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Numerical Methods in Engineering Practice

Article · January 1986

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Numerical
Methods in
Engineering
Practice

Torby ADVANCED DYNAM ICS FOR ENGINEERS . ~ HRW Series in ~ Mechanical Engineering L. Fletcher. Slasa APPLIED FINITE ELE MENT ANALYSIS FOR ENGINEERS B. A. Tooley NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE F. AI-Khafaji and J. S. Series Editor A. L. W. J.

New York Chicago San Francisco Philadelphia Montreal Toronto London Sydney Tokyo Mexico City Rio de Janeiro Madrid . Tooley Professor and Dean of Engineering University o( Evansville HOLT. Khafa..i Professor and Chairman 01 CNII Engmeermg Bradley UnIVerSity John R.Numerical Methods in Engineering Practice Amir Wadi AI. RINEHART AND WINSTON. INC.

To My Brother Faiz. Rinehan and Wi ns!"n The DI)'de n Press Saunders College Publ ishin!! . John R.hl ('J 19l:16 CBS College' Publi. for Their Constant Inspiration and Appreciation. Ncv. Tooley C\lpyril. En)!ineerinl.MS 1986 62Q' . Amir Wadi AI -Khafaji For My Sons. Includes index. James. John W. Matthew. Addres.OO·12 85-24751 ISBN 0-03-001757-2 Printed in the Un itc-d StJlCS of America Publ ished si mullancously in Canalla 6 7 8 9 038 98765 4 J 2 CBS College Publishing Holt. Craig . But I Chart My Course by Them.hin~ All righl~ rcscrwd. Whose Ideals Are Like the Stars: I Could Never Reach Them. Alllir WJlIi. II . Bibliol..' Yor~ . com:sp\lndcnce 10: JID Madi~m AI·cnw. Tt\J30. John R. l. NY 10017 Library or Con gress Clil lalogin g-i n·Publicalion Dala AI· Kh afaji.rJphy: p. Numeric~1 IllClhoos in engineering prJClicc . malhcmatic" L Tooley. Titl e.

5.2 Special Matrices 8 2.6.1 Transpose of a Partitioned Matrix 25 2.2 The Need for Numerical Soluti ons 2 1. Contents Preface xiii Chapter 1 INTRODtiCTION 1.6.4 Taylor Series 5 Chapter 2 MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 6 2.3 Matrix Equal/ty 15 2.3 Multiplication of Partitioned Matrices 28 2.2 Addition and Subtraction of Partitioned Matrices 27 2.5 Matrix Multiplication 17 2.2 Associative Law of Matrix Multiplication 22 2. .5.1 Commutativity of Matrix Mu ltiplication 21 2.3 Distributive Law of Matrix Mu ltiplication 23 2.6.5.1 Mathematical Models and The ir Solullons 2 1.4 Matrix Addition and Subtraction 16 2.1 Introduction to Matrices 7 2.6 Manipulation of Partitioned Matrices 25 2.3 Errors 4 1.7 Rules for Combined Matrix Operations 30 .

3 Mechanical Engineering Systems 61 3.3.1 Boundary-Value Problems 74 3.9.10 Area and Volume Calculation Using Determinants 44 Recommended Reading 49 Problems 49 Chapter 3 MATHEMATtCAL MODELING OF TYPICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS 53 3. 1 Boundary-Value Problems 69 3.3.9.2.8 Application of Matrices to the Rotation of a Coordinate System 31 2.2 Laplace Method of Cofactors 35 2.3 Gauss's Elimination Method 90 4.3 Eigenproblems 60 3.7 Reducing Matrix Method 106 .6.1 Introduction 54 3.2 Eigenproblems 71 3.9.4 Gauss-Jordan Elimination Method 94 4.1 Boundary-Value Problems 62 3.3 Upper-Triangle Elimination Method 37 2.2 Initial-Value Problems 59 3.2 Electrical Engineering Systems 55 3.6.6 Models Involving Partial Differential Equations 74 3.9 Determinants and Their Evaluation 33 2.5 Crout's Method 98 4.2.3.2 Cramer's Rule 86 4.2 Initial-Value Problems 77 3.1 Introduction 85 4.vi Contents 2.9.4.7 Comparison of Engineering Models 78 Recommended Reading 79 Problems 80 Chapter 4 SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS 84 4.3 Eigenproblems 67 3.4 Civil Engineering Systems 68 3.6 Square Root Method 103 4.2.4.4 Method of Pivotal Condensation 40 2.2 Initial-Value Problems 64 3.5 Engineering System Response 72 3.1 Properties of Determinants 34 2.1 Boundary-Value Problems 56 3.

10 III-Conditioned Sets and Scaling 121 4.4 Reducing Matrix Method 145 5.2 Graph ical Method 161 6. Contents vII 4.6 Matrices Involving Complex Coefficients 151 5. 1 Triangular Matrices 153 5.9 Iterative Methods 113 4.2 Symmetrical Matrices 155 Recommended Reading 157 Problems 157 Chapter 6 NONLINEAR ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS 160 6.8 Solution of Tridiagonal Systems 110 4.12 Linear Equations Involving Fewer Unknowns Than Equations 126 4.5 Partitioning Method 148 5.8 Lin--Bairstow Method for Roots of Polynomials 182 6.9.11 Sets with More Unknowns Than Equations 124 4.5 Newton--Raphson First Method 167 6.6 Newton--Raphson Second Method 174 6.7.14 Comparison of Method Efficiencies 131 Recommended Reading 132 Problems 132 Chapter 5 MATRIX INVERSION 137 5.1 Jacobi's Method 114 4.7 Special Matrices 153 5.1 Introduction 161 6.7 Modified Newton--Raphson Methods 177 6.3 Elimination Method 143 5.1 Introduction 138 5.10.10.9 Newton--Raphson Method for Systems of Equations 190 6.1 Errors 198 6.9.Seidel Method 118 4.13 Sets Involving Complex Coefficients 129 4.7.4 False-Position Method 164 6.2 Gauss.10 Practical Considerations 198 6.3 Interval-Halving Method 162 6.2 Cramer's Rule 139 5.2 Root Multiplicity 199 Recommended Reading 200 Problems 201 .

3.1 Introduction 272 8.7 Functions of a Matrix 261 7.3.1 Direct Determinant Expansion 207 7.2.1 Forward Interpolation 273 8.6 Transformation Methods 250 7.2 Mechanical Vibrations 218 7.2 Spectral Matrix Decomposition Method 265 7.5 Polynomial Iteration Method 247 7.7.3.7.2 Householder Method 257 7.3 Intermediate Eigenvalues 244 7.1 Jacobi Method 251 7.2.2 Backward Interpolation 274 8.2.3.Hamilton Method 261 7.4 .4 Differences and Interpolating Polynomials 290 8.1 Caley.5 Interpolating Polynomials for Uneven Intervals 294 8.4.1 Column Buckling 215 7.4 Eigenproblems and Dynamic Response 227 7.1 Introduction 204 7.2 .3.2 Interpolating Polynomials for Even Intervals 272 8.4 Vector Iteration Techniques 234 7.2.3 Electrical Circuits 223 7.6 Interpolation Errors 297 8.2 Smallest Eigenvalue 241 7.7 Inverse Interpolation 299 B.3 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 212 7.8 Cubic Splines 299 Recommended Reading 307 Problems 307 .2 Indirect Determinant Expansion 208 7.8 Static Condensation 266 Recommended Reading 268 Problems 268 Chapter 8 INTERPOLATION 271 8.6.1/11/ Contents Chapter 7 EIGENPROBLEMS 203 7.3.1 Largest Eigenvalue 234 7.3 Central Differences 286 8.3.4 Relationships between Difference Operators 287 8.1 Forward Differences 281 8.4.2 Characteristic Equation Determination 206 7.3 Central Interpolation 275 8.3.2 Backward Differences 284 8.3 Difference Operators and Difference Tables 281 8.6.

8 Gauss Quadrature Formulas 393 .3.3 What Type of Function to Fit 312 9. 1 Coefficients of Multiple Determination 327 9.3 Numerical Differentiation of Functions 342 10.3.4 Development of Special Integration Formulas 382 11. Contents Ix Chapter 9 CURVE FITTING 309 9.1 Introduction 336 10.3.8 Stencil Representation of Mixed Derivatives 369 Recommended Reading 370 Problems 370 Chapter 11 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION 372 11 .5 Mixed Derivatives 357 10.7 Romberg 's Integration 390 11.9 Goodness of Functional Approximations 326 9.2 Introduction to the Method of Least Squares 310 9.9.5 linearization 315 9.2 Trapezoidal Rule of Integration 374 11.4 Numerical Differentiation of Data 357 10.7 Stencil Representation of Derivatives 361 10.2 Standard Error of the Estimate 329 Recommended Reading 333 Problems 333 Chapter 10 NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATION 335 10.4 Errors 354 10.6 Nonlinear Regression 318 9.5 Integration of Unevenly Spaced Base Points 385 11.6 Stencil Representation of Integration Formulas 388 11.2 Review of Taylor Series 336 10.7 Multiple Regression 320 9.8 Orthogonal Polynomials for Equal Intervals 322 9.9.1 Interpolating Polynomial Methods 343 10.1 Introduction 310 9.3 Undetermined Coefficients Method 349 10.6 Special Derivative Approximations 360 10.3 Simpson's '13 Rule of Integration Method 380 11.4 Linear Regression 312 9.2 Taylor Series Method 345 10.3.1 Introduction 373 11 .

10.2 Finite Difference Methods and Grid Patterns 501 13.6 Runge--Kutta Methods 424 12.13 Boundary-Value Problems 479 Recommended Reading 493 Problems 494 Chapter 13 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 500 13.12.1 Introduction 501 13.4 Galerkln Method 417 12.12 Initial-Value Problems Involving Second-Order Systems 467 12.1 Regions Involving Rectangular Elements 513 13.2 Milne Method 433 12.2 Direct Integration Procedure 476 12.2 Trapezoidal Rule Method 449 12.6.8 Stiff Equations 440 12.6.3 Least-Squares Method 415 12.5 Euler and Modified Euler Methods 419 12.7 Predictor-Corrector Methods 428 12.6.9 Double Integration 406 Recommended Reading 408 Problems 409 Chapter 12 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 411 12.3 Adams-Moulton Method 436 12.3 Regions Involving Skewed Elements 528 .1 Finite Difference Methods 444 12.2 Circular Regions 524 13.7.l' Contents 11.3 Transformation from Cartesian to Polar Coordinates 503 13.4 Step Size and Errors 438 12.2 Taylor Series Method 413 12.7.10 Initial-Value Problems Involving High-Order Equations 444 12.11 Initial-Value Problems Involving First-Order Systems 465 12.5 Transformation from Cartesian to Triangular Coordinates 511 13.1 Introduction 412 12.1 Decoupling Procedure 467 12.12.7.10.6 Finite Difference Solution of Elliptic Equations 513 13.4 Transformation from Cartesian to Skewed Coord inates 507 13.1 Adams Methods 429 12.7.9 High-Order Equations and Systems of First Order 440 12.

7.5.5 Stability and Convergence 565 13.6 Simplex Method 631 Recommended Reading 637 Problems 637 Index 639 .10.6 Derivative Boundary Conditions 567 13. 1 Explicit Finite Difference Scheme 548 13.10 Introduction to the Finite Element Method 584 13.2 Characteristics of Optimization Problems 607 14.1 Introduction 584 13.1 Introduction 607 14.7.7.4 Constrained Optimization-Lagrange Multipliers 618 14.3 Eigenproblem of the Explicit Scheme 558 13.5.5.2 Implicit Method 553 13.4 One-Dimensional Formulation 593 Recommended Reading 601 Problems 601 Chapter 14 ANALYTIC OPTIMIZATION 606 14. Contents 1(/ 13.7 Parabolic Partial Differential Equations 548 13.7.5 Optimization of linear Models 622 14.6.9 Biharmonic Equation 577 13.10.3 Graphical Interpretation of an Optimal Solution 627 14.4 Regions Involving Triangular Elements 532 13.3 Unconstrained Optimization-Method of Calculus 610 14.3.7.7 Nonlinear Problems 568 13.3.1 Functions of One Variable 611 14. 10.5 Special Considerations 535 13.2 Functions of Many Variables 615 14.7.6.4 Eigenproblem of the Implicit Scheme 564 13.10.1 Standard Equality Form 623 14.2 Mathematical Search for an Optimal Solution 624 14.2 Discretization of a Region 584 13.7.6 irregular Boundaries 538 13.8 Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations 576 13.3 Interpolation and Shape Functions 586 13.6.

.J. we have t:tken sped:tl care to explicitl y derive the useful end resu lts from the elementary mathematical foun- xiii . In contrast. While classical techniques based on closed-foml mathematical model ing conti nue to be useful 10 gain introduclOry intuit ive insight into the ex pecled performance of engineering systems. A mathematician may be interested in finding out whether a solution 10 a differential equation exists and the propenics of such a solution . time-dependent state variable modeling techniques and finite element anal ysis techniques. they need to be intro- duced earl y enough to fully reveal the freedom the y provide in solvi ng e ngineering problems as compared to the classical techniques. nonlinear. therefore. has enabled engineers to successfull y solve problems that were well beyond their retlch j ust a few years ago. The computer revolut ion. these tech- niques and topi(s should be first t:tughl as soon as the student has completed a basic calculus sequence incl ud ing differential equatio ns and is being introduced to Ihe various areas of engineering science of his discipline.models not restricted to those wh ich have closed-fonn solution and . in shon .g. Preface The attitude of engineers toward mathematics has always been different from that of the mathematician . e. Because we have aimed th is text at students at this earl y poi nt in their undergr. models which can more accurately re present realist ically complex systems. these techniques tire being largely repltlced in the analysis and design of actual systems by numericaltcchniques applied to more general models.du:tte education. With the availabi lity of computers of all sizes (I t affordable costs for engineers has also come a shirt in the rouline analysis and desig n methods used in e ngi neering. Funhermore. This shift to much gretlter emphasis on numerical techniques in engineering makes it important to int roduce these te t hniques and the related topics in appl ied rnatheITltItits e:trl y in the engi neer's undergrdduatc education. an engineer simply ass umes thai the existence of a physical system is proof enough of the ex istence of a sol ution and foc uses instead o n finding it . In the authors' opin ion.

Chapters 12 :l nd 13 make application of these techniques to develop methods of so lvi ng systems of ord inary diffe rential and panial different i••1equations. A second gnldu:lte course can then emphasize the topics of Chapters 7. systcms of linear :llgebraic equ:ltions.a bridges this gap by preseming numerous pract ical examples dmwn from various engineering dis- ciplines. Chapter 14 is a no nexhaustive and less th:ln comprehensive treatme nt of the optimiz:ltion pro blem. our experience shows th:ll the topics of Chapters 1. the text sho uld be of inteTCst to the pmcticing engineer. Pam . it serves as the text for a o ne-semester co urse for undergmduate engineers and a required course for beginni ng gmduate students. We :lTC forever indebted to the end less p:lt icnce :lnd suppon of Wil ma . The text deve lops the methods and provides descriptions of thcm in tcnns that can easi ly be implemented on computers of all sizes. It is organized in a manner roughly analogous to the familiar lexts on classical engi neering m:lthe m:ltics.11 Ellg.mced topics for seniors or first-year gmd uate students.K .7 together with selected topics in Chapters 8. and Sus:ln for typing the nmnuscript :lnd to Mimi. It onl y incl udes selected cl:lssical an:llytieal techn iques for line:lr :lnd no nlinear systems. We have been similarly explici t in the numerous example!> . which arc brie Oy introduced in Chap- ter 13. electrical.A. In part icular.lmmable calculators. Chapters 6-9 extend these linear concepts to nonlinear equations. Numerical methods textbooks intended fo r undergradu:ltes in engineeri ng often fa il to relate theory to application. Chapters 2. J. e igenval ue problems.xiv Preface dlltions known to these studems.14. Th is tex t presents the princi ples of applied mathematics and extends them in a natural and systematic manner to numerical methods. In addition . :lnd line:lT modeli ng. The text develops an :lppropri:lte back- ground for thc study of fi nite clement methods. It motivates the student and illustmtcs the methods with solutio ns to numerous pmctical problems drawn from civi l. A.T. W. This text should be suitable for a one-tenn course for eng ineering juniors and a one· term course in more adv. A comp:lnion text containing many useful stand-alone programs incorporating the numerical methods of this text with two diskettes for an IBM PC is available .13 c:ln be :ldequmely covered in o ne course. and mechanical engineering.tvoided the all too fam iliar pr. and regression as important applic:ltions. interpolation. including progr. EI'llll.n 'iIIe. The :luthors arc 1110S1 grateful for their stude nts' assistance in debuggi ng thc nmn- uscript. At the University of Evansv ille.lctice of " leavi ng to the re:lder" the important intcrmediate steps of the development of the methods. we have . Chapters 10 and I I employ these concepts to develop techniques for the central tasks of numerical diffe rentiation and integration. If stude nts have completed a sophomore course in di ffere nt ial eq uations and have a work ing knowledge of computer progmrnrning. The text is org:lnized so as to provide a natur. Numerical MelhQ(I.lIeerillg P((l('(.~ . and in any convenie nt high-order source language. whose ~'ou rage waS :ln inspi nlt ion.ll and sequential development of the topics.5 devclop elemcntary conccpts of nwtriccs. wheTC e:lch chapter serves as :In appropri:lte fou nd:ltion for the ncxt chapter. I lItiiclll(l .

A. man was concerned with putting scientific knowledge to practical uses. Courtesy of N." .A. "From the dawn 01 civilization.chapter I Introduction Earth as seen from space.S.

This surface.chapter 2 Matrices and Determinants .l\ - m .) relating 10 geometrical problems." '" '< .~ . the side Is 1..:: • . h n "< The Akkadian number system and a clay lablet (1800 B. l( . ~ " II' ffi ..C.. It reads: " A square.. and I have drawn a second square and inside the square I have drawn a circle. I have made a border al each side.. what is itT ... <' <" ". Courtesy of the Iraqi govemment. II' • . m '" .

It is the most ancient urban project known to history. Courtesy of the Iraqi government. " . "Mathematical modeling is a necessary first step in solving practical problems. the holy city of the Sumerians.chapter 3 ~ath~troal~odeUng of Typroal Engineering Systems A clay tablel detailing Nippur.

chapter 4 Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations .

• The space shuttle on a launching pad .. • i:.S. Courtesy of N. ." .A.A. .chapter 5 Matrix Inversion / I'• • • • " • ~ • . "Matrix inversion plays an important role in solving many engineering problems.

" .D. Courtesy of the Iraqi government. the Sumerians (3500 B. (SO-meters) high spiral minaret was buill during the Abbasid period (A. "Cube roots and square roots occurred whenever volumes and areas had to be reckoned with.C. To help irrigate or drain the land.) prepared tables for cube roots and square rools of numbers.chapter 6 Nonlinear Algehraic Equations This 164·ft. 900).

chapter 7 Eigenprohlems The space shuttle.A." .A " Eigen problems arise in the analysis and design of space vehicles.S. launching pads. and complex electrical devices. Courtesy of N.

" . Courtesy of N.AS.chapter 8 Interpolation A view of the space shuttle sailing in space.A. " Interpolating functions form the basis for many numerical techniques.

A.A.."." . - - . . COUl1esy of N.-.chapter 9 Curve Fitting -. - "': . --- ~~ . " Engineers are problem solvers regardless of the challenges.. - A photograph of the moon suriaC8.S. - -.-- --..

"When traditional mathematical methods fail.A.S. " .chapter 10 Numerical Differentiation The space shultle thundering into space. engineers learn to seek alternatives. Courtesy of N.A.

S. " Numerical integration has become a valuable tool in solving complex engineering problems.A." .chapter II Numerical Integration An astronaut swimming in space.A. Courtesy of N. It represents the basis for many numerical schemes including the finite element methods.

"Numerical and classical solution 01 mathematical models go hand in hand.C. Courtesy of the Iraqi govemment." .chapter 12 Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations A Sumerian statue dating back to 3500 B.

- -~ .""'That are_ different ways of achieving are .chapter 13 Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations - "The ~ rs both a science BOd an art. - easier than others:'"'-- .

chapter 14 Analytic Optimization .

al dirre". 71 irurpolation error!t. 351 Backwml different'n. 3S Dirr..undard (nor. 467 Boundary conditions Donation or tnaU'icn.. nus..!. Cubk lfIlinn. 286 cubic splines.136 Curve finin. 44 Buckling.nlial equations. 98 AlarlKaic c:qUMionI.ck""U\J dilf.vII"" problems.". JOOdntSS of... column.".ion variables.. )27 ABalylK: optimization. 476 mI!ria . method of opIimiaiion.. method of. 2LS .'''''' 274 Data dirr. 436 lintar alxebrllH: equations.on. 320 AUlLmenled II\lIlri«I. 34 ordinal')' different. 37 pani. JIZ Ano.ebnic eqUltioos). 287 Circuillf r<:gions.mc:r' J n. lS7 O. SyMcms.. operalon. 9 ' o . 429 Combined opcratiOlU Qt' mo. 22 mul1iple "'gn:ssion."ion. 326 Application of matrio. 322 " B.". 2&4 Calculus.. 27 Crou! 's 1IlIl'lhod. 290 bound<\ry·yalue pro"ltm.:kward IkriYal.near al..l differential (QIWiorui.. 5M Cn. 30 Ad ami _ Moulton melhod. 329 D. 606 . 299 Qwxlcri!itic cqualion.ermination.. delcnninants.ale Adams _ Moult"" .:k-subsliIUI." 567 Derivative boundary conditionl.. 221 B. 310 ~y~m. )27 m'"nei~ation.. 299 linear.. 129 direct inuvatlon proad. algcbrUc equations...=.ir5lOw's metbod...16 Crank _ NichoISOfI mtIbod. 429 COOlSm. opcramrs II!Id tablcs C t.".1 ~ions. 461 lint. 86 Addition and sublnoction mo!ria in~nion.. relationl-hil" bet.. SS4 of panilioned malrinJ....IU of 1*1i.. 4711 Complu rodfociclllS dttoupli"l procedure."I.. 182 _ 190 Deci.]..... 577 Decoupli"l procedure.) equatiom (orditW')').... 2..6)11 functional approaimalions.... 62 propenits or. S67 .& !)'SIems.lfi Compariwn of melhods (1.. 610 oxl\U1ll diff. nonliJl('lf.>lume calculation usin... liS Are.ular. 44 linear ". nus.... Index • Alb"" rmll'lods. 28 1 C ivil cn. calc\llation usin.:kward inlc"". . 286 Cenna] diffemota.. method$.'''' functions.".."n. 29-1 ci.i"""ri. 3S el«tricll enginec:rinll 1)'SlC"".. deIi...:n. 234 D'Alembtn'l printiple. 31 lincanalion. 69 Lapl. J IS OI1ho&onaI polynomials. I) nonlintar "'grt'5Sion. numerical 5Ol\IIion Column buckJinli.. 74 V<.nti. 56 pivt)lal cono:knsa!ion..". . 206 dirr. 538 DtttrminlnlS Boundary·value problems arel calculation usin" 44 civil engi"""ri". 161 .. lSI Eukr and modified Euk.. S24 forward dirr.". J46.... 601 Billannonic panial diff=ntial f'quatioru. lIS Adarns method.29\I CoflCtOrS. 297 c""rrlCKnl of multiple drtcnnirwion. as .::.& SY$ltnlS.. hod.vu.n". 68 interpolating polynomials ... 4. 69 urICven in'(rvlls. 131 boundary. 479 Upptf·\rianJle eliminalion method...nce>. method of rofactors. 608 C.218 Diagonal matrix. 71.. 40 mtelwtiul en..202 coefflcicntli of mUltiple de..... 10 Dirr• .. IJII oI~.cs '" the roution of I roonliNllc least 1oq\WU.ineeri.. 419 639 ."..:nproblt .ialive Low of mauh multiplication..ricu.

04 uplidt sc:heme.Oidal Nk. 207 GIUSS'S elimination metbod... 326 uncIett:rrnincd coeffICients method. 586 special dc:riYMi~ appnnimations. Elliplic equations. 143 Initial·value problems. 206 GaIW quadratun: fonnul. 223 Elecuic&l enginc:ri"ll)'llem$. differenc:e . 428 boundary·value problems. «0 Jrid pltterns.. 94 (1WKta1StiC equation dclenninaUoa . 354 Simpson 's 113 rule . 234 Householder method.1 detcnninant u]IIII5ion.. 58-1 .-ticto' ." InteJral ion. 413 initial·vaIue problems. systems .IonIan elimillllion method . 417 Euler lAd mDdirotd Euler rnr. 247 and systemS of (Int orda. ~7 fiB! derivative approximation's .. 244 Halving the intervals. 349 Functions of matrix Direct dclermlnant upansion. response.. 3S4 Fini'" element method inlC1'pOlating polynomial methods. 2SO HOIl'IOfC_ linear equltions . 382 .u. 513 Engineuirt. mdbods. ]61 one-di/llll'lISionaI fonnuJatioa. SOl Taylor scriQ method. method. 4M Taylor scne. ~ of. 627 _ 629 elccaical ciraliu. 261 Housebolde. 59. 479 R\lflac .nncdi.. 558 fll'St-ordet l)'SI!:ms (initial· val.577 EiacnY«ton. S64 initial-value problems. 4M. 444 polynomial iu:r.u. 390 . 204 o"USI . 36B stiff equations. 406 electrical.212 optimiution.6 Furoctional approximations. 36S . 374 unevenly spaced dill points. 59 ei~nproblem...ucd dc:rivativa.11on of .. 208 Eliminatioll method. 608 Milne method. «0 False-position method. 90 dyl\llllic response. 60. 64 .. problems). reaion. SOl fiutoctions of mMri~. ]61 _ 162 eigmY«ton. 12 1 bounduy·value problems. 12 ""'"-'incar a1aclnic equation$. 444 . dewmposition method. 373 civil.. ~S fini'" diffcrena:. 266 Dynamic !QfIOIISC. lS7 H Indirect detenninant upansion . numerical.366 DiI1=DIiation. 54S seeond-order Iyllems (initial·yalue problems).h-ordet equations tD£Chanical vi\lrUion$. 265 Double integration. 393 ooitmm buckling.envaluc method. 444. 61 Rombc1J's integration. diffcrma: methoW.s method.. cotor iteration tcclmiques.540 Index Differential equations (roIIIilll. 241 HOIl'IOfCneou'I differential equuions. 55 llL <OrIditioned linear a1actnic equatiofq. 68 double integnotian. ill Grid pII\mIS.. 281 review of. 345 Forwan:l diffcrerocn. 261 Direct mu:pion pn)Ccdun:. (Uli. t>UJnerical soltllion 01 elIiplic equatiofts.atiofts. 593 miud. 41 2 transl'onnItion methods. 60 lndire<.tbods. problems).. )51 intupolation and shope functions. 444 uapezoidal Nle method..ill method. S&4 ""neil ~ of derivatives. 218 initial·value problems.. 162 JICObi method.. 71. 4)) FUli". 357 third derivative: approximation's. 208 in.. SS3 eiacnproblems. 2fJ1 Caley _ Hamilton method. 449 -. 476 special .d derivati~ approximatiorts. 388 tnopel. differena: JOIution of.. liS direct determinant upansion. J80 ~ inu:gnotion forurnlas..369 Flnt-order ')'SIems (initial-val. 406 ~Ue condensation metbod. 77.te ei. 411 Eiacnproblcms. 164 Ieast·squua method. S48 Galerkin method . 2S7 Eiacnvalues.<XIIftdOr mdbods.. 393 mcclw!ieaI.. 212 Elecuic&l circuits.K\ItlI. and sys"'ms of (lnt order.. 438 fourth derivativc approxill'. j6 lmpl kil )die . 385 .td ) Explicit sc:hcme (mi". 86 . S76 . 55 Gauss quadnture fonnulas. 21S GaUSII _ Seidel method. ]6)-364 mp size and errors. 419 1Ii&b-«du eqUllionl initial-value problems. 513 data. 367 errors. 227 G E Galm.. 4 15 FcMible solutions . 19& numerical differentiation. 3:J.2 12 nonlinear equations. 444 ciacnproblem. 343 diKreti.cian method. 60. J60 inll'Oduaion 10.212 Hyperbolic partiaJ differential equatiofq . 440 smallest eiacnvalue method.. 227 Graphical method eiacnvalues. endl re~ of integJllion ronnulu.l$. lSI Hig. 59.

148 Mechanical engineering systems. IndeK 641 Intermediate eigenvalue method. 22 Gauss quadrature formulas.c.2'] Modirled Newton _ Raphson mtthods. 62 symmetrical matrices. 247 . 16 doubk integration. 41 S N. 343 _ 345 Matri<:es introduction. 86 NeWlon . S3 . ]]8 errors.1] 8 Mixed derivatives. 190 scaling.Seidel mWIod. 74 J comparison of. Lagrange. 290. 8 Numerical differentiation M dato. 124 Newton _ Ropb~ secord method. 318 U near regression.21 Inverse Qf a matri~ Matti. 17 . ..220.83 errors. 21 Interpolating poIYDOfllials Matti. 139 backward.Raphson syS\lems 0( equations. 193 initial-vllue problems. 16 comple.1 differential eqlUltions.~ polyDOfllial. ] SS eigenproblems.rural drcular frequency Lin . partial differential equations. 343 complex coefficients involving..Raph~ secord meIhod. 2j undetermined rocfftCients. 85 eledrical sys\lem. 110 Nonlinear probkms. 174 Crout'S method. 222 comple. 64 Im:gular boundane. 611 _ 61S partitioning method. 143 functions of one vari. IS3 In verse interpolation.360 pMitionod. lSI MlJlimum. 624 _ 627 interpolating polynomill meIhod. 349 . 90 fal.e method of rofacton. 138 methods.231 Linear algebraic equations. ]82 beam. In more equations than unknowns . coefficients involving. IS3 initial_vatue problems. 143 central. 611 _ 615 JloCQbi's method. 177 More eqlUltions than unknowlI$. 406 Matrix associative law. S38 Mechanical vibrations.167 functions of many variables. 3~7 Mathematica l models.Bairstow method for toOlS 0( poIyDOfllial. local Cnmer's rule. ]26 NeWlon . 162 triangular matrices.3 15 Nonlinear regression . 126 L More unl:r>owns IlLan eqlUltions.Seidel method. 103 root multipl icity. 275 partitioning matrix method. 61 reducing matrix method. 336 a""tied to rotation of <:Oordinlte I~tcms . 299 Cramer's rule. 113 Un .me. 174 reducing matrix method.. ] 14 modified NeWlon _ Raphson methods. 190 Gauss . 273 symmetrical matrices. addition .Bairsrow method for roots of polynomials. 3 10 N differential equations . 297 reducing matrix method. ISS IIIlerval -baIving method. ]21 interval-halving meIhod.202 M odels. 345 .349 special. 320 Lap]a. inversion. . 272 . ] 14. 162 iterative metl'lo<b.Rlphson first method. 164 . 198 Gauss' s elimination method. 106 Newton . 199 ttidiagonal SY""M5. IS difference operaton and tables. 161 Cr.. 244 Matrix commutativity. 8 Numericat integration Matti.354 rules for combined operations. 78 JlOCQbian . 393 . 14S boundary-value problems. ]6t . 433 eigenvector.356 Mathematical search. 94 Nonlinear algebraic equations.. 161 more unknowns than equation~ . 30 using Taylor's series. 's rule. 3 ~ 1 . 615 Gauss . 2. 145 forward. 121 numerical solutions. 161 Gauss .Jordan elimination ITIClhod. eqlUlhty. 13 1 meo:hankal system. 151 Interpolation. 114 . 312 Null matri. 2 . 214 elimination meIhod. local false_position method. 31 mixed derivatives. 124 Lagrallgt multiplieD. 182 JlOCQbi method. 139 functions of many variables. n jlOCQbi's method. subtnoction. 148 errors.ble. 35 Multipliers. 219 . 615 elimination method. 294 Mlitri. 6L8 Multiple n:~ion. 164 ilJ-wnditionod sets. 234 . 224 . 354 . ]29 NeWlon _ Raph~ fillt meIhod . 218 IttTative methods Milne method. 74 boundary-value problems.244 Minimum.622 LeaSt-squares method c~ fining. coefficients.227 comparison of method cffi<:iendes. 98 NeWlon _ Raphson sysccms of equations.·position method. 351 nonlinear algebraic eqUltionS. 229 Matrix multiplication. 6t8 .3 square root metllod.2SO Models involving pM. ] 18 _ ]2 1 functions of """ variable . 297 . 67 triangular matrices. S68 Unearization.

28 Vectors and seal.. 361 cir<:ular ". 528 diffe". S03 from Canesian to skewed coonJillll!es. }45 triangular elemcnts. 584 T Ofle·dimensional formulation.nti. S64 UndelCnnir. 610 Splines.ll!ion (unconsU'lIined). finite diffe". 586 introduction 10. 440 disc"'tiution of a . 388 ulIl"'roidal rule.. 607 Simpson" 113 rule. ntial tquations. S38 revii:wof. 607 Simp)(. 608 Romtw:'ll' s integration formula. lSO Tt1pezoidal rule. 51] unevenly spaced da!a poims. 145 o Reg ... 241 feasible solution.l tqu3!ions of deri'·ati""s. 428 spttial integration formula •... 627 Rotation ofcoordlnalC sy~lt1. (diffe". "'gions involving. regions involving. 576 _ 577 '" TranSformation mcthods (eigenproblems).mial tquations.ntial tquations). 40 Romtw:rg's integration.ntial tqua!ions) .!hods and grid pa!!ems.642 Index Numerical integration (c(Httinoud) Pivotal condensation. 121 optimal solution. 31 sc:arth for. $earth for. 374 • Rectallgular elements. 608 Ske. 532 Transformalion from Canesian to polar coordinates. 535 optimal solu!ion. 382 stencil ~sc:nla(jon of integration formulas. 148 Vector iteration techniques.nlial tquations. 360 objective function.". "".lltion method. 608 Spttial derivative appmximalions. 524 mi. Lagl'llnge mul!ipliers.369 elliptic tqualions.ll!ion of linear models..27 v inversion.t eigenvalue method. hYl"'rboli<: . graphical in!efll". II subtraction. 349 nonlinear problems. SOl Step size and error. 624 Second-order syste"".triangle elimill. B View publication stats .1ICe solution of. 567 Triangular element •.w8 implicit selleme. 565 Upper. su Curve filling Objective function. ssion analysis.N. 584 Symmetrical matrices (matrix inversion). 624 Rung( . 438 finite element method Stiff tquations. 608 Spe<:ial elemcou (panial diffu.ll!ion (ronslrained). S07 "" Tt1nsformalion from Canes. 322 ROO! multiplicilY. 385 stability and convergence. 622 S optimal solu!ion. B additioft.I"" problems).. 155 in!etpOlalion and !hal'" functions. 627 Scaling (linear algebrai<: tqUl. 336 rutangular elements. 103 functions of one . 55) U eigenproblem.ntial tquation<. method. (initial .an to lriangullf coordinates. cubic. 424 Optimil. 2}4 multipli<:ation. "'gions involving. 513 of integraTion. 390 Polynomi al i!entioft mc!hod.oJiation. 511 Panial diffe".!hod of cakulus.'Cd elemcnts (paniol diffe". biharmonic. 5 i~gular boundaries.nce • . 3&5 RedllCing matrix method. 577 Partial diffe".ed coeffICients mctbod.!a!ion. 618 Optimil. 106 mauix in""rsion. 390 OrIhogonal polynomials. 5Sg Tridiagonal sySlems. 247 Simpson's 113 rule. 413 spttial elemems. 380 i'redi<:tor _ corrector mcthods. 449 derivotive boundlry conditions.gration formulas. paraboli<: method. 44 transpose. 631 Spttial matrices. S65 p Standard error (curve fining)...KUlla mclhods. 27 Volume. frum Canesi ..1 tqua!ions. 467 Optimil. 593 Tay lor series. frum Cartesian 10 lriangular coordinates.presentation Panial diffe". 51] Taylor scrii:1 method skewed elomelllS. 535 numerical diff. ~28 decision variables. caku la!ioft using dc:tenninanl5. S68 Une~nly spaced data points. 329 Stencil ". 110 finilC diffe".ll!ion problems. 631 CharaclCriSlics of. 37 Pani!ioned matrices.·ariable. 608 Spttial int.. 61 ~ Square root mcthod (linear algebt1ic tquations). S03 !ransfonnations Transforma!ion frum Canesian 10 skewe<J coordinates. 8 OpIimil. 388 finite diffe". 332 uplicit selleme Triangular matrices. 007 Smalle!. !o polar coonJillll!es. 382 simplex method.nee "". 299 funetions of mallY variables. 153 eigenproblem. 380 constrain! functions.lions).. 611 S!abili!y of panial diffe".".nti. 199 Optimal solu!ion ROOIS of equations • •u Nonlinear algebraic tquations graphical interpretation. "'gions in volving.nlial tqualions). 374 Panial diffe . 8ion.'j..gions..