedings relating to— (a) any patent. (4) A court may entertain proceedings against a person other than a State notwithstanding that the proceedings relate to property— (a) which is in the possession or control of a State. (3) The fact that a State has or claims an interest in any property shall not preclude any court from exercising in respect of it any jurisdiction relating to the estates of deceased persons or persons of unsound mind or to insolvency. (b) an alleged infringement by the State in the United Kingdom of any patent. (2) This section does not apply if provision to the contrary has been made by an agreement in writing between the parties to the dispute or by the Page 51 . the winding up of companies or the administration of trusts. between the State and the other partners. in a case within paragraph (b) above. design. trade-mark. an unincorporated body Membership or a partnership which— (a) has members other than States. being proceedings arising between the State and the body or its other members or. 7. trade-mark. and (b) is incorporated or constituted under the law of the United Kingdom or is controlled from or has its principal place of business in the United Kingdom. if the State would not have been immune had the proceedings been brought against it or. being an interest arising by way of succession.(2) A State is not immune as respects proceedings relating to any interest of the State in movable or immovable property. or (b) in which a State claims an interest. gift or bona vacantia. if the claim is neither admitted nor supported by prima facie evidence. as the case may be. plant breeders' rights or copyright. 8. design or plant breeders rights belonging to the State and registered or protected in the United Kingdom or for which the State has applied in the United Kingdom.—( 1) A State is not immune as respects proceedings relating to its membership of a body corporate. or (c) the right to use a trade or business name in the United Kingdom.

the ship was in use or intended for use for commercial purposes. (b) proceedings on any claim which could be made the subject of Admiralty proceedings. to arbitration. the State is not immune as respects proceedings in the courts of the United Kingdom which relate to the arbitration. (4) A State is not immune as respects— (a) an action in rem against a cargo belonging to that State if both the cargo and the ship carrying it were. if. both ships were in use or intended for use for commercial purposes. at the time when the cause of action arose. at the time when the cause of action arose. (3) Where an action in rem is brought against a ship belonging to a State for enforcing a claim in connection with another ship belonging to that State. or may arise.— (1)Where a State has agreed in writing to submit a dispute which has arisen. subsection (2) above applies to property other than a ship as it applies to a ship. or (b) an. (5) In the foregoing provisions references to a ship or cargo belonging to a State include references to a ship or cargo in its possession or control or in which it claims an interest. Page 52 . in use or intended for use for commercial purposes . 9. or (b) an action in personam for enforcing a claim in connection with such a ship. (2) A State is not immune as respects— (a) an action in rem against a ship belonging to that State.constitution or other instrument establishing or regulating the body or partnership in question. subsection (2)(a) above does not apply as respects the first-mentioned ship unless. (2)This section has effect subject to any contrary provision in the arbitration agreement and does not apply to any arbitration agreement between States. 10—(l) This section applies to— (a) Admiralty proceedings . subject to subsection (4) above. at the time when the cause of action relating to the other ship arose. and.action in personam for enforcing a claim in connection with such a cargo if the ship carrying it was then in use or intended for use as aforesaid.

(6) Sections 3 to 5 above do not apply to proceedings of the kind described in subsection (1) above if the State in question is a party to the Brussels Convention and the claim relates to the operation of a ship owned operated by that State. (7)This section shall not be construed as applying to proceedings against a State by way of counter-claim or to an action in rem.— (1)Any writ or other document required to be served for instituting proceedings against a State shall be served by being transmitted through the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the State and service shall be deemed to have been effected when the writ or document is received at the Ministry. (2)Any time for entering an appearance (whether prescribed by rules of court or otherwise) shall begin to run two months after the date on which the writ or document is received as aforesaid. (5)A copy of any judgment given against a State in default of appearance shall be transmitted through the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of that State and any time for applying to have the judgment set aside (whether prescribed by rules of court or otherwise) shall begin to run two months after the date on which the copy of the judgment is received at the Ministry. (4)No judgment in default of appearance shall be given against a State except on proof that subsection (1) above has been complied with and that the time for entering an appearance as extended by subsection (2) above has expired. the carriage of cargo or passengers on any such ship or the carriage of cargo owned by that State on any other ship. 11. and subsection (1) Page 53 . A State is not immune as respects proceedings relating to its liability for— (a) value added tax. (6)Subsection (1) above does not prevent the service of a writ or other document in any manner to which the State has agreed and subsections (2) and (4) above do not apply where service is effected in any such manner. (3)A State which appears in proceedings cannot thereafter object that subsection (1) above has not been complied with in the case of those proceedings. any duty of customs or excise or any agricultural levy. or (b) rates in respect of premises occupied by it for commercial purposes. 12.

(6)In the application of this section to Scotland— Page 54 . or the person for the time being performing his functions. in a case not falling within section 10 above. (5)The head of a State's diplomatic mission in the United Kingdom. and any such consent (which may be contained in a prior agreement) may be expressed so as to apply to a limited extent or generally. his certificate to the effect that any property is not in use or intended for use by or on behalf of the State for commercial purposes shall be accepted as sufficient evidence of that fact unless the contrary is proved. in an action in rem. this subsection applies to property of a State party to the European Convention on State Immunity only if— (a)the process is for enforcing a judgment which is final within the meaning of section 18(1)(b) below and the State has made a declaration under Article 24 of the Convention. (3)Subsection (2) above does not prevent the giving of any relief or the issue of any process with the written consent of the State concerned. or (b)the process is for enforcing an arbitration award. for the purposes of subsection (4) above.above shall not be construed as affecting any rules of court whereby leave is required for the service of process outside the jurisdiction. (2)Subject to subsections (3) and (4) below— (a)relief shall not be given against a State by way of injunction or order for specific performance or for the recovery of land or other property. detention or sale. but a provision merely submitting to the jurisdiction of the courts is not to be regarded as a consent for the purposes of this subsection. 13. but. (4)Subsection (2)(b) above does not prevent the issue of any process in respect of property which is for the time being in use or intended for use for commercial purposes.— (1)No penalty by way of committal or fine shall be imposed in respect of any failure or refusal by or on behalf of a State to disclose or produce any document or other information for the purposes of proceedings to which it is a party. shall be deemed to have authority to give on behalf of the State any such consent as is mentioned in subsection (3) above and. for its arrest. and (b)the property of a State shall not be subject to any process for the enforcement of a judgment or arbitration award or.

and (b)the circumstances are such that a State (or. but not to any entity (hereafter referred to as a "separate entity") which is distinct from the executive organs of the government of the State and capable of suing or being sued. Page 55 . (b)for paragraph (b) of subsection (2) above there shall be substituted the following paragraph— "(b) the property of a State shall not be subject to any diligence for enforcing a judgment or order of a court or a decree arbitral or.(a)the reference to "injunction" shall be construed as a reference to "interdict". and only if— (a)the proceedings relate to anything done by it in the exercise of sovereign authority. a State which is not a party to the Brussels Convention) would have been so immune. and (c)any reference to "process" shall be construed as a reference to "diligence". any reference to "the issue of any process" as a reference to "the doing of diligence" and the reference in subsection (4)(b) above to "an arbitration award" as a reference to "a decree arbitral". subsections (1) to (4) of section 13 above shall apply to it in respect of those proceedings as if references to a State were references to that entity. to arrestment or sale.— (1)The immunities and privileges conferred by this Part of this Act apply to any foreign or commonwealth State other than the United Kingdom. and (c)any department of that government. in the case of proceedings to which section 10 above applies. (b)the government of that State. Supplementary provisions 14.". (2)A separate entity is immune from the jurisdiction of the courts of the United Kingdom if. in an action in rem. and references to a State include references to— (a)the sovereign or other head of that State in his public capacity. (3)If a separate entity (not being a State's central bank or other monetary authority) submits to the jurisdiction in respect of proceedings in the case of which it is entitled to immunity by virtue of subsection (2) above.

(3) Subsection (2) above (but not section 19 below) shall have effect also in relation to any settlement entered into by the United Kingdom before a court in another State party to the Convention which under the law of that State is treated as equivalent to a judgment.—( 1) This section applies to any judgment given against the United Kingdom by a court in another State party to the European Convention on State Immunity. (2) Subject to section 19 below. PART II JUDGMENTS AGAINST UNITED KINGDOM IN CONVENTION STATES …….(4)Property of a State's central bank or other monetary authority shall not be regarded for the purposes of subsection (4) of section 13 above as in use or intended for use for commercial purposes. ……. a judgment to which this PAn-ill section applies shall be recognised in any court in the United Kingdom as conclusive between the parties thereto in all proceedings founded on the same cause of action and may be relied on by way of defence or counter- claim in such proceedings. being a judgment— (a) given in proceedings in which the United Kingdom was not entitled to immunity by virtue of provisions corresponding to those of sections 2 to 11 above. (5)Section 12 above applies to proceedings against the constituent territories of a federal State. that is to say. which is not or is no longer subject to appeal or. liable to be set aside. and where any such bank or authority is a separate entity subsections (1) to (3) of that section shall apply to it as if references to a State were references to the bank or authority. and (b) which is final. if given in default of appearance. and Her Majesty may by Order in Council provide for the other provisions of this Part of this Act to apply to any such constituent territory specified in the Order as they apply to a State. Page 56 ... 18. (6)Where the provisions of this Part of this Act do not apply to a constituent territory by virtue of any such Order subsections (2) and (3) above shall apply to it as if it were a separate entity.

or (b) if the judgment was given without provisions corresponding to those of section 12 above having been complied with and the United Kingdom has not entered an appearance or applied to have the judgment set aside. or (b) if the result of the judgment is inconsistent with the result of another judgment given in proceedings between the same parties and— (i) the other judgment is by a court in the United Kingdom and either those proceedings were the first to be instituted or the judgment of that court was given before the first-mentioned judgment became final within the meaning of subsection (1)(b) of section 18 above. or Page 57 .(4) In this section references to a court in a State party to the Convention include references to a court in any territory in respect of which it is a party. or (ii) the other judgment is by a court in another State party to the Convention and that section has already become applicable to it. (3) Where the judgment was given against the United Kingdom in proceedings in respect of which the United Kingdom was not entitled to immunity by virtue of a provision corresponding to section 6(2) above. were the first to be instituted and may result in a judgment to which that section will apply. (2) A court need not give effect to section 18 above in the case of a judgment— (a) if proceedings between the same parties. a court need not give effect to section 18 above in respect of the judgment if the court that gave the judgment— (a) would not have had jurisdiction in the matter if it had applied rules of jurisdiction corresponding to those applicable to such matters in the United Kingdom.—( 1) A court need not give effect to section 18 above in the case of a judgment (a) if to do so would be manifestly contrary to public policy or if any party to the proceedings in which the judgment was given had no adequate opportunity to present his case. or (ii) are pending before a court in another State party to the Convention. 19. based on the same facts and having the same purpose— (i) are pending before a court in the United Kingdom and were the first to be instituted.

………" Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 "…….. (3)Nothing in subsection (1) shall affect the recognition or enforcement in the United Kingdom of a judgment to which Part I of the Foreign Page 58 .(b) applied a law other than that indicated by the United Kingdom rules of private international law and would have reached a different conclusion if it had applied the law so indicated. or a department of the government. etc (1)A judgment given by a court of an overseas country against a state other than the United Kingdom or the state to which that court belongs shall be recognised and enforced in the United Kingdom if. and (b)that court would have had jurisdiction in the matter if it had applied rules corresponding to those applicable to such matters in the United Kingdom in accordance with sections 2 to 11 of the State Immunity Act 1978. (b)judgments against the sovereign or head of state in his public capacity. Provisions relating to recognition and enforcement of judgments 31 Overseas judgments given against states. and only if— (a)it would be so recognised and enforced if it had not been given against a state. and references to a court in another State party to the Convention include references to a court in any territory in respect of which it is a party. (c)judgments against any such separate entity as is mentioned in paragraph (a) given in proceedings relating to anything done by it in the exercise of the sovereign authority of the state. (2)References in subsection (1) to a judgment given against a state include references to judgments of any of the following descriptions given in relation to a state— (a)judgments against the government. of the state but not (except as mentioned in paragraph (c)) judgments against an entity which is distinct from the executive organs of government. (4) In subsection (2) above references to a court in the United Kingdom include references to a court in any dependent territory in respect of which the United Kingdom is a party to the Convention.

13 and 14(3) and (4) of the State Immunity Act 1978 (service of process and procedural privileges) shall apply to proceedings for the recognition or enforcement in the United Kingdom of a judgment given by a court of an overseas country (whether or not that judgment is within subsection (1) of this section) as they apply to other proceedings. unless the context otherwise requires – …….. Civil Procedure Rules 2008 ……. and references to that Convention and to provisions of it are to be construed in accordance with section 1(2) (a) . " overseas country " means any country or territory outside the United Kingdom .. section [166(4) of the Merchant Shipping Act 1995]. " the 1968 Convention " has the meaning given by section 1(1).Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act 1933 applies by virtue of section 4 of the Carriage of Goods by Road Act 1965. " Contracting State " has the meaning given by section 1(3) . section 17(4) of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965. " the Conventions " has the meaning given by section 1(1) .. In this Act. in the case of a federal state. 50. ……. ……. ……. includes any of its constituent territories. …….20(9) In any proceedings to which rule 6. (5)In this section "state".." Page 59 .19 does not apply. a claim form may be served out of the jurisdiction with the permission of the court if a claim is made to enforce any judgment or arbitral award. [regulation 8 of the Railways (Convention of International Carriage by Rail) Regulations 2005] … (4)Sections 12. 6.

if the judgment cannot or can no longer be set aside if obtained by default. by a court of the Contracting State. or where. where proceedings between the same parties. by a court of another Contracting State where the other judgment is the first to satisfy the requirements laid down in the present Convention. or ii. a Contracting State is not obliged to give effect to such a judgment in any case: a. c. if. d. where it would be manifestly contrary to public policy in that State to do so. and b. A Contracting State shall give effect to a judgment given against it by a court of another Contracting State: a.b. where the result of the judgment is inconsistent with the result of another judgment given between the same parties: i. Nevertheless. are pending before a court of another Contracting State. were the first to be instituted and may result in a judgment to which the State party to the proceedings must give effect under the terms of this Convention. if the proceedings before that court were the first to be instituted or if the other judgment has been given before the judgment satisfied the conditions specified in paragraph 1. in accordance with the provisions of Articles 1 to 13. the State could not claim immunity from jurisdiction. either party had no adequate opportunity fairly to present his case. based on the same facts and having the same purpose: i. 2. where the provisions of Article 16 have not been observed and the State has not entered an appearance or has not appealed against a judgment by default. Page 60 . in the circumstances. are pending before a court of that State and were the first to be instituted. b. or if it is not or is no longer subject to appeal or any other form of ordinary review or to annulment. ii. APPENDIX 2 EUROPEAN CONVENTION on STATE IMMUNITY Chapter III – Effect of Judgment "Article 20 1.

assets or revenues with respect to the securities of this series or the fiscal agency agreement (a 'related proceeding') … The republic has in the fiscal agency agreement waived any objection to related proceedings in such courts whether on grounds of venue. in any jurisdiction in which any specified court is located. if the courts of the State of the forum would not have been entitled to assume jurisdiction had they applied. or b. the rules of jurisdiction (other than those mentioned in the annex to the present Convention) which operate in the State against which judgment is given. in the cases provided for in Article 10.3. ……. The republic agrees that a final non-appealable judgment in any such related proceeding ('the related judgment') shall be conclusive and binding upon it and may be enforced in any specified court or in any other courts to the jurisdiction of which the republic is or may be subject (the 'other courts') by a suit upon such judgment. where appropriate. In addition. assets or properties. a Contracting State may not rely upon the grounds of refusal specified in sub-paragraphs a and b above if it is bound by an agreement with the State of the forum on the recognition and enforcement of judgments and the judgment fulfils the requirement of that agreement as regards jurisdiction and. the law applied. However. mutatis mutandis. residence or domicile or on the ground that the related proceedings have been brought in an inconvenient forum." "To the extent that the republic or any of its revenues. if the court. by applying a law other than that which would have been applied in accordance with the rules of private international law of that State." APPENDIX 3 The terms of the bonds "…… The republic has in the fiscal agency agreement irrevocably submitted to the jurisdiction of any New York state or federal court sitting in the Borough of Manhattan … and the courts of the republic of Argentina ('the specified courts') over any suit. has reached a result different from that which would have been reached by applying the law determined by those rules. a Contracting State is not obliged to give effect to the judgment: a. action or proceeding against it or its properties. in which any related proceeding may at any time be brought against it or any of its revenues. assets or properties shall be entitled. or in any jurisdiction in which any Page 61 .

is given solely for the purpose of enabling the fiscal agent or a holder of securities of this series to enforce or execute a related judgment.specified court or other court is located in which any suit. from execution of a judgment or from any other legal or judicial process or remedy. the republic has hereby irrevocably agreed not to claim and has irrevocably waived such immunity to the fullest extent permitted by the laws of such jurisdiction … provided further that such agreement and waiver. from set-off. from attachment prior to judgment. in so far as it relates to any jurisdiction other than a jurisdiction in which a specified court is located. from attachment in aid of execution of judgment.. from the jurisdiction of any such court." ……. to any immunity from suit." Page 62 . action or proceeding may at any time be brought solely for the purpose of enforcing or executing any related judgment. and to the extent that in any such jurisdiction there shall be attributed such an immunity.