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FLUID

MECHANICS

C OURSE MATERIAL FOR THE 2nd STAGE STUDENTS


FOR ACADEMIC YEAR 2015 – 2016

K URDISTAN – I RAQ

by

HELENA LAAVI
Duhok Polytechnic University
Zakho Technical Institute
Zakho

2015
Preface

This material is made for the course Fluid Mechanics for 2nd stage stu-
dents to be taught in Zakho Technical Institute, Duhok Polytechnic Uni-
versity in Kurdistan-Iraq during the academic year 2015-2016.
This material gives an introduction to the fluid mechanics that is needed
in petrochemistry. It is divided in sections:

1. Introduction

• This part gives introduction to fluid mechanics and what does it contain.
The definition of the fluid is given. Standard units, dimensions and mea-
surement systems are presented.

2. Fluid Properties

• In this part, fluid properties are illustrated with practical examples. Also
flow characteristics are defined with practical examples.

3. Fluid statics

• In this part, fluid at rest are presented. Pressure and its different forms
are presented. Pressure gauges are discussed with examples.

4. Fluid dynamics

• In this part, fluid in motion are presented. Flow rate is introduced with
examples with Reynold’s number. As the flow of gases is presented, the
basic principles how to write balances is given. The equation of continuity
is presented with examples of mass balance. Energy Conservation Law

i
Preface

and Bernoulli’s equation are presented. Applications and examples are


given for Bernoulli’s equation.

5. Pressure drop in pipes

• In this part, the causes of pressure losses in pipes are given with exam-
ples. Also friction coefficient and the pressure losses caused by friction in
pipes are presented with examples.

6. Pumps

• In this part, different types of pumps and their use are presented. Pump
is a crucial part of a piping system. The NPSH (Net Positive Suction
Head) and its requirements are presented in order to avoid pump cavita-
tion.

7. Valves

• In this part, parts of valves and different types of valves with their main
use are presented.

Zakho, November 25, 2015,

Helena Laavi

ii
Contents

Preface i

Contents iii

1. Introduction 1
1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.2 Compressibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2. Fluid Properties 3
2.0.1 Example on Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1.1 Example on Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2 Flow Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2.1 Newtonian Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2.2 Non-Newtonian Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3 Ideal Gas Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3.1 Example on Ideal Gas Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3. Fluid Statics 9
3.1 Hydraulics and Pneumatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2 Pressure in Fluids at Rest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.1 Hydrostatic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.2 Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.2.3 Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.4 Capillary Forces and Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . 14

4. Fluid Dynamics 15
4.1 Flow Rate – Reynolds Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.1.1 Laminar Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

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Contents

4.1.2 Turbulent Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17


4.2 Gas Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.2.1 Mach Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.3 Equation of Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.3.1 Mass Balances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.4 Law of Energy Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.5 Bernouilli’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.5.1 Applications of Bernouilli’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

5. Pressure Drop in Pipes 25


5.1 Friction in Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.1.1 Roughness of Pipe Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.1.2 Friction Factor ξ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.1.3 Pressure Drop Formula in Meters and in Pascals . . . 27
5.1.4 How to Define Friction Factor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.2 Pressure Drop of Piping Elements and Resistance Factor ζ . 29
5.2.1 Pressure Loss of Pipe Fittings and Joints . . . . . . . 29
5.2.2 Pressure Drop in Turns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.2.3 Pressure Drop at Vessel Feeds and Outputs . . . . . . 30
5.2.4 Pressure Drop in Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.3 Calculation of Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.3.1 Summary of the Use the Mechanical Energy Balance
Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

6. Pumps 37
6.1 Introduction to Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.1.1 Parts of Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
6.2 Pump Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
6.2.1 Pump Operation Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
6.3 Pump Cavitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
6.3.1 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) . . . . . . . . . . . 41
6.3.2 Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR) . . . . 41
6.3.3 Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA) . . . . 42
6.3.4 Pumping of Boiling Liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
6.4 Pump types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.4.1 Centrifugal Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.4.2 Diaphragm Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.4.3 Hydraulic Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.4.4 Piston Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

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Contents

6.4.5 Reciprocating Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43


6.4.6 Screw Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6.4.7 Vacuum Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

7. Valves 45
7.1 Introduction to Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.1.1 Parts of Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.2 Valve Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
7.2.1 Ball Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
7.2.2 Butterfly Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.2.3 Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.2.4 Choke Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.2.5 Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.2.6 Diaphragm Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.2.7 Disc Valve and Gate Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.2.8 Globe Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.2.9 Knife Gate Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.2.10 Needle Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.2.11 Safety Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

A. Appendix A: Physical Constants and SI Unit System Tables i

B. Appendix B: Properties of Water v

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Contents

vi
1. Introduction

Fluid mechanics deals with a huge range of topics which deal with the
behaviour of gases and liquids.
Fluid statics deals with fluids that are at rest. In other, it deals with
fluids that do not move.
Fluid dynamics deals with fluids in motion. In other words, it deals
with fluids that move.

1.1 Definitions

The three forms of matter, solid, liquid and gas, can be divided into two
groups. Solids are the matters that don’t freely change shape if force is
focused onto them. Fluids include gases and liquids. They freely change
shape if force is focused onto them.

1.1.1 Fluid

An attempt to change the shape of a fluid leads that the fluid layers slide
over each other until the new shape is achieved. During the transforma-
tion, shear stress affect the fluid layers. The value of the shear stress
depends on the viscosity of the fluid and the velocity how fast the layers
move in respect to each other. At rest, there is no shear stress in the fluid.

1.1.2 Compressibility

The density of the fluid depends on the temperature and pressure. If


there are minor density changes when the pressure and temperature of
the fluid are changed, the fluid is is called incompressible. Most liq-
uids are incompressible. If the density changes easily the fluid is called
compressible. Most gases are compressible.

1
Introduction

2
2. Fluid Properties

In studying properties of fluids, one must always include the unit which
is used in describing the property. Often there are different units for the
same property. In such cases, one must convert the units of the property
to be the same. Otherwise the properties can’t be compared or used in the
same calculation.
Viscosity (µ or ν) viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to
gradual deformation by force (shear stress). For liquids, viscosity is com-
monly understood as the ”thickness” of the liquid. For example, honey has
a much higher viscosity than water. The standard SI unit for viscosity is
Pa · s = kg / (m · s).
Pressure (P ) is the force / area acting normal to a surface. The standard
SI unit for pressure is Pa (Pascal). 1 Pa = 1 kg/(m·s2 )
Density (ρ) is defined as the mass / volume. The standard SI unit for
density is kg/m3 . One cubic meter equals volume of a cube of which the
three sides are 1m each.
1 m3 = 1000 l (litres). One litre equal volume of a cube of which the three
sides are 10 cm each. Ten centimeter is 0.1 m (10cm = 0.1m) so one litre
cube is (0.1m)3 = 0.001m3 .
Velocity (v) describes how fast does the object move. Velocity has al-
ways a direction. The standard SI unit for velocity is m / s. For vehicles,
such as cars, a velocity unit km/h is often used.
1 km/h = 1000 m/3600s = 1/3.6 m/s
The flow of a fluid is steady if the pressure, density and velocity of the
fluid don’t change in time at any point. It they change, then the flow is
unsteady.

2.0.1 Example on Properties

Which of the followings are values for

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Fluid Properties

a) pressure P [Pa = kg/(m·)s2 ],


b) force F [N = kg·m/s2 ],
c) viscosity µ [Pa·s = kg/(m·s2 )·s = kg/(m·)s]?

1N 2.5 MPa 0.1 mPa·s 7.6 Pa·m2


9.8 N/m2 32 kg·m/s2 4 kg/(m·s2 ) 2.2 g/s·m

2.1 Viscosity

Viscosity is quantity that describes the friction between the fluid particles
(molecules). Friction tries to prevent the fluid particles to move. Viscosity
is the ”stickiness” of liquid.
Viscosity is defined by the Newton’s equation of viscosity.

dv
τ =µ (2.1)
dy
where τ is the shear stress [Pa], µ is (dynamic) viscosity [Pa · s], and
dv/dy is strain rate (velocity gradient) [s−1 ].

2.1.1 Example on Viscosity

Figure 2.1. Two rectangular parallel plates and liquid between them. The upper plate is
pulled forward with force F .

There is liquid between two parallel plates as shown in Figure 2.1. The
distance between the plates is d. The lower plate doesn’t move. The upper
plate of which the area is A is pulled with force F . This creates a velocity
v for the upper plate.
After a while, the liquid that was located between the plates has moved
(2.2).

4
Fluid Properties

Figure 2.2. The upper plate has moved forward and has dragged the upper layers of
liquid forward, too.

The liquid close to the upper plate has moved with a velocity v. The
liquid close to the lower plate has not moved: v = 0. This has created a
velocity difference in the fluid between the two plates.

First,  the   fluid  is  at  rest.

F
The   upper  plate   is  pulled.

Velocity  increases  but  its  


profile  is  not   stabilized.

Finally,  the   velocity  profile  is  


stabilized.

Figure 2.3. The velocity profile in the liquid between two plates at different time step.

The velocity profile is shown in Figure 2.3.


Change of velocity is linearly proportional to the force F which is used
for pulling the upper plate. Change of velocity is inversely proportional to
the area A of the plates as seen in equation 2.2.

F dv
τ= =µ (2.2)
A dy
where µ is dynamic viscosity [kg / ms], F is force [N], A is area [m2 ], and
dv/dy is velocity gradient [1/s].
Other units for dynamic viscosity µ are 1 kg / m s = 1 PI (Poiseulle) = 1
Pa s = 1 N s / m2 = 10 P (Poise) = 10 g / cm s = 1000 cP (centipoise).

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Fluid Properties

At room temperature, typical viscosity for gases is about 0.01 mPas and
for liquids about 1 mPas.
Kinematic viscosity is defined as follows

µ
ν= (2.3)
ρ
As seen in the equation 2.3, kinematic viscosity is the dynamic viscosity
divided by the density of the fluid. The unit for kinematic viscosity is m2 /s.
Often centistokes (cSt) are used: 1 cSt = 1 · 10−6 m2 /s.

Temperature Dependency of Viscosity


The viscosity of liquids decreases with increasing temperature. Liquid
expands and creates more space between liquid molecules. It follows that
intermolecular forces become weaker. As a result viscosity gets lower.
The viscosity of gases increases with increasing temperature at low pres-
sures. However, at high pressures, the viscosity decreases. At high pres-
sures, gas start to behave as liquid.

2.2 Flow Characteristics

Fluids can be divided into two groups based on their flow characteristics.
Newtonian fluids are named after Isaac Newton, who first derived the
relation between the rate of shear strain rate and shear stress.

2.2.1 Newtonian Fluids

Newtonian fluids follow the equation 2.1. It means that shear stress is
linearly proportional to the strain rate (velocity gradient). In other words,
viscosity is constant despite strain rate.
All gases and most liquids are Newtonian fluids. Especially those liquids
that are ”thin” i.e. that have low viscosity are Newtonian. These include
water, benzine, thin motor oil, etc.

2.2.2 Non-Newtonian Fluids

Non-Newtonian fluids do not follow equation 2.1 but their viscosity de-
pends on the strain rate.
Non-Newtonian fluids include many slurries, colloidical solutions, paints,
resins, lubricants, etc.
Non-Newtonian fluids are classified into three classes: Bingham plas-

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Fluid Properties

dv/dy
Newtonian

Bingham  plastic
Pseudoplastic
Dilatant

Strain  rate τ
τ0 Shear  stress

Figure 2.4. The relation between strain rate and shear stress of pseudoplastic, Newto-
nian, dilatant, and Bingham plastic fluids.

tic fluids, pseudoplastic fluids and dilatant fluids. In addition, there are
other non-Newtonian fluids that don’t belong into these categories. their
viscosity may be a function of mixing time. It means that the viscosity is
not constant but changes if the fluid is mixed for a long time.

Bingham Plastic Fluids


A Bingham plastic is material that behaves as a rigid body at low stresses
but flows as a viscous fluid at high stress. After a Bingham plastic mate-
rial achieves the stress level (τ0 = yield stress), it starts move as a viscous
fluid and its viscosity is constant (as it is with Newtonian fluids).
Examples of Bingham plastics include lubricants, toothpaste, whipped
cream, mayonnaise, ketchup, honey, yogurt, etc. also many metals (at
high temperature) are Bingham plastic.

Pseudoplastic Fluids
The viscosity of pseudoplastic fluid decreases (the fluid becomes ”thinner”)
when the shear stress increses. The shear stress is non-linearly propor-
tional to the strain rate.
Pseudoplastic fluids include polymer solutions, tomato juice, blood, quick-
sand, etc. Most non-Newtonian fluids are pseudoplastic.

Dilatant Fluids
Dilatant fluids become more viscous under pressure. Their viscosity in-
creases with increasing strain rate.
Dilatant fluids include PVC (poly vinyl chloride) paste, sand-water sus-

7
Fluid Properties

pensions, ink, etc.

2.3 Ideal Gas Law

The ideal gas law is called the equation of state of ideal gas. In prac-
tise, gases are non ideal but real. The ideal gas las is still often a good
approximation to the behaviour of many gases.
Typically, if the pressure is low and temperature is high gases behave
close to ideally. At low pressures and high pressures, the ideal gas law is
a good approximation.
If temperature is low and pressure high, gases behave non-ideally. At
these conditions, ideal gas law gives unreliable results for gas behaviour.
The ideal gas law is written

P V = nRT (2.4)

where p is pressure [Pa], V volume [m3 ], n amount of moles [mol], R


ideal gas constant 8.31441 [J/mol K], and T temperature of the gas [K].
At standard state, the temperature is T = 25◦ C = 298 K and the pres-
sure is normal atmospheric pressure p = 101325 Pa. At these condi-
tions, one mole of (any ideal) gas takes the volume Vm = 22.41383 dm3
= 0.02241383 m3 .

2.3.1 Example on Ideal Gas Law

How big volume do 1 kg of CO2 and 1 kg of O2 occupy


a) at 100◦ C and at atmospheric pressure?
b) at 100◦ C and at 5 bar
c) at standard state?
You can assume that the gas behaves like ideal gas. The molar mass of
carbon is 12.01 g/mol and of oxygen 16.00 g/mol.
Solution: a) VCO2 = 0.7m3 , VO2 =1.0m3 b) VCO2 =0.1m3 , VO2 =0.2m3 c) VCO2 =0.5m3 ,
VO2 =0.7m3 .

8
3. Fluid Statics

Hydrostatics is a branch of fluid mechanics. Hydrostatics studies fluids


at rest. Fluid dynamics studies fluids in motion. Pneumatics makes
use of gas or pressurised air. Hydraulics deals with the engineering of
equipment for storing, transporting and using fluids. Hydraulics studies
the mechanical properties of liquids or fluids. Hydraulics can be called
"the liquid version of pneumatics".

3.1 Hydraulics and Pneumatics

Pneumatics and hydraulics are applications of fluid power. Pneumatics


uses an easily compressible gas such as air – while hydraulics uses rela-
tively incompressible liquid such as oil.
Most industrial pneumatic applications use pressures of about 550 to
690 kPa. Hydraulics applications commonly use from 6.9 to 34.5 MPa
(1,000 to 5,000 psi), but specialized applications may even exceed 69 MPa
(10,000 psi).
In fluid power, hydraulics are used for the generation, control, and trans-
mission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics con-
tain a wide range of science and engineering topics, such as pipe flow,
dam design, fluid control circuitry, pumps, turbines, hydropower, compu-
tational fluid dynamics, flow measurement, river channel behaviour and
erosion.
Pneumatics are used among others in air brakes on buses and trucks, air
compressors, control systems (as pneumatic actuators), pressure sensors,
and vacuum pumps.

9
Fluid Statics

Advantages of Pneumatics
• Simplicity of design and control – Machines are easily designed using stan-
dard cylinders and other components, and operate via simple on-off control.

• Reliability – Pneumatic systems generally have long operating lives and


require little maintenance.

• Because gas is compressible, equipment is less subject to shock damage.


Gas absorbs excessive force, whereas fluid in hydraulics directly transfers
force. Compressed gas can be stored, so machines still run for a while if
electrical power is lost.

• Safety – There is a very low chance of fire compared to hydraulic oil. Newer
machines are usually overload safe.

Advantages of Hydraulics
• Liquid does not absorb any of the supplied energy.

• Capable of moving much higher loads and providing much higher forces
due to the incompressibility.

• The hydraulic working fluid is basically incompressible, leading to a mini-


mum of spring action.

• When hydraulic fluid flow is stopped, the slightest motion of the load re-
leases the pressure on the load; there is no need to "bleed off" pressurized
air to release the pressure on the load.

3.2 Pressure in Fluids at Rest

A fluid cannot remain at rest under the presence of a shear stress. How-
ever, fluids can exert pressure normal to any contacting surface. This
allows fluids to transmit force.
The force applied to a fluid in a pipe is transmitted, via the fluid, to the
other end of the pipe. This principle was first formulated by Blaise Pascal,
and is now called Pascal’s law.

3.2.1 Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure in the fluid that is caused by the


gravity. By definition hydrostatic pressure is the product of the density of
the fluid ρ [kg/m3 ], the gravitational constant g [m/s2 ], and the height of

10
Fluid Statics

the fluid level h [m]. The formula is shown in equation 3.1.

p = ρgh (3.1)

An application on hydrostatic pressure is a hydraulic press. If one end of


a tube is pressed with F1 to the surface area A1 the pressure is transferred
to the other end of the tube. The pressure is the same but if the area A2
is larger, also the force F2 is larger.

F1/ F2  = A1  / A2

F2
F1

A1 A2

Figure 3.1. In hydraulic press, the pressure is constant. Higher lifting forces are created
if the surface area A2 is larger than the input area A1 .

Example on Hydraulic Press


How heavy object can be lifted by using a one kilogram weigh in a hy-
draulic press where one area in contact with the hydraulic liquid is a
circle of radius of 5 cm and the other area is 4 m2 ?
Solution: 510 kg.

Factors Affecting Hydrostatic Pressure


There are two factors affecting the hydrostatic pressure: external pres-
sure outside the fluid and hydrostatic pressure inside the fluid. External
pressure may be atmospheric pressure. In a cylinder, extra pressure is
created if a piston is pushed downwards.
Hydrostatic pressure depends on the gravity, density of the fluid and the
height of the fluid from the measurement point to the surface. Notice that
the total volume of the fluid does not affect the hydrostatic pressure. Sim-

11
Fluid Statics

ilarly, the shape of the container does not affect the hydrostatic pressure.
If external pressure on a liquid is changed, the change is immediately
valid throughout the liquid. It is called Pascal’s Law. Pascal’s Law is
due to the incompressibility of liquid and it is utilized in hydraulics.

Practical Examples on Hydrostatic Pressure


Hydrostatic pressure has to be taken into account e.g. in building dams.
There is higher hydrostatic pressure at the lower part of the dam. There-
fore, the dam is thicker at lower part.
If a glass full of air is turned upside down and pushed in a water bath,
water doesn’t fill the glass. Water level rises slightly inside the glass be-
cause hydrostatic pressure compresses the air volume.
If a glass filled with water is turned upside down in a water bath, the
upper part of the glass can be lifted above the water level with water
inside it.

3.2.2 Atmospheric Pressure

Atmospheric pressure is the mass of the air above the measurement point
focused on area. Atmospheric pressure is the weigh of ”an air column”
that you feel on top of your head.
The definition of pressure and force are given in equations 3.2 and 3.3.

F
p = (3.2)
A
F = mg (3.3)

where F is force [N] and A is area [m2 ]. The force F is caused by the
gravity as g is gravitational constant [9.81 m/s2 ] and m is the mass of the
air [kg].
The unit for atmospheric pressure is Pa (Pascal). Also hPa (hehtopascal)
or mbar (millibar) is used. Earlier, mmHg (millimeter of mercury) was
also used.
Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level is 101325 Pa = 1.01325 bar
that corresponds 760 mmHg. The atmospheric pressure at sea level varies
between 0.9 kPa and 1.1 kPa. The lowest values are measured in tropical
storms.
Atmospheric pressure decreases the higher the measurement point is
from sea level. A rise of 8 m corresponds approximately 1 mBar decrease
in atmospheric pressure.

12
Fluid Statics

3.2.3 Buoyancy

Any body which is immersed in a fluid will experience a net force in the
opposite direction of the local pressure gradient i.e. towards the lower
pressure. If this pressure gradient is caused by gravity, the net force is
in the vertical force upwards. This vertical force is called buoyancy (or
buoyant force) and buoyancy is equal in magnitude, but opposite in direc-
tion, to the weight of the displaced fluid.
Mathematically,

F = ρgV (3.4)

where F is the force [N], ρ is the density of the fluid, g is the gravitational
constant [9.81 m/s2 ], and V is the volume of the displaced fluid [m3 ].
Discovery of the principle of buoyancy is attributed to Archimedes of
Syracuse and it is dated 212 B.C.

Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal


to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

– Archimedes of Syracuse

Simply: Buoyancy = weight of displaced fluid


The weight of the displaced fluid is directly proportional to the volume
of the displaced fluid. In simple terms, the buoyancy force on an object
is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object, or the density
of the fluid multiplied by the submerged volume times the gravitational
acceleration, g. Thus, among completely submerged objects with equal
masses, objects with greater volume have greater buoyancy. This is also
known as upthrust.
Archimedes’ principle can be reformulated as follows:

apparent immersed weight = weight − weight of displaced fluid (3.5)

Practical Examples on Buoyancy


If you drop wood into water, buoyancy will keep it afloat.
Buoyancy reduces the apparent weight of objects that have sunk com-
pletely. It is easier to lift an object up through the water than it is to pull
it out of the water.

13
Fluid Statics

In the case of a ship, for instance, its weight is balanced by pressure


forces from the surrounding water, allowing it to float. If more cargo is
loaded onto the ship, it would sink more into the water – displacing more
water and thus receive a higher buoyant force to balance the increased
weight.

Example on Buoyancy of Glass


A glass weighs 100g and its density is 2600 kg/m3 . The inner volume of
the glass is 2 dl. How much water and how much air should the upside
down glass contain so that the glass and its contents would weigh exactly
as much as the displaced water? You can assume that the density of water
is 1000 kg/m3 and the density of air is 1.225 kg/m3 .
Solution: Vwater = 1.38 dl, Vair =0.62 dl.

Example on Buoyancy of Ice


How big part of ice floats above water level if ρwater =1000 kg/m3 and
ρice =917 kg/m3 ?
Solution: 8.3% above water level and 91.7% below water level.

3.2.4 Capillary Forces and Surface Tension

Capillary action is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without


external forces or even against gravity. It is caused by intermolecular
forces between the liquid and surrounding solid surfaces.
Surface tension makes liquids acquire the least surface area possible
so in absence of other forces they tend to form a sphere. Cohesive forces
draw the liquid molecules together.

Practical Examples on Capillary Action and Surface Tension


When a dry paint-brush is put into paint, the liquid draws up between the
hairs of a paint-brush.
In a thin tube or in porous materials such as paper the liquid level rises
up.
If little water is spread between two (glass) plates, the water ”glues” the
plates together. More force is needed to separate the plates.
Water forms separate round droplets on waxy surface because of surface
tension.
If water and oil are shaken, they tend to separate naturally. First they
form droplets. Then they form a clear boundary between the two phases.

14
4. Fluid Dynamics

4.1 Flow Rate – Reynolds Number

Englishman Osborne Reynolds showed in year 1883 experimentally the


difference between laminar and turbulent flow.
In the experiment, he used a glass tube with water flow. There was a
small needle in the middle of the tube into which he inserted colouring.
At small flow rates, the coloured line remained clear and distinct inde-
pendent on the location where the colouring was inserted.
If the flow rate was increased, the colour string started oscillating and
had small eddies. If the flow rate was further increased, the distinct colour
disappeared but got mixed with the whole flow. Laminar flow had turned
into turbulent.
The experiment could be performed the other way round. By decreasing
the flow rate, the distinct colour string appeared in the middle of the flow.
The flow turned back to laminar.
Based on the experiments, Mr. Reynolds deducted that the flow rate,
the diameter of the tube, the density and the viscosity affected the flow
behaviour. Mr. Reynolds introduced a dimensionless number that today
is named Reynolds number.

vDρ
Re = (4.1)
µ
where ρ is density [kg/m3 ], D is diameter of the pipe [m], v is (average)
velocity [m/s], and µ is dynamic viscosity [kg/ms]. If the fluid velocity is
not known but the volumetric flow V̇ [m3 /s] and cross-sectional area A
[m2 ] of the pipe is known, the fluid velocity can be calculated based on
equation 4.2

15
Fluid Dynamics

v = V̇ /A (4.2)

The critical value for the Reynolds number is about 2100–2300. Below
the value flow is laminar and above it is turbulent.

Re < 2100 laminar flow (4.3)

1800 < Re < 3200 transient area (4.4)

3200 < Re turbulent flow (4.5)

Turbulent
flow   profile

Laminar  
flow   profile

Figure 4.1. Laminar and turbulent flow profiles differ from each other.

A flow in pipe is always laminar if the Reynolds number is less than


2100 and practically always turbulent if the Reynolds number is higher
than 4000. In the transient area, the flow is either laminar or turbulent
which depends on the conditions.

4.1.1 Laminar Flow

The flow profile of an incompressible liquid is not flat. Closest to the wall,
the flow rate is close to zero. The flow rate increases towards the centre
of the flow where it achieves its maximum as seen in Figure 4.1. The
laminar flow can be thought to be flow of independent fluid payers that
move parallel in the same direction. Only the velocity of the fluid levels
varies as seen in Figure 4.2a.

16
Fluid Dynamics

Laminar flow is typical at conditions where the flow rate is small, the
diameter of the tube is small, and the viscosity is high.

4.1.2 Turbulent Flow

The flow in pipes is turbulent if Reynolds number is higher than 4000.


Industry mainly uses turbulent flow.
In turbulent flow, the fluid particles move mainly forward in the pipe in
macro scale. In micro scale, the fluid particles move also side ways and
form eddies. This mixes the flow very effectively as seen in Figure 4.2b.

(a) (b)

Figure 4.2. Flow profiles. (a) Laminar. (b) Turbulent flow contains eddies.

Example on Reynolds Number


Calculate the Reynolds Number for the following flows. Is the flow lami-
nar or turbulent?
a) Water is flowing in a pipe with inner diameter of 45 mm at 5 ◦ C. The
average velocity of the flow is 1.2 m/s. The density and viscosity of water
at 5 ◦ C are 999.992 kg/m3 and 1.5188 mPas.
b) Water is flowing in a pipe with inner diameter of 45 mm at 80 ◦ C. The
average velocity of the flow is 3.5 m/s. The density and viscosity of water
at 80 ◦ C are 971.829 kg/m3 and 0.3565 mPas.
c) Oil is flowing in a pipe with inner diameter of 30 cm at 20 ◦ C. The
average velocity of the flow is 2.5 m/s. The density and viscosity of oil at
20 ◦ C are 940 kg/m3 and 0.54 Pas.
Solution: a) 35554, turbulent b) 429349, turbulent, c) 1306, laminar

17
Fluid Dynamics

4.2 Gas Dynamics

Gases differ from liquids by density. Another remarkable difference is


compressibility: gases are compressible but liquids are not. Compress-
ible flow studies the flows having significant changes in fluid density.

4.2.1 Mach Number

To distinguish between compressible and incompressible flow in air, the


Mach Number is used. Mach Number is the ratio of the speed of the flow
to the speed of sound. It must be greater than about 0.3 (since the density
change is greater than 5% in that case) before significant compressibility
occurs.
The study of compressible flow is relevant among others to high-speed
aircraft, jet engines, rocket motors, and gas pipelines.

Figure 4.3. Illustration of flow nature by the Mach Number.

The Mach Number (M ) is defined as the ratio of the speed of an object (or
of a flow) to the speed of sound. For instance, in air at room temperature,
the speed of sound is about 340 m/s. M can range from 0 to ∞. It is
divided into several flow regimes. These regimes are subsonic, transonic,
supersonic, hypersonic, and hypervelocity flow. Figure 4.4 illustrates the
Mach number ”spectrum” of these flow regimes.
At very slow flow speeds the speed of sound is so much faster that the
Mach number is irrelevant. Once the speed of the flow approaches the

18
Fluid Dynamics

Figure 4.4. The speed of flow in comparison to the speed of sound waves.

speed of sound, the Mach number becomes crucial. This is when shock
waves begin to appear. In the supersonic regime, the flow is dominated
by wave motion. The waves have smaller angles than 90◦ . The higher the
speed, the smaller the angle.
Above about Mach 5, these wave angles grow so small that it is called hy-
personic speed regime. Finally, at speeds comparable to that of planetary
atmospheric entry from orbit, in the range of several km/s, the speed of
sound is now comparatively so slow that it is called hypervelocity regime.

Example on Incompressible Flow


The limit between incompressible flow regime and subsonic flow regime
is at Mach 0.3. How fast should you drive by a car to reach velocity where
the air flow can not be considered incompressible? The speed of sound at
sea level is approximately 340 m/s.
Solution: 370 km/h.

Example on Mach Number


An aircraft is cruising at speed 500 mph at altitude 35000 ft. The speed
of sound at this altitude is approximately 300 m/s. Calculate the Mach
Number. What is the flow regime?
Solution: Mach 0.75, subsonic

19
Fluid Dynamics

Example on Mach Number Based Velocities


What are the velocities and flow regimes of the following vehicles at alti-
tude of 11 km where the speed of sound is approximately 293 m/s
a) A hornet flying at Mach 1?
b) Concorde airplane flying at Mach 2?
c) A missile flying at Mach 3?
Solution: a) 1050 km/h, sonic b) 2100 km/h, supersonic c) 3160 km/h,
supersonic.

Example on a Space Shuttle


What is the velocity of a space shuttle when it enters Earth’s atmosphere
at Mach 25 over 100 km above the sea level? The speed of sound at this
altitude is approximately 285 m/s.
Solution: 25700 km/h ≈ 7 km/s.

4.3 Equation of Continuity

In fluid dynamics, the continuity equation states that, in any steady state
process, the rate at which mass enters a system is equal to the rate at
which mass leaves the system.
The differential form of the continuity equation is shown in equation 4.6

∂ρ
+ ∇ · (ρu) = 0 (4.6)
∂t
where ρ is fluid density [kg/m3 ], t is time [s], u is the flow velocity vector
field.
If ρ is a constant, as in the case of incompressible flow, the mass conti-
nuity equation simplifies to a volume continuity equation

∇·u=0 (4.7)

which means that the divergence of velocity field is zero everywhere.


Physically, it means that the local volume change rate is zero.

4.3.1 Mass Balances

Mass balances are an application of the continuity equation. People work-


ing in technical field or in process industry need to know how to write bal-
ances. The most commonly used balances are mass and energy balances.
The basic form of a balance is as follows:

20
Fluid Dynamics

ACCU M U LAT ION = IN P U T − OU T P U T + GEN ERAT ION(4.8)

ACC = IN − OU T + GEN (4.9)

For a component x,
the amount that accumulates inside the balance area =
+ how much x comes into the balance area
- how much x goes away from the balance area
+ how much x is generated inside the balance area.

ACCx = INx − OU Tx + GENx (4.10)

The balance is done for a specific balance area that has borders.
The process can be at steady state or at unsteady state. Steady state
means that there are no changes in time. In other words, the flows prop-
erties are the same all the time. At unsteady state there are changes in
time. For example when a tank full of water is emptied through a hole at
the bottom of the tank the flow rate of water changes. First, the flow is
very fast. But then, the flow gets slower as there is less water in the tank.
The last drops of water come out very slowly.

Solving Strategy for Mass Balances


1. Draw a picture.

2. List the facts and assumpitons.

3. Draw the borders of the balance area.

4. Is it steady state or unsteady state?

5. Write the balance equations.

6. Solve the unknowns.

7. Check. (What was the question?)

Example of Mass Balances


Crude oil is pumped in pipes. The mass flow is 7 m3 /h. The pipeline has a
junction. The input pipe splits the flow in three smaller pipe lines. 5 m3 /h
is directed to pipeline A. 30% of the remaining flow goes to pipeline B and
rest to pipeline C. What are the flow rates of pipelines A, B, and C?
Solution: ṁA = 5.0 m3 /h, ṁB = 0.6 m3 /h, ṁC = 1.4 m3 /h.

21
Fluid Dynamics

Example of Mass Balances with Recycling


Calculate the total mass flow rates for the system shown in Figure 4.5
assuming that the ṁ1 = 10.0 kg/h and ṁ5 = 0.5 kg/h. In addition, ṁ6 =
0.1·ṁ2 and ṁ7 = 0.3·ṁ3 .

Figure 4.5. Example of mass balances with recycling.

Solution: ṁ1 = 10.0 kg/h, ṁ2 = 16.1 kg/h, ṁ3 = 15.0 kg/h, ṁ4 = 10.5 kg/h,
ṁ5 = 0.5 kg/h, ṁ6 = 1.6 kg/h, ṁ7 = 4.5 kg/h.

4.4 Law of Energy Conservation

Conservation of energy says that energy cannot be created or destroyed.


An important practical example is the flow of heat. When heat flows
inside a solid, the continuity equation can be combined with Fourier’s law
(heat flux is proportional to temperature gradient) to arrive at the heat
equation. Although energy cannot be created or destroyed, heat can be
created from other types of energy. For example, potential energy can be
transformed into kinetic energy (motion).

Example of Energy conservation


Water is dammed to form a lake.At the top of the dam water is still but
a small amount of water flows over the dam. What is the velocity of the
water when it hits ground?
Solution: 15 m/s2

4.5 Bernouilli’s Law

Bernoulli’s Law is a physical law related to flows of liquids and gases.


The law says that when the velocity increases the pressure decreases. It is
applied to incompressible fluids. It can be used for compressible flows if

22
Fluid Dynamics

the density change is very small.


In a closed tube the total energy of the flow is constant. There are vari-
ous types of energy but overall sum is constant. Potential energy depends
on the static pressure. Kinetic energy depends on the motion. Then there
is dynamic pressure.
Since the overall sum of energy is constant, if kinetic energy increases
the static pressure must decrease and vice versa. The sum of static and
dynamic pressure is constant.
Bernouilli’s Law is expressed in equation 4.11.

1
p + ρgy + ρv 2 = constant (4.11)
2
where p is the pressure of the fluid [Pa], ρ is the density of the fluid
(constant) [kg/m3 ], g is the gravitational constant [9.81 m/s2 ], y is the
height of the tube [m], and v is the velocity of the fluid [m/s].
Often the change in height along the streamline is so small that it can be
ignored. Then, the simplified form of Bernoulli’s equation can be written
as follows:

static pressure + dynamic pressure = total pressure (4.12)

4.5.1 Applications of Bernouilli’s Law

Air plane wing is more round on the upper side than on the lower side.
When the engines push the wing forward, the air must go around the
wing. The distance on the upper side of the wing is longer so the air
moves faster. It creates smaller pressure on the air wing that lifts the
wing upwards.
In a tube where fluid flows inside, the velocity increases and pressure
decreases if the tube gets narrower.

Example of Bernouilli’s Equation


At 1.5 bar, 10kg/s of water at 67◦ C flows in a pipe. The radius of the pipe
changes from 5 cm to 3 cm. What is the change in pressure and in the
velocity of the water? The density of water at 67◦ C is 979.4 kg/m3 .
Solution: The velocity increases from 1.3 m/s to 3.6 m/s and the pres-
sure decreases from 1.5 bar to 1.4 bar.

23
Fluid Dynamics

24
5. Pressure Drop in Pipes

Pressure drop is defined as the difference in pressure between two points


of a fluid carrying network. Pressure drop occurs when frictional forces,
caused by the resistance to flow, act on a fluid as it flows through the
tube. The main determinants of resistance to fluid flow are fluid velocity
through the pipe and fluid viscosity.
Pressure drop increases proportional to the frictional shear forces within
the piping network. A piping network containing a high relative rough-
ness rating as well as many pipe fittings and joints, turns, surface rough-
ness and other physical properties will affect the pressure drop.
High flow velocities and / or high fluid viscosities result in a larger pres-
sure drop across a section of pipe or a valve. Low velocity will result in
lower or no pressure drop.

5.1 Friction in Pipes

There is pressure drop in pipes just because of the friction between the
fluid and the pipe inner wall. The smoother the wall is, the less the pres-
sure decreases.

5.1.1 Roughness of Pipe Wall

The roughness  expresses the average height of the small bumps on the
wall. The more friction the wall creates the rougher the surface is.

roughness 
Relative roughness = = (5.1)
diameter D
In the table 5.1 some roughnesses for typical pipe materials are pre-
sented.

25
Pressure Drop in Pipes

Table 5.1. Typical roughness ranges of some materials.

Material Roughness,  [m]


Riveted steel 0.001 . . . 0.01
Concrete 0.0003 . . . 0.003
Wood stave 0.0002 . . . 0.001
Cast iron 0.0003
Galvanized iron 0.00017
Cast iron – asphalt dipped 0.00013
Steel (stainless) 0.00003
Drawn tubing 0.0000017
Cu and Al 0.0000015

Example on Relative Roughness


What is the relative roughness for the following pipes:
a) drawn tubing of plastic, inner diameter 20 mm
b) steel pipe, inner diameter 50 mm
c) concrete pipe, inner diameter 600 mm
Solution: a) 0.000085, b) 0.0006, c) 0.005

5.1.2 Friction Factor ξ

Roughness of the pipe  is used to calculate a dimensionless friction factor


ξ. One way to calculate the ξ is to use Darcy–Weisbach equation. The
Darcy friction factor (resistance coefficient) has a specific symbol fD
that distinguishes it from other friction factors.
The Darcy–Weisbach equation is a phenomenological equation, which
relates the pressure drop (head loss) due to friction along a given length
of pipe to the average velocity of the fluid flow for an incompressible fluid.
Head loss due to viscous effects in a circular cross section of pipe with
length L can be characterized by the Darcy–Weisbach equation.

L v2
hf = fD · · (5.2)
D 2g
where hf is the head loss due to friction [m], L is the length of the pipe
[m], D is the hydraulic diameter of the pipe [m], v is the average flow
velocity, (the volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional wetted area)
[m/s], g is the gravitational constant [m/s2 ], and fD is a dimensionless
parameter (Darcy) friction factor, resistance coefficient. Friction factor fD
can be found from a Moody diagram (see Figure 5.1) or calculated.

26
Pressure Drop in Pipes

For Laminar flow


fD = 64/Re (5.3)

where Re is the Reynolds Number.


For turbulent flow the friction factor fD is a function of Reynolds Num-
ber and relative roughness.


fD = f Re, (5.4)
D
For turbulent flow, methods for finding the friction factor fD include
using a diagram such as the Moody diagram.

Example on Friction Factor


What is the Darcy friction factor at Reynolds Number 8000000 for the
three pipes of which the relative roughness was calculated in the previous
example?
Solution: a) 0.014, b) 0.018, c) 0.32

5.1.3 Pressure Drop Formula in Meters and in Pascals

The head loss hf expresses the pressure drop (pressure decrease) in me-
ters [m]. The pressure drop expressed in meters can be converted into
pressure drop in pascals by using equation 5.5, into meters by using equa-
tion 5.6, and into energy per mass by using equation 5.7.

Head loss in pressure [Pa] = ρ · hf (5.5)


hf
Head loss in meters [m] = (5.6)
ρ·g
Head loss in energy [J/kg] = hf (5.7)

where ρ is the density of the fluid and g the gravitational acceleration.


The Darcy–Weisbach equation can also be written in terms of pressure
loss by combining equations 5.2 and 5.5

L ρv 2
∆p = fD · · (5.8)
D 2
where the pressure drop due to friction ∆p [Pa] is a function of L/D, the
ratio of the length to diameter of the pipe [m/m]; ρ the density of the fluid
[kg/m3 ]; v, the mean flow velocity [m/s]; and fD friction factor [no unit].

Example 1 of Pressure Drop due to Friction in Pipes


What is the pressure drop in a 300 m long pipe of which the inner diame-
ter is 300 mm steel pipe? The average flow rate is 2.5 m/s and the flowing

27
Pressure Drop in Pipes

Figure 5.1. Moody diagram showing the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor fD plotted
against Reynolds Number Re for various relative roughness  / D.

28
Pressure Drop in Pipes

fluid is
a) water at 20◦ C.
b) water at 50◦ C.
c) oil at 20◦ C and ρ = 940 kg/m3 and µ = 0.54 Pa s.
Solution: a) ∆p = 43 kPa, b) ∆p = 40 kPa, c) ∆p = 144 kPa.

5.1.4 How to Define Friction Factor?

The friction factor ξ is defined based on Reynolds number.


If Re < 2100 → ξ = 64/Re
If Re > 2100 → ξ is taken from the Moody’s diagram.
If Re > 3000 and the Moody’s diagram cannot be used, the Colebrook
equation can be used. Moody’s diagram is the graphical illustration of it
at turbulent flow regime.
!
1  2.5226
√ = −2.0 log + √ (5.9)
ξ 3.7065D Re ξ

5.2 Pressure Drop of Piping Elements and Resistance Factor ζ

When the flow meets a change in the flow direction or in the cross-sectional
area of the pipe, there is locally extra pressure drop caused by local resis-
tance factor ζ. Pressure drop is calculated by the equation 5.10

v2
∆p = ζρ (5.10)
2
The value of the ζ depends on the type and quality of the local resis-
tance. Local resistance is caused by valves, turns, T-joints, divergence,
convergence, pipe fittings, measurement equipment, and inputs or out-
puts to vessels.

5.2.1 Pressure Loss of Pipe Fittings and Joints

T–joint
The pressure drop for a t-joint depends on the flow direction. Below are
listed ranges for ζ for T–joint flows.
flow through ζ = 1.0 – 1.15
divide flow ζ = 1.5 – 1.9
combine flow ζ = 4.3 –5.3

29
Pressure Drop in Pipes

5.2.2 Pressure Drop in Turns

Pressure drop in turns increases if the turn gets sharper. In Table 5.2,
estimates of the friction losses in round turns of 90◦ and in sharp turns
are listed.
In round turns, the R is the radius from the centre of the turn to the
centre line of the flow and d is the diameter of the pipe as shown in Figure
5.2.

Figure 5.2. Scheme of round and sharp turns.

Table 5.2. Friction Losses in Round Turns of 90◦ .

Roundness ζi Angle ζi
R=d 0.51 15◦ 0.1
R = 1.5d 0.40 30◦ 0.2
R = 2d 0.30 45◦ 0.35
R = 4d 0.23 60◦ 0.7
R = 6d 0.18 90◦ 1.3

5.2.3 Pressure Drop at Vessel Feeds and Outputs

There is pressure drop when the fluid leaves the vessel and when the fluid
enters the vessel. The pressure drop increases if the tube end is partly
inside the vessel.
Simple outlet (pipe entrance sharp corner) ζ = 0.5
Outlet (pipe entrance, tube partly inside) → ζ = 1.0
Simple feed (pipe exit) ζ = 1.0
The flow resistance decreases, if the pipe widens inside the vessel.

30
Pressure Drop in Pipes

5.2.4 Pressure Drop in Valves

There is pressure drop in valves. Below are listed some typical friction
losses for different valve types.
Butterfly valve ζ = 0.8
Knife gate valve ζ = 0.2
Needle valve ζ = 30–300
Check valve ζ = 2–4
Diaphragm valve ζ = 2.3
Ball valve ζ = 0.8

Example 2 of Pressure Drop due to Friction in Pipes


What is the total resistance factor ζ of the piping that has two round turns
of 90◦ (R=d) and a T–joint (flow through) between a butterfly valve and a
ball valve?
Solution: 3.62-3.77.

Example 3 of Pressure Drop due to Friction in Pipes


Water at 20◦ C is flowing with a velocity 2.5m/s in a steel pipe that is 300
m long and its inner diameter is 300 mm. The pipe has one round turn
of 90◦ (R=2d), a diaphragm valve and a check valve (ζ=2.5). What is the
total pressure drop in the piping?
Solution: 58 kPa.

5.3 Calculation of Pressure Drop

Let’s study steady state flow that is illustrated in Figure 5.3.

a
hb
ha
Wp

Figure 5.3. Example of energy balance for a flow.

The total energy at boundaries a and b is constant

31
Pressure Drop in Pipes

Ea = Eb (5.11)

where Ea is the total energy entering the balance area and Eb is the
total energy exiting the balance area. The change in total energy depends
typically on the following changes:

1. Static pressure p
2. Potential energy Epot = ρgh
3. Kinetic energy Ekin = 21 αρv 2
4. Friction and flow resistances hf
5. Heat q
6. Work W

Changes in static pressure are caused by change in external pressure


of the fluid. Changes in potential energy are caused by changes in the
height level of the flow. Changes in kinetic energy are caused by differ-
ence in the fluid velocity. Friction and flow resistances are caused by
individual elements of the fluid flow route, such as wall roughness, flow
resistance at joints, in curves, and in valves. A friction factor can be de-
fined for these elements. Heat exchanger changes the heat of the fluid.
Pump works and generates extra energy into the fluid.
For the process shown in figure 5.3 the equation writes in [J/m3 ]

pa + Epot,a + Ekin,a + ρηp Wp = pb + Epot,b + Ekin,b + ρhf + q (5.12)


1 1
pa + ρgha + αρva2 + ρηp Wp = pb V̇b + ρghb + αρvb2 + ρhf + q(5.13)
2 2

The friction and flow resistance can be calculated

1  ∆L X  2
hf = ξ + ζi v (5.14)
2 D
The values for ξ and ζ can be taken from tables.
Often it is reasonable to calculate the work of pump W .

ρηp Wp = ∆p + ∆ppot + ∆pkin + ρhf (5.15)


    1  
ρηp Wp = pb − pa + ρg hb − ha + ρ αb vb2 − αa va2 + ρhf (5.16)
2

The kinetic energy correction factor α takes into account the viscous
effects of the flow. It has two values: one for turbulent flow and one for
laminar flow:

32
Pressure Drop in Pipes

α=2 Laminar flow


α = 1.05 Turbulent flow
(α = 1.0 Turbulent non-viscous flow in engineering problems)

However, for engineering purposes with non-viscous turbulent flow, the


kinetic correction can be ignored because the error (α = 1.05 ≈ 1.0) would
be small in respect to other sources of error.

Example 1 of Mechanical Energy Balance


900 m3 /h of benzene flows from a storage tank to the transport tank
through a cast iron pipe of which the diameter is 225 mm. The trans-
port tank is located 5 m lower than the storage tank. The length of the
piping is 15 m and it has two round turns of 90◦ (R=1.5d) and two ball
valves. The pipe entrance (sharp corner) is 7 m under the liquid level and
the pipe exit into transport tank is is above the liquid level. Pressure in
storage tank is 1 bar.
What is the pressure in the transport tank?
ρbenzene = 751 kg/m3 , µbenzene = 5.29 mPas
Solution: 1.2 bar

Example 2 of Mechanical Energy Balance


95 m3 /h of crude oil is pumped from a storage tank (pa = 1.0 bar) up to 18 m
high level (from the surface of the storage tank) into a vacuum column
(pb = 0.4 bar). The length of the pipe is 540 m, the outer diameter is
150 mm and the wall thickness 4 mm. The resistance factor ζ and kinetic
energy change can be ignored. The roughness of the pipe is 0.001 m. The
density of the crude oil is 890 kg/m3 and the viscosity µ = 3.43Pas.
a) What is the pump power when the efficiency of the pump is 100%?
b) What is the pump power whenthe efficiency of the pump is 85%?
c) What is the discharge head (in meters) of the pump for a) and b)?
Solution: a) 120 kW, b) 140 kW, c) 530 m

5.3.1 Summary of the Use the Mechanical Energy Balance


Equation

The mechanical energy can be written in three different ways by using


three different units: pressure [Pa], energy/mass [J/kg] or height [m].

Pressure [Pa] : (5.17)

33
Pressure Drop in Pipes

    1  
ρηp Wp = pb − pa + ρg hb − ha + ρ αb vb2 − αa va2 + ρhf
2
Energy/Mass [J/kg] : (5.18)
 
pb − pa   1 
η p Wp = + g hb − ha + αb vb2 − αa va2 + hf
ρ 2
Height [m] : (5.19)
 
ηp W p pb − pa   1   h
f
= + hb − ha + αb vb2 − αa va2 +
g g 2·g g

where !
L X v2
hf = ξ + ζi (5.20)
D 2

Pressure Difference
Pressure difference is the difference of the static pressures on the liquid
surfaces at a and b.

∆p = pb − pa (5.21)

Height Difference
The height difference is the difference of the liquid surfaces a and b.

∆h = hb − ha (5.22)

Kinetic Energy Difference


The velocity of the fluid determines the kinetic energy at the balance area
borders a and b. !
v2 v2
∆pkin = ρ αb b − αa a (5.23)
2 2
The correction factor α has two values for the fluid:
2 for laminar flow
1.05 for turbulent flow.
There are two options for the velocity at the balance area border:
at the pipe exit/entrance the velocity v 6= 0
far from the pipe exit/entrance where the velocity v = 0.

There are three options for the velocity difference ∆v:

1. If both balance area borders are next to the same pipe line and the diam-
eter of the pipe doesn’t change the velocity doesn’t change:
∆v = 0 → ∆pkin = 0.

34
Pressure Drop in Pipes

2. If both balance area ends are far from the pipe exit/entrance, the velocity
doesn’t change:
∆v = 0.
However, the local resistances for the pipe exit and entrance into the con-
tainer/tank need to be taken into account in head losses hf .

3. If one end of the balance area is at the pipe and the other far from the pipe
exit/entrance, there is a velocity difference:
∆pkin 6= 0.

35
Pressure Drop in Pipes

36
6. Pumps

This chapter introduces pumps, their function and desirable operating


conditions. Finally, few typical pump types are presented.

6.1 Introduction to Pumps

A pump is a device that moves fluids by mechanical action. There are six
methods how to transfer the fluid:

• Centrifugal force

• Displacement

• Mechanical impuls

• Momentum transfer from another fluid

• Electromagnetic field

• Gravity

There are some criteria set for the fluid transfer. Some of them are triv-
ial such as the pump must not accumulate fluid (it must not leak) or the
consistency of the fluid must maintain the same. Often, the temperature
of the fluid should also be kept constant by using insulation. Also the
discharge pressure may be set.
Often pumps are classified based on their function or type into three cat-
egories: centrifugal pumps, displacement pumps and other pumps. Cen-
trifugal pumps include e.g. radial and axial flow pumps. Displacement
pumps are further classified into three categories based on the type of
moving the fluid. Back and forth movement is the basis of piston pumps
and diaphragm pumps. Rotating movement is the basis of screw pumps.
Other displacement pumps include e.g. impulsing displacement pumps.
Other pumps include e.g. impulse pumps.

37
Pumps

The most commonly used pump type in process industry is centrifugal


pump. However, very viscous fluids are not suitable for centrifugal pumps.

6.1.1 Parts of Pumps

The main components in a pump are the casing, impeller, backing plate,
shaft and shaft seal, and the motor adapter. Some pumps have the back-
ing plate as part of the casing in which case you would have a removable
cover.
probrewer.com

Figure 6.1. Common parts of a centrifugal pump.

In centrifugal pumps, the fluid flows from the suction head to the im-
peller. The fluid goes through the impeller blades to the discharge head.
The pump motor transfers the input energy into kinetic energy. the ef-
ficiency η tells how much of the input energy is transferred into kinetic
energy. Always some energy is lost (as heat).

6.2 Pump Curves

Pump manufacturers present the suction of their pumps by using pump


curves. These pump curves show

38
Pumps

• lifting height as a function of volumetric flow (∆H = f (V̇ ))

• efficiency as a function of volumetric flow (ηp = f (V̇ ) )

• suction pressure as a function of volumetric flow (NPSH= f (V̇ ))

• pump power requirement as a function of volumetric flow (P = f (V̇ ))

learneasy.info

Figure 6.2. Pump curves that show the performance of specific pumps.

Example on Reading Pump Curves


Use the pump curve presented in Figure 6.2 and answer the following
questions:
1. What is the total head (∆h) in meters and in feet when
a) the impeller diameter (φ) is 342 mm and volumetric flow V̇ is 100 l/s?
b) the impeller diameter (φ) is 291 mm and volumetric flo V̇ is 350 m3 /h?
2. What is the efficiency (ηp ) and total head (∆h) when
a) φ = 274 mm and V̇ is 62 l/s?
b) φ = 308 mm and V̇ is 400 m3 /h?
3. What is NPSH required for
a) all impeller sizes at 1000 gallons per minute?
b) for φ = 274 and for φ = 342 mm at V̇ = 450 m3 /h?
4. What is the pump power Pp at V̇ = 68 l/s for
a) φ = 291 mm?
b) φ = 352 mm?
5. What is the power (Pp ), efficiency (ηp ), and volumetric flow rate (V̇ )

39
Pumps

when
a) total head (∆h) is 30 m and φ = 291 mm?
b) total head (∆h) is 30 m and φ = 342 mm?
6. What impeller size should you select for a pumping task where the
total head ∆h is 35 m? What is the volumetric flow rate then?
Solution: 1.a) 35 m (115 ft), b) 20.5 m (62 ft) 2.a) 21.5 m, 73%, b) 23.5 m,
77 % 3.a) 3.5 m, b) φ=274 mm → 8.5 m, φ=342 mm → 4.5 m 4.a) 22 kW,
b) 32 kW 5.a) 26 kW, 73%, 64 l/s, b) 48 kW, 76%, 127 l/s 6. Option 1:
φ=325 mm and V̇ =68 l/s, Option 2: φ=342 mm and V̇ =100 l/s.

6.2.1 Pump Operation Point

Operating  point

System  curve

Figure 6.3. The operation point is where the selected pump performance curve and the
piping performance curve cross each other.

To determine the pump operation point, the mechanical energy balance


(in meters) and the pump curve (head loss in meters) are needed. These
curves are plotted in the same figure as a function of volumetric flow.
The pump curves are already presented as a function of volumetric flow.
The task is to select the curve with proper impeller diameter.
But, in the mechanical energy balance the velocity v [m/s] should be
expressed by using volumetric flow V̇ [m3 /s] as shown in equation 6.1

V̇ V̇ 4 · V̇
v = = πd2 = (6.1)
A πd2
4

40
Pumps

h m3 /s i
For the units : [m/s] = = [m/s] (6.2)
m2
The operation point is at the point where the two curves cross each other
(see Figure 6.3). The volumetric flow at the operation point can then be
read from the figure.

6.3 Pump Cavitation

For a centrifugal pump, it is mandatory that the static pressure (ps )in the
liquid at the suction head is larger than the vapour pressure (pv ) of the
liquid.

ps > pv (6.3)

The liquid begins to boil if its vapour pressure is equal to the static pres-
sure. When the boiling begins, vapour bubbles are formed in the liquid.
However, in the pump, the pressure rapidly increases. It means that the
vapour bubbles turn back to liquid and take much less space. This creates
pressure shocks inside the pump that makes terrible noise and causes ero-
sion. This is called cavitation. Cavitation also takes down the efficiency
of the pump. Therefore, vapour bubbles must not be formed in the suction
head so as to avoid cavitation.

6.3.1 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)

In order to avoid cavitation, one must design the piping pressures so that
there is enough pressure in the liquid when it goes to the pump. The
pressure is called Net Positive Suction Head.
The NPSH can be expressed in pressure [Pa], energy/mass [J/kg], or
height [m]

N P SH = ps − pv (6.4)
ps − pv
N P SH = (6.5)
ρ
ps − pv
N P SH = (6.6)
ρg

6.3.2 Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR)

NPSHR (Net Positive Suction Head Required) is the minimum pressure


required for the pump to operate well. This means there is no cavitation.

41
Pumps

The pump manufacturer gives the value for NPSHR.


NPSHA is a typical quantity for the pump and it depends on the vol-
umetric flow rate of the liquid. Pumps that need less pressure (i.e. the
NPSHR is smaller) tend to be more expensive.

6.3.3 Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA)

NPSHA (Net Positive Suction Head Available) is the actual pressure at the
suction of the pump. The process designer must calculate this pressure.
NPSHA describes the pressure difference ps -pv in the piping that is
available for the proper pump function. The NPSHA is temperature de-
pendent: the smaller the pressure difference available for the pumping,
the higher the temperature of the liquid.
The pressure requirements for the pump can be written

N P SHA ≥ N P SHR (6.7)

Preferably, there is also some extra pressure (a) to guarantee that the
pressure definitely is over the vapour pressure

N P SHA ≥ N P SHR + a (6.8)

6.3.4 Pumping of Boiling Liquid

Sometimes there is need to pump liquid at its boiling point. This happens
for example in distillation columns, where the pumps at the bottom lift
the liquid upwards. Then, the liquid level in the vessel must be higher
than the pump so that the hydrostatic pressure creates enough pressure
in the liquid.

Example on NPSH
300 m3 /h of water is pumped through a steel pipe (Din = 200mm) from an
open tank where the water level is 0.5 m. The suction line consist of a 1
m long vertical pipe and 15 m long horizontal pipe, one check valve (ζ =
2.5) and one round 90◦ turn (R=D). The pump described in Figure 6.2 (φ
= 274 mm) is used for the task.
a) What is the NPSHR of the pump?
b) If water is at 10 ◦ C what is the NPSHA? Is it enough?
c) If water is at 80 ◦ C what is the NPSHA? Is it enough?
d) In case c), how high water level in the tank would make NPSHA > NPSHR?

42
Pumps

Solution: a) 3 m, b) 62 kPa (6.3 m), c) 17 kPa (1.8 m) d) 1.2 m.

6.4 Pump types

6.4.1 Centrifugal Pump

Centrifugal pumps are often the best choice for low viscosity (thin) liquids
and high flow rates. The pump uses one or more impellers that attach to
and rotates with the shaft. The rotation of the impeller creates energy
that moves liquid through the pump and pressurizes the liquid to move it
through the piping system.
The benefits of a centrifugal pump are simplicity, low price, constant
flow rate, small space requirement, low maintenance costs, and quiet op-
eration.

6.4.2 Diaphragm Pump

Diaphragm pumps use a flexing diaphragm to move fluid into and out of
the pumping chamber. They are a type of reciprocating positive displace-
ment pump.

6.4.3 Hydraulic Pump

Hydraulic pumps - a type of positive displacement pump used to pressur-


ize hydraulic fluid. The fluid is then used to do work by operating pistons
in a hydraulic system. There are many different types, including: piston,
gear, screw, plunger, and vane pumps.

6.4.4 Piston Pump

Piston pumps move and pressurize fluid using one or more reciprocat-
ing pistons, which are normally driven by an electric motor through a
crankshaft and connecting rod.

6.4.5 Reciprocating Pump

Reciprocating pumps a general category of positive displacement pump


that use alternating force and suction to create a steady, pulsing flow.

43
Pumps

6.4.6 Screw Pump

Screw pumps use two or more intermeshing screws to pressurise fluids


through a piping system.

6.4.7 Vacuum Pump

Vacuum pump is used for creating a vacuum by suction. It removes gas


molecules partly or entirely from a sealed container.

44
7. Valves

A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid. It


functions by opening and closing, fully or partially.
In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower
pressure.

7.1 Introduction to Valves

Valves are found everywhere. There are many valves especially in indus-
trial processes e.g. in gas and petroleum industry. The typical size of a
valve varies from tiny (less than a millimeter) to large (half a meter).
The word ”valve” is derived from the Latin word valva which means the
moving part of a door. The verb volvere means to turn or to roll.
Valves can be classified by how they are actuated. Valves can be hy-
draulic, pneumatic, manually operated, eletromechanically operated through
a solenoid valve, or operated through a motor.

7.1.1 Parts of Valves

Valves consist of components. The main parts of the most usual type of
valve are the body and the bonnet. These two parts form the casing that
holds the fluid going through the valve.

Body
The valve’s body is the outer casing of the valve that contains the internal
parts. The bonnet is the part of the encasing through which the stem
passes and that forms a guide and seal for the stem. The bonnet typically
screws into to the valve body.

45
Valves

Figure 7.1. Cross-sectional diagram of an open globe valve: 1. body; 2. ports; 3. seat;
4. stem; 5. disc when valve is open; 6. handle or handwheel when valve is
open; 7. bonnet; 8. packing; 9. gland nut; 10. fluid flow when valve is open;
11. position of disc if valve were shut; 12. position of handle or if valve were
shut.

Bonnet
A bonnet acts as a cover on the valve body. Many valves do not have
bonnets; for example, plug valves usually do not have bonnets. Many
ball valves do not have bonnets since the valve body is put together in a
different style, such as being screwed together at the middle of the valve
body.

Ports
Ports are passages that allow fluid to pass through the valve. Ports are
obstructed by the valve member or disc to control flow. Valves most com-
monly have 2 ports.

Handle or Actuator
A handle is used to manually control a valve from outside the valve body.
Automatically controlled valves often do not have handles but they have
an actuator. An actuator is a mechanism or device to automatically or
remotely control a valve from outside the body.
Some valves have neither handle nor actuator because they automati-
cally control themselves from inside; for example, check valves and relief
valves may have neither.
Some automatically controlled valves may have a handle in addition to

46
Valves

the actuator. The handle is then used to manually override automatic


control, such as a stop-check valve.

Disc
A disc or valve member is a movable obstruction inside the stationary
body that adjustably restricts flow through the valve.

Seat
The seat is the interior surface of the body which contacts the disc to form
a leak-tight seal. The seat always remains stationary relative to the body
when the disc moves.

Stem
The stem transmits motion from the handle or controlling device to the
disc. The stem typically passes through the bonnet when present.

Gasket
Gaskets are the mechanical seals, or packings, used to prevent the leak-
age of a gas or fluids from valves.

Spring
Many valves have a spring for spring-loading, to normally shift the disc
into some position by default but allow control to reposition the disc. Re-
lief valves commonly use a spring to keep the valve shut, but allow exces-
sive pressure to force the valve open against the spring-loading.

Trim
The internal elements of a valve are collectively referred to as a valve’s
trim.

7.2 Valve Types

Valves can be categorised based on their function or the valve disc. The
valve disc may have various shapes as seen below.

7.2.1 Ball Valve

Ball valves are used for on/off control without pressure drop. It is ideal
for quick shut-off, since a 90 degrees turn offers complete shut-off angle
in comparison to multiple turns required on most manual valves.

47
Valves

7.2.2 Butterfly Valve

Butterfly valves are used for flow regulation in large pipe diameters.
polyprocessing.com

avtexas.com
(a) (b)

Figure 7.2. (a) Ball Valve. (b) Butterfly Valve.

7.2.3 Check Valve

Check valves are also called non-return valves. It allows the fluid flow in
one direction only. This is called a check valve, as it prevents or "checks"
the flow in one direction.

7.2.4 Choke Valve

Choke valve is a valve that raises or lowers a solid cylinder which is placed
around or inside another cylinder which has holes or slots. Used for high
pressure drops found in oil and gas wellheads.

7.2.5 Control Valve

Control valves are valves used to control conditions such as flow, pressure,
temperature, and liquid level. They open or close fully (or partially) in
response to signals received from controllers.
The opening or closing of control valves is usually done automatically by
electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic actuators. Positioners are used to con-
trol the opening or closing of the actuator based on electric, or pneumatic
signals.

48
Valves

7.2.6 Diaphragm Valve

Diaphragm valve controls flow by a movement of a diaphragm. Upstream


pressure, downstream pressure, or an external source (e.g., pneumatic,
hydraulic, etc.) can be used to change the position of the diaphragm.

globalspec.com
weiku.com

(a) (b)

Figure 7.3. (a) Choke Valve. (b) Diaphragm Valve.

7.2.7 Disc Valve and Gate Valve

Gate valve is mainly for on/off control. Usually it has low pressure drop.

7.2.8 Globe Valve

Globe valve is good for regulating flow.


emadrlc.blogspot.com

en.wikipedia.org

(a) (b)

Figure 7.4. (a) Gate (or Disc) Valve. (b) Globe Valve.

49
Valves

7.2.9 Knife Gate Valve

Knife gate valve is similar to a gate valve, but usually more compact.
Often knife valves are used for slurries or powders for on/off control.

7.2.10 Needle Valve

Needle valve has a long needle that moves slowly when the valve is opened
or closed. It requires many turnings to get closed. Needle valve is good
for accurate flow control.

www.dictionaryofconstruction.com
fnwvalve.com

(a) (b)

Figure 7.5. (a) Knife Gate Valve. (b) Needle Valve.

7.2.11 Safety Valve

A safety valve is a valve which has the function of increasing the safety
of a plant. An example of safety valve could be a pressure safety valve
(PSV). They are also called a pressure relief valves (PRV). It automatically
releases the fluid from a pressurised vessel or pipeline if the pressure or
temperature exceeds preset limits.

50
A. Appendix A: Physical Constants and
SI Unit System Tables

Table A.1. Physical Constants

Symbol Explanation Value Unit


π pi 3.141592653589793
e Euler’s number 2.718281828459045
NA Avocadro’s number 6.022045 ·1023
R gas constant 8.31441 J/(mol·K)
0.082054 dm3 ·atm/(mol·K)
Vm Ideal gas molar volume 0.02241383 m3 /mol
δ, σ Stefan-Booltzmann constant 6.67032 10−8 W/(m2 ·K4 )
c speed of light 299792458 m/s
g gravitational acceleration 9.80665 m/s2

Table A.2. SI Basic Units

Quantity Name of the Unit Symbol of the Unit


Length meter m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Electric current ampere A
Temperature kelvin kg
Amount of moles mole mol
Luminous intensity candela cd

Table A.3. Derived SI Units

Quantity Name of the Derived Unit Symbol of the Unit


Plane angle radian rad
Solid angle steradian sr

i
Appendix A: Physical Constants and SI Unit System Tables

Table A.4. Derived SI Units with a Special Name and Symbol

Quantity Name of the Unit Symbol of the Unit Explanation


Frequency hertz Hz 1 Hz = 1 s−1
Force newton N 1 N = 1 kg m s−2
Pressure pascal Pa 1 Pa = 1 N m−2
Energy, Work joule J 1J=1Nm
Power watt W 1 W = 1 J s−1
Electric charge coulomb C 1C=1As
Voltage volt V 1 V = 1 W A−1
Capacitance farad F 1 F = 1 A s V−1
Resistance ohm Ω 1 Ω = 1 V A−1
Conductance siemens S 1 S = 1 Ω −1
Magnetic flux weber Wb 1 Wb = 1 V s
Magnetic flux density tesla T 1 T = 1 Wb m−2
Inductance henry H 1 H = 1 V s A−1
Luminous flux lumen lm 1 lm = 1 cd sr
Illuminance lux lx 1 lx = 1 lm m−2
Activity becquerel Bq 1 Bq = 1 s−1

Table A.5. Metric Prefixes

Number Prefix Symbol Number Prefix Symbol


101 deka- da 10−1 deci- d
102 hecto- h 10−2 centi- c
103 kilo- k 10−3 milli- m
106 mega- M 10−6 micro- µ
109 giga- G 10−9 nano- n
1012 tera- T 10−12 pico- p
1015 eta- P 10−15 femto- f
1018 exa- E 10−18 atto- a
1021 zeta- Z 10−21 zepto- z
1024 yotta- Y 10−24 yocto- y

ii
Appendix A: Physical Constants and SI Unit System Tables

Table A.6. Conversion into Meters (m)

Quantity Explanation Meters (m)


1 in (inch) 25.4 ·10−3
1 ft (feet) 12 in 0.3048
1 yd (yard) 3 ft 0.9144
1 mi (mile) 1760 yd 1.609344 · 10−3
1 Å(ångström) 0.1 · 10−9

Table A.7. Conversion factors of Volume into Cubic Meters (m3 )

Quantity Explanation Volume (m3 )


1 l (litre, liter) 1 · 10−3
1 gallon (US) 3.785412 · 10−3
1 bbl (barrel) 42 gallons (US) 0.1589873

Table A.8. Conversion Factors of Time into seconds (s)

Quantity Explanation Time (s)


1 min (minute) 60
1 h (hour) 3600
1 d (day) 24 h 86.4 · 103

Table A.9. Conversion Factors of Velocity into m/s

Quantity Explanation Velocity (m/s)


1 km/h 0.277778
1 mi/h 1.609 km/h 0.44704

Table A.10. Conversion Factors of Mass into Kilograms (kg)

Quantity Explanation Mass (kg)


1 oz (ounce) 28.34952 · 10−3
1 lb (pound) 0.45359237
1 t (ton) 1000

Table A.11. Conversion Factors of Pressure into Pascals (Pa)

Quantity Explanation Pressure (Pa)


1 bar 100000
1 atm 101325
1
1 mmHg (millimeter of mercury) 760 atm 133.322
1 Torr 1 mmHg 133.322
1 psi (pound per square inch) 6894.757

iii
Appendix A: Physical Constants and SI Unit System Tables

Table A.12. Conversion Factors of Dynamic Viscosity into Pa s

Quantity Explanation Viscosity (Pa s)


1 Pl (poiseuille) 1
1 P (poise) 0.1
1 cP 0.001

Table A.13. Conversion Factors of Kinematic Viscosity into m/s

Quantity Explanation Viscosity (m2 / s)


1 St (stoke) 0.1 · 10−3
1 cSt (centistoke) 0.1 ·10−6

Table A.14. Conversion Factors of Energy into Joules (J)

Quantity Explanation Energy (J)


1 kWh (kilowatt hour) 3.6 MJ 3.6 ·106
1 cal (calori) 4.1868
1 Btu (British thermal unit) 1055.056

Table A.15. Conversion Factors of Power into Watts (W)

Quantity Explanation Power (W)


1 hp (horsepower) metric 735.5
1 hp (horsepower) non-metric 745.7

Table A.16. Conversion Factors of Temperature into Kelvins (K)

Quantity Explanation Temperature (K)


x◦ C (Celsius) x + 273.15
xF (Fahrenheit) 1.8x + 255.4

Table A.17. Special Units for concentration

Quantity Explanation Concentration ( )


1 ppm (part per million) 1 · 10−6
1 ppb (part per billion) 1 ·10−9

iv
B. Appendix B: Properties of Water

Table B.1. Properties of Saturated Water

Ta Tb pc ρd µe λf cp g
◦C K MPa kg/m3 10−3 Pas W/(m·K) kJ/(kg·K)
0 273.15 0.000611 999.9 1.792 0.569 4.21
10 283.15 0.00123 999.7 1.308 0.587 4.19
20 293.15 0.00234 998.3 1.005 0.603 4.18
30 303.15 0.00425 995.7 0.801 0.618 4.18
40 313.15 0.00739 992.3 0.656 0.632 4.18
50 323.15 0.0124 988 .0 0.543 0.643 4.18
60 333.15 0.0200 983.2 0.468 0.654 4.19
70 343.15 0.0312 977.7 0.406 0.662 4.19
80 353.15 0.0474 971.6 0.357 0.670 4.20
90 363.15 0.0702 965.2 0.316 0.676 4.21
100 373.15 0.101325 958.4 0.284 0.681 4.22
a T = Temperature in Celsius, ◦ C
b T = Absolute temperature in Kelvin, K
c p = Saturated vapour pressure, MPa
d ρ = Density of water, kg/m3
e µ = Dynamic viscosity of water, 10−3 Pas
f λ = Thermal conductivity of water, W/(m·K)
g cp = Specific heat of water, kJ/(kg·K)
Reference: Kari I. Keskinen, Tables and Drawings for Chemical
Engineering, Otatieto Oy, Helsinki, 2000.

v
Appendix B: Properties of Water

Table B.2. Properties of Water at 101.325 kPa

Ta Tb ρ µ λ cp
◦C K kg/m3 10−3 Pas W/(m·K) kJ/(kg·K)
0 273.15 999.868 1.7921 0.5535 4.2169
5 278.15 999.992 1.5188 0.5655 4.2014
10 283.15 999.728 1.3077 0.5767 4.1914
15 288.15 999.127 1.1403 0.5873 4.1850
20 293.15 998.234 1.0049 0.5971 4.1811
25 298.15 997.077 0.8935 0.6063 4.1788
30 303.15 995.678 0.8007 0.6049 4.1777
35 308.15 994.061 0.7225 0.6229 4.1774
40 313.15 992.250 0.6560 0.6303 4.1778
45 318.15 990.251 0.5988 0.6371 4.1787
50 403.15 988.068 0.5494 0.6433 4.1800
55 408.15 985.729 0.5064 0.6490 4.1816
65 413.15 980.592 0.4355 0.6590 4.1860
70 423.15 977.813 0.4060 0.6633 4.1888
75 428.15 974.888 0.3799 0.6672 4.1920
80 453.15 971.829 0.3565 0.6706 4.1956
85 458.15 968.647 0.3354 0.6737 4.1997
90 463.15 965.343 0.3165 0.6764 4.2043
95 468.15 961.916 0.2994 0.6787 4.2095
100 373.15 958.381 0.2838 0.6808 4.2152
a T = Temperature in Celsius, ◦ C
b T = Absolute temperature in Kelvin, K
c ρ = Density of water, kg/m3
d µ = Dynamic viscosity of water, 10−3 Pas
e λ = Thermal conductivity of water, W/(m·K)
f cp = Specific heat of water, kJ/(kg·K)
Reference: Kari I. Keskinen, Tables and Drawings for
Chemical Engineering, Otatieto Oy, Helsinki, 2000.

vi