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You are on page 1of 16

STRENGTH IN PORTLAND C~LENT

Research Laboratory Cementir

Cementerie del Tirreno, Naples, Italy

(Communicated by R. Kondo)

(Rec. Sept. 22, 1975; in final form Oct. 13, 1975)

ABSTRACT

We have studied the relations between particle size dis-

tribution at equal specific surface area a n d compressive

strength in Portland cement. Starting from a series of

hypotheses, we have demonstrated that the volume of hy-

drated p r o d u c t , therefore the mechanical stTength ,

increases when t h e g r k n u l o m e t r i c range decreases.

The e x p e r i m e n t a l data have demonstTated that the depth

of hydration d e p e n d s m o s t l y on t h e p a r t i c l e size, con-

trary to our hypothesis. Nevertheless, we h a v e p r o v e d

that when with the actual plants of grinding it is

possible to minimize the width of granulometric range,

the mechanical strength of Portland cements both in

Riles mortar and in concrete can be maximized.

tions entre la distTibutlon granulom~trique des ciments

portlande avec egale surface sp~cifique et la r~sistan-

ce m~canique k compression. Sur la base de beaocoup des

hypoth~se, nous avons d~montr~e que le volume du produit

hydrate, par cons6quent les r~sistanoes m~caniques, aug-

ments d~croiesant le spectre granulom~trique. Les mesu-

res exp~rimentalles ont montr~ que, au contTaire de nos

hypotheses, la profondeur de hydratation est due forte-

sent ~ la grandeur des ~Tanules. Nous avons cependant

confirm~e que r~duisant la largeur du spectre granulom~-

trique est possible am~liorer les r~sistances m~cani-

ques des ciments portlands.

113

114 Vol. 6, No. 1

G. F r i g i o n e , S. Marra

Introduction

conditions for other factors, depends essentially on ~he chemi-

cal and mineralogical composition of the clinker; and the rate

by which this strength rises depends mostly on its specific

surface area. However to characterize this is not always

requisite; in fact, clinkers of the Same production, ground at

the same specific surface area in different tube mills, have

sometimes different rates of hardening and consequently

different mechanical strengths.

A l t h o u g h many A u t h o r s ( 1 - 7 ) have s t u d i e d t h e i n f l u e n c e of

particle size classes on the development of different properties

and, particularly, on the mechanical strengths, only recently

Eato and Hirose (8), Sprung (9), Locher et al (IO), have studied

the influence of the different particle size distribution in

cements of the same specific surface area.

As measures of particle size distribution these authors

assumed the parameter n = tag u to individuate the inclination

of the lines characterizing size distribution in granulometric

grid according to Rosin, hammler and Bennett (RRB). The results

obtained by these authors seem to lead to the conclusion that a

cement with short range size distribution, gives higher

strengths after a curing period of 2, 7 and 28 days.

Recently Cleem-mn and Madeweg-Hansen (11) published data

concerning cements with different size distributions. They have

analysed the behaviour of cement samples coming from industrial

experiments by tests on Rilem mortars and on concretes. While

the data obtained on mortar confirm the tests of the above

mentioned authors, the data on concrete have not given the

completly expected results. For this reason the authors have

concluded that in cements with particularly short range size

distributions there is a different correlation between Rilem

strength a~d concrete strength.

The object of the present study is to analyse the relations

between compressive strength on Rilem mortar and on concrete on

the one hand, and size distribution of Portland cements, of

equal specific surface area, on the other.

Theoretical Formulation

ii, i ii i

of h a r d e n e d cement to

| i 1 ,

com~ressive strength.

V e r b e c k and F o s t e r (12) and B r u n a u e r (13) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t

a n o r m a l P o r t l a n d c e m e n t - t y p e I ASTM- g i v e s t h e same r e a c t i o n

products at all stages of its hydration, except for the reaction

of products of gypsum which finish after the first 24 hours at

Vol. 6, No. 1 115

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION, STRENGTH, HYDRATED CEMENT

- constant heat of hydraSion per unit of combined water,

- constant intensity ratios in X-ray patterns, from O to 28 days,

- constant specific surface of the gel, from I day to 14 years.

Therefore the compounds of Portland cement do not hydrate

independently but with constant ratio in fractional rate on

stationary conditions of the process (14) (15).

The mechanical strength of a paste, of a mortar or of a

concrete, was defined by Powers (16) as a function of the hy-

drated cement in the space available to it; or since hydrated

cement is mostly gel, it is some function of gel-space ratio.

This may be expressed as follows:

were f~ = compressive strength

v,~ = volume of hydrated cement

p~ = capillary pores

Since v.=

-- I N + n ] W n II

and pC

= Wo--NWn III

where

N = the volume, in cubic centimeters, by which the solid phase

(including gel pores) increases when W. increases by I g.

n = volume, in cubic centimeters, of original cement that

becomes hydrated when W. increases by I g.

Wo = volume, in cubic centimeters, of original mixing water,

corrected for bleeding.

becomes :

fo _- [ wo]

IN+n]

n Wn + Wo

w h i c h can be rearranged:

or, since n and N are constant for a given cement,

fc

as Powers had experimentally verified.

It is necessary to remember that the surface area of cement

gel, produced by the r e a c t i o n of the cement whit water, can be

m e a s u r e d by Vm which represents the amount of wa~er required to

form a complete monomolecular layer of adsorbed water over the

solid surface of hydrated cement. Since the surface area of mi-

crocrystalline material is negligible when compared with that of

116 Vol. 6, No. 1

G. Frigione, S. Marra

amount of colloidal material in the sample (17). Since, as we

mentioned before, a cement produces the same kind of hydration

products at all stages of its hydration, the Vm/W. ratio for

any given cement is constant and independent of the age and of

the water-cement ratio. It is demonstrated that the Vm/Wn ratio

is strictly constant for the cement type I ASTN (18) (19).

Therefore for these types of cement we can write VI as follows:

f¢ = W, wl-j~-] VII

produced gel quantity. But, as said above, the gel quantity

which is formed at each stage of hydration is proportional to

the volume of hydrated cement and, for this reason, the compres-

sive strength for a given cement is always proportional to the

volume of hydrated cement.

tion, in order to obtain the highest mechanical strength, at

equal specific surface area, can be resolved by determining the

size distribution that, at a given a~e, maximized the volume of

hydrated cement.

We shall suppose that:

- the cement particles are spherical,

- the hydration proceeds uniformly from the outside to the

inside,

- the depth of the water penetration into the cement particles

does not depend upon the particle size, but it is only con-

trolled by the water diffusion through the gelatinous hy-

dration products already formed (20). The diffusion e q ~ t i o n

is given by Fick's second law (21).

We want to demonstrate that in a Portland cement for~ned by

grains having the same diameter, at a given stage of reaction,

the quantity of hydration products obtained is always higher

than ~he quantity obtained from a cement with grains having a

different particle size distribution but of equal specific

surface area.

This will be demonstrated assuming rn spheres of radius s

having a specific surface area equal to that of m, spheres of

radius s, and of m= spheres of radius R= (with RI>R, ). With

this demonstration the problem will be solved in general terms

because the rn, and rn2 spheres may in turn produce other

particles of different radius and therefore permit any particle

size distribution to be generated.

The above-mentioned spheres must satisfy the following

Vol. 6, No. 1 117

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION, STRENGTH, HYDRATEDCEMENT

conditions :

m 4 ~R'-- mr4 ~ R 3 + rr~24 ~TR: VIII

m4'~R'~= m'4~TR'= + m 2 4 ~ R 2 IX

and simplifying:

,-,-,R' = ,-n, R~ + ~, R~ Z

of hydration products ilmer will be:

f o r th e s p h e r e s R : V : = m 4 _ ~ r [ R ' - - [ R 3 -6]']

v ° > v~

XII

that is: mR3--m[R--(~]3>m,Fll~--m/[R, - ~]=+ ~ , ~ ,=- ~,[%_ 61 ~ XIII

and by X we obtain:

m[R- ~]'< m,[~,--~I'+ m.[..--6]' XIV

rearranging:

3mR-- m ~ < 3re, R,-- m,6 -~ 3m=R 2 - m=~ XV

dividing the left-hand and right-hand sides of X by the

respective sides of. XI we obtain R ; replacing m in XI we

obtain :

m, R; + ~=R==

n~ = [,,~'";÷ ~,R:] ~

[ m , R ,=+ ~ . R . = ]" X'v'I I

replaciz~ ~ and ~I i n ~ we o b t s . t n :

3rr.,,:,, ~ + ,-,-,. R:]" [~, R,~ + ,~.R: ] -- Ira, n,' + ,',',. R:]'~ < 3,',',, .,[,',r',,R, ~ + rr-,.R:]%

-- ",[~,R,~ + ,'-.,:,:]'~ + 3,',',.R.[r-,R,' + r,',. R~]'-- ~ . [ , ~ , . , ~ + ,',',.R: ] ' ~

"l;hat i s :

3m/R~R=[R: + R?--2R, R=] Jr- 3 m=R;R,[R: "~ R2 -- 2R, R=] >m,R~[RI3-'J" 2R23--3R,R2] ~"

+ r n , R2S(~[R3 -I- 2R~ -- 3R2RI2]

3mtR:R=[R:+R ~-2R1R2] > mI(~[R~+2R:--3R,R:]R~ X'v'ZII

XVIII and XIX are similar a~d therefore it is sufficient to

rearrange only XIX to obtain the following:

118 Vol. 6, No. 1

G. Frigione, S. Marra

and in the most unfavourable case where 6 = R, XX can be

r earr anged :

3R! R23 + 3R~R 2 - = 22 > 2 R ~ -

6RIR RtR:-- 3 2

:3RtR

2 2

or 2RiR~3 -- 2Rt4 > 6RtR2 -- 6 R3tR2 XXll

that can be also rearranged

[R 2 - Rt][R:-}-RtR2"~R~] > 3RIR2[R='-R1] X.~[II

dividing by JR2"-" R t] (~ 0 by hypothesis)

R 22 -- 2R, R2-}" R~ > 0 L~IV

and that is

[ R2-- R, ] ' > 0

Since a square is always positive, XXV is always satisfied,

that is XII will be valid in all cases, so that the hydration

products of a cement with a certain granulometric range are

always higher than the hydration products of another cement,

formed by the same clinker and having equal specific surface

area, but a wider granulometric range.

We have experimentally verified the above theoretical res-

ults in ~wo phases performing measures of

- rate of hydration,

- mechanical strength

by varying the particle size distribution.

It shall be noticed that cements having same specific sur-

face area and shorter range particle size distribution, also

require less grinding work. In fact, the grindablity curve

-specific surface area versus grindablity work- follows an

exponential law (22), when the finest particles in cement

increase the necessary grinding work increases too. Industrial

tests confirm it (23).

Experimental

particle size distTibution but always the same Blaine specific

surface. A clinker produced in a dry-process rotary kiln was

used to make the cement. The selected clinker is suitable to

prepare a cement type I ASTM.

The clinker was ground in a laboratory b a l l mill at a

Blaine specific surface area of 3200 cm2/g. Then the cement was

treated in a Walther dust trap, so that cements having shorter

and shorter granulometric range were obtained. Since in the dust

trap the material came into contact with a large amount of air,

this air was previously freed from water vapour and from CO 2,

in an absorption tower with silica gel and soda lime. Working in

this manner the loss on ignition of the different cements was

reduced to very low values. However, all the prepared cements,

Vol. 6, No. l I19

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION, STRENGTH, HYDRATED CEMENT

re treated i n t h e W a l t h e r d u s t d r a p w i t h a l m o s t t h e same a m o u n t

of air in order to reduce any effect due t o w a t e r v a p o u r and

CO 2, in case they should be still present in the treatment air.

The granulometric analysis of different cements was perfor-

med with Baho-Neu particle classifier. The size distribution

curves are drawn in RRB diagram, fig.1.

The values used for

n in our tests are the

limit values usually

found in industTial

-~ ,o I ~ o~ cements ( 1 . 1 and 1.5)

with the exception of

two values which are

c~z 50 /" much higher. Of these

6o I- / / .// 44o two values one (2.1)

is still a possible

:I / 1

8O 2O industrial limit and the

8 ~5 other (3.3) represents

gO to a value that might

characterize the theore-

5 tical aspect of the

4

3 problem. As we said all

2

the cements have the

n= t~5 same Blaine specific

n= 'l.cO

99 o---o n = ,~.f4 '1 surface area of 3200

n=331 cm2/g, measured on

0,5 1 2 3 45 fo ~o 3o 4o 5o foo

cement without gypsum.

d Equivalent diarnete~/~ In table I the che-

mical analysis and the

potential constitutions

FIG. 1 of the four cements are

Particle size distribution indicated.

of experimented cements.

TABLE I

of Starting Materials

eomposi~ion ~ )

lose $io 2 AI203Fe!O} C&OIM&,O Na20 I K20

F.C&O C}S IC2S C3A IC4/~'

I 0.44

n = 3.31 1 25 4.'t6i4.34

° 641°

6,.541 . o , O.281O. 621 0..74 O.33

120 Vol. 6, No. 1

G. Frigione, S. Marra

increasing from 4 to 8.5%. The gypsum was ground to pass a sieve

with 10,000 mesh/cm 2, in order to reproduce the granulometry

found in industrial cement (24). The cements so obtained were

tested on Rilem mortar at 1, 3 and 7 days. The values of

s~rength obtained are indicated in fig. 2. We may note that the

gypsum optimum value is around 6% for all cements. This optimum

is independent of cement particle size distribution. All the

other tests were made on cements having 6% of gypsum.

5~

4a ~ 7iays

7d=ys

~ 3 d a ~ ~

W

I day

lit l I I I I i I I

0 ~, 5 S 7 8

(%)

0 % 4• $ ~ ? 8

(y.)

n= 2.#4 n= 3.3f

SO0

"~400

~ 7days "~ f ""'--'-~'~""~ 7days

W mi f ° ~'--"----~lday

! | ! I I ~. I I I I

4 5 6 7 8 0 ~" 5 6 ? 8

CaS04.2H20(%)added Ca504.2H~O(%) add~

FIG. 2

Influence of gypsum content on strength of Rilem mortars.

Vol. 6, No. 1 121

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION, STRENGTH, HYDRATEDCEMENT

We prepared pastes for every sample with two W/C ratios and

put them into test tubes at 20 ± I oC for a curing period. At

fixed periods, the hardened paste was ground and tested to D-dr~

ing according Copeland and Hayes (25) for the determination of

nonevaporable water, Wn/C.

The hydration rates were also confirmed by heat of hydra-

tion measures, H, determined according ASTM C 186-68 but at

room temperature of 2 0 ± I oC.

The two fixed W/C ratios were:

W/C = 0.40, corresponding to the ratio established by ASTM for

the determination of hydration heat.

W/C = 0.80, corresponding to a very high fluidity paste. To

avoid bleeding and, therefore, the change of ratio, as

soon as the paste was made it was poured into test tubes

which, well closed, were set in a continuous motion, in a

radial position, attached to a vertical disc rotating at a

slow velocity until the cement had completed its setting

(26).

We had not considered the values of W./C and of H determi-

ned at ~ges of I and 2 days for pastes at high W/C ratio, be-

cause these values have a high dispersion.

In figg. 3 and 4 the plotting values of nonevaporable

water and of hydration heat, versus n, demonstrate that the

w/c-

~

2B days

~4 days

7 days

- f4 d,,ys days

~" ~ 3days

04

I

f.rs t.~ 2 f.~ 1~..~t 0 t,15 t.50 2 ~.~ 5 3J!

Ig~-n IQcx-n

FIG. 3

The nonevaporable water as a function of n.

122 Vol. 6, No. l

G. Frigione, S. Marra

28daw

t '14days

7 days

28 day~

~m . f4 days ~--. g0 ,:3days

o 7 day5

~m

-' 3 days

'Zdays

11o

8 o t day

t~

fn

I I I I

.%31 o U5 I,~ Z Z,14 3 ]31

[q~= n i'qo~= n

FIG. 4

The hydration heat as a function of n.

then slows down considerably, until it almost stops. It should

be noticed also that hydration increments, versus n, are more

notable for higher W/C ratios.

In order to test our hypothesis we calculated the

percentage of hydrated product for the four cements at different

hydration stages as indicated in table II. These data were calcu_

lated assuming a nonevaporable water value, at complete hydra-

tion (W./C) ° equal to 0.2150. This value was found in previous

experiments where we employed a clinker of chemical composition

similar to the clinker now employed and obtained from the

rotary kiln itself.

On the other hand, according to Ritzmann (27), using the

following formula: (where×/2----6 ---- depth of penetration of water)

HyOr°/o = ,00 [ , _ [d,--x]

d=4

--

d, 4

x] ]

we ~a~ c a l c u l a t e from the data of the particle size distribution,

:he degree of hydration t h a t m i g h t be o b t a i n e d f o r d i f f e r e n ~

values of depth of penetration of water. Plotting ~he c a l c u l a t e d

de@Tee of hydration versus the thic~less of the hydrated layer,

fig.5, it was possible to obtain the thickness of the hydrated

layer for each of the four cements from the degrees of hydration

in per cent as indicated in table II. These values plotted vet-

Vol. 6, No. 1 123

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION, STRENGTH, HYDRATED CEMENT

TABLE II

7 ¢1o~ys 57.7 65.6 70.7 71.2 61.2 71.0 78.1 81.8

14 de.It's 63.6 72.5 75.2 75.3 66.4 73.9 83.6 87.7

28 d a y s 6~.5 75.8 78.1 79.1 69.8 78. I 86.0 89.8

ness of hydrated layer is not constant for different cements but

it decreases when n increases. This decrease is more sensible

aN

with the age. The increase of W/C

• ..3,3

ratio, on the contrary, has an

~m n - (.5 opposite effect.

• n-l.I

Since little differences in

the potential constitution of ce-

ments cannot have influenced the

rate of penetration of water so

greatly, we must believe that our

hypothesis about the constancy of

depth of water penetration being

independent of particle size

distribution, is not a valid one,

although it is widely quoted in

the literature. Really in 1960

Steinherz (28) demonstrated that

Thickness d h~lmkd layer # ~he penetration of water into a

FIG. 5 particle derives from the

The degree of hydration for wideness of particles and

different values of depth increases for bigger particles.

of penetration of water. Clearly the depths of pene-

tration which we have calculated

are the average of depths of penetration calculated for all par-

ticles (from the smallest to the biggest). The difference of

penetration of water is regulated by several causes which will

be the object of other researches.

Since we have confirmed that, within determined bounds, the

amount of hydrated product increases when n increases, now we

shall examine the influence of this increase on the mechanical

strengths of cement.

124 Vol. 6, No. 1

G. Frigione, S. Marra

7d. 3d.

I-..-

, I J I i

f.tS tSO t t.~ 3 3.ZJ 0 J,~5 C50 2 ~,f,~ 3 S, Sf

[ga= n tga = n

FIG. 6

The d e p t h s of water penetration as a function of n.

MechQnical stTeng~hs on R i l e m m o r t a r

,, | , , , H

re tested on Rilem mortar at dif-

• 50 dovs

ferent a~ee. Plotted versus n, the

obtained results are showed in

fig.7. Again one should notice the

influence of n parameter. This m

influence is very sensible at ~

e v e r y a g e u p t o a b o u t n = 2. When

n e x c e e d s t h e v a l u e n = 2, s l i g h t .~

increases of strength are obtained ~w

only for long ages.

3~

FIG. 7

Mechanical stremg~hs on Rilem

mortar as a function of n.

J.Jl t ~ | I.~ ,.t SM

M_echanical.strengths on c o n c r e t e

Natural river sand, crushed basalt and crushed limestone were

used as aggregate respectively fine, medium and coarse. Mixing

water was added to produce water-cement ratios of 0.42 and 0.82

by weight. The two W/C selected ratios are such that the cement

in concrete is at a W/C ratio very close to the ratio of the

pastes which we used to determine the rate of hydration (29).

The strength values, in Kg/cm 2, are shown in figg. 8 and 9.

Vol. 6, No. l 125

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION, STRENGTH,HYDRATEDCEMENT

M

28days 28 dove,

° N clays t~.days

* 7 days 7 days

. 3 days 3 da~

. ~ rJays

2 ~ys

v

1 day

,~ f day

I h I i

3 u~ f,fg f.S4p f t, f4 3 Uf

tg~= n

FIG. 8 PIG. 9

Hechanical strengths on con- Hechanlcal strengths on con-

crete as a function of n, crete as a function of n,

(W/C = 0 . 4 2 ) , (w/c = o . 8 2 ) .

nical strength. This influence is sensible for values about n=2

for low W/C ratios, while for high W/C ratios the parameter n

seems to have influence up to higher values. This demonstrates

the lower sensibility of cements in function of the higher

values of n when the W/C ratios increase. Under these condi-

tionee it is obvious that the same relation between the values

of Rilem mortar strengths and the values of concrete s~rengths

cannot exist when the n parameter changes.

In conclusion, in order to verify ~he relation between our

experiments and the theoretical hypothesis, concerning the deve-

lopment of mechanical strengths, in flg.10, we have plotted

the Wo/W. values for W/C equal to 0.40 and 0.80 versus the

values of the mechanical strengths obtained from our tests on

concrete. It will be noticed that the experimental poin~s are

perfectly lined. Therefore it is confirmed that the mechanical

s~rengths are maximized by maximizing the quantity of gel pro-

duced during the hydration, whatever the pavtlcle size

distribution.

126 Vol. 6, No. 1

G: Frigione, S. Marra

FI~. 10

Mechem&cal s t r e r ~ t h s on c o n c r e t e

as a function of Wo/W..

Z~

I I I I

!

Wc/Wn

Conclusion

of water into a cement particle is constant and independent of

particle size, we ~heoretically came to the conclusion that with

the increasing of n the percentage of hydrated product increased

too and consequently the related characteristics.

But, experimentally, we found that the rate of penetration

of water is not independent of the particle size and so the

starting hypothesis has fallen. So we have observed that the

rate of hydration increases very quickly, and c o n s e q u e n t l y a l s o

the mechanical strengths, when n i n c r e a s e s to about n = 2 which

for industrial purposes has still to be reached.

It has been also possible to confirm that there is not the

same relation between the values of compressive strengths

obtained from Rilem mortar and concrete when the &Tanulometric

range of cements changes even if they are obtained from the

same clinker and ground to the same Blaine specific surface

area.

References

2. A.Rio and Y.von Baldass, Ind.Ital.Cem., 24, 87 (1954).

3. W.Czernin, Zement-Kalk-Gips, 43, 160 (1954).

4. H.Boerner, Zement-Kalk-Gips, 45, 153 (1956).

5. Z.Bomke, Zement-Kalk-Gips, Special edition N ° 6, 100.

6. B.Beke, Zement-Kalk-Gips, 4~, 419 (1960).

7. F.W.Locher, J.Wuhrer and E.Schweden, Tonind. Zig. Keram.

Rundsch., 90, 547 (1966).

Vol. 6, No. 1 127

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION, STRENGTH, HYDRATED CEMENT

general meeting 1969, p. I09 Tokyo (1970).

9. S.Sprung, Technisch-wissenschaftliche Zement-Tagung, Berlin

(1972) from Zement-Kalk-Gips, 61, 561 (1972).

10. F.W.Locher, S.Sprung and P.Korf, Zement-Kalk-Gips 62, 349

(1973).

11. J.Olemann and C.~adeweg-Hansen, Zement-Kalk-Gips 63, 337

(1974).

12. G.J.Ve~beck and C.W.Foster, Res. Lab. P.C.A. Bull.32 (1949).

13. S.Brunauer, P.C.A. Res. Depart. Bull. 80 (1957).

14. Portland Cement Association, Yearly Report of the ~esearch

and Development Div. 23 - 25 (1957).

15. T.C.Powers, P.C.A. Res. Depart. Bull. 90 (1958).

16. T.C.Powers, ASTM Bulletin, 158, 68 (1949).

17. T.C.Powers and T.L.Brownyard, P.C.A. Res. Lab. Bull. 22

( 1948 ).

18. L.E.Copeland and J.C.Hayes, ACI Journal, 27, 663 (1956).

19. T.C.Powers, Cement and Lime ~anifacture, 29, 13 (1956).

20. T.C.Greene, Proc. 4th Intl. Symp. Chem. Cement, Natl. Bur.

Stands. ~onograph No 43, Washington, Vol. I, 359 (1960).

21. R.Kondo and S.Ueda, Proc. 5th Intl. Syrup. Chem. Cement,

Cement Assn. Japan, Tokyo, Vol. II, 203 (1968).

22. F.Keil, Cemento, p.422, Editores t~cnicos asociados, s.a.,

Barcelona (1973).

23. D.Novak and A.Koziowski, Zement-Kalk-Gips, 62, 312 (1973).

24. G.Frigione and ~.Di L eva, I1 Cemento, 72, 13 (1975).

25. L.E.Copeland and J.C.Hayes, AST~ Bulletin I~4, 70 (1953).

26. C.Cesareni and G.Frigione, Proc. 5th Intl. Symp. Chem.

Cement, Cement Assn. Japan, Tokyo, Vol. IV, 237 (1968).

27. H.Ritzmann, Zemen$-Ealk-Gips, 57, 390 (1968).

28. A.R.Steinherz, ~ev. ~ater. Constr., No 536, 119 (1960).

29. T.C.Powers, The Properties of Fresh Concrete, pp 290-291,

John Wiley e Sons, Inc. New York (1968).

CEMENT and CONCRETERESEARCH. Vol. 6, pp. 113-128, 1976. Pergamon Press, Inc.

Printed in the United States.

STRENGTH IN PORTLAND C~LENT

Research Laboratory Cementir

Cementerie del Tirreno, Naples, Italy

(Communicated by R. Kondo)

(Rec. Sept. 22, 1975; in final form Oct. 13, 1975)

ABSTRACT

We have studied the relations between particle size dis-

tribution at equal specific surface area a n d compressive

strength in Portland cement. Starting from a series of

hypotheses, we have demonstrated that the volume of hy-

drated p r o d u c t , therefore the mechanical stTength ,

increases when t h e g r k n u l o m e t r i c range decreases.

The e x p e r i m e n t a l data have demonstTated that the depth

of hydration d e p e n d s m o s t l y on t h e p a r t i c l e size, con-

trary to our hypothesis. Nevertheless, we h a v e p r o v e d

that when with the actual plants of grinding it is

possible to minimize the width of granulometric range,

the mechanical strength of Portland cements both in

Riles mortar and in concrete can be maximized.

tions entre la distTibutlon granulom~trique des ciments

portlande avec egale surface sp~cifique et la r~sistan-

ce m~canique k compression. Sur la base de beaocoup des

hypoth~se, nous avons d~montr~e que le volume du produit

hydrate, par cons6quent les r~sistanoes m~caniques, aug-

ments d~croiesant le spectre granulom~trique. Les mesu-

res exp~rimentalles ont montr~ que, au contTaire de nos

hypotheses, la profondeur de hydratation est due forte-

sent ~ la grandeur des ~Tanules. Nous avons cependant

confirm~e que r~duisant la largeur du spectre granulom~-

trique est possible am~liorer les r~sistances m~cani-

ques des ciments portlands.

113

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