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MECHANICS

FOR ACADEMIC YEAR 2015 – 2016

K URDISTAN – I RAQ

by

HELENA LAAVI

Duhok Polytechnic University

Zakho Technical Institute

Zakho

2015

Preface

This material is made for the course Fluid Mechanics for 2nd stage stu-

dents to be taught in Zakho Technical Institute, Duhok Polytechnic Uni-

versity in Kurdistan-Iraq during the academic year 2015-2016.

This material gives an introduction to the fluid mechanics that is needed

in petrochemistry. It is divided in sections:

1. Introduction

• This part gives introduction to fluid mechanics and what does it contain.

The definition of the fluid is given. Standard units, dimensions and mea-

surement systems are presented.

2. Fluid Properties

• In this part, fluid properties are illustrated with practical examples. Also

flow characteristics are defined with practical examples.

3. Fluid statics

• In this part, fluid at rest are presented. Pressure and its different forms

are presented. Pressure gauges are discussed with examples.

4. Fluid dynamics

• In this part, fluid in motion are presented. Flow rate is introduced with

examples with Reynold’s number. As the flow of gases is presented, the

basic principles how to write balances is given. The equation of continuity

is presented with examples of mass balance. Energy Conservation Law

i

Preface

given for Bernoulli’s equation.

• In this part, the causes of pressure losses in pipes are given with exam-

ples. Also friction coefficient and the pressure losses caused by friction in

pipes are presented with examples.

6. Pumps

• In this part, different types of pumps and their use are presented. Pump

is a crucial part of a piping system. The NPSH (Net Positive Suction

Head) and its requirements are presented in order to avoid pump cavita-

tion.

7. Valves

• In this part, parts of valves and different types of valves with their main

use are presented.

Helena Laavi

ii

Contents

Preface i

Contents iii

1. Introduction 1

1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1.1 Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1.2 Compressibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2. Fluid Properties 3

2.0.1 Example on Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2.1 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.1.1 Example on Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.2 Flow Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.2.1 Newtonian Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.2.2 Non-Newtonian Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.3 Ideal Gas Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.3.1 Example on Ideal Gas Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3. Fluid Statics 9

3.1 Hydraulics and Pneumatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3.2 Pressure in Fluids at Rest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

3.2.1 Hydrostatic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

3.2.2 Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

3.2.3 Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.2.4 Capillary Forces and Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . 14

4. Fluid Dynamics 15

4.1 Flow Rate – Reynolds Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

4.1.1 Laminar Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

iii

Contents

4.2 Gas Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

4.2.1 Mach Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

4.3 Equation of Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

4.3.1 Mass Balances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

4.4 Law of Energy Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

4.5 Bernouilli’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

4.5.1 Applications of Bernouilli’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

5.1 Friction in Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

5.1.1 Roughness of Pipe Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

5.1.2 Friction Factor ξ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

5.1.3 Pressure Drop Formula in Meters and in Pascals . . . 27

5.1.4 How to Define Friction Factor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

5.2 Pressure Drop of Piping Elements and Resistance Factor ζ . 29

5.2.1 Pressure Loss of Pipe Fittings and Joints . . . . . . . 29

5.2.2 Pressure Drop in Turns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

5.2.3 Pressure Drop at Vessel Feeds and Outputs . . . . . . 30

5.2.4 Pressure Drop in Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

5.3 Calculation of Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

5.3.1 Summary of the Use the Mechanical Energy Balance

Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

6. Pumps 37

6.1 Introduction to Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

6.1.1 Parts of Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

6.2 Pump Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

6.2.1 Pump Operation Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

6.3 Pump Cavitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

6.3.1 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) . . . . . . . . . . . 41

6.3.2 Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR) . . . . 41

6.3.3 Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA) . . . . 42

6.3.4 Pumping of Boiling Liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

6.4 Pump types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

6.4.1 Centrifugal Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

6.4.2 Diaphragm Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

6.4.3 Hydraulic Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

6.4.4 Piston Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

iv

Contents

6.4.6 Screw Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

6.4.7 Vacuum Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

7. Valves 45

7.1 Introduction to Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

7.1.1 Parts of Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

7.2 Valve Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

7.2.1 Ball Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

7.2.2 Butterfly Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

7.2.3 Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

7.2.4 Choke Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

7.2.5 Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

7.2.6 Diaphragm Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

7.2.7 Disc Valve and Gate Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

7.2.8 Globe Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

7.2.9 Knife Gate Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

7.2.10 Needle Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

7.2.11 Safety Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

v

Contents

vi

1. Introduction

Fluid mechanics deals with a huge range of topics which deal with the

behaviour of gases and liquids.

Fluid statics deals with fluids that are at rest. In other, it deals with

fluids that do not move.

Fluid dynamics deals with fluids in motion. In other words, it deals

with fluids that move.

1.1 Definitions

The three forms of matter, solid, liquid and gas, can be divided into two

groups. Solids are the matters that don’t freely change shape if force is

focused onto them. Fluids include gases and liquids. They freely change

shape if force is focused onto them.

1.1.1 Fluid

An attempt to change the shape of a fluid leads that the fluid layers slide

over each other until the new shape is achieved. During the transforma-

tion, shear stress affect the fluid layers. The value of the shear stress

depends on the viscosity of the fluid and the velocity how fast the layers

move in respect to each other. At rest, there is no shear stress in the fluid.

1.1.2 Compressibility

there are minor density changes when the pressure and temperature of

the fluid are changed, the fluid is is called incompressible. Most liq-

uids are incompressible. If the density changes easily the fluid is called

compressible. Most gases are compressible.

1

Introduction

2

2. Fluid Properties

In studying properties of fluids, one must always include the unit which

is used in describing the property. Often there are different units for the

same property. In such cases, one must convert the units of the property

to be the same. Otherwise the properties can’t be compared or used in the

same calculation.

Viscosity (µ or ν) viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to

gradual deformation by force (shear stress). For liquids, viscosity is com-

monly understood as the ”thickness” of the liquid. For example, honey has

a much higher viscosity than water. The standard SI unit for viscosity is

Pa · s = kg / (m · s).

Pressure (P ) is the force / area acting normal to a surface. The standard

SI unit for pressure is Pa (Pascal). 1 Pa = 1 kg/(m·s2 )

Density (ρ) is defined as the mass / volume. The standard SI unit for

density is kg/m3 . One cubic meter equals volume of a cube of which the

three sides are 1m each.

1 m3 = 1000 l (litres). One litre equal volume of a cube of which the three

sides are 10 cm each. Ten centimeter is 0.1 m (10cm = 0.1m) so one litre

cube is (0.1m)3 = 0.001m3 .

Velocity (v) describes how fast does the object move. Velocity has al-

ways a direction. The standard SI unit for velocity is m / s. For vehicles,

such as cars, a velocity unit km/h is often used.

1 km/h = 1000 m/3600s = 1/3.6 m/s

The flow of a fluid is steady if the pressure, density and velocity of the

fluid don’t change in time at any point. It they change, then the flow is

unsteady.

3

Fluid Properties

b) force F [N = kg·m/s2 ],

c) viscosity µ [Pa·s = kg/(m·s2 )·s = kg/(m·)s]?

9.8 N/m2 32 kg·m/s2 4 kg/(m·s2 ) 2.2 g/s·m

2.1 Viscosity

Viscosity is quantity that describes the friction between the fluid particles

(molecules). Friction tries to prevent the fluid particles to move. Viscosity

is the ”stickiness” of liquid.

Viscosity is defined by the Newton’s equation of viscosity.

dv

τ =µ (2.1)

dy

where τ is the shear stress [Pa], µ is (dynamic) viscosity [Pa · s], and

dv/dy is strain rate (velocity gradient) [s−1 ].

Figure 2.1. Two rectangular parallel plates and liquid between them. The upper plate is

pulled forward with force F .

There is liquid between two parallel plates as shown in Figure 2.1. The

distance between the plates is d. The lower plate doesn’t move. The upper

plate of which the area is A is pulled with force F . This creates a velocity

v for the upper plate.

After a while, the liquid that was located between the plates has moved

(2.2).

4

Fluid Properties

Figure 2.2. The upper plate has moved forward and has dragged the upper layers of

liquid forward, too.

The liquid close to the upper plate has moved with a velocity v. The

liquid close to the lower plate has not moved: v = 0. This has created a

velocity difference in the fluid between the two plates.

F

The
upper
plate
is
pulled.

profile is not stabilized.

stabilized.

Figure 2.3. The velocity profile in the liquid between two plates at different time step.

Change of velocity is linearly proportional to the force F which is used

for pulling the upper plate. Change of velocity is inversely proportional to

the area A of the plates as seen in equation 2.2.

F dv

τ= =µ (2.2)

A dy

where µ is dynamic viscosity [kg / ms], F is force [N], A is area [m2 ], and

dv/dy is velocity gradient [1/s].

Other units for dynamic viscosity µ are 1 kg / m s = 1 PI (Poiseulle) = 1

Pa s = 1 N s / m2 = 10 P (Poise) = 10 g / cm s = 1000 cP (centipoise).

5

Fluid Properties

At room temperature, typical viscosity for gases is about 0.01 mPas and

for liquids about 1 mPas.

Kinematic viscosity is defined as follows

µ

ν= (2.3)

ρ

As seen in the equation 2.3, kinematic viscosity is the dynamic viscosity

divided by the density of the fluid. The unit for kinematic viscosity is m2 /s.

Often centistokes (cSt) are used: 1 cSt = 1 · 10−6 m2 /s.

The viscosity of liquids decreases with increasing temperature. Liquid

expands and creates more space between liquid molecules. It follows that

intermolecular forces become weaker. As a result viscosity gets lower.

The viscosity of gases increases with increasing temperature at low pres-

sures. However, at high pressures, the viscosity decreases. At high pres-

sures, gas start to behave as liquid.

Fluids can be divided into two groups based on their flow characteristics.

Newtonian fluids are named after Isaac Newton, who first derived the

relation between the rate of shear strain rate and shear stress.

Newtonian fluids follow the equation 2.1. It means that shear stress is

linearly proportional to the strain rate (velocity gradient). In other words,

viscosity is constant despite strain rate.

All gases and most liquids are Newtonian fluids. Especially those liquids

that are ”thin” i.e. that have low viscosity are Newtonian. These include

water, benzine, thin motor oil, etc.

Non-Newtonian fluids do not follow equation 2.1 but their viscosity de-

pends on the strain rate.

Non-Newtonian fluids include many slurries, colloidical solutions, paints,

resins, lubricants, etc.

Non-Newtonian fluids are classified into three classes: Bingham plas-

6

Fluid Properties

dv/dy

Newtonian

Bingham
plastic

Pseudoplastic

Dilatant

Strain
rate τ

τ0 Shear
stress

Figure 2.4. The relation between strain rate and shear stress of pseudoplastic, Newto-

nian, dilatant, and Bingham plastic fluids.

tic fluids, pseudoplastic fluids and dilatant fluids. In addition, there are

other non-Newtonian fluids that don’t belong into these categories. their

viscosity may be a function of mixing time. It means that the viscosity is

not constant but changes if the fluid is mixed for a long time.

A Bingham plastic is material that behaves as a rigid body at low stresses

but flows as a viscous fluid at high stress. After a Bingham plastic mate-

rial achieves the stress level (τ0 = yield stress), it starts move as a viscous

fluid and its viscosity is constant (as it is with Newtonian fluids).

Examples of Bingham plastics include lubricants, toothpaste, whipped

cream, mayonnaise, ketchup, honey, yogurt, etc. also many metals (at

high temperature) are Bingham plastic.

Pseudoplastic Fluids

The viscosity of pseudoplastic fluid decreases (the fluid becomes ”thinner”)

when the shear stress increses. The shear stress is non-linearly propor-

tional to the strain rate.

Pseudoplastic fluids include polymer solutions, tomato juice, blood, quick-

sand, etc. Most non-Newtonian fluids are pseudoplastic.

Dilatant Fluids

Dilatant fluids become more viscous under pressure. Their viscosity in-

creases with increasing strain rate.

Dilatant fluids include PVC (poly vinyl chloride) paste, sand-water sus-

7

Fluid Properties

The ideal gas law is called the equation of state of ideal gas. In prac-

tise, gases are non ideal but real. The ideal gas las is still often a good

approximation to the behaviour of many gases.

Typically, if the pressure is low and temperature is high gases behave

close to ideally. At low pressures and high pressures, the ideal gas law is

a good approximation.

If temperature is low and pressure high, gases behave non-ideally. At

these conditions, ideal gas law gives unreliable results for gas behaviour.

The ideal gas law is written

P V = nRT (2.4)

ideal gas constant 8.31441 [J/mol K], and T temperature of the gas [K].

At standard state, the temperature is T = 25◦ C = 298 K and the pres-

sure is normal atmospheric pressure p = 101325 Pa. At these condi-

tions, one mole of (any ideal) gas takes the volume Vm = 22.41383 dm3

= 0.02241383 m3 .

a) at 100◦ C and at atmospheric pressure?

b) at 100◦ C and at 5 bar

c) at standard state?

You can assume that the gas behaves like ideal gas. The molar mass of

carbon is 12.01 g/mol and of oxygen 16.00 g/mol.

Solution: a) VCO2 = 0.7m3 , VO2 =1.0m3 b) VCO2 =0.1m3 , VO2 =0.2m3 c) VCO2 =0.5m3 ,

VO2 =0.7m3 .

8

3. Fluid Statics

at rest. Fluid dynamics studies fluids in motion. Pneumatics makes

use of gas or pressurised air. Hydraulics deals with the engineering of

equipment for storing, transporting and using fluids. Hydraulics studies

the mechanical properties of liquids or fluids. Hydraulics can be called

"the liquid version of pneumatics".

uses an easily compressible gas such as air – while hydraulics uses rela-

tively incompressible liquid such as oil.

Most industrial pneumatic applications use pressures of about 550 to

690 kPa. Hydraulics applications commonly use from 6.9 to 34.5 MPa

(1,000 to 5,000 psi), but specialized applications may even exceed 69 MPa

(10,000 psi).

In fluid power, hydraulics are used for the generation, control, and trans-

mission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics con-

tain a wide range of science and engineering topics, such as pipe flow,

dam design, fluid control circuitry, pumps, turbines, hydropower, compu-

tational fluid dynamics, flow measurement, river channel behaviour and

erosion.

Pneumatics are used among others in air brakes on buses and trucks, air

compressors, control systems (as pneumatic actuators), pressure sensors,

and vacuum pumps.

9

Fluid Statics

Advantages of Pneumatics

• Simplicity of design and control – Machines are easily designed using stan-

dard cylinders and other components, and operate via simple on-off control.

require little maintenance.

Gas absorbs excessive force, whereas fluid in hydraulics directly transfers

force. Compressed gas can be stored, so machines still run for a while if

electrical power is lost.

• Safety – There is a very low chance of fire compared to hydraulic oil. Newer

machines are usually overload safe.

Advantages of Hydraulics

• Liquid does not absorb any of the supplied energy.

• Capable of moving much higher loads and providing much higher forces

due to the incompressibility.

mum of spring action.

• When hydraulic fluid flow is stopped, the slightest motion of the load re-

leases the pressure on the load; there is no need to "bleed off" pressurized

air to release the pressure on the load.

A fluid cannot remain at rest under the presence of a shear stress. How-

ever, fluids can exert pressure normal to any contacting surface. This

allows fluids to transmit force.

The force applied to a fluid in a pipe is transmitted, via the fluid, to the

other end of the pipe. This principle was first formulated by Blaise Pascal,

and is now called Pascal’s law.

gravity. By definition hydrostatic pressure is the product of the density of

the fluid ρ [kg/m3 ], the gravitational constant g [m/s2 ], and the height of

10

Fluid Statics

p = ρgh (3.1)

a tube is pressed with F1 to the surface area A1 the pressure is transferred

to the other end of the tube. The pressure is the same but if the area A2

is larger, also the force F2 is larger.

F1/ F2 = A1 / A2

F2

F1

A1 A2

Figure 3.1. In hydraulic press, the pressure is constant. Higher lifting forces are created

if the surface area A2 is larger than the input area A1 .

How heavy object can be lifted by using a one kilogram weigh in a hy-

draulic press where one area in contact with the hydraulic liquid is a

circle of radius of 5 cm and the other area is 4 m2 ?

Solution: 510 kg.

There are two factors affecting the hydrostatic pressure: external pres-

sure outside the fluid and hydrostatic pressure inside the fluid. External

pressure may be atmospheric pressure. In a cylinder, extra pressure is

created if a piston is pushed downwards.

Hydrostatic pressure depends on the gravity, density of the fluid and the

height of the fluid from the measurement point to the surface. Notice that

the total volume of the fluid does not affect the hydrostatic pressure. Sim-

11

Fluid Statics

ilarly, the shape of the container does not affect the hydrostatic pressure.

If external pressure on a liquid is changed, the change is immediately

valid throughout the liquid. It is called Pascal’s Law. Pascal’s Law is

due to the incompressibility of liquid and it is utilized in hydraulics.

Hydrostatic pressure has to be taken into account e.g. in building dams.

There is higher hydrostatic pressure at the lower part of the dam. There-

fore, the dam is thicker at lower part.

If a glass full of air is turned upside down and pushed in a water bath,

water doesn’t fill the glass. Water level rises slightly inside the glass be-

cause hydrostatic pressure compresses the air volume.

If a glass filled with water is turned upside down in a water bath, the

upper part of the glass can be lifted above the water level with water

inside it.

Atmospheric pressure is the mass of the air above the measurement point

focused on area. Atmospheric pressure is the weigh of ”an air column”

that you feel on top of your head.

The definition of pressure and force are given in equations 3.2 and 3.3.

F

p = (3.2)

A

F = mg (3.3)

where F is force [N] and A is area [m2 ]. The force F is caused by the

gravity as g is gravitational constant [9.81 m/s2 ] and m is the mass of the

air [kg].

The unit for atmospheric pressure is Pa (Pascal). Also hPa (hehtopascal)

or mbar (millibar) is used. Earlier, mmHg (millimeter of mercury) was

also used.

Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level is 101325 Pa = 1.01325 bar

that corresponds 760 mmHg. The atmospheric pressure at sea level varies

between 0.9 kPa and 1.1 kPa. The lowest values are measured in tropical

storms.

Atmospheric pressure decreases the higher the measurement point is

from sea level. A rise of 8 m corresponds approximately 1 mBar decrease

in atmospheric pressure.

12

Fluid Statics

3.2.3 Buoyancy

Any body which is immersed in a fluid will experience a net force in the

opposite direction of the local pressure gradient i.e. towards the lower

pressure. If this pressure gradient is caused by gravity, the net force is

in the vertical force upwards. This vertical force is called buoyancy (or

buoyant force) and buoyancy is equal in magnitude, but opposite in direc-

tion, to the weight of the displaced fluid.

Mathematically,

F = ρgV (3.4)

where F is the force [N], ρ is the density of the fluid, g is the gravitational

constant [9.81 m/s2 ], and V is the volume of the displaced fluid [m3 ].

Discovery of the principle of buoyancy is attributed to Archimedes of

Syracuse and it is dated 212 B.C.

to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

– Archimedes of Syracuse

The weight of the displaced fluid is directly proportional to the volume

of the displaced fluid. In simple terms, the buoyancy force on an object

is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object, or the density

of the fluid multiplied by the submerged volume times the gravitational

acceleration, g. Thus, among completely submerged objects with equal

masses, objects with greater volume have greater buoyancy. This is also

known as upthrust.

Archimedes’ principle can be reformulated as follows:

If you drop wood into water, buoyancy will keep it afloat.

Buoyancy reduces the apparent weight of objects that have sunk com-

pletely. It is easier to lift an object up through the water than it is to pull

it out of the water.

13

Fluid Statics

forces from the surrounding water, allowing it to float. If more cargo is

loaded onto the ship, it would sink more into the water – displacing more

water and thus receive a higher buoyant force to balance the increased

weight.

A glass weighs 100g and its density is 2600 kg/m3 . The inner volume of

the glass is 2 dl. How much water and how much air should the upside

down glass contain so that the glass and its contents would weigh exactly

as much as the displaced water? You can assume that the density of water

is 1000 kg/m3 and the density of air is 1.225 kg/m3 .

Solution: Vwater = 1.38 dl, Vair =0.62 dl.

How big part of ice floats above water level if ρwater =1000 kg/m3 and

ρice =917 kg/m3 ?

Solution: 8.3% above water level and 91.7% below water level.

external forces or even against gravity. It is caused by intermolecular

forces between the liquid and surrounding solid surfaces.

Surface tension makes liquids acquire the least surface area possible

so in absence of other forces they tend to form a sphere. Cohesive forces

draw the liquid molecules together.

When a dry paint-brush is put into paint, the liquid draws up between the

hairs of a paint-brush.

In a thin tube or in porous materials such as paper the liquid level rises

up.

If little water is spread between two (glass) plates, the water ”glues” the

plates together. More force is needed to separate the plates.

Water forms separate round droplets on waxy surface because of surface

tension.

If water and oil are shaken, they tend to separate naturally. First they

form droplets. Then they form a clear boundary between the two phases.

14

4. Fluid Dynamics

difference between laminar and turbulent flow.

In the experiment, he used a glass tube with water flow. There was a

small needle in the middle of the tube into which he inserted colouring.

At small flow rates, the coloured line remained clear and distinct inde-

pendent on the location where the colouring was inserted.

If the flow rate was increased, the colour string started oscillating and

had small eddies. If the flow rate was further increased, the distinct colour

disappeared but got mixed with the whole flow. Laminar flow had turned

into turbulent.

The experiment could be performed the other way round. By decreasing

the flow rate, the distinct colour string appeared in the middle of the flow.

The flow turned back to laminar.

Based on the experiments, Mr. Reynolds deducted that the flow rate,

the diameter of the tube, the density and the viscosity affected the flow

behaviour. Mr. Reynolds introduced a dimensionless number that today

is named Reynolds number.

vDρ

Re = (4.1)

µ

where ρ is density [kg/m3 ], D is diameter of the pipe [m], v is (average)

velocity [m/s], and µ is dynamic viscosity [kg/ms]. If the fluid velocity is

not known but the volumetric flow V̇ [m3 /s] and cross-sectional area A

[m2 ] of the pipe is known, the fluid velocity can be calculated based on

equation 4.2

15

Fluid Dynamics

v = V̇ /A (4.2)

The critical value for the Reynolds number is about 2100–2300. Below

the value flow is laminar and above it is turbulent.

Turbulent

flow
profile

Laminar

flow
profile

Figure 4.1. Laminar and turbulent flow profiles differ from each other.

2100 and practically always turbulent if the Reynolds number is higher

than 4000. In the transient area, the flow is either laminar or turbulent

which depends on the conditions.

The flow profile of an incompressible liquid is not flat. Closest to the wall,

the flow rate is close to zero. The flow rate increases towards the centre

of the flow where it achieves its maximum as seen in Figure 4.1. The

laminar flow can be thought to be flow of independent fluid payers that

move parallel in the same direction. Only the velocity of the fluid levels

varies as seen in Figure 4.2a.

16

Fluid Dynamics

Laminar flow is typical at conditions where the flow rate is small, the

diameter of the tube is small, and the viscosity is high.

Industry mainly uses turbulent flow.

In turbulent flow, the fluid particles move mainly forward in the pipe in

macro scale. In micro scale, the fluid particles move also side ways and

form eddies. This mixes the flow very effectively as seen in Figure 4.2b.

(a) (b)

Figure 4.2. Flow profiles. (a) Laminar. (b) Turbulent flow contains eddies.

Calculate the Reynolds Number for the following flows. Is the flow lami-

nar or turbulent?

a) Water is flowing in a pipe with inner diameter of 45 mm at 5 ◦ C. The

average velocity of the flow is 1.2 m/s. The density and viscosity of water

at 5 ◦ C are 999.992 kg/m3 and 1.5188 mPas.

b) Water is flowing in a pipe with inner diameter of 45 mm at 80 ◦ C. The

average velocity of the flow is 3.5 m/s. The density and viscosity of water

at 80 ◦ C are 971.829 kg/m3 and 0.3565 mPas.

c) Oil is flowing in a pipe with inner diameter of 30 cm at 20 ◦ C. The

average velocity of the flow is 2.5 m/s. The density and viscosity of oil at

20 ◦ C are 940 kg/m3 and 0.54 Pas.

Solution: a) 35554, turbulent b) 429349, turbulent, c) 1306, laminar

17

Fluid Dynamics

compressibility: gases are compressible but liquids are not. Compress-

ible flow studies the flows having significant changes in fluid density.

Mach Number is used. Mach Number is the ratio of the speed of the flow

to the speed of sound. It must be greater than about 0.3 (since the density

change is greater than 5% in that case) before significant compressibility

occurs.

The study of compressible flow is relevant among others to high-speed

aircraft, jet engines, rocket motors, and gas pipelines.

The Mach Number (M ) is defined as the ratio of the speed of an object (or

of a flow) to the speed of sound. For instance, in air at room temperature,

the speed of sound is about 340 m/s. M can range from 0 to ∞. It is

divided into several flow regimes. These regimes are subsonic, transonic,

supersonic, hypersonic, and hypervelocity flow. Figure 4.4 illustrates the

Mach number ”spectrum” of these flow regimes.

At very slow flow speeds the speed of sound is so much faster that the

Mach number is irrelevant. Once the speed of the flow approaches the

18

Fluid Dynamics

Figure 4.4. The speed of flow in comparison to the speed of sound waves.

speed of sound, the Mach number becomes crucial. This is when shock

waves begin to appear. In the supersonic regime, the flow is dominated

by wave motion. The waves have smaller angles than 90◦ . The higher the

speed, the smaller the angle.

Above about Mach 5, these wave angles grow so small that it is called hy-

personic speed regime. Finally, at speeds comparable to that of planetary

atmospheric entry from orbit, in the range of several km/s, the speed of

sound is now comparatively so slow that it is called hypervelocity regime.

The limit between incompressible flow regime and subsonic flow regime

is at Mach 0.3. How fast should you drive by a car to reach velocity where

the air flow can not be considered incompressible? The speed of sound at

sea level is approximately 340 m/s.

Solution: 370 km/h.

An aircraft is cruising at speed 500 mph at altitude 35000 ft. The speed

of sound at this altitude is approximately 300 m/s. Calculate the Mach

Number. What is the flow regime?

Solution: Mach 0.75, subsonic

19

Fluid Dynamics

What are the velocities and flow regimes of the following vehicles at alti-

tude of 11 km where the speed of sound is approximately 293 m/s

a) A hornet flying at Mach 1?

b) Concorde airplane flying at Mach 2?

c) A missile flying at Mach 3?

Solution: a) 1050 km/h, sonic b) 2100 km/h, supersonic c) 3160 km/h,

supersonic.

What is the velocity of a space shuttle when it enters Earth’s atmosphere

at Mach 25 over 100 km above the sea level? The speed of sound at this

altitude is approximately 285 m/s.

Solution: 25700 km/h ≈ 7 km/s.

In fluid dynamics, the continuity equation states that, in any steady state

process, the rate at which mass enters a system is equal to the rate at

which mass leaves the system.

The differential form of the continuity equation is shown in equation 4.6

∂ρ

+ ∇ · (ρu) = 0 (4.6)

∂t

where ρ is fluid density [kg/m3 ], t is time [s], u is the flow velocity vector

field.

If ρ is a constant, as in the case of incompressible flow, the mass conti-

nuity equation simplifies to a volume continuity equation

∇·u=0 (4.7)

Physically, it means that the local volume change rate is zero.

ing in technical field or in process industry need to know how to write bal-

ances. The most commonly used balances are mass and energy balances.

The basic form of a balance is as follows:

20

Fluid Dynamics

For a component x,

the amount that accumulates inside the balance area =

+ how much x comes into the balance area

- how much x goes away from the balance area

+ how much x is generated inside the balance area.

The balance is done for a specific balance area that has borders.

The process can be at steady state or at unsteady state. Steady state

means that there are no changes in time. In other words, the flows prop-

erties are the same all the time. At unsteady state there are changes in

time. For example when a tank full of water is emptied through a hole at

the bottom of the tank the flow rate of water changes. First, the flow is

very fast. But then, the flow gets slower as there is less water in the tank.

The last drops of water come out very slowly.

1. Draw a picture.

Crude oil is pumped in pipes. The mass flow is 7 m3 /h. The pipeline has a

junction. The input pipe splits the flow in three smaller pipe lines. 5 m3 /h

is directed to pipeline A. 30% of the remaining flow goes to pipeline B and

rest to pipeline C. What are the flow rates of pipelines A, B, and C?

Solution: ṁA = 5.0 m3 /h, ṁB = 0.6 m3 /h, ṁC = 1.4 m3 /h.

21

Fluid Dynamics

Calculate the total mass flow rates for the system shown in Figure 4.5

assuming that the ṁ1 = 10.0 kg/h and ṁ5 = 0.5 kg/h. In addition, ṁ6 =

0.1·ṁ2 and ṁ7 = 0.3·ṁ3 .

Solution: ṁ1 = 10.0 kg/h, ṁ2 = 16.1 kg/h, ṁ3 = 15.0 kg/h, ṁ4 = 10.5 kg/h,

ṁ5 = 0.5 kg/h, ṁ6 = 1.6 kg/h, ṁ7 = 4.5 kg/h.

An important practical example is the flow of heat. When heat flows

inside a solid, the continuity equation can be combined with Fourier’s law

(heat flux is proportional to temperature gradient) to arrive at the heat

equation. Although energy cannot be created or destroyed, heat can be

created from other types of energy. For example, potential energy can be

transformed into kinetic energy (motion).

Water is dammed to form a lake.At the top of the dam water is still but

a small amount of water flows over the dam. What is the velocity of the

water when it hits ground?

Solution: 15 m/s2

The law says that when the velocity increases the pressure decreases. It is

applied to incompressible fluids. It can be used for compressible flows if

22

Fluid Dynamics

In a closed tube the total energy of the flow is constant. There are vari-

ous types of energy but overall sum is constant. Potential energy depends

on the static pressure. Kinetic energy depends on the motion. Then there

is dynamic pressure.

Since the overall sum of energy is constant, if kinetic energy increases

the static pressure must decrease and vice versa. The sum of static and

dynamic pressure is constant.

Bernouilli’s Law is expressed in equation 4.11.

1

p + ρgy + ρv 2 = constant (4.11)

2

where p is the pressure of the fluid [Pa], ρ is the density of the fluid

(constant) [kg/m3 ], g is the gravitational constant [9.81 m/s2 ], y is the

height of the tube [m], and v is the velocity of the fluid [m/s].

Often the change in height along the streamline is so small that it can be

ignored. Then, the simplified form of Bernoulli’s equation can be written

as follows:

Air plane wing is more round on the upper side than on the lower side.

When the engines push the wing forward, the air must go around the

wing. The distance on the upper side of the wing is longer so the air

moves faster. It creates smaller pressure on the air wing that lifts the

wing upwards.

In a tube where fluid flows inside, the velocity increases and pressure

decreases if the tube gets narrower.

At 1.5 bar, 10kg/s of water at 67◦ C flows in a pipe. The radius of the pipe

changes from 5 cm to 3 cm. What is the change in pressure and in the

velocity of the water? The density of water at 67◦ C is 979.4 kg/m3 .

Solution: The velocity increases from 1.3 m/s to 3.6 m/s and the pres-

sure decreases from 1.5 bar to 1.4 bar.

23

Fluid Dynamics

24

5. Pressure Drop in Pipes

of a fluid carrying network. Pressure drop occurs when frictional forces,

caused by the resistance to flow, act on a fluid as it flows through the

tube. The main determinants of resistance to fluid flow are fluid velocity

through the pipe and fluid viscosity.

Pressure drop increases proportional to the frictional shear forces within

the piping network. A piping network containing a high relative rough-

ness rating as well as many pipe fittings and joints, turns, surface rough-

ness and other physical properties will affect the pressure drop.

High flow velocities and / or high fluid viscosities result in a larger pres-

sure drop across a section of pipe or a valve. Low velocity will result in

lower or no pressure drop.

There is pressure drop in pipes just because of the friction between the

fluid and the pipe inner wall. The smoother the wall is, the less the pres-

sure decreases.

The roughness expresses the average height of the small bumps on the

wall. The more friction the wall creates the rougher the surface is.

roughness

Relative roughness = = (5.1)

diameter D

In the table 5.1 some roughnesses for typical pipe materials are pre-

sented.

25

Pressure Drop in Pipes

Riveted steel 0.001 . . . 0.01

Concrete 0.0003 . . . 0.003

Wood stave 0.0002 . . . 0.001

Cast iron 0.0003

Galvanized iron 0.00017

Cast iron – asphalt dipped 0.00013

Steel (stainless) 0.00003

Drawn tubing 0.0000017

Cu and Al 0.0000015

What is the relative roughness for the following pipes:

a) drawn tubing of plastic, inner diameter 20 mm

b) steel pipe, inner diameter 50 mm

c) concrete pipe, inner diameter 600 mm

Solution: a) 0.000085, b) 0.0006, c) 0.005

ξ. One way to calculate the ξ is to use Darcy–Weisbach equation. The

Darcy friction factor (resistance coefficient) has a specific symbol fD

that distinguishes it from other friction factors.

The Darcy–Weisbach equation is a phenomenological equation, which

relates the pressure drop (head loss) due to friction along a given length

of pipe to the average velocity of the fluid flow for an incompressible fluid.

Head loss due to viscous effects in a circular cross section of pipe with

length L can be characterized by the Darcy–Weisbach equation.

L v2

hf = fD · · (5.2)

D 2g

where hf is the head loss due to friction [m], L is the length of the pipe

[m], D is the hydraulic diameter of the pipe [m], v is the average flow

velocity, (the volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional wetted area)

[m/s], g is the gravitational constant [m/s2 ], and fD is a dimensionless

parameter (Darcy) friction factor, resistance coefficient. Friction factor fD

can be found from a Moody diagram (see Figure 5.1) or calculated.

26

Pressure Drop in Pipes

fD = 64/Re (5.3)

For turbulent flow the friction factor fD is a function of Reynolds Num-

ber and relative roughness.

fD = f Re, (5.4)

D

For turbulent flow, methods for finding the friction factor fD include

using a diagram such as the Moody diagram.

What is the Darcy friction factor at Reynolds Number 8000000 for the

three pipes of which the relative roughness was calculated in the previous

example?

Solution: a) 0.014, b) 0.018, c) 0.32

The head loss hf expresses the pressure drop (pressure decrease) in me-

ters [m]. The pressure drop expressed in meters can be converted into

pressure drop in pascals by using equation 5.5, into meters by using equa-

tion 5.6, and into energy per mass by using equation 5.7.

hf

Head loss in meters [m] = (5.6)

ρ·g

Head loss in energy [J/kg] = hf (5.7)

The Darcy–Weisbach equation can also be written in terms of pressure

loss by combining equations 5.2 and 5.5

L ρv 2

∆p = fD · · (5.8)

D 2

where the pressure drop due to friction ∆p [Pa] is a function of L/D, the

ratio of the length to diameter of the pipe [m/m]; ρ the density of the fluid

[kg/m3 ]; v, the mean flow velocity [m/s]; and fD friction factor [no unit].

What is the pressure drop in a 300 m long pipe of which the inner diame-

ter is 300 mm steel pipe? The average flow rate is 2.5 m/s and the flowing

27

Pressure Drop in Pipes

Figure 5.1. Moody diagram showing the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor fD plotted

against Reynolds Number Re for various relative roughness / D.

28

Pressure Drop in Pipes

fluid is

a) water at 20◦ C.

b) water at 50◦ C.

c) oil at 20◦ C and ρ = 940 kg/m3 and µ = 0.54 Pa s.

Solution: a) ∆p = 43 kPa, b) ∆p = 40 kPa, c) ∆p = 144 kPa.

If Re < 2100 → ξ = 64/Re

If Re > 2100 → ξ is taken from the Moody’s diagram.

If Re > 3000 and the Moody’s diagram cannot be used, the Colebrook

equation can be used. Moody’s diagram is the graphical illustration of it

at turbulent flow regime.

!

1 2.5226

√ = −2.0 log + √ (5.9)

ξ 3.7065D Re ξ

When the flow meets a change in the flow direction or in the cross-sectional

area of the pipe, there is locally extra pressure drop caused by local resis-

tance factor ζ. Pressure drop is calculated by the equation 5.10

v2

∆p = ζρ (5.10)

2

The value of the ζ depends on the type and quality of the local resis-

tance. Local resistance is caused by valves, turns, T-joints, divergence,

convergence, pipe fittings, measurement equipment, and inputs or out-

puts to vessels.

T–joint

The pressure drop for a t-joint depends on the flow direction. Below are

listed ranges for ζ for T–joint flows.

flow through ζ = 1.0 – 1.15

divide flow ζ = 1.5 – 1.9

combine flow ζ = 4.3 –5.3

29

Pressure Drop in Pipes

Pressure drop in turns increases if the turn gets sharper. In Table 5.2,

estimates of the friction losses in round turns of 90◦ and in sharp turns

are listed.

In round turns, the R is the radius from the centre of the turn to the

centre line of the flow and d is the diameter of the pipe as shown in Figure

5.2.

Roundness ζi Angle ζi

R=d 0.51 15◦ 0.1

R = 1.5d 0.40 30◦ 0.2

R = 2d 0.30 45◦ 0.35

R = 4d 0.23 60◦ 0.7

R = 6d 0.18 90◦ 1.3

There is pressure drop when the fluid leaves the vessel and when the fluid

enters the vessel. The pressure drop increases if the tube end is partly

inside the vessel.

Simple outlet (pipe entrance sharp corner) ζ = 0.5

Outlet (pipe entrance, tube partly inside) → ζ = 1.0

Simple feed (pipe exit) ζ = 1.0

The flow resistance decreases, if the pipe widens inside the vessel.

30

Pressure Drop in Pipes

There is pressure drop in valves. Below are listed some typical friction

losses for different valve types.

Butterfly valve ζ = 0.8

Knife gate valve ζ = 0.2

Needle valve ζ = 30–300

Check valve ζ = 2–4

Diaphragm valve ζ = 2.3

Ball valve ζ = 0.8

What is the total resistance factor ζ of the piping that has two round turns

of 90◦ (R=d) and a T–joint (flow through) between a butterfly valve and a

ball valve?

Solution: 3.62-3.77.

Water at 20◦ C is flowing with a velocity 2.5m/s in a steel pipe that is 300

m long and its inner diameter is 300 mm. The pipe has one round turn

of 90◦ (R=2d), a diaphragm valve and a check valve (ζ=2.5). What is the

total pressure drop in the piping?

Solution: 58 kPa.

a

hb

ha

Wp

31

Pressure Drop in Pipes

Ea = Eb (5.11)

where Ea is the total energy entering the balance area and Eb is the

total energy exiting the balance area. The change in total energy depends

typically on the following changes:

1. Static pressure p

2. Potential energy Epot = ρgh

3. Kinetic energy Ekin = 21 αρv 2

4. Friction and flow resistances hf

5. Heat q

6. Work W

of the fluid. Changes in potential energy are caused by changes in the

height level of the flow. Changes in kinetic energy are caused by differ-

ence in the fluid velocity. Friction and flow resistances are caused by

individual elements of the fluid flow route, such as wall roughness, flow

resistance at joints, in curves, and in valves. A friction factor can be de-

fined for these elements. Heat exchanger changes the heat of the fluid.

Pump works and generates extra energy into the fluid.

For the process shown in figure 5.3 the equation writes in [J/m3 ]

1 1

pa + ρgha + αρva2 + ρηp Wp = pb V̇b + ρghb + αρvb2 + ρhf + q(5.13)

2 2

1 ∆L X 2

hf = ξ + ζi v (5.14)

2 D

The values for ξ and ζ can be taken from tables.

Often it is reasonable to calculate the work of pump W .

1

ρηp Wp = pb − pa + ρg hb − ha + ρ αb vb2 − αa va2 + ρhf (5.16)

2

The kinetic energy correction factor α takes into account the viscous

effects of the flow. It has two values: one for turbulent flow and one for

laminar flow:

32

Pressure Drop in Pipes

α = 1.05 Turbulent flow

(α = 1.0 Turbulent non-viscous flow in engineering problems)

kinetic correction can be ignored because the error (α = 1.05 ≈ 1.0) would

be small in respect to other sources of error.

900 m3 /h of benzene flows from a storage tank to the transport tank

through a cast iron pipe of which the diameter is 225 mm. The trans-

port tank is located 5 m lower than the storage tank. The length of the

piping is 15 m and it has two round turns of 90◦ (R=1.5d) and two ball

valves. The pipe entrance (sharp corner) is 7 m under the liquid level and

the pipe exit into transport tank is is above the liquid level. Pressure in

storage tank is 1 bar.

What is the pressure in the transport tank?

ρbenzene = 751 kg/m3 , µbenzene = 5.29 mPas

Solution: 1.2 bar

95 m3 /h of crude oil is pumped from a storage tank (pa = 1.0 bar) up to 18 m

high level (from the surface of the storage tank) into a vacuum column

(pb = 0.4 bar). The length of the pipe is 540 m, the outer diameter is

150 mm and the wall thickness 4 mm. The resistance factor ζ and kinetic

energy change can be ignored. The roughness of the pipe is 0.001 m. The

density of the crude oil is 890 kg/m3 and the viscosity µ = 3.43Pas.

a) What is the pump power when the efficiency of the pump is 100%?

b) What is the pump power whenthe efficiency of the pump is 85%?

c) What is the discharge head (in meters) of the pump for a) and b)?

Solution: a) 120 kW, b) 140 kW, c) 530 m

Equation

three different units: pressure [Pa], energy/mass [J/kg] or height [m].

33

Pressure Drop in Pipes

1

ρηp Wp = pb − pa + ρg hb − ha + ρ αb vb2 − αa va2 + ρhf

2

Energy/Mass [J/kg] : (5.18)

pb − pa 1

η p Wp = + g hb − ha + αb vb2 − αa va2 + hf

ρ 2

Height [m] : (5.19)

ηp W p pb − pa 1 h

f

= + hb − ha + αb vb2 − αa va2 +

g g 2·g g

where !

L X v2

hf = ξ + ζi (5.20)

D 2

Pressure Difference

Pressure difference is the difference of the static pressures on the liquid

surfaces at a and b.

∆p = pb − pa (5.21)

Height Difference

The height difference is the difference of the liquid surfaces a and b.

∆h = hb − ha (5.22)

The velocity of the fluid determines the kinetic energy at the balance area

borders a and b. !

v2 v2

∆pkin = ρ αb b − αa a (5.23)

2 2

The correction factor α has two values for the fluid:

2 for laminar flow

1.05 for turbulent flow.

There are two options for the velocity at the balance area border:

at the pipe exit/entrance the velocity v 6= 0

far from the pipe exit/entrance where the velocity v = 0.

1. If both balance area borders are next to the same pipe line and the diam-

eter of the pipe doesn’t change the velocity doesn’t change:

∆v = 0 → ∆pkin = 0.

34

Pressure Drop in Pipes

2. If both balance area ends are far from the pipe exit/entrance, the velocity

doesn’t change:

∆v = 0.

However, the local resistances for the pipe exit and entrance into the con-

tainer/tank need to be taken into account in head losses hf .

3. If one end of the balance area is at the pipe and the other far from the pipe

exit/entrance, there is a velocity difference:

∆pkin 6= 0.

35

Pressure Drop in Pipes

36

6. Pumps

conditions. Finally, few typical pump types are presented.

A pump is a device that moves fluids by mechanical action. There are six

methods how to transfer the fluid:

• Centrifugal force

• Displacement

• Mechanical impuls

• Electromagnetic field

• Gravity

There are some criteria set for the fluid transfer. Some of them are triv-

ial such as the pump must not accumulate fluid (it must not leak) or the

consistency of the fluid must maintain the same. Often, the temperature

of the fluid should also be kept constant by using insulation. Also the

discharge pressure may be set.

Often pumps are classified based on their function or type into three cat-

egories: centrifugal pumps, displacement pumps and other pumps. Cen-

trifugal pumps include e.g. radial and axial flow pumps. Displacement

pumps are further classified into three categories based on the type of

moving the fluid. Back and forth movement is the basis of piston pumps

and diaphragm pumps. Rotating movement is the basis of screw pumps.

Other displacement pumps include e.g. impulsing displacement pumps.

Other pumps include e.g. impulse pumps.

37

Pumps

pump. However, very viscous fluids are not suitable for centrifugal pumps.

The main components in a pump are the casing, impeller, backing plate,

shaft and shaft seal, and the motor adapter. Some pumps have the back-

ing plate as part of the casing in which case you would have a removable

cover.

probrewer.com

In centrifugal pumps, the fluid flows from the suction head to the im-

peller. The fluid goes through the impeller blades to the discharge head.

The pump motor transfers the input energy into kinetic energy. the ef-

ficiency η tells how much of the input energy is transferred into kinetic

energy. Always some energy is lost (as heat).

curves. These pump curves show

38

Pumps

learneasy.info

Figure 6.2. Pump curves that show the performance of specific pumps.

Use the pump curve presented in Figure 6.2 and answer the following

questions:

1. What is the total head (∆h) in meters and in feet when

a) the impeller diameter (φ) is 342 mm and volumetric flow V̇ is 100 l/s?

b) the impeller diameter (φ) is 291 mm and volumetric flo V̇ is 350 m3 /h?

2. What is the efficiency (ηp ) and total head (∆h) when

a) φ = 274 mm and V̇ is 62 l/s?

b) φ = 308 mm and V̇ is 400 m3 /h?

3. What is NPSH required for

a) all impeller sizes at 1000 gallons per minute?

b) for φ = 274 and for φ = 342 mm at V̇ = 450 m3 /h?

4. What is the pump power Pp at V̇ = 68 l/s for

a) φ = 291 mm?

b) φ = 352 mm?

5. What is the power (Pp ), efficiency (ηp ), and volumetric flow rate (V̇ )

39

Pumps

when

a) total head (∆h) is 30 m and φ = 291 mm?

b) total head (∆h) is 30 m and φ = 342 mm?

6. What impeller size should you select for a pumping task where the

total head ∆h is 35 m? What is the volumetric flow rate then?

Solution: 1.a) 35 m (115 ft), b) 20.5 m (62 ft) 2.a) 21.5 m, 73%, b) 23.5 m,

77 % 3.a) 3.5 m, b) φ=274 mm → 8.5 m, φ=342 mm → 4.5 m 4.a) 22 kW,

b) 32 kW 5.a) 26 kW, 73%, 64 l/s, b) 48 kW, 76%, 127 l/s 6. Option 1:

φ=325 mm and V̇ =68 l/s, Option 2: φ=342 mm and V̇ =100 l/s.

Operating point

System curve

Figure 6.3. The operation point is where the selected pump performance curve and the

piping performance curve cross each other.

(in meters) and the pump curve (head loss in meters) are needed. These

curves are plotted in the same figure as a function of volumetric flow.

The pump curves are already presented as a function of volumetric flow.

The task is to select the curve with proper impeller diameter.

But, in the mechanical energy balance the velocity v [m/s] should be

expressed by using volumetric flow V̇ [m3 /s] as shown in equation 6.1

V̇ V̇ 4 · V̇

v = = πd2 = (6.1)

A πd2

4

40

Pumps

h m3 /s i

For the units : [m/s] = = [m/s] (6.2)

m2

The operation point is at the point where the two curves cross each other

(see Figure 6.3). The volumetric flow at the operation point can then be

read from the figure.

For a centrifugal pump, it is mandatory that the static pressure (ps )in the

liquid at the suction head is larger than the vapour pressure (pv ) of the

liquid.

ps > pv (6.3)

The liquid begins to boil if its vapour pressure is equal to the static pres-

sure. When the boiling begins, vapour bubbles are formed in the liquid.

However, in the pump, the pressure rapidly increases. It means that the

vapour bubbles turn back to liquid and take much less space. This creates

pressure shocks inside the pump that makes terrible noise and causes ero-

sion. This is called cavitation. Cavitation also takes down the efficiency

of the pump. Therefore, vapour bubbles must not be formed in the suction

head so as to avoid cavitation.

In order to avoid cavitation, one must design the piping pressures so that

there is enough pressure in the liquid when it goes to the pump. The

pressure is called Net Positive Suction Head.

The NPSH can be expressed in pressure [Pa], energy/mass [J/kg], or

height [m]

N P SH = ps − pv (6.4)

ps − pv

N P SH = (6.5)

ρ

ps − pv

N P SH = (6.6)

ρg

required for the pump to operate well. This means there is no cavitation.

41

Pumps

NPSHA is a typical quantity for the pump and it depends on the vol-

umetric flow rate of the liquid. Pumps that need less pressure (i.e. the

NPSHR is smaller) tend to be more expensive.

NPSHA (Net Positive Suction Head Available) is the actual pressure at the

suction of the pump. The process designer must calculate this pressure.

NPSHA describes the pressure difference ps -pv in the piping that is

available for the proper pump function. The NPSHA is temperature de-

pendent: the smaller the pressure difference available for the pumping,

the higher the temperature of the liquid.

The pressure requirements for the pump can be written

Preferably, there is also some extra pressure (a) to guarantee that the

pressure definitely is over the vapour pressure

Sometimes there is need to pump liquid at its boiling point. This happens

for example in distillation columns, where the pumps at the bottom lift

the liquid upwards. Then, the liquid level in the vessel must be higher

than the pump so that the hydrostatic pressure creates enough pressure

in the liquid.

Example on NPSH

300 m3 /h of water is pumped through a steel pipe (Din = 200mm) from an

open tank where the water level is 0.5 m. The suction line consist of a 1

m long vertical pipe and 15 m long horizontal pipe, one check valve (ζ =

2.5) and one round 90◦ turn (R=D). The pump described in Figure 6.2 (φ

= 274 mm) is used for the task.

a) What is the NPSHR of the pump?

b) If water is at 10 ◦ C what is the NPSHA? Is it enough?

c) If water is at 80 ◦ C what is the NPSHA? Is it enough?

d) In case c), how high water level in the tank would make NPSHA > NPSHR?

42

Pumps

Centrifugal pumps are often the best choice for low viscosity (thin) liquids

and high flow rates. The pump uses one or more impellers that attach to

and rotates with the shaft. The rotation of the impeller creates energy

that moves liquid through the pump and pressurizes the liquid to move it

through the piping system.

The benefits of a centrifugal pump are simplicity, low price, constant

flow rate, small space requirement, low maintenance costs, and quiet op-

eration.

Diaphragm pumps use a flexing diaphragm to move fluid into and out of

the pumping chamber. They are a type of reciprocating positive displace-

ment pump.

ize hydraulic fluid. The fluid is then used to do work by operating pistons

in a hydraulic system. There are many different types, including: piston,

gear, screw, plunger, and vane pumps.

Piston pumps move and pressurize fluid using one or more reciprocat-

ing pistons, which are normally driven by an electric motor through a

crankshaft and connecting rod.

that use alternating force and suction to create a steady, pulsing flow.

43

Pumps

through a piping system.

molecules partly or entirely from a sealed container.

44

7. Valves

functions by opening and closing, fully or partially.

In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower

pressure.

Valves are found everywhere. There are many valves especially in indus-

trial processes e.g. in gas and petroleum industry. The typical size of a

valve varies from tiny (less than a millimeter) to large (half a meter).

The word ”valve” is derived from the Latin word valva which means the

moving part of a door. The verb volvere means to turn or to roll.

Valves can be classified by how they are actuated. Valves can be hy-

draulic, pneumatic, manually operated, eletromechanically operated through

a solenoid valve, or operated through a motor.

Valves consist of components. The main parts of the most usual type of

valve are the body and the bonnet. These two parts form the casing that

holds the fluid going through the valve.

Body

The valve’s body is the outer casing of the valve that contains the internal

parts. The bonnet is the part of the encasing through which the stem

passes and that forms a guide and seal for the stem. The bonnet typically

screws into to the valve body.

45

Valves

Figure 7.1. Cross-sectional diagram of an open globe valve: 1. body; 2. ports; 3. seat;

4. stem; 5. disc when valve is open; 6. handle or handwheel when valve is

open; 7. bonnet; 8. packing; 9. gland nut; 10. fluid flow when valve is open;

11. position of disc if valve were shut; 12. position of handle or if valve were

shut.

Bonnet

A bonnet acts as a cover on the valve body. Many valves do not have

bonnets; for example, plug valves usually do not have bonnets. Many

ball valves do not have bonnets since the valve body is put together in a

different style, such as being screwed together at the middle of the valve

body.

Ports

Ports are passages that allow fluid to pass through the valve. Ports are

obstructed by the valve member or disc to control flow. Valves most com-

monly have 2 ports.

Handle or Actuator

A handle is used to manually control a valve from outside the valve body.

Automatically controlled valves often do not have handles but they have

an actuator. An actuator is a mechanism or device to automatically or

remotely control a valve from outside the body.

Some valves have neither handle nor actuator because they automati-

cally control themselves from inside; for example, check valves and relief

valves may have neither.

Some automatically controlled valves may have a handle in addition to

46

Valves

control, such as a stop-check valve.

Disc

A disc or valve member is a movable obstruction inside the stationary

body that adjustably restricts flow through the valve.

Seat

The seat is the interior surface of the body which contacts the disc to form

a leak-tight seal. The seat always remains stationary relative to the body

when the disc moves.

Stem

The stem transmits motion from the handle or controlling device to the

disc. The stem typically passes through the bonnet when present.

Gasket

Gaskets are the mechanical seals, or packings, used to prevent the leak-

age of a gas or fluids from valves.

Spring

Many valves have a spring for spring-loading, to normally shift the disc

into some position by default but allow control to reposition the disc. Re-

lief valves commonly use a spring to keep the valve shut, but allow exces-

sive pressure to force the valve open against the spring-loading.

Trim

The internal elements of a valve are collectively referred to as a valve’s

trim.

Valves can be categorised based on their function or the valve disc. The

valve disc may have various shapes as seen below.

Ball valves are used for on/off control without pressure drop. It is ideal

for quick shut-off, since a 90 degrees turn offers complete shut-off angle

in comparison to multiple turns required on most manual valves.

47

Valves

Butterfly valves are used for flow regulation in large pipe diameters.

polyprocessing.com

avtexas.com

(a) (b)

Check valves are also called non-return valves. It allows the fluid flow in

one direction only. This is called a check valve, as it prevents or "checks"

the flow in one direction.

Choke valve is a valve that raises or lowers a solid cylinder which is placed

around or inside another cylinder which has holes or slots. Used for high

pressure drops found in oil and gas wellheads.

Control valves are valves used to control conditions such as flow, pressure,

temperature, and liquid level. They open or close fully (or partially) in

response to signals received from controllers.

The opening or closing of control valves is usually done automatically by

electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic actuators. Positioners are used to con-

trol the opening or closing of the actuator based on electric, or pneumatic

signals.

48

Valves

pressure, downstream pressure, or an external source (e.g., pneumatic,

hydraulic, etc.) can be used to change the position of the diaphragm.

globalspec.com

weiku.com

(a) (b)

Gate valve is mainly for on/off control. Usually it has low pressure drop.

emadrlc.blogspot.com

en.wikipedia.org

(a) (b)

Figure 7.4. (a) Gate (or Disc) Valve. (b) Globe Valve.

49

Valves

Knife gate valve is similar to a gate valve, but usually more compact.

Often knife valves are used for slurries or powders for on/off control.

Needle valve has a long needle that moves slowly when the valve is opened

or closed. It requires many turnings to get closed. Needle valve is good

for accurate flow control.

www.dictionaryofconstruction.com

fnwvalve.com

(a) (b)

A safety valve is a valve which has the function of increasing the safety

of a plant. An example of safety valve could be a pressure safety valve

(PSV). They are also called a pressure relief valves (PRV). It automatically

releases the fluid from a pressurised vessel or pipeline if the pressure or

temperature exceeds preset limits.

50

A. Appendix A: Physical Constants and

SI Unit System Tables

π pi 3.141592653589793

e Euler’s number 2.718281828459045

NA Avocadro’s number 6.022045 ·1023

R gas constant 8.31441 J/(mol·K)

0.082054 dm3 ·atm/(mol·K)

Vm Ideal gas molar volume 0.02241383 m3 /mol

δ, σ Stefan-Booltzmann constant 6.67032 10−8 W/(m2 ·K4 )

c speed of light 299792458 m/s

g gravitational acceleration 9.80665 m/s2

Length meter m

Mass kilogram kg

Time second s

Electric current ampere A

Temperature kelvin kg

Amount of moles mole mol

Luminous intensity candela cd

Plane angle radian rad

Solid angle steradian sr

i

Appendix A: Physical Constants and SI Unit System Tables

Frequency hertz Hz 1 Hz = 1 s−1

Force newton N 1 N = 1 kg m s−2

Pressure pascal Pa 1 Pa = 1 N m−2

Energy, Work joule J 1J=1Nm

Power watt W 1 W = 1 J s−1

Electric charge coulomb C 1C=1As

Voltage volt V 1 V = 1 W A−1

Capacitance farad F 1 F = 1 A s V−1

Resistance ohm Ω 1 Ω = 1 V A−1

Conductance siemens S 1 S = 1 Ω −1

Magnetic flux weber Wb 1 Wb = 1 V s

Magnetic flux density tesla T 1 T = 1 Wb m−2

Inductance henry H 1 H = 1 V s A−1

Luminous flux lumen lm 1 lm = 1 cd sr

Illuminance lux lx 1 lx = 1 lm m−2

Activity becquerel Bq 1 Bq = 1 s−1

101 deka- da 10−1 deci- d

102 hecto- h 10−2 centi- c

103 kilo- k 10−3 milli- m

106 mega- M 10−6 micro- µ

109 giga- G 10−9 nano- n

1012 tera- T 10−12 pico- p

1015 eta- P 10−15 femto- f

1018 exa- E 10−18 atto- a

1021 zeta- Z 10−21 zepto- z

1024 yotta- Y 10−24 yocto- y

ii

Appendix A: Physical Constants and SI Unit System Tables

1 in (inch) 25.4 ·10−3

1 ft (feet) 12 in 0.3048

1 yd (yard) 3 ft 0.9144

1 mi (mile) 1760 yd 1.609344 · 10−3

1 Å(ångström) 0.1 · 10−9

1 l (litre, liter) 1 · 10−3

1 gallon (US) 3.785412 · 10−3

1 bbl (barrel) 42 gallons (US) 0.1589873

1 min (minute) 60

1 h (hour) 3600

1 d (day) 24 h 86.4 · 103

1 km/h 0.277778

1 mi/h 1.609 km/h 0.44704

1 oz (ounce) 28.34952 · 10−3

1 lb (pound) 0.45359237

1 t (ton) 1000

1 bar 100000

1 atm 101325

1

1 mmHg (millimeter of mercury) 760 atm 133.322

1 Torr 1 mmHg 133.322

1 psi (pound per square inch) 6894.757

iii

Appendix A: Physical Constants and SI Unit System Tables

1 Pl (poiseuille) 1

1 P (poise) 0.1

1 cP 0.001

1 St (stoke) 0.1 · 10−3

1 cSt (centistoke) 0.1 ·10−6

1 kWh (kilowatt hour) 3.6 MJ 3.6 ·106

1 cal (calori) 4.1868

1 Btu (British thermal unit) 1055.056

1 hp (horsepower) metric 735.5

1 hp (horsepower) non-metric 745.7

x◦ C (Celsius) x + 273.15

xF (Fahrenheit) 1.8x + 255.4

1 ppm (part per million) 1 · 10−6

1 ppb (part per billion) 1 ·10−9

iv

B. Appendix B: Properties of Water

Ta Tb pc ρd µe λf cp g

◦C K MPa kg/m3 10−3 Pas W/(m·K) kJ/(kg·K)

0 273.15 0.000611 999.9 1.792 0.569 4.21

10 283.15 0.00123 999.7 1.308 0.587 4.19

20 293.15 0.00234 998.3 1.005 0.603 4.18

30 303.15 0.00425 995.7 0.801 0.618 4.18

40 313.15 0.00739 992.3 0.656 0.632 4.18

50 323.15 0.0124 988 .0 0.543 0.643 4.18

60 333.15 0.0200 983.2 0.468 0.654 4.19

70 343.15 0.0312 977.7 0.406 0.662 4.19

80 353.15 0.0474 971.6 0.357 0.670 4.20

90 363.15 0.0702 965.2 0.316 0.676 4.21

100 373.15 0.101325 958.4 0.284 0.681 4.22

a T = Temperature in Celsius, ◦ C

b T = Absolute temperature in Kelvin, K

c p = Saturated vapour pressure, MPa

d ρ = Density of water, kg/m3

e µ = Dynamic viscosity of water, 10−3 Pas

f λ = Thermal conductivity of water, W/(m·K)

g cp = Specific heat of water, kJ/(kg·K)

Reference: Kari I. Keskinen, Tables and Drawings for Chemical

Engineering, Otatieto Oy, Helsinki, 2000.

v

Appendix B: Properties of Water

Ta Tb ρ µ λ cp

◦C K kg/m3 10−3 Pas W/(m·K) kJ/(kg·K)

0 273.15 999.868 1.7921 0.5535 4.2169

5 278.15 999.992 1.5188 0.5655 4.2014

10 283.15 999.728 1.3077 0.5767 4.1914

15 288.15 999.127 1.1403 0.5873 4.1850

20 293.15 998.234 1.0049 0.5971 4.1811

25 298.15 997.077 0.8935 0.6063 4.1788

30 303.15 995.678 0.8007 0.6049 4.1777

35 308.15 994.061 0.7225 0.6229 4.1774

40 313.15 992.250 0.6560 0.6303 4.1778

45 318.15 990.251 0.5988 0.6371 4.1787

50 403.15 988.068 0.5494 0.6433 4.1800

55 408.15 985.729 0.5064 0.6490 4.1816

65 413.15 980.592 0.4355 0.6590 4.1860

70 423.15 977.813 0.4060 0.6633 4.1888

75 428.15 974.888 0.3799 0.6672 4.1920

80 453.15 971.829 0.3565 0.6706 4.1956

85 458.15 968.647 0.3354 0.6737 4.1997

90 463.15 965.343 0.3165 0.6764 4.2043

95 468.15 961.916 0.2994 0.6787 4.2095

100 373.15 958.381 0.2838 0.6808 4.2152

a T = Temperature in Celsius, ◦ C

b T = Absolute temperature in Kelvin, K

c ρ = Density of water, kg/m3

d µ = Dynamic viscosity of water, 10−3 Pas

e λ = Thermal conductivity of water, W/(m·K)

f cp = Specific heat of water, kJ/(kg·K)

Reference: Kari I. Keskinen, Tables and Drawings for

Chemical Engineering, Otatieto Oy, Helsinki, 2000.

vi

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