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SITI SOLEHAH BINTI OMAR (2015834112)/EH224 7A1

Heuristics of Reactor
Reaction involve:
C8H10 +3O2 C8H4O3 + 3H2O (Desired (main) Reaction)

C8H10 +7.5O2 C4H2O3 + 4H2O +4CO2 (Undesired Reaction)

Reactor – Packed Bed Reactor

- The packed bed reactor consists of two parts: one cylindrical column and two half
spheres. Both half spheres will be placed on the two ends of the reactor
- Tubular reactor that is paced with solid particle
- Gas phase/solid catalysed, gas-solid reaction
- Used primarily in heterogenous has phase reaction with catalyst
- High conversion per unit mass of catalyst
- Low operating cost
- Continuous operation
- Undesired thermal gradient may exist
- Poor Temperature control
- Channelling may occur
- Unit may be difficult to service and clean

From table 11.7 in the textbook, the following heuristics are used:

Rule No 2: Dimension of catalyst particle = 0.003 m / 3 mm

Rule No 8: High production rate when substantial heat transfer and shell and tube used.
1. According to heuristics, overall heat-transfer coefficient, Uassumed, is initially assumed
to be at: (Uassumed = 60 W/m2. O C = 216 kJ/hr. m2. O C)
2. A shell-and-tube exchanger with one-pass tube and one-pass baffled shell is used in
the design of the PBR where the fouling factor, F, is 1. Counter-current heat exchange
will be considered in this design.
3. Tube diameter is assumed to be 15-20, times the catalyst particle diameter, (taking
15*0.003) = 0.045 m
4. Several parameters must be taken into account to calculate the shell diameter including
the tubes diameter, tube spacing and the space between the baffle and the reactor wall.
 The tubes are fixed and placed in square baffles with tube spacing of 2 cm to
allow the molten salt to flow freely through the reactor. The distance between
the baffles and the reactor wall is also assumed to be 10 cm

Equipment Summary

MOC of Shell Stainless steel


MOC of Tube Carbon steel coated with stainless steel
Temperature 300.00 ᵒC
ΔPressure 0.2 bar
Height 8.9 m
Diameter 2.522 m
Total Volume of Reactor 40 m3
Volume of Catalyst Bed 32 m3
Number of Tubes 1200
Length of Tube 6.38
Total Weight of Catalyst 39809 kg
Diameter of Tube 6 cm
Cooling Fluid Molten salt
Amount of cooling fluid 820800 kg/hr.
Duty -38000 kJ/s.